WorldWideScience

Sample records for child welfare agencies

  1. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  2. Disaster Preparedness Resource Guide for Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This guide offers best practices for disaster management at child welfare agencies. Its recommendations are firmly rooted in published disaster-related research and the advice of human service and preparedness experts. It is not a reinvention of disaster management--much quality work has been done in this field--but a synthesis of experts'…

  3. Development and Validation of a Measure of Organizational Culture in Public Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Tonya M.; Ellett, Alberta J.; Deweaver, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop and explore the validity characteristics of a new measure of organizational culture in public child welfare agencies. Method: Multiple validation methods were used, including expert judgment and criterion-related validity procedures using a statewide sample of 1,033 child welfare caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators.…

  4. Implementing Transfer of Learning in Training and Professional Development in a US Public Child Welfare Agency: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Virginia; Bosco-Ruggiero, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In-service training in public child welfare agencies in the United States has long been viewed as an important vehicle for the improvement of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and therefore as important to retention in child welfare. This article examines the critical role of transfer of learning strategies in such training and…

  5. The Drafting and Submission of an HIV/AIDS Policy Draft for a Native American Child Welfare Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, Daniel Pete

    An Indian child welfare agency realized the need for an HIV/AIDS policy when a diabetic child possibly exposed to the HIV virus was placed in one of the agency's licensed foster homes. A focus-group interview process was selected for policy development because this method appeared to parallel the Native American cultural approach toward consensus…

  6. 76 FR 54249 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... CFR part 23. The revision affects the form that tribal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators... seeking revision of the information collection conducted under the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and..., which tribal ICWA program directors fill out. BIA uses the information to determine the extent...

  7. 76 FR 33340 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators provide to BIA on a quarterly basis. The information collection is... the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and implementing regulations, at 25 CFR part 23. BIA collects the information using a consolidated caseload form, which tribal ICWA program directors fill out. BIA uses...

  8. Children with FASD- Related Disabilities Receiving Services from Child Welfare Agencies in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Don; Burnside, Linda; Marchenski, Sheila; Mudry, Andria

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious social and health problem for the child welfare, health and education systems in North America and other parts of the world. This article describes the population of children in care of the child welfare system in Manitoba. Also this article will highlight the relevance of these research findings…

  9. Before Substantiation: The Role for Child Welfare Agencies in Preventing Maltreatment. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah

    Over the past 30 years, the political response to child maltreatment and its prevention has experienced periods of frantic activity, often followed by long periods of benign neglect. To an extent, this pattern reflects deep differences among child welfare advocates, researchers and practitioners on how best to proceed. While most everyone agrees…

  10. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  11. Medicaid Disenrollment Patterns Among Children Coming into Contact with Child Welfare Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Allaire, Benjamin T; Brown, Derek S; Ross, Raven E

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To examine retention of Medicaid coverage over time for children in the child welfare system. Methods We linked a national survey of children with histories of abuse and neglect to their Medicaid claims files from 36 states, and followed these children over a 4 year period. We estimated a Cox proportional hazards model on time to first disenrollment from Medicaid. Results Half of our sample (50 %) retained Medicaid coverage across 4 years of follow up. Most disenrollments occurred in year 4. Being 3-5 years of age and rural residence were associated with increased hazard of insurance loss. Fee-for-service Medicaid and other non-managed insurance arrangements were associated with a lower hazard of insurance loss. Conclusions for Practice A considerable number of children entering child environments seem to retain Medicaid coverage over multiple years. Finding ways to promote entry of child welfare-involved children into health insurance coverage will be critical to assure services for this highly vulnerable population. PMID:27017228

  12. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Edward Sage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of social media use. It is recommended that agencies provide guidance on ethical decision-making for using social media as a work-related tool. Agencies should also provide policy clearly defining social media use and misuse.

  13. Collaboration, Competition, and Co-opetition: Interorganizational Dynamics Between Private Child Welfare Agencies and Child Serving Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bunger, Alicia C; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline; Perez-Jolles, Monica; Wells, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human service agencies are encouraged to collaborate with other public and private agencies in providing services to children and families. However, they also often compete with these same partners for funding, qualified staff, and clientele. Although little is known about complex interagency dynamics of competition and collaboration in the child-serving sector, evidence suggests that competition can undermine collaboration unless managed strategically. This study explores the interrelationsh...

  14. Implementation of Parent Child Interaction Therapy Within Foster Care: An Attempt to Translate an Evidence-Based Program Within a Local Child Welfare Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative adaptation of an evidence-based intervention – Parent Child Interaction Therapy or PCIT – to foster parent training services. The authors faced multiple problems that commonly plague translational child welfare research as they developed, implemented and tested their model. The paper discusses how the authors addressed these problems when: 1) specifying the child welfare context in which the intervention model was implemented and tested, choosing an interven...

  15. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  16. Working with Alcoholic Families in a Child Welfare Agency: The Problem of Underdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Social Service agencies have been reluctant to focus on alcoholism as an issue in treating client and family problems, although there are 48 million alcoholics in the U.S., and 7 million of them are under age 18. Reasons for the reluctance to focus on alcoholism include lack of knowledge, poor prognosis, nihilism, denial, social workers' fears of…

  17. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  18. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most...

  19. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  20. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  1. Addressing the Impact of Trauma before Diagnosing Mental Illness in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gene; McClelland, Gary; Holzberg, Mark; Stolbach, Bradley; Maj, Nicole; Kisiel, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    Congress set requirements for child welfare agencies to respond to emotional trauma associated with child maltreatment and removal. In meeting these requirements, agencies should develop policies that address child trauma. To assist in policy development, this study analyzes more than 14,000 clinical assessments from child welfare in Illinois.…

  2. An Outcome Evaluation of Competency Based Training for Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elizabeth Vonk

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the continuing need for competent child welfare professionals, a large mid-western university’s College of Social Work collaborated with a public child welfare agency to design and implement a one year,Title IV-E-funded training opportunity for second-year MSW students. Student outcomes, including knowledge acquisition, attitudes about child welfare, and field of post-graduation employment, were evaluated using a quasi-experimental pre-post comparison group design (n=28.Results indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning attitudes about child welfare practice. However, although trainees’ level of child welfare knowledge increased more than that of the comparison group, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Implications for practice and social work education are discussed.

  3. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  4. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  5. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  6. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  7. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  8. Special needs and child welfare: healing the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Cindy S

    2007-01-01

    Passage of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 has placed the child at the center of the child welfare system. Courts bear the ultimate responsibility for the safety and well-being of these children, including those with disabilities. Findings from the Child and Family Service Reviews, however, indicate less-than-optimal conformity in a number of states regarding the physical and mental well-being of children. A multidisciplinary approach involving jurisprudence, science, and financing is required to bring about better compliance. Collaboration among legal, medical, dental, and child advocacy organizations is necessary for healing children in the welfare system to become a national imperative. PMID:17566535

  9. Walking the Tightrope: Using Power and Authority in Child Welfare Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Dill, Katharine

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of understanding the way in which supervisors in child welfare perceive their administrative responsibilities and use of power and authority, an exploratory study was conducted. Supervisors in child welfare agencies in urban and rural settings participated in focus groups and discussed the impact of macro and micro…

  10. The Use of Mapping in Child Welfare Investigations: A Strength-Based Hybrid Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Kristen; Versanov, Avi; Cheung, Connie; Goodman, Deborah; Andrews, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    To enhance strengths-based service, a large urban child welfare agency in Ontario, Canada implemented part of the Signs of Safety (SOS) model in 2010. SOS was created to engage families involved with the child welfare system, and is rooted in the beliefs of collaboration, strengths-based practice, and safety. The hybrid of the full SOS model…

  11. Emotional and Behavioral Problems Reported in Child Welfare over 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare agencies are required to provide services that ensure that children receive adequate mental health care. This study provides a comprehensive view of the emotional and behavioral problems of children who are referred to child welfare services, using nationally representative data. Bivariate analyses compare rates by child…

  12. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  13. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  14. Implications of the CAPTA Requirement for Referrals from Child Welfare to Part C. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Allen, Chandra

    2007-01-01

    In June 2003, Congress passed the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act, which reauthorized the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which provides federal funding for state child welfare agencies. A new provision in the reauthorized CAPTA requires that states receiving CAPTA funds develop and implement "provisions and procedures for…

  15. 75 FR 43188 - Request for Public Comment Concerning the Redesign of Statewide Automated Child Welfare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... agency's child abuse and neglect data system and the systems used to support the title IV-A, IV-D, and..., and have had a significant impact on child welfare practice and the Information Technology (IT... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Request for Public Comment Concerning...

  16. The Manifest and Latent Functions of Differential Response in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Daniel; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has explored the efficacy of differential response (DR) programs in child welfare, there have been no studies to date about coding decisions between designations by child protection service agencies. Research has explored client satisfaction with DR as well as rates of recidivism and removal/placement but with limited…

  17. Indian Child Welfare: A Status Report. Final Report of the Survey of Indian Child Welfare and Implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act and Section 428 of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantz, Margaret C.; And Others

    This is a report on the first national examination of the effects of the Indian Child Welfare Act (Public Law 95-608), enacted in 1978. The study examines the prevalence of Native American children in substitute care and the implementation of the act and portions of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 as they affect Indian…

  18. Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

  19. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  20. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  1. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  2. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  3. Findings from a national needs assessment of American Indian/Alaska native child welfare programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Robin; Potter, Cathryn; Lucero, Nancy; Gardner, Jerry; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The National Child Welfare Resource Center for Tribes, a member of the Children's Bureau Child Welfare Training and Technical Assistance Network, conducted a national needs assessment of tribal child welfare. This assessment explored current practices in tribal child welfare to identify unique systemic strengths and challenges. A culturally based, multi-method design yielded findings in five areas: tribal child welfare practice, foster care and adoption, the Indian Child Welfare Act, legal and judicial, and program operations.

  4. Constraints and Benefits of Child Welfare Contracts with Behavioral Health Providers: Conditions that Shape Service Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C; Cao, Yiwen; Girth, Amanda M; Hoffman, Jill; Robertson, Hillary A

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative study examines worker perceptions of how public child welfare agencies' purchase of service contracts with private behavioral health organizations can both facilitate and constrain referral making and children's access to services. Five, 90-min focus groups were conducted with workers (n = 50) from an urban public child welfare agency in the Midwest. Using a modified grounded theory approach, findings suggest that contracts may expedite service linkages, but contract benefits are conditioned upon design and implementation. Results also suggest the critical role of front line workers in carrying out contractual relationships. Implications for research and interventions for enhancing contracting are discussed. PMID:26427998

  5. Initial Implementation Indicators From a Statewide Rollout of SafeCare Within a Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Daniel J; Ryan, Kerry A.; Wild, Robert C.; Self-Brown, Shannon; John R. Lutzker; Shanley, Jenelle R.; Edwards, Anna M.; McFry, Erin A.; Moseley, Colby N.; Hodges, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong movement toward implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) in child welfare systems. The SafeCare parenting model is one of few parent-training models that addresses child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment. Here, the authors describe initial findings from a statewide effort to implement the EBP, SafeCare®, into a state child welfare system. A total of 50 agencies participated in training, with 295 individuals entering training to implement SafeCare. Analyse...

  6. Integrating Couple Teamwork Conversations into Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dana; Antle, Becky; Johnson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple…

  7. Child welfare employee recruitment and retention: an organizational culture perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna LaFa

    2009-01-01

    Drawing data from an organizational culture study, this cross-sectional study investigates the effect of organizational culture on child welfare employee recruitment and retention (N=92). Findings from quantitative analyses of the organizational culture inventory suggest that constructive culture style in child welfare organizations, especially humanistic-encouraging and self-actualizing culture norms, highly predict recruitment through employees' perception of "fit" and satisfaction as a member of the organization. Limitations, future research, and relevant implications are discussed. PMID:20695293

  8. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties: Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…

  9. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations. PMID:26563643

  10. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations.

  11. Indian Child Welfare Act. Hearing on Oversight Hearings on the Indian Child Welfare Act, before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (November 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This Senate hearing produced testimony on how the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) has been administered by government agencies and the courts. Three members of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs presented background information on the act's intent to confirm the tribe as the primary authority in matters involving an Indian child's…

  12. “A fine balance”—how child welfare workers manage organizational changes within the Norwegian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Brottveit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Child Welfare Reform (CWR was introduced in Norway. One of the most important goals of the reform was to strengthen State level authority in public child welfare and establish equal child welfare services across the country. The aim of this article is to study how this new reform affected the work of municipal child welfare professionals and led to the development of a regional project called New Child Welfare (NCW. Based on qualitative interviews with central actors in NCW, regarding the interaction between state and local child welfare professionals, the article shows how professionals within local child welfare reacted on the CWR. The NCW was established as a consequence of the professionals’ reaction on state governance and represent a new type of network. Inspired by Michel Foucaults’ concepts of governmentality and self-work, the article focuses on the development of the NCW as a result of child welfare workers’ confrontation with state governance and their fight for innovative solutions, knowing that the reform had direct impact on vulnerable children, youths, and their families. The local and collective self-work in NCW is an expression of a new form of productive power based on equality and cooperation, as well as a particular form of dependency between municipal and state levels of governance. The article highlights the importance of studying how reforms introduced by the state actually influence local child welfare work, policy, and professionalism within municipal child welfare.

  13. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  14. Mental Health Need and Access to Mental Health Services by Youths Involved with Child Welfare: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Barbara J.; Phillips, Susan D.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Barth, Richard P.; Kolko, David J.; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Method: Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were…

  15. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed.

  16. Indian Child Welfare Act: Existing Information on Implementation Issues Could Be Used to Target Guidance and Assistance to States. GAO-05-290

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA ) created important protections to prevent state child welfare agencies and courts from inappropriately separating American Indian children from their families. This report describes (1) the factors that influence placement decisions for children subject to ICWA; (2) the extent to which, if any, placements for…

  17. Intergenerational Justice for Children: Restructuring Adoption, Reproduction & Child Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article takes seriously the idea of intergenerational justice for children, and takes as starting premises that child interests count as equivalent to adult, and that we owe justice not just to existing children but also to the next generation. It argues that intergenerational justice demands a major restructuring of policies throughout the world governing adoption, reproduction, and child welfare. We now encourage the reproduction of more children than we can care for, provide limited...

  18. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  19. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara Brooks

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA), intended to stabilize Indian families by reducing the number of Indian children placed in non-Indian adoptive or foster homes. The act established minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children and outlined procedures that aid their placement in homes reflecting Indian culture.…

  20. The Indian Child Welfare Act in the Face of Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Sloan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history, purposes, and provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA); recent high-profile transracial adoption cases; the debate over whether ICWA purposes have been realized; the proposed Adoption Promotion and Stability Act, which would severely limit application of ICWA to adoption cases; and proposed compromise amendments to…

  1. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Native Americans (DHEW/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The question and answer booklet highlights the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 which was designed to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families. The booklet attempts to answer 28 important questions concerning title I of the Act. Examples of questions…

  2. Toward Evidence-Informed Policy and Practice in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Julia H.; Shlonsky, Aron

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' experience in the international Campbell Collaboration, this essay presents a principled and pragmatic approach to evidence-informed decisions about child welfare. This approach takes into account the growing body of empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of various methods of research synthesis. It also…

  3. State Capacity: The Missing Piece in Child Welfare Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Katherine Howard

    2011-01-01

    Privatization has been used to address the limited capacity of government to achieve positive results in child welfare systems. Privatized systems have not realized better outcomes than their public counterparts, however, and many states continue to struggle with implementation. In order to demonstrate that privatization is in fact an investment…

  4. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  5. The Child Welfare Response to Serious Nonaccidental Head Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2004-01-01

    Serious nonaccidental head trauma (NHT) can leave permanent neurological damage in children who survive abuse. This study reports on child welfare's handling of NHT cases compared with cases of physical abuse and head trauma due to neglect with regard to placement in foster care, reunification with family, and safety issues. The results show that…

  6. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  7. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  8. Creating Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Systems Using a Community Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Alison; Conradi, Lisa; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a community assessment process designed to evaluate a specific child welfare jurisdiction based on the current definition of trauma-informed child welfare and its essential elements. This process has recently been developed and pilot tested within three diverse child welfare systems in the United States. The purpose of the…

  9. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  10. Implementing a Modular Research-Supported Treatment in Child Welfare: Effects and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Brittany R.; Lee, Bethany R.; Kolivoski, Karen M.; Attman, Nicole P.; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Increasing rates of mental health needs in child welfare clients highlight the importance of training child welfare workers in effective mental health interventions. This pilot study evaluates the effects of training public child welfare workers and interns in modularized research-supported treatments (RSTs). Methods: We compared…

  11. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  12. Peer Mentoring in Child Welfare: A Motivational Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Anna; Furrer, Carrie J; Duong, Thuan M

    2015-01-01

    Peer mentoring interventions for parents with substance use disorders who are involved with the child welfare system are relatively new, complex, individualized interventions and thus need to be understood both in regard to program efficacy and the processes of how they work. This qualitative study of the experiences of parents involved in a parent mentoring program suggested that certain practices helped motivate parents to think and act in ways that supported their goals and child welfare case plans. The three key mentoring practices that emerged were building caring relationships, providing guidance, and putting parents in charge. These practices promoted parents'positive self-beliefs (e.g., worthy of connection, competence), which helped motivate them to participate in services, cope constructively with difficulties, and more effectively manage behaviors and emotions. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) in particular, we propose a motivational framework for understanding how peer mentoring facilitates, or undermines, parents'motivation and results in their making progress on various aspects of their child welfare case. Implications for using the motivational model in future program development and evaluation efforts are discussed. PMID:26827468

  13. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. An empirical typology of private child and family serving agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Wells, Rebecca; Bunger, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Differences in how services are organized and delivered can contribute significantly to variation in outcomes experienced by children and families. However, few comparative studies identify the strengths and limitations of alternative delivery system configurations. The current study provides the first empirical typology of private agencies involved with the formal child welfare system. Data collected in 2011 from a national sample of private agencies were used to classify agencies into five distinct groups based on internal management capacity, service diversification, integration, and policy advocacy. Findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in the population of private child and family serving agencies. Cross-group comparisons suggest that differences in agencies' strategic and structural characteristics correlated with agency directors' perceptions of different pressures in their external environment. Future research can use this typology to better understand local service systems and the extent to which different agency strategies affect performance and other outcomes. Such information has implications for public agency contracting decisions and could inform system-level assessment and planning of services for children and families. PMID:24648603

  15. Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed.

  16. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  17. Parental Views of In-Home Services: What Predicts Satisfaction with Child Welfare Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mimi V.; Gibbons, Claire B.; Barth, Richard P.; McCrae, Julie S.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being regarding predictors of client satisfaction with child welfare workers. Found that caregiver reports of having fewer than two child welfare workers, having more recent contact, and receiving timely, responsive services were associated with higher perceived quality of…

  18. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  19. Self-Efficacy in Newly-Hired Child Welfare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Cherry

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect in the United States resulted in 676,569 reports in 2011 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012. Workers in this field struggle with low pay, high caseloads, inadequate training and supervision, and risk of violence, all of which contribute to worker burnout and poor worker retention rates. Worker self-efficacy is predictive of worker retention, job performance, and persistence in this difficult field. This paper reports the development of a new measure of self-efficacy from a sample of 395 child welfare workers. Factor analysis revealed two domains of self-efficacy, direct practice and indirect practice, which can be modestly predicted by worker characteristics upon hire and the training program the workers attend. Worker self-efficacy can be used to identify vulnerable workers who may be especially in need of strong supervisory support as well as understand who to target for recruitment. A review of the literature of self-efficacy in child welfare workers is included.

  20. Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

  1. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  2. Investing in the Child Welfare Workforce: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Leake, Robin; Dickinson, Nancy; McCarthy, Mary; Anderson, Gary; Groza, Victor; Gilmore, Grover C.

    2016-01-01

    Responding to David Stoesz's invited article criticizing the Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI), the author's inaccurate assertions are challenged, and new information is provided about the significant work underway to support the child welfare workforce. The Children's Bureau has made historic investments…

  3. A Walking Contradiction, Partly Truth and Partly Fiction: A Critique of Stoesz' The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critique of David Stoesz' descriptions of organizational issues in child welfare, and more specifically, the relationships between the U.S. Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute. The focus is on Stoesz perspectives and assessments of sub-entities (cartels) that are currently influencing funding and…

  4. Practice parameter for the assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed. PMID:26004666

  5. Planning and Evaluating Child Welfare Training Projects: Working toward a Comprehensive Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Amodeo, Maryann; Clay, Cassandra

    2008-01-01

    Training is widely believed to be an important element in promoting good child welfare practice. Scholarly attention to training, however, has been limited. To facilitate further development of child welfare training, in this article, we discuss the importance of conceptualization in the design and evaluation of training projects, offer a…

  6. Caregivers' Endorsement of Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrana, Margarita; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (birth parents, relative caregivers, and foster parents), an active child welfare case, caregivers' endorsement of barriers to mental health services and mental health service use by caregivers for the children under their care. The…

  7. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  8. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  9. Pathways Triple P and the Child Welfare System: A Promising Fit

    OpenAIRE

    Petra, Megan; Kohl, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Parents referred to the child welfare system following maltreatment allegations are often ill-prepared to constructively address child disruptive behaviors, despite the high prevalence of these behaviors among this population. Evidence-based parent-mediated interventions are effective in improving parenting skills; however, they are rarely offered within the child welfare system. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the fit and acceptability of one parent-mediated training progra...

  10. Latino Caregiver Psychosocial Factors and Health Care Services for Children Involved in the Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caitlin; Brinkmann, Andrea; Schneiderman, Janet U.

    2015-01-01

    Children in the child welfare system have a high prevalence of health problems, making pediatric health service use critical. Latino children represent a growing proportion of the child welfare system, and are at increased risk for health problems. Many have argued that Latino caregivers can provide Latino children with the least disruptive out-of-home placement, but little is known about how caregiver factors might relate to health services utilization or child health status within this popu...

  11. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  12. Implementation and evaluation of linked parenting models in a large urban child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Feldman, Sara Wolf; Wulczyn, Fred; Saldana, Lisa; Forgatch, Marion

    2016-03-01

    During the past decade, there have been increased efforts to implement evidence-based practices into child welfare systems to improve outcomes for children in foster care and their families. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a policy-driven large system-initiated reform is described. Over 250 caseworkers and supervisors were trained and supported to implement two evidence-based parent focused interventions in five private agencies serving over 2,000 children and families. At the request of child welfare system leaders, a third intervention was developed and implemented to train the social work workforce to use evidence-based principles in everyday interactions with caregivers (including foster, relative, adoptive, and biological parents). In this paper, we describe the policy context and the targeted outcomes of the reform. We discuss the theory of the interventions and the logistics of how they were linked to create consistency and synergy. Training and ongoing consultation strategies used are described as are some of the barriers and opportunities that arose during the implementation. The strategy for creating a path to sustainability is also discussed. The reform effort was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods; the evaluation design, research questions and preliminary results are provided. PMID:26602831

  13. Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile justice

  14. Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2016-06-01

    Despite improved understanding regarding domestic violence, child welfare and child contact, and related policy developments, problems persist regarding how the family courts deal with fathers' violence in contested contact/residence cases. In the study reported here, analysis was undertaken of welfare reports prepared for the courts in such cases to investigate how and to what extent issues of domestic violence and children's perspectives on these issues were taken into account when making recommendations to the courts. Analysis found that despite evidence of domestic violence and child welfare concerns, contact with fathers was viewed as desirable and inevitable in the vast majority of cases. PMID:26567294

  15. Child Welfare Workers’ Connectivity to Resources and Youth’s Receipt of Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Bunger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Youth involved in the child welfare system are at high risk for mental illness, substance abuse, and other behavioral health issues, which child welfare workers are expected to address through referrals. Child welfare workers (N=27 who participated in Project IMPROVE (Intervention for Multisector Provider Enhancement reported on services they provided to youth (N=307 in their caseloads. Using survey and administrative data, this paper examines workers’ service actions on behalf of youth. Results were consistent with the Gateway Provider Model and showed that youths received help from a greater variety of service sectors when their workers were able to identify behavioral health problems, and were familiar with and connected to other providers in the community. Improving service delivery to youth in child welfare may be accomplished by training workers in the signs and symptoms of behavioral health problems and familiarizing them with providers in the community.

  16. Indigenous Genocidal Tracings: Slavery, Transracial Adoption, and the Indian Child Welfare Act

    OpenAIRE

    de Bourbon, Soma Leo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTIndigenous Genocidal Tracings: Slavery, Transracial Adoption, and the Indian Child Welfare Actby Soma de BourbonIndigenous Genocidal Tracings: Slavery, Transracial Adoption, and the Indian Child Welfare Act is a feminist, interdisciplinary history that traces the genealogy of U.S. property interests in Indigenous people from enslavement to the continued transracial adoption of Native children. The interconnection of Native history with that of Black Americans is interrogated, paying c...

  17. Adapting an evidence based parenting program for child welfare involved teens and their caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Barkan, Susan E.; Salazar, Amy M.; Estep, Kara; Mattos, Leah M.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of caregivers and the unique vulnerability of teens involved with the child welfare system necessitate effective strategies for ensuring that caregivers are prepared and supported in the important role they play with children and youth within the child welfare system. They are in a position, through the establishment of a strong, positive, supportive connection with the youth, to potentially minimize the impacts of recent trauma and interrupt a negative trajectory by preventing t...

  18. The Racial Disproportionality Movement in Child Welfare: False Facts and Dangerous Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of Racial Disproportionality in child welfare - the disproportionate representation of black children in the foster care system as compared to their representation in the general population. This is now the hot issue in the child welfare world, with a powerful coalition of groups known as the Casey-CSSP Alliance claiming that Racial Disproportionality is the central problem that state and federal policy makers should address. This Alliance includes the foundat...

  19. Professionals without a profession? Redesigning case management in Dutch local welfare agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, H.H.A.; van der Aa, P.; van Gestel, N.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the new roles of frontline workers in Dutch local welfare agencies against the background of recent active welfare state reforms, with a specific focus on frontline workers involved in activating social assistance recipients. The results presented in the article come from case

  20. Creating a Child-Friendly Child Welfare System: Effective Early Intervention to Prevent Maltreatment and Protect Victimized Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that what we call the “child welfare” system has traditionally focused more on adult than on child welfare, placing greater emphasis on family preservation than warranted. It argues further that while the system purports to value research as a guide to policy, research is too often designed to serve predefined ideological goals, and to advance family preservation rather than examining what policies best serve child interests. It shows how these themes played out in two rec...

  1. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  2. Supervisory Neglect and Risk of Harm. Evidence from the Canadian Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Trocme, Nico; Fallon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explores prevalence and characteristics associated with supervisory neglect and physical harm in children in the child welfare system in Canada. Methods: The sample included all substantiated primary maltreatment investigations in the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect excluding cases where…

  3. The Indian Child Welfare Act: We Must Still Fight for Our Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    On November 8, 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act, otherwise known as ICWA, became law. Congress enacted this groundbreaking legislation, the impact of which has been arguably more profound than any other piece of federal Indian law in the modern era. While recent national attention has highlighted the law's role in child custody and adoption…

  4. Strengths Moderate the Impact of Trauma on Risk Behaviors in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gene; Martinovich, Zoran; Gawron, Tim; Lyons, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether traumatic experiences of children entering the child welfare system have an impact on their risk behaviors and whether these behaviors are moderated by children's strengths. Method: The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services administered the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) measure to…

  5. The what, when, and why of implementation frameworks for evidence-based practices in child welfare and child mental health service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Rochelle F; Self-Brown, Shannon; Rostad, Whitney L; Jackson, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that children in the child welfare system are particularly vulnerable to the adverse health and mental effects associated with exposure to abuse and neglect, making it imperative to have broad-based availability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) that can prevent child maltreatment and reduce the negative mental health outcomes for youth who are victims. A variety of EBPs exist for reducing child maltreatment risk and addressing the associated negative mental health outcomes, but the reach of these practices is limited. An emerging literature documents factors that can enhance or inhibit the success of EBP implementation in community service agencies, including how the selection of a theory-driven conceptual framework, or model, might facilitate implementation planning by providing guidance for best practices during implementation phases. However, limited research is available to guide decision makers in the selection of implementation frameworks that can boost implementation success for EBPs that focus on preventing child welfare recidivism and serving the mental health needs of maltreated youth. The aims of this conceptual paper are to (1) provide an overview of existing implementation frameworks, beginning with a discussion of definitional issues and the selection criteria for frameworks included in the review; and (2) offer recommendations for practice and policy as applicable for professionals and systems serving victims of child maltreatment and their families. PMID:26547360

  6. Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

    This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

  7. Effects of a Rural Family Drug Treatment Court Collaborative on Child Welfare Outcomes: Comparison Using Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, McLean D; Green, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that have examined the impact of family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) on child welfare outcomes have produced mixed results. This study evaluates the impact of a rural, FDTC collaborative on child welfare outcomes using propensity score analysis. Findings from the study show that children in the treatment group had longer stays in child welfare custody but were substantially less likely to experience future incidents of maltreatment than those in families with parental substance use disorders without these services. PMID:26827480

  8. Private Nonprofit Organizations for Child Welfare Cases of South Korea and People’s Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伦知

    2013-01-01

    Private organizations and public sector regarding child welfare services have been two main actors in improving the quality of children ’s lives. In this paper, the author examines two cases of children social service and the background of social policies regarding child welfare. Combined with a theory that explains the importance of childcare services, the author also goes in-depth to suggest the compatible and sound model of child welfare after assessing the current limitation.

  9. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) h...

  10. Child Welfare, Education, Inequality, and Social Policy in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    Using international data on child well-being and educational attainment, this article compares child well-being in the United States to member countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple measures of child well-being are analyzed, such as material well-being (including poverty, unemployment, and income…

  11. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  12. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424

  13. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  14. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  15. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  16. From Security to Uncertainty: The impact of economic change on child welfare in central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Falkingham

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible pathways between macroeconomic change and child welfare and develops a typology of the risks that children may face at different stages of the lifecycle. Adopting a multi-dimensional view of child well-being, trends in both economic measures of poverty, based on incomes and expenditures, and in selected capability-based indicators are then examined. The indicators selected reflect the health and survival, education and personal development of children and the...

  17. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the...

  18. Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and Education Providers' Conceptualizations of Trauma-Informed Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems.

  19. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  20. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  1. A Cost-Savings Analysis of a Statewide Parenting Education Program in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…

  2. Dusting the Archives of Childhood: Child Welfare Records as Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehkalahti, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Using administrative sources in the history of education and childhood involves a range of methodological and ethical considerations. This article discusses these problems, as well as the role of archives and archival policies in preserving history and shaping our understanding of past childhoods. Using Finnish child welfare archives from the…

  3. Factors in the Decision to Leave: Retaining Social Workers with MSWs in Public Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantrai, Krishna

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 7 social workers with master's in social work (MSW) degrees who had left public child welfare and 20 who decided to stay. Found two factors that distinguished groups: inflexibility in job assignment and poor relationship with immediate supervisor. Academic preparation for this type of practice was not decisive factor. (Author/NB)

  4. Bridge over Troubled Water: Using Implementation Science to Facilitate Effective Services in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildon, Robyn; Shlonsky, Aron

    2011-01-01

    To maximize benefits to children and their families, effective practices need to be used competently in child welfare settings. Since the 1990s, researchers and policy makers have focused attention on empirically supported interventions (ESIs). Much less attention has been paid to what is needed to implement these in a range of real-world…

  5. Cross-Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) in Child Welfare Service Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Natalie K; Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-08-01

    The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) is a brief, pragmatic, and efficient measure that can be used for research or organizational development to assess leader behaviors and actions that actively support effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). The ILS was originally validated with mental health clinicians. This study validates the ILS factor structure with providers in community-based organizations (CBOs) providing child welfare services. Participants were 214 service providers working in 12 CBOs that provide child welfare services. All participants completed the ILS, reporting on their immediate supervisor. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the factor structure of the ILS. Internal consistency reliability and measurement invariance were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fit to the hypothesized first- and second-order factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was strong and there was partial measurement invariance for the first-order factor structure when comparing child welfare and mental health samples. The results support the use of the ILS to assess leadership for implementation of EBPs in child welfare organizations.

  6. Child Welfare Design Teams: An Intervention to Improve Workforce Retention and Facilitate Organizational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringi, James C.; Lawson, Hal A.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; McCarthy, Mary; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Claiborne, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Workforce turnover in public child welfare is a national problem. Individual, supervisory, and organizational factors, individually and in combination, account for some of the turnover. Complex, comprehensive interventions are needed to address these several factors and their interactions. A research and development team is field testing one such…

  7. Relationships between Stressors and Parenting Attitudes in a Child Welfare Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Coulter, Martha L.; VandeWeerd, Carla L.; Armstrong, Mary; Gorski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Families involved with child welfare services often experience a range of stressors in addition to maltreatment, including intimate partner violence, substance abuse, and mental health problems. Children in these families are at risk for developing a myriad of problems. Although parenting education programs are among the most routine interventions…

  8. Inconvenient Truths: A Response to the Article by David Stoesz, "The Child Welfare Cartel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Yegidis, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    David Stoesz offers a sweeping critique of the Children's Bureau and social work education by claiming the existence of a "child welfare cartel." He also attacks the quality of social work education and research, which he claims has poorly invested government funding and helped create the unmitigated failures of the American child…

  9. Cross-Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) in Child Welfare Service Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Natalie K; Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-08-01

    The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) is a brief, pragmatic, and efficient measure that can be used for research or organizational development to assess leader behaviors and actions that actively support effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). The ILS was originally validated with mental health clinicians. This study validates the ILS factor structure with providers in community-based organizations (CBOs) providing child welfare services. Participants were 214 service providers working in 12 CBOs that provide child welfare services. All participants completed the ILS, reporting on their immediate supervisor. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the factor structure of the ILS. Internal consistency reliability and measurement invariance were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fit to the hypothesized first- and second-order factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was strong and there was partial measurement invariance for the first-order factor structure when comparing child welfare and mental health samples. The results support the use of the ILS to assess leadership for implementation of EBPs in child welfare organizations. PMID:27002137

  10. A Strengths-Based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gabriel Tobin; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Sperry, Rachel Wagner; LeBuffe, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a strengths-based approach to supervised visitation within the child welfare system of the United States. Supervised visitation gives parents accused of abuse or neglect the opportunity to spend time with children temporarily removed from their care. Although supervised visitation has the potential to be a tool for promoting…

  11. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  12. Factors Contributing to Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System: Views from the Legal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    A critical shortcoming in the existing body of research addressing racial disproportionality in the child welfare system is the lack of inclusion of external stakeholders in attempts to understand and address this issue. This article reports the results of a study designed to develop a deeper understanding of disproportionality from the views of…

  13. Child Marriage, Agency, and Schooling in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…

  14. Rebuild the Nation's Child Welfare System. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    More than 800,000 American children spend some time in foster care each year, most because they have been victims of child abuse or neglect. The families of 3.5 million children are investigated or assessed for alleged maltreatment each year, and more than 900,000 children are determined to be victims--three-quarters of them neglected, and…

  15. The Indian Child Welfare Act: Unto the Seventh Generation. Conference Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, January 15-17, 1992). National Conference Proceedings Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy R., Ed.

    This proceedings contains edited transcripts of speeches and workshops given at a conference on the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), held at UCLA in January 1992. Workshop titles were: fetal alcohol syndrome; responding to the family in Indian child welfare; joint in-service training for management of Indian Child Welfare Act cases; domestic…

  16. Multidimensional profiles of welfare and work dynamics: development, validation, and associations with child cognitive and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, H; Seidman, E

    2001-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study addresses the research gap in the literature regarding multidimensional variation in welfare use and employment patterns, and relationships of such variation with parent earnings and child development outcomes. This study also aims to address the limitations of welfare dynamics studies that do not examine how multiple dimensions of welfare receipt and employment co-occur Cluster analysis was utilized, using monthly welfare and employment data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to examine variation within the welfare population in their welfare and work patterns across the first 5 years of children's lives. Six cluster profiles of welfare and work dynamics were found: Short-Term, Short-Term Work Exit, Working Cyclers, Nonworking Cyclers, Cycle to Long-Term Exit, and Long-Term. The clusters were validated using mother's 6th-year earnings as the criterion. The clusters' associations with child development outcomes in the cognitive and mental health domains (at ages 6 and 7) were then explored. Work following short-term welfare use was associated with higher child reading scores than that following long-term use (a moderate-size effect). Cycling on and off welfare in the context of high levels of employment was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms than cycling accompanied by low levels of employment (a moderate-size effect). Implications for evaluation of TANF welfare-to-work policies are discussed. PMID:11800512

  17. Multidimensional profiles of welfare and work dynamics: development, validation, and associations with child cognitive and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, H; Seidman, E

    2001-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study addresses the research gap in the literature regarding multidimensional variation in welfare use and employment patterns, and relationships of such variation with parent earnings and child development outcomes. This study also aims to address the limitations of welfare dynamics studies that do not examine how multiple dimensions of welfare receipt and employment co-occur Cluster analysis was utilized, using monthly welfare and employment data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to examine variation within the welfare population in their welfare and work patterns across the first 5 years of children's lives. Six cluster profiles of welfare and work dynamics were found: Short-Term, Short-Term Work Exit, Working Cyclers, Nonworking Cyclers, Cycle to Long-Term Exit, and Long-Term. The clusters were validated using mother's 6th-year earnings as the criterion. The clusters' associations with child development outcomes in the cognitive and mental health domains (at ages 6 and 7) were then explored. Work following short-term welfare use was associated with higher child reading scores than that following long-term use (a moderate-size effect). Cycling on and off welfare in the context of high levels of employment was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms than cycling accompanied by low levels of employment (a moderate-size effect). Implications for evaluation of TANF welfare-to-work policies are discussed.

  18. Emerging issues at the intersection of immigration and child welfare: results from a transnational research and policy forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Velazquez, Sonia; Mindell, Robert; Bruce, Lara

    2009-01-01

    In July 2006, the American Humane Association and the Loyola University Chicago School of Social Work facilitated a roundtable to address the emerging issue of immigration and its intersection with child welfare systems. More than 70 participants from 10 states and Mexico joined the roundtable, representing the fields of higher education, child welfare, international immigration, legal practice, and others. This roundtable created a transnational opportunity to discuss the emerging impact of migration on child welfare services in the United States and formed the basis of a continued multidisciplinary collaboration designed to inform and impact policy and practice at the local, state, and national levels. This paper presents the results of the roundtable discussion and summarizes the emerging issues that participants identified as requiring attention by child welfare systems to facilitat positive outcomes of child safety, permanency, and well-being. Suggestions for further research and implications for policy and practice are also presented. PMID:19777792

  19. Self-Efficacy in Newly-Hired Child Welfare Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Cherry; Bruce Dalton; Angela Dugan

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect in the United States resulted in 676,569 reports in 2011 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012). Workers in this field struggle with low pay, high caseloads, inadequate training and supervision, and risk of violence, all of which contribute to worker burnout and poor worker retention rates. Worker self-efficacy is predictive of worker retention, job performance, and persistence in this difficult field. This paper reports the development of a new measure of sel...

  20. Father involvement in child welfare: Associations with changes in externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K

    2016-05-01

    Nonresident fathers can have a significant impact on children's behavioral outcomes. Unfortunately, the impact of nonresident father involvement on the behavioral outcomes of children with child welfare involvement has received scant attention in the literature, a limitation the current study sought to address. A sample of 333 children in state custody in Illinois between the ages of six and 13 participated and were assessed using the externalizing behavior scale of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) at regular intervals throughout their time in care. Father involvement was measured through a review of case files and interviews with child welfare workers. Growth trajectories were fit to children's externalizing behavior across time and were predicted using Time 1 characteristics. Father involvement, total non-father relative involvement, and gender (girls) was associated with lower baseline externalizing behavior and the African American children in the sample experienced higher baseline externalizing behavior. However, only Time 1 father involvement predicted slope trajectories after controlling for Time 1 externalizing behavior; more father involvement was associated with lower externalizing behavior trajectories. These results suggest that even in the unique and stressful context of child welfare, father involvement can be protective regarding children's externalizing behaviors. PMID:27110849

  1. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  2. Meta-Theoretical Paradigms Underpinning Risk in Child Welfare: Towards a Position of Methodological Pragmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ‘natural attitude’ underpinning risk practices in child welfare. This refers to various taken-for-granted approaches to risk that social workers and other human service professionals draw upon in their everyday practice. The approach proceeds by identifying and critically examining three key, meta-theoretical paradigms on risk which typically shape the natural attitude. They are labelled ‘objectivist’, ‘subjectivist’ and ‘critical’. The ontological, epi...

  3. Differentiating between child protection and family support in the Canadian child welfare system's response to intimate partner violence, corporal punishment, and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Sinha, Vandna; Van Wert, Melissa; Kozlowski, Anna; Maclaurin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Rates of reported child maltreatment nearly doubled in Canada over the period 1998-2003, an increase that reflects growing awareness of the harmful effects of an expanding array of parental behaviors, including corporal punishment, lack of supervision, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Some of these situations may benefit from voluntary family support programs outside of the child welfare system. Analyzing a sample of 11,807 investigations, this paper compares cases where the sole concern is exposure to IPV, or hitting a child, or neglect, or other forms of investigated maltreatment. Situations where exposure to IPV or potentially abusive hitting were the sole reason for investigation presented with fewer risk factors and were less likely to lead to ongoing child welfare interventions compared to other maltreatment investigations. While situations involving alleged neglect presented a higher risk profile and elicited a more intensive child welfare response than did exposure to IPV or hitting, opportunities for alternative services were nevertheless identified. The study also found that visible minority families were overrepresented in cases involving hitting and that Aboriginal families were overrepresented in cases involving neglect. Overall the findings support the development of alternative response programs in Canada. PMID:23597012

  4. [The national-international nexus in public health: Uruguay and the circulation of child health and welfare policies, 1890-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of child health policy as a global concern from the perspective of Uruguay's interaction with the international public health community in the early 20th century and its role in the circulation of child health ideas and practices. It considers two facets of national-international interplay: a) Uruguay's exploration of an interrelationship with the international panorama of policies, research and lessons on the improvement of child health; and b) the translation of Uruguay's domestic debates into the influential Instituto Internacional Americano de Protección a la Infancia - IIPI and the purveying of Uruguay's policies, research, and lessons on child health improvement to other countries and to international health and welfare agencies.

  5. Why Do They Stay? Building a Conceptual Model to Understand Worker Retention and Turnover in Public Child Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Amy Denise

    2010-01-01

    Retention of public child welfare workers has been a recognized problem and a topic of interest among child welfare researchers for many years. However, findings in the literature are conflicting and the research is largely atheoretical. While many variables relevant to retention and turnover have been identified, the literature lacks explanation of how the variables are related. The goals of this study were, thus, twofold. The first objective was to build a conceptual model using qualitative...

  6. Making It Work Without a Family Drug Court: Connecticut's Approach to Parental Substance Abuse in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemack, Jane; Giovannucci, Marilou; Moy, Samuel; Ohrenberger, Karen; Dematteo, Thomas; Smith, Staceyann

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse presents, complex challenges for the child welfare system and courts. This article describes the State of Connecticut's experience implementing the Recovery Specialist Voluntary Program (RSVP), a recovery support program designed to confront the problem of parental substance abuse within the child welfare system without, a family drug court. The state-level collaboration efforts, system changes, factors affecting development and implementation of RSVP, program participants, and preliminary outcomes are described.

  7. An Impossible Task? Implementing the Recommendations of Child Abuse Inquiry Reports in a Context of High Workloads in Child Protection and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Burns; Joe MacCarthy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of social workers’ caseloads in child protection and welfare in the Republic of Ireland. High caseloads impact on the type and quality of service provided to children and families, and on worker retention and job satisfaction. This exploratory paper examines the limited available evidence on social workers’ caseloads in the Republic of Ireland and presents data on child protection and welfare social workers’ perspectives on their caseloads drawn from a qualitativ...

  8. History of Child Welfare and Protection Social Work in Northern Ireland: Finding Continuity amongst Discontinuity in Case Files from 1950 to 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehill, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on 189 child welfare files from the largest welfare authority in Northern Ireland from 1950 to 1968. The literature review provides a commentary on some of the major debates surrounding child welfare and protection social work from the perspective of its historical development. The report of the…

  9. Urgent Protection versus Chronic Need: Clarifying the Dual Mandate of Child Welfare Services across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Trocmé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child under four, 4% of cases involved sexual abuse, 2% of cases involved physical abuse of a child under four and 1% of cases involved children who had sustained severe enough physical harm that medical treatment was required. The other 85% of cases of investigated maltreatment involved situations where concerns appear to focus less on immediate safety and more on the long-term effects of a range of family related problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering the dual mandate of child welfare mandates across Canada: intervening to assure the urgent protection and safety of the child versus intervening to promote the development and well-being of the child.

  10. The Relationship among Internal Resilience, Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Depression Symptoms in Emerging Adults Transitioning out of Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Faulkner, Breanne; Wekerle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well established that child maltreatment reflects a context of risk for multiple negative outcomes. Identifying factors that protect against negative outcomes is important for the development of strengths-based approaches that emphasize resilience, particularly for youth transitioning out of the child welfare system. The current…

  11. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  12. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  13. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  14. A collaborative and trauma-informed practice model for urban Indian child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Preventing the breakup of the American Indian family is the fundamental goal of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA). However, few models exist to provide CPS workers and other practitioners with effective and practical strategies to help achieve this goal. This article presents a collaborative and trauma-informed family preservation practice model for Indian Child Welfare services with urban-based American Indian families. The model encompasses both systemic and direct practice efforts that assist families facing multiple challenges in creating a nurturing and more stable family life. System-level interventions improve the cultural responsiveness of providers, encourage partnerships between CPS and community-based providers, and support ICWA compliance. Direct practice interventions, in the form of intensive case management and treatment services, help parents/caregivers become more capable of meeting their own and their children's needs by addressing challenges such as substance abuse, trauma and other mental health challenges, domestic violence, and housing instability. Evaluation of the practice model suggests that it shows promise in preventing out-of-home placement of Native children, while at the same time improving parental capacity, family safety, child well-being, and family environment.

  15. [Impressions of the 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M

    1977-09-01

    The 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning was held on July 19th and 20th, with a theme on "A worth-while life for mothers, who have dreams for their children", in Tokushima, Japan. 3 basic maternal and child welfare policies were concluded in the first day's discussion: 1) a prevention from the occurrence of the mental and physical disorder in children; 2) a protection of the motherhood; and 3) a promotion of maternal and child health care in cities, townships and villages. An active participation of men is also expected. In professor Baba's lecture, the perinatal medical care was explained under the theme of "The progress of new-born medicine and the prevention from the occurrence of mental and physical disorder in children". The second day's discussion was held byT. Kobayashi, with a theme of "The women's life and health". A necessity of premarital sex education, the women's life circles, health guidance for working women, a mother's group in farmers, were the main topics. PMID:21979

  16. Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

    2010-01-01

    International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence. PMID:20726145

  17. Choosing to Move: Child Agency on Peru's Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B.

    2007-01-01

    This article links research into constructions of childhood and child agency to anthropological studies of young people's informal adoption and state involvement in family arrangements. It analyses the life history of a young Peruvian woman who deliberately chose to move into an orphanage. The multiple points at which individual and family plans…

  18. An Impossible Task? Implementing the Recommendations of Child Abuse Inquiry Reports in a Context of High Workloads in Child Protection and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Burns

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of social workers’ caseloads in child protection and welfare in the Republic of Ireland. High caseloads impact on the type and quality of service provided to children and families, and on worker retention and job satisfaction. This exploratory paper examines the limited available evidence on social workers’ caseloads in the Republic of Ireland and presents data on child protection and welfare social workers’ perspectives on their caseloads drawn from a qualitative study. These analyses are set in the context of the Irish State’s commitments since the publication of the Ryan report. A central argument of this article is that the recommendations of successive child abuse inquiries in Ireland have given rise to expectations and demands on child protection and welfare teams that are not possible to meet given the increasing level of referrals and the high numbers of children for whom social workers are responsible.

  19. Accessing substance abuse treatment: issues for parents involved with child welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Anna; Green, Beth L; Newton-Curtis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The complex issues associated with barriers to treatment entry for parents who are involved with child welfare has not been well explored. Accessing timely treatment is now critical for these parents since the introduction of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, limiting the time until a permanency decision is made. Using a longitudinal, qualitative approach, substance-abusing parents from 15 families, their relevant family members, and service providers were interviewed approximately every 3 months over an 18-month period. The experiences of these parents add to our knowledge of the unique barriers this population faces, and expands our understanding of the mechanisms by which certain barriers may delay treatment.

  20. Evaluation of Boys Town In-Home Family Services with Families Referred by Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R; Ross, Jordan R; Ringle, Jay L; Samson, Natalie R; Thompson, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the Boys Town In-Home Family Services model with families referred by child welfare for issues related to maltreatment. Participants were 135 parents (mean age = 32.15 years, SD = 9.13) who completed intake and discharge assessments. The target child ranged in age from one month to 17 years (M = 4.54, SD = 4.38). We had a high-risk sample (e.g., 57% and 41% of parents reported being victims of physical and sexual abuse, respectively; 24% of parents reported attempting suicide in their lifetimes). The intervention was implemented with a degree of fidelity consistent with model standards. Reduced levels of perceived stressors were found for several domains of functioning with the largest effects observed for family safety, parental capabilities, and environmental factors. Results serve as an important step in building the evidence base of a widely disseminated intervention. PMID:26954360

  1. Factors associated with group bullying and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun Won Kim,1,2 KounSeok Lee,3 Young Sik Lee,4 Doug Hyun Han,4 Kyung Joon Min,4 Sung Hwan Song,5 Ga Na Park,6 Ju Young Lee,1 Jae Ock Kim5 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Gongju National Hospital, Gongju, South Korea; 6Department of Special Education, Graduate School, Dankook University, Jukjeon, South Korea Purpose: Low socioeconomic status is an important risk factor for child psychiatric problems. Low socioeconomic status is also associated with psychiatric problems later in life. We investigated the effects of group bullying on clinical characteristics and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities.Methods: Three hundred and fifty-eight elementary school students using child-welfare facilities were recruited. The School Bullying Self Rating Questionnaire was used to assess group bullying. To evaluate related psychopathology, the Children’s Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, and Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale were applied. Samples were classified according to school grade (lower or upper, and each group’s characteristics were compared as they related to bullying victims versus non-victims.Results: The prevalence rate of group bullying was 22% in the lower-grade group and 12% in the higher-grade group. Bullying victims in lower grades reported high somatization, depressive symptoms, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies, whereas

  2. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  3. Are Parental Welfare Work Requirements Good for Disadvantaged Children? Evidence from Age-of-Youngest-Child Exemptions

    OpenAIRE

    Chris M. Herbst

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the short-run impact of first-year maternal employment on low-income children's cognitive development. The identification strategy exploits an important feature of the U.S.'s welfare work requirement rules – namely, age-of-youngest-child exemptions – as a source of quasi-experimental variation in maternal employment. The 1996 welfare reform law empowered states to exempt adult recipients from the work requirements until the youngest child reaches a certain age. This led to...

  4. Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in the Child Welfare System: A Focus on Caregivers as Gatekeepers

    OpenAIRE

    Villagrana, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Caregivers serve as gatekeepers for children while in the child welfare system, but few studies have focused on the caregiver and the factors that influence the use of mental health services for the children under their care. The purpose of this study was to examine the child’s mental health need, the caregiver’s level of stress, depression, and social support, and the utilization of mental health services by children using the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system...

  5. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  6. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Moyer, April M.; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner’s undivided attent...

  7. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:27294412

  8. Current Debates on Variability in Child Welfare Decision-Making: A Selected Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Keddell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers selected drivers of decision variability in child welfare decision-making and explores current debates in relation to these drivers. Covering the related influences of national orientation, risk and responsibility, inequality and poverty, evidence-based practice, constructions of abuse and its causes, domestic violence and cognitive processes, it discusses the literature in regards to how each of these influences decision variability. It situates these debates in relation to the ethical issue of variability and the equity issues that variability raises. I propose that despite the ecological complexity that drives decision variability, that improving internal (within-country decision consistency is still a valid goal. It may be that the use of annotated case examples, kind learning systems, and continued commitments to the social justice issues of inequality and individualisation can contribute to this goal.

  9. Caseworkers' and Supervisors' Perceptions of Ohio's Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis, Shelia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children represent the future of mankind and their safety, well-being, and permanency are goals of the Department of Health and Human Services. The Department of Health and Human Services is the primary funding source for child welfare and protection in the United States; their requirements, rules, and laws must be upheld and understood by every…

  10. Dissemination of a Multilevel Evidence-Based System of Parenting Interventions with Broad Application to Child Welfare Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Parenting interventions are relevant to many touch points of the child welfare system. This paper describes a multilevel system of parenting interventions called "Triple P" that matches intervention intensities to families, builds on a strong scientific base, provides multiple access points for parents, and offers a destigmatized, cost-efficient…

  11. Suicide Ideation, Depressive Symptoms, and Out-of-Home Placement among Youth in the U.S. Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the association between type of placement, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation among a sample of youth (7 years and older) as they entered the child welfare system and to examine the longitudinal effect of prior out-of-home placements and prior depressive symptoms on subsequent suicide ideation…

  12. Reshaping Child Welfare's Response to Trauma: Assessment, Evidence-Based Intervention, and New Research Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Pecora, Peter J.; Delaney, Nancy; Rodriguez, Wenceslao

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked early trauma with severe psychiatric consequences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health condition found among some youth in foster care and foster care alumni. However, the current child welfare practice response has not met the demands in both assessment and intervention.…

  13. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Several Factors Influence the Placement of Children Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Recent reports have documented how some parents choose to place their children in the child welfare or juvenile justice systems in order to obtain the mental health services that their children need. Senators Susan Collins and Joseph Lieberman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to testify on:…

  14. Providing Individually Tailored Academic and Behavioral Support Services for Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems. Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, S.; Darwin, M. J.; Read, N. W.

    2012-01-01

    Youth who are involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems face many challenges and barriers to academic and vocational success. Regardless of the reasons for their involvement, youth in these systems are "disproportionately children and youth of color who currently have, or have experienced, a host of risk factors that are…

  15. Self-Reported Disciplinary Practices among Women in the Child Welfare System: Association with Domestic Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Kelly J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L.; Gardner, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female…

  16. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  17. Decision making in child protection : An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals’ child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Del Valle, Jorge F.; Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study utilizes the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) to examine the relationships between three independent factors: case charac

  18. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, R.; Davidson-Arad, B.; López, M.; Devaney, J.; Spratt, T.; Koopmans, C.; Knorth, E.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Del Valle, J.F.; Hayes, D.

    2015-01-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case chara

  19. State Child Support Agencies with Programs to Ensure Current Support Orders Reflect Current Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive Program Innovation Map - Click on State or Territory for information about child support agency programs designed to ensure that child support orders...

  20. 45 CFR 1355.52 - Funding authority for statewide automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... welfare information systems (SACWIS). 1355.52 Section 1355.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... welfare information systems (SACWIS). (a) States may receive Federal reimbursement at the 75 percent match... information system, to the extent such system: (1) Provides for the State to collect and electronically...

  1. Disrupting the Continuities Among Residential Schools, the Sixties Scoop, and Child Welfare: An Analysis of Colonial and Neocolonial Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A. McKenzie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, it is estimated that 3 times as many Indigenous children are currently in the care of the state compared to when the residential schools’ populations were at their peak. It is imperative that action be taken. This article explores the continuities among residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, and child welfare in Canada today. In particular, we examine how colonial and neocolonial discourses operate through and justify these policies and practices. We propose nine policy recommendations, which aim to transform child welfare and support Indigenous families to care for their children. Although transformative policy change is unlikely within this neocolonial and neoliberal climate, the recent change in federal leadership has made it more possible to move these policy recommendations forward.

  2. Sexualized behaviors in cohorts of children in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Laura M; Lee, Austin F; Schuler, Ann; Ryan, Julie L; Prentky, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The current retrospective archival study investigated the patterns of normative sexualized behavior (NSB), problematic sexualized behavior (PSB), and sexual perpetration for three age cohorts of boys and girls in a high-risk child welfare sample. All children in the present sample had exhibited some form of PSB in the past. We hypothesized that the incidence rates (IR) of NSBs would increase linearly from the early childhood cohort (Ages 2/3-7) to the middle childhood cohort (Ages 8-11) to the preadolescence/adolescence cohort (Ages 12-17), for girls and boys. Although the base rate of sexual behaviors generally increases as children age, children tend to hide sexual behaviors starting at an early age. We therefore hypothesized that a concave quadratic trend would be evident for most PSBs. We further predicted that older children would have a greater incidence of PSB, as well as more victims, compared with younger children. We found the predicted upward linear trend for NSB for both girls and boys, with minimal IR differences between the early childhood and middle childhood cohorts. IRs were remarkably high and comparable across age groups for both boys and girls, with respect to the same three PSBs. For the two perpetration history variables, there was a concave effect, with girls and boys in the middle childhood cohort exhibiting the lowest IR. Results are explained in the context of previously established patterns of sexualized behavior, as well as the reporting of such behaviors. PMID:26774533

  3. Child Welfare in Chile: Learning from International Experiences to Improve Family Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Muñoz-Guzmán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor outcomes and several complaints to the judicial system against residential services for children have triggered a deep review of the Chilean child welfare services, particularly in relation to family reunification. This paper offers strategic guidelines to improve alternative care for children younger than six years of age, who are under protective measures. To define such guidelines, a case study was developed based on current models of residential services and foster home programs, which included local (Chile and international evidence; also this research includes original empirical data collected through focus groups and interviews with key stakeholders of these programs in Chile and in two countries with advanced social services for children (Sweden and Italy. Findings refer to a structural need for reforming social services for Chilean children. Such reform should involve appropriate legislation to guarantee the rights of children and families; a substantial budgetary review leading to an increase in spending; and boosting professional specialization; and raising the capacity for offering integrated services.

  4. The Physical, Developmental, and Mental Health Needs of Young Children in Child Welfare by Initial Placement Type

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Laurel K; GORDON, JEANNE N.; MENEKEN, LEE; Premji, Kamila; MICHELMORE, KATHERINE L.; GANGER, WILLIAM

    2005-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends comprehensive assessments for children entering foster care. These children may be placed with biological parents, kin, or in nonrelative foster care. It is not known whether health-related needs differ by placement. Chart abstractions were conducted of child welfare and medical records of 1542 children, ages 3 months to 5 years 11 months, admitted to San Diego’s sole emergency shelter/receiving facility from April 1, 1998, through June 30, 1999, ...

  5. Permanency Outcomes for Toddlers in Child Welfare Two Years After a Randomized Trial of a Parenting Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Spieker, Susan J.; Oxford, Monica L.; Fleming, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on child welfare outcomes of a community based, randomized control trial of Promoting First Relationships® (PFR; Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008), a 10-week relationship-based home visiting program, on stability of children’s placements and permanency status two years after enrollment into the study. Toddlers 10 – 24 months (N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized, along with their birth or foster/kin parents, to PFR (n = 105) or a compariso...

  6. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507

  7. 28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies to receive reports of child abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required by...

  8. Child Benefits and Welfare for Current and Future Generations: Simulation Analyses in an Overlapping-Generations Model with Endogenous Fertility(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Oguro, Kazumasa; SHIMASAWA Manabu; TAKAHATA Junichiro

    2010-01-01

    We constructed an overlapping-generations model with endogenous fertility to analyze the effect of child benefits and pensions on welfare for current and future generations. The following results were obtained. First, when financial sustainability is not taken into account, the best policy to improve the welfare of future generations is to increase child benefits, financed by issuing government debt. On the other hand, when financial sustainability is taken into account, the best policy is to...

  9. Development and Implementation of a Child Welfare Workforce Strategy to Build a Trauma-Informed System of Support for Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Negrete, Andrea; Uomoto, Jacqueline A; Berliner, Lucy; Shogren, Dae; Silverman, Ellen; Putnam, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Effective strategies that increase the extent to which child welfare professionals engage in trauma-informed case planning are needed. This study evaluated two approaches to increase trauma symptom identification and use of screening results to inform case planning. The first study evaluated the impact of training on trauma-informed screening tools for 44 child welfare professionals who screen all children upon placement into foster care. The second study evaluated a two-stage approach to training child welfare workers on case planning for children's mental health. Participants included (a) 71 newly hired child welfare professionals who received a 3-hr training and (b) 55 child welfare professionals who participated in a full-day training. Results from the first study indicate that training effectively increased knowledge and skills in administering screening tools, though there was variability in comfort with screening. In the second study, participants self-reported significant gains in their competency in identifying mental health needs (including traumatic stress) and linking children with evidence-based services. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the viability of this approach to increase the extent to which child welfare professionals are trauma informed, aware of symptoms, and able to link children and youth with effective services designed to meet their specific needs. PMID:26928411

  10. 75 FR 41140 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... industry to update and expand the Child Nutrition Database in support of the School Meals Initiative for... Assistance Section, Nutrition Promotion and Technical Assistance Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Room...

  11. 78 FR 79660 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... from the food service industry to update and expand the Child Nutrition Database in support of the..., Nutrition Promotion and Technical Assistance Division, Child Nutrition Programs, Room 630, Food...

  12. 76 FR 13339 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child and Adult...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Request--Child and Adult Care Food Program Improper Payments Meal Claims Assessment AGENCY: Food and... children who attend the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) day care homes. The assessment is tasked... Lesnett at 703-605-0811. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Child and Adult Care Food Program...

  13. [The Relationship Between Burnout Symptoms and Work Satisfaction Among Child Welfare Workers in Residential Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlin, Célia; Dölitzsch, Claudia; Fischer, Sophia; Schmeck, Klaus; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmid, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Working in residential care is associated with high demands and high stress. As a result, employees may develop symptoms of burnout. These symptoms lead to absence from work and have a negative effect on the continuity and quality of the residential care. Until now, little is known about burnout risks in child welfare workers, although children and adolescents are especially dependent on continuous relationships and healthy caregivers. A better understanding of the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction may help to identify starting points for prevention and intervention. The present study assessed symptoms of burnout in a sample of 319 social education workers in residential care in Switzerland using the burnout-screening-scales (BOSS). Work satisfaction was assessed with a newly developed questionnaire based on concepts of trauma-sensitive care. The questionnaire was tested for reliability and factorial validity in the present study. In order to estimate the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction, correlations and relative risks were calculated. Almost one fifth (18 %) of the sample showed a risk of burnout. The principal component analysis of the questionnaire on work satisfaction revealed four factors: support by superiors, participation and transparency; communication and support within the team; gratification in the work; and institutional structures and resources. All four factors as well as the total score showed significant correlations with burnout symptoms. Among employees with a comparably lower work satisfaction, the risk of burnout was 5.4 times higher than among employees with a comparably higher work satisfaction. It is discussed how work satisfaction could be promoted and how, as a result, the quality and continuity of care for the children and adolescents could be improved.

  14. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Moyer, April M; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner's undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate "couple time" and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood. PMID:25177080

  15. State Child Support Agencies With Debt Compromise Policies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive Child Support Program Map - Click on State or Territory for more information regarding local policies to compromise child support debt owed to the state.

  16. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98... CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child care... of age; or, (ii) At the option of the Lead Agency, be under age 19 and physically or...

  17. Comprehensive Outcomes Planning: Strategies for a Non-Profit Child Abuse Prevention Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christina Olenik; Davis, Stephanie Rice

    This paper discusses the development of evaluation strategies for a nonprofit child abuse prevention agency in Maryland. The Family Tree, an organization associated with National Parents Anonymous and the National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse, serves more than 15,000 people per year through community training,…

  18. The effect of Early Head Start on child welfare system involvement: A first look at longitudinal child maltreatment outcomes☆

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Beth L.; Ayoub, Catherine; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Von Ende, Adam; Furrer, Carrie; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Vallotton, Claire; Klevens, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The high societal and personal costs of child maltreatment make identification of effective early prevention programs a high research priority. Early Head Start (EHS), a dual generational program serving low-income families with children prenatally through age three years, is one of the largest federally funded programs for infants and toddlers in the United States. A national randomized trial found EHS to be effective in improving parent and child outcomes, but its effectiveness in reducing ...

  19. How do Training Programs Assign Participants to Training? Characterizing the Assignment Rules of Government Agencies for Welfare-to-Work Programs in California

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A. Mitnik

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the literature to estimating the impacts of training programs. Much less attention has been devoted to how training agencies assign participants to training programs, and to how these allocation decisions vary with agency resources, the initial skill levels of participants and the prevailing labor market conditions. This paper models the training assignment problem faced by welfare agencies, deriving empirical implications regarding aggregate trainin...

  20. How Do Training Programs Assign Participants to Training? Characterizing the Assignment Rules of Government Agencies for Welfare-to-Work Programs in California

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A. Mitnik

    2009-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the literature to estimating the impacts of training programs. Much less attention has been devoted to how training agencies assign participants to training programs, and to how these allocation decisions vary with agency resources, the initial skill levels of participants and the prevailing labor market conditions. This paper models the training assignment problem faced by welfare agencies, deriving empirical implications regarding aggregate trainin...

  1. Teens, Jobs, and Welfare: Implications for Social Policy. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brett

    The upcoming reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant is prompting closer scrutiny of how families affected by the law are faring. This research brief examines teen employment in the context of welfare reform, drawing on data from the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) to describe employment…

  2. Child Agency and Language Policy in Transnational Families

    OpenAIRE

    Fogle, Lyn W.; King, Kendall A.

    2013-01-01

    Study of family language policy unites research in child language acquisition and language policy to better understand how parents’ language decisions, practices and beliefs influence child outcomes (King, Fogle & Logan-Terry, 2008). Thus far, this work has focused on how family language policy shapes children’s language competencies, formal school success (e.g., Snow, 1990), and the future status of minority languages (e.g., Fishman, 1991), with less attention to children’s active roles in s...

  3. Social work and families in child welfare in Malawi: Social workers considerations when placing a child outside the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memory Jayne Tembo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses professional discretion in relation to placing a child outside the family, as understood by Malawian social workers. The article is a product of an exploratory study covering different aspects of social work practice with children and families in Malawi. It is based on focus group discussions with practicing social workers that were conducted using a vignette. This article describes how social workers handle child protection cases, in which a child has to be placed outside the home or family. The article points out different solutions and the reasoning behind certain decisions on placing children outside their home. The study explores issues of patriarchy, intervention methods into families and the cooperation between social workers, community members and other professionals when helping families. The study found that a number of different factors affect the decision of placing a child outside the home. Social workers in this study put an emphasis on the importance of helping children within the immediate- and extended family to help cope with the lack of financial resources that would provide alternative options.

  4. Urgent Protection versus Chronic Need: Clarifying the Dual Mandate of Child Welfare Services across Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Nico Trocmé; Alicia Kyte; Vandna Sinha; Barbara Fallon

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS) and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child...

  5. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  6. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-08-01

    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children.

  7. An Empirical Examination of the Indian Child Welfare Act and Its Impact on Cultural and Familial Preservation for American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, G.E.; Chance, T.; Brown, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cultural and familial ties are crucial for the overall well-being of children. Extant research and permanency planning practices support the reunification of children with their families when possible. In 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was enacted to promote cultural and familial preservation for Indian children, but sparse…

  8. Amending the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, and for Other Purposes. Senate Report To Accompany S. 569. 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    In this report, the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs reports favorably on Senate Bill 569 to amend the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978 and recommends its passage with an amendment. In enacting ICWA, Congress sought to: (1) protect the relationship between Indian children and their parents; (2) affirm the tribal right to participate…

  9. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  10. The Idea and Practice of Child Welfare Services in Regional Poverty Areas:Take the Demonstration Child Welfare Project as Example%区域性贫困地区儿童福利服务的思路与实践——以中国儿童福利示范区项目为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓燕; 许文青

    2012-01-01

      This article explore how to build child welfare services delivery system in regional poverty areas through the demonstration child welfare project. It explains the background of the project, the whole understanding of child welfare, the concept of project design as well as the content of child welfare services system. It shows a clear description of child welfare services delivery system from the perspec-tives of post settings, personnel training, hardware supports and man-agement system.%  本文通过中国儿童福利示范区项目探讨了在区域性贫困地区如何建立儿童福利服务的递送体系。文章从项目背景、对于儿童福利的理解、项目设计理念以及儿童福利服务体系的内容设计安排几个方面,以实际的项目运行为依托,清晰地描述了区域性贫困地区儿童福利服务递送体系在岗位设置、人员培训、硬件配套和管理制度方面的思路。

  11. Professional Conversations with Children in Divorce-Related Child Welfare Inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; Jongen, Esli

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the role of children in conversations about post-divorce arrangements has become more prominent. Children are approached as active participants in the (post-)divorce process rather than just victims of matrimonial and post-matrimonial discord. In accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, children have…

  12. Contemporary Hurdles in the Application of the Indian Child Welfare Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 1978 Congress passed an astonishing piece of legislation that gave Native American tribes a considerable amount of jurisdiction over matters of child custody and the adoption of their children. In 1976, the Association of American Indian Affairs gathered statistics relevant to the adoption of Indian children that Congress found "shocking [and…

  13. Using Cumulative Risk to Screen for Mental Health Problems in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Barth, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that information typically collected during a maltreatment investigation can be used to screen children for mental health problems. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Cumulative risk scores were created for 3,022 children and compared to reports of clinical-level…

  14. Development and initial psychometric examination of the Home Safety and Beautification Assessment in mothers referred to treatment by child welfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Pitts, Michelle; Chow, Graig M; Benning, Stephen D; Soto-Nevarez, Arturo; Plant, Christopher P; Allen, Daniel N

    2016-05-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children, with approximately 45% of injuries occurring in and around the home. Rates of home injury are particularly high in the homes of caregivers who are referred for intervention services by child welfare agents. However, there are few validated methods of home safety assessment available. The Home Safety and Beautification Assessment (HSBA) was developed to assist intervention planning specific to home safety and appearance in a sample of 77 mothers who were referred to treatment by Child Welfare Services. Exploratory factor analysis of HSBA items indicated that safety and appearance factors emerged across rooms in the home, and internal consistencies were good. For each room, the sums of assessors' safety and appearance intervention priority item scores were correlated with the assessors' global safety and appearance ratings of the entire home, respectively. The participants' overall room attractiveness scores were correlated with the assessors' overall room appearance intervention priority scores, whereas the participants' ratings of overall room safety were not correlated with the assessors' overall room safety intervention priority scores. Participants' scores on the Abuse subscale of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, personal income, and education level were not associated with the assessors' home safety and appearance intervention priority ratings, suggesting the HSBA is assessing constructs that are distinct from child abuse potential and socioeconomic status. The results support the HSBA in a sample referred to treatment by child welfare agents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322799

  15. Mental health and substance abuse services to parents of children involved with child welfare: a study of racial and ethnic differences for American Indian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia A; Spicer, Paul

    2007-03-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0-14 years involved with child welfare. Weighted statistics provided population estimates, and multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health or substance abuse services. There were significant disparities in the likelihood of receiving mental health, but not substance abuse, services. Unmet need for mental health and substance abuse treatment characterized all parents in this study. AI parents fared the worst in obtaining mental health treatment. Parents of children at home and of older children were less likely to access mental health or substance abuse treatment.

  16. The Call-Centre: A Child Welfare Liaison Program with Immigrant Serving Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret; Bradshaw, Cathryn; Fournier, Beverly; Tachble, Admasu; Bray, Rob; Hodson, Fay

    2005-01-01

    Alberta, Canada, welcomed nearly 16,000 landed immigrants in 2003, of whom more than half came to the Calgary area. Approximately 200,000 immigrants of various ethnic and cultural groups now live in the region. Many of these new arrivals have no natural support networks while struggling with language, cultural, and economic barriers. Recognizing…

  17. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  18. "Field Methods of Non-Governmental Organizations : [9] Child Welfare, Part Two"

    OpenAIRE

    友松,篤信; 菊入,千賀子; 志村,英理; 佐藤, 麻衣子; 菅原,佳苗

    2005-01-01

    "Thai NGO, The Center for the Protection of Children's Rights, protects abused, sexually exploited, or trafficked children in collaboration with the Thai government, other civil organizations, Thai police, and international organizations. The action of the Center consists of information gathering on abused children, protection, rehabilitation, and reintegration into society. A Bangladeshi NGO, Aparajeyo, manages a street school with the help of ex-street children called child motivators where...

  19. Child soldiers: Reasons for variation in their rate of recruitment and standards of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Andvig, Jens Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Why do some children voluntarily join while other children are forced to join military organization in situations of conflict, and why do the organizations recruit them? How is the actual number of children determined? These are the questions raised in this paper. To address them the author draws on results and ideas from three independent lines of research; One dealing with child labour in general, another with the study of conflicts and the third with children’s decision-maki...

  20. Effects of approach and services under differential response on long term child safety and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, L Anthony; Siegel, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    An outcome analysis was conducted based on an extended follow-up of the implementation of differential response program reforms in Child Protective Services offices in 10 counties in a Midwestern U.S. State. Random assignment was conducted of families that were first determined to be appropriate for family assessments. Experimental families (n=2,382) were each assigned to a non-forensic family assessment, and control families (n=2,247) each received a forensic investigation. Families were assigned continuously over a 15-month period and then tracked from 45 to 60 months from the date of assignment. Detailed information on services provided and family responses was obtained via two subsamples of experimental and control families. Measures of family engagement and service reception and utilization were utilized to determine instrumental outcomes introduced through family assessments. Improved family engagement and increased and broadened services were found to have occurred, and it was theorized that these changes mediated extended outcomes. Extended outcomes included reductions of rates of subsequent screened-in reports of child maltreatment, proportions of families that experienced child removals, and instances of new safety threats and problems in parenting. Differences in outcomes were found among the participating counties with 4 counties accounting for most outcome differences. The relationships between instrumental and extended outcomes were discussed with suggestions for further research. PMID:24957562

  1. Child Maltreatment and Disaster Prevention: A Qualitative Study of Community Agency Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Anderson, Page; Edwards, Shannan; McGill, Tia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM) is a significant public health problem that increases following natural disasters. Ecological approaches have been used to study these complex phenomena, and the current research fits within this perspective by conducting qualitative interviews with disaster response and family-serving community agencies. The purpose of the study was to identify whether or not community agencies identified CM as an issue that is relevant for disaster planning and response...

  2. Child Maltreatment and Disaster Prevention: Qualitative Study of Community Agency Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Anderson, Page; Edwards, Shannan; McGill, Tia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM) is a significant public health problem that increases following natural disasters. Ecological approaches have been used to study these complex phenomena, and the current research fits within this perspective by conducting qualitative interviews with disaster response and family-serving community agencies. The purpose of the study was to identify whether or not community agencies identified CM as an issue that is relevant for disaster planning and response...

  3. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  4. Promoting First Relationships: Randomized Trial of a Relationship-Based Intervention for Toddlers in Child Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Spieker, Susan J.; Oxford, Monica L.; Kelly, Jean F.; Nelson, Elizabeth M.; Fleming, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a community based, randomized control trial of Promoting First Relationships (PFR; Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008) to improve parenting and toddler outcomes for toddlers in state dependency. Toddlers (10 – 24 months; N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized to 10-week PFR or a comparison condition. Community agency providers were trained to use PFR in the intervention for caregivers. From baseline to post-intervention follow-up, observational rati...

  5. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  6. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  7. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation

  8. Sovereignty: The Heart of the Matter. Critical Considerations on the Interface between the Indian Child Welfare Act and Adoption and Safe Families Act. A Summary of Proceedings of the Conference (Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 17, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Esther, Ed.

    The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) recognizes tribes' rights to exercise authority over the welfare of Native American children. Although the ICWA was passed more than 20 years ago, its implementation in Minnesota has been uneven. A conference was held to rectify that situation, and these proceedings provide, among other things, information on…

  9. Teaching child-care skills to mothers with developmental disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, M A; Case, L.; Garrick, M; MacIntyre-Grande, W; Carnwell, J; Sparks, B

    1992-01-01

    The present study identified and remediated child-care skill deficits in parents with developmental disabilities to reduce their risk of child neglect. Eleven mothers with developmental disabilities who were considered by social service and child welfare agencies to be providing neglectful child care were found in baseline to have several important child-care skill deficits (e.g., bathing, diaper rash treatment, cleaning baby bottles) compared to nonhandicapped mothers. Parent training (consi...

  10. Self-assessment of the quality of life of children and adolescents in the child welfare system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Children and adolescents who enter a child welfare system are at higher risk of suffering from mental disorders, physical health, and/or social and educational problems than the general population of the same age is. This study was organized with the aim to evaluate the general characteristics of quality of life (QOL in children and adolescents living in residential and foster care in Serbia. Methods. Two hundred and sixteen children and adolescents, aged 8-18 years, from residential and foster care and 238 children and adolescents from the general population participated in the study. QOL was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL - Serbian version. Three groups were created: residential care group (RCG, foster care group (FCG, and control group (children and adolescents from biological families - CG. Descriptive data were calculated for all questionnaires’ scores, while t-test and ANOVA were used to compare them. Results. The mean value of the total PedsQL was lower in the RCG, 67.47 ± 17.75, than in the FCG and the CG, 88.33 ± 11.27 and 80.74 ± 11.23, respectively. Additionally, the RCG reported lower all PedsQL Scale scores, but the lowest value was for the psychosocial domain. These differences were statistically significant (F value ranged from 17.3 to 49.89, p < 0.000. However, only the scores of the RCG were statistically different from the FCG and the CG, while the differences between the FCG and the CG were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Children and adolescents living in residential care have significantly poorer QOL than those living in foster care or in biological families. On the other side, QOL in children and adolescents from foster care is similar to the one of those living in biological families.

  11. Child Welfare Outcomes Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These annual reports to Congress are available on line at the Children's Bureau's website. They contain data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and...

  12. Implementation of AF-CBT by community practitioners serving child welfare and mental health: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J; Baumann, Barbara L; Herschell, Amy D; Hart, Jonathan A; Holden, Elizabeth A; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    The Partnerships for Families project is a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the implementation of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT), an evidence-based treatment for family conflict, coercion, and aggression, including child physical abuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program in this model, 182 community practitioners from 10 agencies were randomized to receive AF-CBT training (n = 90) using a learning community model (workshops, consultation visits) or Training as Usual (TAU; n = 92) which provided trainings per agency routine. Practitioners completed self-report measures at four time points (0, 6, 12, and 18 months following baseline). Of those assigned to AF-CBT, 89% participated in at least one training activity and 68% met a "training completion" definition. A total of 80 (44%) practitioners were still active clinicians in the study by 18-month assessment in that they had not met our staff turnover or study withdrawal criteria. Using an intent-to-train design, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significantly greater initial improvements for those in the AF-CBT training condition (vs. TAU condition) in CBT-related knowledge and use of AF-CBT teaching processes, abuse-specific skills, and general psychological skills. In addition, practitioners in both groups reported significantly more negative perceptions of organizational climate through the intervention phase. These significant, albeit modest, findings are discussed in the context of treatment training, research, and work force issues as they relate to the diverse backgrounds, settings, and populations served by community practitioners.

  13. “Diversity” of Care Givers and Aggressive Abused Children with Reactive or Proactive aggression in Child welfare Facilities through Examining Residential Map, the New Assessment Method for Estimating Relationships among Children and Care Givers.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujioka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider on the assessment through one of measures, Residential Map for aggressive abused children in child welfare institutes. There are three types are reactive and proactive aggression and Non-emotional aggression.When a child does not succeed in control of his or her own anger or control of irritation, it will be happened aggressive situation among children.About children in child nursing home, the author explained Residential Map for 6 staffs for grasping ...

  14. Trauma-Informed Care for Children in the Child Welfare System: An Initial Evaluation of a Trauma-Informed Parenting Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kelly M; Murray, Kathryn J; Ake, George S

    2016-05-01

    An essential but often overlooked component to promoting trauma-informed care within the child welfare system is educating and empowering foster, adoptive, and kinship caregivers (resource parents) with a trauma-informed perspective to use in their parenting as well as when advocating for services for their child. In this first evaluation of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's trauma-informed parenting workshop (Caring for Children who Have Experienced Trauma, also known as the Resource Parent Curriculum), participant acceptance and satisfaction and changes in caregiver knowledge and beliefs related to trauma-informed parenting were examined. Data from 159 ethnically diverse resource parents were collected before and after they participated in the workshop. Results demonstrate that kinship and nonkinship caregivers showed significant increases in their knowledge of trauma-informed parenting and their perceived self-efficacy parenting a child who experienced trauma. Nonkinship caregivers increased on their willingness to tolerate difficult child behaviors, whereas kinship caregivers did not show a significant change. Participants also demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with the workshop. Although these preliminary results are important as the first empirical study supporting the workshop's effectiveness, the limitations of this study and the directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26603357

  15. Legislation’s Influence on Judiciarization: Examining the Effects of Statutory Structure and Language on Rates of Court Use in Child Welfare Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campbell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which legislation influences decisions of child welfare workers regarding the referral of cases to court. It studies three Canadian jurisdictions: Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta, each of which takes a different legislative approach to the issue of court involvement in child protection. A critical examination of child welfare statutes in these provinces led to the prediction that rates of court use – or ‘judiciarization’ – would be highest in Quebec, followed by Ontario, and then Alberta. These predictions were then compared with data reflecting actual judiciarization rates in these three provinces for the year 2006. This data contradicted our initial predictions, in that Ontario’s rate of court use for child welfare cases was the highest of the three provinces, followed by Alberta, and then Quebec. Our research results thus suggest that legislation alone does not drive judiciarization in the child welfare context. As such, this paper illuminates the need for further study of the way in which child protection workers understand legislation as influencing their professional responsibilities and choices. Moreover, it indicates that further consideration is needed into how the use of judicial versus extra-judicial institutions might affect child welfare outcomes. Cet article examine la mesure dans laquelle la législation influence les décisions des travailleurs et travailleuses du bien-être de l’enfance quant à soumettre des cas aux tribunaux. On étudie trois territoires canadiens : le Québec, l’Ontario et l’Alberta, dont chacun prend une approche législative différente à la question de la participation des tribunaux dans la protection de l’enfance. Un examen critique des lois sur la protection de l’enfance dans ces provinces a amené à prédire que le taux d’utilisation des tribunaux – ou la «judiciarisation» - serait le plus élevé au Québec, suivi de l’Ontario puis de l

  16. Child Maltreatment and Disaster Prevention: Qualitative Study of Community Agency Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Self-Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM is a significant public health problem that increases following natural disasters. Ecological approaches have been used to study these complex phenomena, and the current research fits within this perspective by conducting qualitative interviews with disaster response and family-serving community agencies. The purpose of the study was to identify whether or not community agencies identified CM as an issue that is relevant for disaster planning and response and their perspectives on risk and protective factors for CM risk following disaster. Methods: Agencies (n=16 from 2 geographical areas participated - one that recently experienced a natural disaster (Louisiana (LA, n=7 and one that had not (Georgia (GA, n=9. Agency representatives completed semi-structured telephone interviews (n=16 and follow up in person focus groups (n=14. Theory-driven, thematic analyses were completed. Results: Results suggested that community agencies agree that post-disaster environments increase the risk for CM and that CM prevention has a role in disaster response planning. Risk and protective factors were identified according to Bronfenbrenner’ s ecological framework. Conclusion: Study results support the need to include CM prevention efforts within disaster planning and provide guidance for future research to inform such efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:402-408

  17. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. PMID:26536399

  18. Economic shocks and child welfare: the effect of past economic shocks on child nutritional achievements, schooling and work in rural and urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Young Lives younger cohort, we examine the effect of economic shocks on nutritional achievement, schooling and child work of index children (at age 5), controlling for various individual and household characteristics. Shocks that occurred both before and after the child was born

  19. Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen D.; Kohl, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children’s exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find ...

  20. 福利机构儿童自我概念发展现状及思考%The Current Situation and Reflection of Children's Self-concept Development in Welfare Agencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李唯莹

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is the perception of a person for their own appearance, ability and social acceptance, as well as the core component of children's social development, so it influences chil-dren's peer relationship and social communication. With a wel-fare agency of Hohhot City as a research object, with"4~7 years old children's social development scale" by Professor Chen Huichang as a survey tool, this paper made a survey on children aged 4~7. The result showed that the social development level of children in welfare agencies is lower than that of common chil-dren, and the level of self-concept development is the lowest. Through SPSS factor analysis of variance, it is found that chil-dren's living places, diseases, education degree and self-concept development are significantly different. This paper also proposed effective child-bearing strategies, such as enhancing humanistic care, creating natural situations, and expanding education fields.%自我概念是关于对自己的外表、能力、社会接受性等的知觉,是儿童社会性发展的核心构成部分,影响儿童的同伴关系、社会交往等。本研究以呼和浩特市一所福利机构为研究对象,采用陈会昌教授的《4-7岁儿童社会性发展量表》为调查工具,对4—7岁儿童进行全样本调查。调查结果显示福利机构儿童社会性发展水平低于正常儿童,其中自我概念发展水平最低,通过SPSS单因素方差分析,儿童的生活地、疾病情况和受教育程度与自我概念发展有显著差异,并提出加强人文关怀、创设自然情景、拓宽教育领域等有效教养策略。

  1. Book Review of “At Risk: Social Justice in Child Welfare and Other Human Services” by Karen J. Swift and Marilyn Callahan, 2009, Toronto: University of Toronto Press

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    The newest book by Canadian social work scholars Karen Swift and Marilyn Callahan is exemplary of how other disciplines can invigorate social work theory. “At Risk” uses child welfare practice as an entry point for exploring the continuing movement away from addressing needs and towards the management of risk in the human services.

  2. Book Review of “At Risk: Social Justice in Child Welfare and Other Human Services” by Karen J. Swift and Marilyn Callahan, 2009, Toronto: University of Toronto Press

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Caitlin

    2009-01-01

    The newest book by Canadian social work scholars Karen Swift and Marilyn Callahan is exemplary of how other disciplines can invigorate social work theory. “At Risk” uses child welfare practice as an entry point for exploring the continuing movement away from addressing needs and towards the management of risk in the human services.

  3. Children at the Front: A Different View of the War on Alcohol and Drugs. The CWLA North American Commission on Chemical Dependency and Child Welfare. Final Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report explores the impact of alcohol and drug problems on the children and families served by the child welfare system and outlines a comprehensive strategy to better respond to their needs. It contains more than 100 policy and action recommendations to enhance services to children and families affected by alcohol and other drugs (AOD), to…

  4. "Papa Said That One Day I Would Understand": Examining Child Agency and Character Development in "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" Using Critical Corpus Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstaff, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the issue of child agency in Mildred D. Taylor's 1976 novel "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" using a critical corpus linguistics framework based on Halliday's systemic functional linguistics. The novel has long received praise for its portrayal of child agency in a hostile racist society as well as its depiction of a…

  5. 5 CFR 792.207 - When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage of this law? 792.207 Section 792.207... When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

  6. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  7. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  8. Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

  9. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

  10. Regulation of child abuse through criminal law and the construction of child welfare%虐童的刑法规制及儿童福利体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本灿

    2013-01-01

    基于虐童现象的普遍性以及后果的严重性,虐童行为的规制成为必要,但方式应该是通过立法,而非司法。对于实践中以司法方式实现虐童入罪的做法,应当摒弃,并肃清其背后的理念、逻辑。虐童入罪固然必要,但是问题的解决更应该走向刑法之外,通过儿童保护及福利体系的建立,从根本上减少虐童现象的发生。%Based on the universality and severe consequences of child abuse behavior, the criminal must be punished by criminal law, but the path should be legislation not judiciary. The practice that putting child abuse behavior into sin by judicial way should be abandoned and we should aware of its concept and logic behind. Putting child abuse behavior into sin is indispensable, but the final settlement of this problem is far beyond criminal law, only through establishing children protection and welfare system can we radically reduce its occurrence.

  11. Tribal and Non-tribal Agencies : A Comparison of how Social Work with Families is Conceptualized in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Marissa O’Neill; Debbie L Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    As definitions of “family” have evolved in the US over the past several decades, so too has child welfare agencies’ need to provide appropriate and meaningful services. This article discusses the findings and conclusions drawn from a case study involving two different types of social work agencies: Native American child welfare and not- for-profit family services. Within this discussion, the authors use their findings from case study vignette focus groups to explore how the definitions of fam...

  12. Corporate welfare: the third stage of welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, D

    1986-01-01

    Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. An examination of the largest health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in all markets--nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care, and home care. The author considers the implications of continued expansion of corporate welfare for social workers and their clients. PMID:10277801

  13. Child Welfare and Successful Reunification through the Socio-Educative Process: Training Needs among Biological Families in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles Balsells

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, an average of 480 children per 100,000 is receiving some type of temporary care, and the reunification process is typically lengthy. Providing the biological family with specific training as part of the reunification process is key to solving this problem. Although previous research and social policy have emphasized the importance of such training to reunification, the training has not been fully implemented in Spain. This study investigates the specific training needs during the transition phase of the reunification process in which the child prepares to return home. The data were obtained from focus groups and through semi-structured interviews with 135 participants: 63 professionals from the Child Protection System and 42 parents and 30 children who have undergone or are currently undergoing reunification. A qualitative methodology and Atlas.ti software were used to analyze the interview content. The results indicate three specific training needs: (a understanding the reasons for reunification and the reunification phases; (b empowerment strategies; and (c social support. These findings suggest the best practices for formulating specific support programs for this population during the reunification transition period.

  14. Correlates of optimal behavior among child welfare-involved children: Perceived school peer connectedness, activity participation, social skills, and peer affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Darcey H; Snyder, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the association between children's behaviors and their perceptions regarding the quality of school friendships is useful for intervention strategies focusing on the interpersonal networks of children involved with the child welfare system. Rarely are measures of the strength of peer relationships assessed as a protective factor for maltreated children in the context of understanding their behaviors. This research investigates the link between these youth's expressed relational experiences and nonproblematic behavior. Analyses were conducted on 1,054 children (ages 11-17) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II) dataset. Utilizing a factored measure of perceived school friend connectedness, children's behaviors were predicted using Generalized Ordered Logistic regression analyses. Results demonstrated stronger school friend connectedness is a protective factor in that, children who perceive strong peer connections at school are more likely to classify below the problem behavior threshold than those with weaker peer connections. Further, children with increased social skills; fewer deviant peer affiliations; and those who take responsibility in part-time jobs and chores are more likely to display normative behaviors. Compared with all other types of maltreatment, physically abused children are significantly less likely to display behaviors below the problem range. Moreover, physical abuse has a negative impact on the protective nature of strong peer connections. Attention should be given to supporting children's perceived positive friendships, developing social skills, and encouraging participation in part-time jobs (e.g., babysitting, paper routes) as protective factors associated with nonproblematic behaviors, rather than problematic behaviors. Implications for service delivery are discussed. PMID:26460707

  15. Perceptions of parental substance use disorders in cross-system collaboration among child welfare, alcohol and other drugs, and dependency court organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Young, Nancy K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-system collaboration among child welfare (CW), alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and court organizations shows promise in addressing the many needs of CW-involved families experiencing parental substance use disorders (SUDs). Research has suggested that differing perceptions of parents with SUDs among staff in these organizations may hinder the collaborative process. Using a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, this study explored staff perceptions of parental SUDs among CW, AOD, and court organizations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to CW respondents, AOD respondents were: (a) less likely to believe that parents could provide effective parenting; (b) more likely to believe that abstinence should be a criterion for reunification; (c) more likely to agree that parents should receive jail time as a consequence for noncompliance with court orders; and (d) more likely to believe that parents could succeed in treatment. Thematic analyses of these focal areas identified two core themes (focus on the primary client and mandated time frames for permanency), as well as multiple subthemes, that provided a nuanced understanding of differing perceptions on these matters. Suggestions for the development of anticipatory cross-system training and practices and implications for policy evaluation are discussed.

  16. Finnish families' need for special support as evaluated by public health nurses working in maternity and child welfare clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Euramaa, Katri-Ina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe public health nurses' views of the everyday problems of families and their needs for special support. Seventy-four nurses filled in a tripartite questionnaire. The needs varied by region and were seen in 4% to 23% of all families expecting a baby or with a child younger than 3 age in the nurses' clientele. Approximately one-third of the families were considered to have a pressing need for support. More than half of families (54%) had difficulties coping with parenthood and family structure, almost one-third (30%) with raising their children and with childcare, and nearly one-third (27%) with their social network. In 20% of the families, the parents experienced problems relating to their relationship as a couple; 20% of the families had problems connected to the children's development, growth, and health; and in 19% of the families, the parents had health problems. Special needs were also caused by the parents' use of alcohol (15%) and by disputes over the children's custody and visiting rights (7%). The information provided by the study can be used in developing clinical services and the family work supporting them. PMID:12823793

  17. Examining the Link between Child Maltreatment and Delinquency for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Kimber W.; Meisel, Sheri M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined service delivery and risk factors for 93 youth with emotional and behavioral disorders who were served by one jurisdiction's child welfare, juvenile justice, and special education agencies. The researchers collected data through an archival review of agency records. The article discusses findings as they relate to the link…

  18. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  19. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... who has been deserted or abandoned by a parent, to the parent(s) with whom the child lives, or to a... Families with Dependent Children, or AFDC Foster Care. (2) Prompt notice means written notice including a... a parent means any child whose eligibility for AFDC is based on continued absence of a parent...

  20. Program Theory and Logic Model to Address the Co-Occurrence of Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice R.; Thies, Jeanie

    2010-01-01

    Social work and child welfare practitioners have long confronted the reality that child maltreatment and domestic violence often coexist within families. However, services for the victims of these types of family violence have been fragmented, forcing victims to go to multiple agencies for assistance. The purpose of this paper is to describe the…

  1. "When You're Sitting on the Fence, Hope's the Hardest Part": Challenges and Experiences of Heterosexual and Same-Sex Couples Adopting Through the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie; Moyer, April M; Kinkler, Lori A; Richardson, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    Foster-to-adopt families can be viewed as systems that are influenced by many other systems (e.g., the legal system, the social service agency, and the birth family). The current qualitative study of 84 foster-to-adopt parents (members of 42 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples) examined the types of challenges that parents faced as they navigated multiple systems during the initial post-placement period. Some participants described the legal insecurity associated with their role as foster-to-adopt parents as impacting their personal well-being and their attachment to their children. Lack of support services and disorganization within social service agencies, as well as strained relationships with birth parents, were also identified as stressors for foster-to-adopt parents. Importantly, lesbian and gay participants faced additional concerns regarding the security of their placement, due to the possibility for discrimination within the various systems involved with the foster-to-adopt process. Participants as a whole also identified positive aspects of their experiences within various systems; for example, they appreciated child care subsidies, state-provided health insurance, and supportive social workers. Our findings provide insights into foster-to-adopt parents' experiences during the initial post-placement period, and have implications for adoption services aimed to improve placement stability and enhance family functioning in foster-to-adopt families. PMID:23226935

  2. Reactions by Native American Parents to Child Protection Agencies: Cultural and Community Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsi, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explains characteristics and behaviors of Native American parents who react to child protection services with extreme aggressiveness, passivity, or avoidance. Discusses appropriate behaviors for social workers to use with such parents. (BG)

  3. 45 CFR 1304.24 - Child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services. (1) Grantee and delegate agencies must work collaboratively with parents (see 45 CFR 1304.40(f... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  4. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger

    2000-01-01

    Time limits are a central component of recent welfare reforms and represent a substantial departure from previous policy. However, several recent studies suggest that they have had no effect on welfare use. In this paper I attempt to reconcile those findings with results from Grogger and Michalopoulos, who find time limits to have substantial effects that vary by the age of the youngest child in the family. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I obtain results similar to those of pr...

  5. Welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This major three-volume work contains key papers which reflect the innovation and imagination that has characterised the field of welfare economics during the last 50 years. The selections range from literary treatments to the most advanced mathematical presentation. However, all readers, regardless of their mathematical sophistication or methodological predilections, will find a large number of the papers interesting and worthwhile in giving an overview of the present state of welfare econom...

  6. Characterizing the Quality Workforce in Private U.S. Child and Family Behavioral Health Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, J Curtis; Raffol, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral health agencies have been encouraged to monitor performance and improve service quality. This paper characterizes the workforce charged with these tasks through a national survey of 238 behavioral health quality professionals. A latent class analysis suggests only 30 % of these workers report skills in both basic research and quality-specific skills. Respondents wanted to learn a variety of research and data analytic skills. The results call into question the quality of data collected in behavioral health agencies and the conclusions agencies are drawing from their data. Professional school and continuing education programs are needed to prepare this workforce. PMID:26108643

  7. 75 FR 7514 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Appointed Counsel in Involuntary Indian Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Register on October 30, 2009 (74 FR 56208) requesting public comments on the proposed information... for an indigent Indian parent or Indian custodian in an involuntary Indian child custody proceeding... States to receive payment for counsel appointed to indigent Indian parents or custodians in...

  8. Sneaking out after Dark: Resistance, Agency, and the Postmodern Child in JK Rowling's Harry Potter Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Drew

    2008-01-01

    JK Rowling's "Harry Potter" novels situate their child protagonists in a fantastical world side by side with present day British society. Through the characters' choices and realizations, young readers are introduced to the complexities and ambiguities of the contemporary world. Harry and his friends embrace these qualities of postmodern childhood…

  9. Social Policy Construction of the Families Which Lose Their Only One Child Under Welfare-multiplex Perspective%福利多元主义视角下失独家庭社会政策建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵罗英

    2014-01-01

    失独家庭作为特殊弱势群体,遭遇养老保障、医疗服务、精神慰藉、社会交往等困境。福利多元主义作为一种新兴的政策理论范式,它主张社会福利来源的多元化,福利是全社会的产物,应由国家、市场、社区和民间社会共同合作提供。本文运用福利多元主义视角,尝试建构了失独家庭保障政策。我们认为应将国家作为主导责任主体,市场作为有效的补充,重视家庭和社区的福利供给功能、发挥社会组织的独特优势。%The families which lose their only one child,as a special vulnerable groups,they encounter difficulties of old-age security,medical service,spiritual comfort and social communication. As a new paradigm,welfare pluralism holds that the sources of welfare should be of diversity,welfare is the fruit of the whole society,the state, market, community and civil society should work together to provide welfare.Under the welfare-multiplex perspective,this paper argues that the country can be the leading responsibility main body,the market can be the effective supplement.

  10. What if welfare had no work requirements? the age of youngest child exemption and the rise in employment of single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan F. Pingle

    2003-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 required states to increase welfare recipient employment and participation in welfare-to-work programs. These work requirements are sometimes credited for bringing about large employment increases among single mothers. However, this paper finds that employment among single mothers who were exempted from work requirements because they had young children rose as much as that of other single mothers. The results imply th...

  11. The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect: a partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Health Canada's Family Violence Prevention Unit commissioned a study to assess the possibility of collecting child maltreatment data from child welfare agencies across Canada. A Health Canada group responsible for maternal and child health surveillance built on the results of this study. This group consulted widely with provincial and territorial partners to build a surveillance system, resulting in a truly collaborative effort that led to the implementation of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). This was a remarkable accomplishment considering the challenge of working with multiple partners, different legislative frameworks and the stigma that often accompanies the experience of child maltreatment. PMID:26605558

  12. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  13. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…

  14. 77 FR 42905 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... into marriage. This is not an option for same-sex couples with respect to Federal benefits, because of... children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees; make certain technical corrections; and make... agencies consider extending benefits, where possible, to same-sex domestic partners, and...

  15. Inquiries into Fatal Child Abuse in the Netherlands : A source of improvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Kuijvenhoven (Tirza); W-J. Kortleven (Willem-Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn some Western societies, inquiries into fatal abuse of children known to agencies are nowadays a common phenomenon. They have been carried out in the UK for many years, but have recently also emerged in the Netherlands. The main aim of these inquiries is to improve child welfare and pr

  16. Welfare Lobby Groups responding to Globalisation: A Comparison of the Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS and the UK Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed a period of intense economic globalisation. The growing significance of international trade, investment, production and financial flows appears to be curtailing the autonomy of individual nation states. In particular, globalisation appears to be encouraging, if not demanding, a decline in social spending and standards. However, many authors believe that this thesis ignores the continued impact of national political and ideological pressures and lobby groups on policy outcomes. In particular, it has been argued that national welfare consumer and provider groups remain influential defenders of the welfare state. For example, US aged care groups are considered to be particularly effective defenders of social security pensions. According to this argument, governments engaged in welfare retrenchment may experience considerable electoral backlash (Pierson 1996; Mishra 1999. Yet, it is also noted that governments can take action to reduce the impact of such groups by reducing their funding, and their access to policy-making and consultation processes. These actions are then justified on the basis of removing potential obstacles to economic competitiveness (Pierson 1994; Melville 1999.

  17. Sharing Data between Child Welfare and Education to Improve Outcomes for Children and Youth in the Foster Care System. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When a child is placed in the state's foster care system because of a parent's abuse or neglect, the state--represented by teams of social workers, lawyers, judges, foster parents, and other caregivers or guardians--steps into many aspects of the parental role. Too often, though, the state's representatives are attempting to fulfill a parental…

  18. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless.

  19. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  20. Family Policy Options for the Welfare of China's Children in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengHaijun,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    China's current child welfare policies principally stress the importance of family care. The state will not intervene unless there is harm to the child. Owing to economic and human resource limitations, govemment child welfare work is mainly remedial: rendering assistance to orphaned,

  1. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  2. Tribal and Non-tribal Agencies : A Comparison of how Social Work with Families is Conceptualized in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa O’Neill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As definitions of “family” have evolved in the US over the past several decades, so too has child welfare agencies’ need to provide appropriate and meaningful services. This article discusses the findings and conclusions drawn from a case study involving two different types of social work agencies: Native American child welfare and not- for-profit family services. Within this discussion, the authors use their findings from case study vignette focus groups to explore how the definitions of family impact the provision of services.At each agency, participants addressed issues surrounding domestic violence, teen pregnancy, child welfare involvement and the inclusion of extended families as part of client’s support network. By focusing on the changing social concept of “family,” the study’s respondents discussed the need for direct practice using broader, more inclusive approaches to family and child welfare. Through the comparison of two agencies which serve different demographics, the article makes clear that further study is needed, and a wider scope must be considered, in order to adequately serve America’s expanding population in need of family services, direct practice and extended support.

  3. Welfare and Work: Job-Retention Outcomes of Federal Welfare-to-Work Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Susan Tinsley; Bailey, Margo

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of differences in job-retention outcomes for 1,777 welfare-to-work employees and 16,723 other employees in federal agencies reveals that welfare-to-work employees have greater odds of retaining their jobs. (Contains 32 references.) (JOW)

  4. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. PMID:25533889

  5. TOWARDS COLLABORATION BETWEEN PUBLIC WELFARE AGENCIES AND MASS ENTERTAINMENT MEDIA TO BRING ABOUT A TURNING POINT STAGE IN THE LIVES OF BATTERED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourit Segev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the promoting and impeding factors that advance the turning point in thelives of battered women. The subject is important because of the contribution of the turning pointstage to the ability of women to leave the violent relationship and the way in which the publicwelfare agencies become involved in order to help the victim to advance towards the turning point.The article also reviews the influence of the entertainment media in shaping the positions of thepublic regarding marital violence, the presentation of battered women in the media, and theconnection between their media presentation and their advancement towards the turning point inreality.The research is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, and focuses on contentanalysis. The qualitative content analysis included 40 journal articles, 1 documentary film and onedrama series, the personal interviews included 8 social workers and 6 journalists, and the focusgroup included 8 battered women. The findings indicate an awareness of battered women in thevarious media, and of a gap between the perception of social workers and the journalists regardingthe role of the media in raising social problems.The article calls for cooperation between the media and the professionals in order to construct messages of empowerment that will enable women to advance towards the turning point in theirlives.

  6. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  7. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped.......Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...

  8. Poverty and Child Placement: A New/Old Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Nora S.; MacEachron, Ann E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical precedents for removing poor children from their families, reviews relevant experiences of Native Americans, and analyzes child placement through the lens of poverty. The role of the federal government in child protection is examined by comparing the Indian Child Welfare Act and the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act.…

  9. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services....... This article presents the findings of a systematic review of Danish and Swedish experiences with private provision of welfare services within three areas: home care for the elderly, provision of child care, and the operation of nursing homes. The research shows that there is no general evidence in support...... of improved cost effectiveness or enhanced service quality within these three welfare areas. A part of the reason for this is that many studies are characterized by lack of data and insufficient methodological designs. The article concludes that more and better studies are needed in order to broaden...

  10. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  11. The Living Predicament of the Elderly Parent Who Lost Their Only Child and the Corresponding Measures of Social Welfare Policy%失独老人的生活困境与社会福利政策的应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚兆余; 王诗露

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of family planning policy since the 1970s plays a certain positive role in the population control and social development to acertain degree, however, this policy increases the living risk of some families and the number of the elderly parents who lost their only child is increasing. This paper studies the living situation of the elderly parents who lost their only child based on the survey, finds that the majority of the elderly parents are in the predicament such as deteriorating economic conditions, general depression in mind, declining healthy conditions and closed interpersonal communication, as a result, there is ubiquitously urgent demand in the perspective of living aid, social security, medical care and spiritual comfort etc. Currently, Chinese Government’ s aiding policies relatively lag behind and have many problems such as low aiding standard, narrow support-ive covering area, simple aiding forms and so on. In order to meet the basic living demand of the elderly parents, social welfare policies must be designed and perfected from the perspective of economic support, living care, spiritual conform and so on.%20世纪70年代开始推行的计划生育政策,对我国控制人口、促进社会发展起到了一定的积极作用。但该政策增大了一些家庭的生活风险,因独生子女死亡而产生的失独老人数量正在不断增加。本研究对失独老人群体的生活状况进行了深入调查,发现大多数失独老人存在经济状况恶化、精神普遍抑郁、健康状况下降、人际交往敏感封闭等困境,在生活救助、养老保障、医疗保障以及精神慰藉等方面存在着强烈的需求。目前,国家的扶助政策较为滞后,存在扶助标准低、覆盖面窄、扶助形式单一等诸多问题。为了满足失独老人的基本生活需求,必须从经济支持、生活照料、精神慰藉等方面来设计和完善社会福利政策。

  12. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    that the Scandinavian welfare states are the most advanced in relation to women and dicusses both the potentialities and the dangers in the Scandinavian welfare states in relation to women. The paper points to the need to integrate gender relations in the theoretical model for an analysis of the welfare state...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have......The paper studies the debate about the Scandinavian welfare states from a feminist persepctive, forcusing on the differences between a feminist perspective and the dominant liberal and critical marxist understanding of the welfare state. In particular it focuses on the argument...

  13. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2016-01-01

    care, whereas permanent exclusion is favoured for other programs, e.g. child allowances given to children in country of origin. These findings support the thesis of program-specific welfare chauvinism and point to a political space for pragmatic adjustments of current EU rules. The article also finds...... similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  14. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  15. Immigration and native welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel J. Felbermayr; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three skill-classes we derive propositions on the wage and nati...

  16. Shanghai Welfare Lottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGLING

    2005-01-01

    THE Shanghai Welfare Lottery was set up in July 1987. Annual ticket sales have shot up from a few million yuan in the first year to billions. Its total and per capita sales were the highest of all China welfare lotteries for five consecutive years.During the past 17 years, a welfare fund of 1.5 million has been gathered from the total 5 billion yuan proceeds and used to help the elderly, disabled,orphans and poor.

  17. Welfare in horse breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...

  18. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  19. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  20. Privatized Child Welfare Services: Foster Parents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    Foster parents were surveyed concerning their attitudes toward the privatization of family foster care services in Kansas. Respondents reported their current level of satisfaction, opinions about privatization, and their experiences with new community-based treatment teams. Responses indicated that satisfaction remained high, but also variances in…

  1. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  2. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  3. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  4. Child Abuse Prevention Act, 1973. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Children and Youth of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on S.1191.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A record of the Senate hearings on The Child Abuse Prevention Act of 1973 is presented. A copy of Senator Mondale's bill to establish a national center on child abuse is included. The objectives of the hearings were to investigate the magnitude of the child abuse problem in the United States and to clarify a definition of the problem. Different…

  5. 78 FR 70515 - Petition To Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Health Inspection Service has received a petition requesting that we amend the Animal Welfare Act..., Riverdale, MD 20737-1234; (301) 851-3751. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Animal Welfare Act...

  6. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...

  7. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  8. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. PMID:27352090

  9. The Effect of Increasing Welfare Mothers' Education on Their Young Children's Academic Problems and School Readiness. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Katherine A.; McGroder, Sharon M.

    This study investigated the effect of welfare mothers' educational attainment on their young children's academic outcomes and school readiness. Data came from the National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies Child Outcomes Study. Welfare recipients with young children residing in three cities were randomly assigned to participate in either an…

  10. Should Welfare Administration be Centralized or Decentralized? Evidence from a Policy Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The 2005 reform of the German welfare system introduced two competing organizational models for welfare administration. In most districts, a centralized organization was established where local welfare agencies are bound to central directives. At the same time, 69 districts were allowed to opt for a decentralized organization. We evaluate the relative success of both types in terms of integrating welfare recipients into employment. Com-pared to centralized organization, decentralized organiza...

  11. Should welfare administration be centralized or decentralized? Evidence from a policy experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Boockmann, Bernhard; Thomsen, Stephan L.; Walter, Thomas; Göbel, Christian; Huber, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2005 reform of the German welfare system introduced two competing organizational models for welfare administration. In most districts, a centralized organization was established where local welfare agencies are bound to central directives. At the same time, 69 districts were allowed to opt for a decentralized organization. We evaluate the relative success of both types of organizations. Compared to centralized organization, decentralized organization of welfare administration has a negati...

  12. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    ) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work......The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission...... on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3...

  13. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  14. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    that are not necessarily perceived, performed, and changed in phases. A pragmatic and situated perspective on welfare innovation suggests a conception of welfare innovation which is not translated from firm innovation, but derived directly from welfare contexts.......Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... relevant objects of study. Innovation strategy and research traditionally regards innovation as a set of phases. The purpose of this paper is to enhance ‘phase’ models by adding to them a ‘driver’ model which may provide an appropriate strategy for studying and supporting the innovation potential...

  15. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... by generous welfare states and disagree with the view that a supply-side orientation equals ‘lean government’ in terms of social expenditure. But convergence implies that the space to maneuver has shrunk for policy-makers. The consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for welfare states are difficult...... to predict; short-term counter-cyclical measures in reac-tion to the crisis highlight the importance of protective buffers in highly integrated economies. Still, some countries have experienced harsh austerity measures since then, and thus the 2008 financial crisis may mark the end of the convergence period...

  16. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    is associated with ‘social democratic’ perceptions of welfare and gender equality. Brochmann and Hagelund (2010) have pointed towards a specific form of Scandinavian welfare nationalism which is challenged by globalization and increased migration. We add that gender equality is a key aspect of the Scandinavian...... and Norway have linked national belongings with support for the welfare state and gender equality politics. These observations in turn raise theoretical, normative and analytical questions about understandings and conceptualizations of the nationalism, welfare and gender.The article aims to explore what......Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia...

  17. Welfare Undominated Groves Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Apt, Krzysztof R; Guo, Mingyu; Markakis, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    A common objective in mechanism design is to choose the outcome (for example, allocation of resources) that maximizes the sum of the agents' valuations, without introducing incentives for agents to misreport their preferences. The class of Groves mechanisms achieves this; however, these mechanisms require the agents to make payments, thereby reducing the agents' total welfare. In this paper we introduce a measure for comparing two mechanisms with respect to the final welfare they generate. This measure induces a partial order on mechanisms and we study the question of finding minimal elements with respect to this partial order. In particular, we say a non-deficit Groves mechanism is welfare undominated if there exists no other non-deficit Groves mechanism that always has a smaller or equal sum of payments. We focus on two domains: (i) auctions with multiple identical units and unit-demand bidders, and (ii) mechanisms for public project problems. In the first domain we analytically characterize all welfare und...

  18. Welfare in farmed fish

    OpenAIRE

    Damsgård, Børge; Juell, Jon-Erik; Braastad, Bjarne Olai

    2006-01-01

    The interest of fish welfare is increasing, both in Norway and internationally, leading to an increasing need for scientific knowledge about basic and applied questions related to how farmed fish are produced. The strategic institute programme (SIP) ”Welfare in farmed fish” was financed by the Research Council of Norway, for the five years period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. The core partners in the SIP were the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Fiskerifor...

  19. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  20. Child Protection in Sport: Reflections on Thirty Years of Science and Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia H. Brackenridge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the responses of state and third sector agencies to the emergence of child abuse in sport since the mid-1980s. As with other social institutions such as the church, health and education, sport has both initiated its own child protection interventions and also responded to wider social and political influences. Sport has exemplified many of the changes identified in the brief for this special issue, such as the widening of definitional focus, increasing geographic scope and broadening of concerns to encompass health and welfare. The child protection agenda in sport was initially driven by sexual abuse scandals and has since embraced a range of additional harms to children, such as physical and psychological abuse, neglect and damaging hazing (initiation rituals. Whereas in the 1990s, only a few sport organisations acknowledged or addressed child abuse and protection (notably, UK, Canada and Australia, there has since been rapid growth in interest in the issue internationally, with many agencies now taking an active role in prevention work. These agencies adopt different foci related to their overall mission and may be characterised broadly as sport-specific (focussing on abuse prevention in sport, children’s rights organisations (focussing on child protection around sport events and humanitarian organisations (focussing on child development and protection through sport. This article examines how these differences in organisational focus lead to very different child protection approaches and “solutions”. It critiques the scientific approaches used thus far to inform activism and policy changes and ends by considering future challenges for athlete safeguarding and welfare.

  1. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....... The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender patterns...

  2. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined...... entrepreneurs. The implications for policy makers are that if they are serious about increasing the number of female entrepreneurs, and achieving equality in the labour market, then future Welfare Models should be tailored to the needs of this group of individuals. So far it has been taken for granted...... that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate entrepreneurship....

  3. Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

    1999-01-01

    During 1984-96, welfare and tax policy changed dramatically. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added and cases were terminated, Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, training programs were redirected, and subsidized or free child care was expanded. Many of the program changes were intended to encourage low income women to work. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the employment and hours of singl...

  4. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  5. Patterns of Single Mothers' Work and Welfare Use: What Matters for Children's Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Nicole Gardner

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have captured the variation in single mothers' work and welfare experiences and the implications for children. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Child Development Study, this study examines patterns of wages, work hours, and time spent on welfare in relation to children's well-being (N = 820). Six patterns…

  6. Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

  7. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  8. On Worlds of Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wildeboer Schut; J.C. Vrooman; P.T. de Beer

    2001-01-01

    This book analyses the insitutions and effects of eleven modern welfare states (USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway). Using quantitative data the authors first show that the institutional variety among these countries can be reduced to th

  9. Welfare and Customs Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Kowalczyk

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes that Viner's celebrated trade diversion and trade creation terminology for the customs union problem be abandoned. As the alternative is offered a welfare calculus based upon the terms-of-trade and volume-of-trade taxonomy from the theory of tariffs. The paper discusses, by application of this calculus, the two outstanding controversies in the theory of customs unions.

  10. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar;

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  11. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing systems

  12. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  13. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    In 2007 the farm subsidies of the European Union's common agricultural policy took over 40 percent of the entire EU budget. How did a sesctor of diminishing social and economic importance manage to maintain such political prominence? The conventional answer focuses on the negotiations among...... the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... of cooperation. By tracing how the farm welfare objective was gradually implemented in other common policies, Knudsen offers an alternative account of European integration history. "This remarkable and rich book sheds much light on the origins and evolution of European agricultural policy. The combination...

  14. The welfare of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  15. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance......What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...... with their values and self-interest. The article thus shows that people when faced with public debates on welfare policies will seek to confirm their personal biases and this limits the possibility for overall changes in public support....

  16. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    This paper present some reflections on an on-going research project, entitled “Welfare technology, Innovation, Care and Learning”. The project has a dual ambition. Firstly to develop a theoretical framework that enable educators of future welfare professionals in Denmark to examine what it means...... to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  17. Welfare-State Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1996-01-01

    The goal in the present paper is twofold, to shed some light on endogenous dynamic of the welfare states, and to provide a procedure to select among several equilibria. To this end, a dynamic model is presented, in which private agents are assumed to be "locked" to current decisions for a while. If "frictions" are large enough, the economy might exhibit more than one stable Paretorankable stationary state. Equilibrium paths would then be determined by history. The economy might become "stuck"...

  18. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare–Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26–57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Results Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators’ attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children’s behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. Conclusions High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features. PMID:26527856

  19. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare. PMID:21216980

  20. 45 CFR 1321.61 - Advocacy responsibilities of the area agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advocacy responsibilities of the area agency. 1321.61 Section 1321.61 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.61...

  1. A measure of welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1979-10-01

    The Overseas Development Council has been seeking to perfect a new kind of measure for assessment of development strategies, for it has long been recognized that the Gross National Product is an inadequate measurement tool. The Physical Quality of Life Index, developed by the ODC over the past 3 years, scores nations on a scale of 0-100. It is calculated by averaging the countries' scores in 3 important fields of welfare -- adult literacy, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age 1. Although the PQLI data are averages also they do seem to be sensitive to the distribution of benefits. Results have been calculated for every country in the world, and they refute the arguments of conservative economists and political leaders who claim that basic human needs can only be met through rapid economic growth. Poor countries can achieve high levels of welfare for their population without waiting for growth in material wealth, and relatively high levels of national income can fail to guarantee that the mass of the population will have their basic needs met. In that their advance tends to slow down as countries approach the upper levels of the PQLI, the Overseas Development Council introduced a new concept -- the disparity reduction ratio -- for measuring changes in welfare. This is the annual rate at which each nation is closing the gap between its current score and the best expected score anywhere for the year 2000. The disparity reduction rate may permit exact targets to be established for progress in meeting basic needs. A worthwhile objective over the next 20 years might be for each country to halve the gap separating them from the best attainable. PMID:12261487

  2. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...

  3. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or 'empower' citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea....... Guiding the reader from their epistemological foundations to lucid 'state of the art' case examples, the book unpacks each of its six theoretical perspectives, and explains selected key concepts and explicates their potential for analysis. The final chapter discusses the usefulness of the theoretical...

  4. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... and explore how social work within the specific frame of child protection care becomes an actual hybrid (Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, 2012). The paper recognizes social work as a social system, the system for help in society (Baecker, 1994) (Nissen, 2010). The paper sets out to explore how structural coupling...... within the welfare system of child protection can be said to emerge into a different form than (maybe) other welfare services. The explorative curiosity rises from recognition of the economic systems expansion and dominant semantics within social services, specifically child protection and how social...

  5. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain, but maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents’ job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child care-related work disruption using two samples and both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models. Child care-related work disruptions are fou...

  6. Welfare Dependency among Danish Immigrants.

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Kræn; Verner, Mette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate determinants of the welfare dependency among immigrants in an assimilation framework. The duration of stay is a major determinant of welfare dependency. Also, assimilation patterns vary substantially across immigrants from developed and less devel-oped countries, respectively. The late arriving immigrants are relatively more dependent on transfers, explaining part of the general increase in welfare dependency during the latest years. This is partly attributed to ...

  7. The Welfare Effects of Globalization with Labor Market Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Palokangas, Tapio K.

    2015-01-01

    I examine how globalization affects wages and welfare in a general equilibrium model of international trade with partly oligopolistic markets. Globalization is modeled as reducing trade costs or opening up shielded sectors to trade. There is a national or international common agency that determines minimum wages for the oligopolists, either directly or through supporting labor unions. The lobbies of employers and labor unions influence that agency, relating their prospective political contrib...

  8. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  9. 38 CFR 3.210 - Child's relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contrary, to show that the child was a member of the veteran's household at the date of the veteran's death... spouse or from any public or private welfare organization which furnished services or assistance to..., and evidence that the child is a member of the veteran's household or was a member of the...

  10. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...

  11. Trauma-Informed Care in the Massachusetts Child Trauma Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Barto, Beth; Griffin, Jessica L; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Hodgdon, Hilary; Bodian, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    Child maltreatment is a serious public health concern, and its detrimental effects can be compounded by traumatic experiences associated with the child welfare (CW) system. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a promising strategy for addressing traumatized children's needs, but research on the impact of TIC in CW is limited. This study examines initial findings of the Massachusetts Child Trauma Project, a statewide TIC initiative in the CW system and mental health network. After 1 year of implementation, Trauma-Informed Leadership Teams in CW offices emerged as key structures for TIC systems integration, and mental health providers' participation in evidence-based treatment (EBT) learning collaboratives was linked to improvements in trauma-informed individual and agency practices. After approximately 6 months of EBT treatment, children had fewer posttraumatic symptoms and behavior problems compared to baseline. Barriers to TIC that emerged included scarce resources for trauma-related work in the CW agency and few mental providers providing EBTs to young children. Future research might explore variations in TIC across service system components as well as the potential for differential effects across EBT models disseminated through TIC. PMID:26564909

  12. "And so They Ordered Me to Kill a Person": Conceptualizing the Impacts of Child Soldiering on the Development of Moral Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 child soldiers serve in various armed groups around the world, and become directly implicated in the perpetration of kidnappings, killings, and torture. Considering that children construct moral concepts and a sense of themselves as moral beings in the context of their everyday interactions with others, the concern with how…

  13. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  14. Estimating Welfare Effects Consistent with Forward-Looking Behavior. Part I: Lessons from a Simulation Exercise. Part II: Empirical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael P.; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2002-01-01

    Part I uses simulations of a model of welfare participation and women's fertility decisions, showing that increases in per-child payments have substantial impact on fertility. Part II uses estimations of decision rules of forward-looking women regarding welfare participation, fertility, marriage, work, and schooling. (SK)

  15. “When You’re Sitting on the Fence, Hope’s the Hardest Part”: Challenges and Experiences of Heterosexual and Same-Sex Couples Adopting Through the Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie; Moyer, April M.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.

    2012-01-01

    Foster-to-adopt families can be viewed as systems that are influenced by many other systems (e.g., the legal system, the social service agency, and the birth family). The current qualitative study of 84 foster-to-adopt parents (members of 42 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples) examined the types of challenges that parents faced as they navigated multiple systems during the initial post-placement period. Some participants described the legal insecurity associated with their role as foster-...

  16. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market......The ‘Scientific Development Concept’, promulgated by Hu Jintao in 2007 articulated the increased eminence of social development in official ideology. The shift from political and economic objectives towards social factors can be explained by growing concerns over the current negative externalities...... economy. Such a response must cover a wide array of social issues, ranging from provision of health, education and infrastructure, pension to unemployment insurance and poverty alleviation. The welfare issue is characterized by high degrees of complexity and interdependency between endogenous factors...

  17. The effect of foster care placement on paternal welfare dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    The arrival of a child profoundly alters the life-course for men. Yet, children could change men's lives not only by arriving in them, but also by departing from them. In this article, I test how one such departure-foster care placement-affects men's labor market attachment, and in so doing I...... provide a novel parallel to existing research on how fatherhood affects men, which focuses almost exclusively on a child's arrival. Using population panel data from Denmark that include all first time fathers whose children were placed in foster care from 1995-2005, I find that having a child placed...... in foster care is associated with up to a 12 percentage point increase in welfare dependency. This result persists in analyses that control for individual and family level fixed effects, unobserved heterogeneity, and selection into having a child placed in foster care....

  18. METHODS FOR CALF WELFARE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the welfare assessment with reference to calves. Assessment methods were divided into individual level and farm (system level. At the farm level the ANI 35L is discussed and the ANSVSA, Romanian evaluation from is presented. Also, the EFSA opinion on poor welfare in intensive calf farming systems is presented.

  19. Career Maturity of Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Carol M.

    To investigate the career maturity of welfare recipients, this thesis examines six independent variables: (1) race; (2) sex; (3) age; (4) level of formal education; (5) general intelligence; and (6) locus of control. Scales taken from the Career Maturity Inventory served as the dependent variables. The sample consisted of 83 welfare recipients who…

  20. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  1. Attributing Responsibility for Child Maltreatment when Domestic Violence Is Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how child welfare workers attribute responsibility for child maltreatment and child safety in cases involving domestic violence. Methods: The study used a factorial survey approach, combining elements of survey research with an experimental design. Case vignettes were…

  2. Research on Community Care Models of the Elderly Who have Lost the Only Child:Under the Theory of Welfare Pluralism%失独老人的社区照顾模式探究--基于福利多元主义理论的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼盼

    2014-01-01

    Currently ,with the increasing number of the old people who have lost the single child and with the old people’s growing ages ,the demand for pension increases and varies .The government , institutions ,families and social organizations have their ow n advantages ,but it is hard for one of them to solve the pension problem independently .Under this background ,it is meaningful for us to explore the diversified community care model and integrate all kinds of nursing resources .Using the theory of Welfare Pluralism to deal with the endowment problem for the single-child-lost people , a basic framework should be built ,relying on the community ,guided by the government ,supported by social organizations and supplemented by the market .%目前,我国失独老人数量与日俱增,随着年岁的增长,他们的养老需求也逐渐增加,并呈多元化趋势。我国政府、机构、家庭和民间社会组织在应对养老需求上各具优势,但这四种养老模式都难以独自面对失独老人的养老问题。运用福利多元主义理论,有效整合各种养老资源,构建依托社区、政府引导、民间社会组织支持和市场补充的多元化社区照顾模式,以解决失独老人的养老难题。

  3. Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

    2007-01-01

    The last thirty years saw dramatic increases in the proportion of children living in lone parent households. In 1997 the incoming Labour government initiated a series of policy reforms aimed at reducing this high level of child poverty. A key element of their strategy was a move towards increasing employment rates among families with children by a combination of increased in-work support through the Working Families Tax Credit and active case management of the population on welfare through th...

  4. Monitoring Inspection report of the Child and Family Agency under the National Standards for the Protection and Welfare of Children under Section 8(1) (c) of the Health Act 2007 - Donegal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-04-27

    The objective of this study was to explore whether people with intellectual disability from ethnic minority groups have higher rates of mental health problems and access different care pathways than their White counterparts. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected for 806 consecutive new referrals to a specialist mental health service for people with intellectual disabilities in South London. Referrals were grouped according to their ethnic origin. The analyses showed that there was an over-representation of referrals from ethnic minority groups with diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In addition, Black participants were more likely to have an autistic spectrum disorder. Referrals of ethnic minority groups were considerably younger than White referrals, and less likely to be in supported residences. The results are discussed in the context of cultural and familial factors in particular ethnic groups that may play an important role in accessing and using mental health services.

  5. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  6. The Policy Context and Infant and Toddler Care in the Welfare Reform Era

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Ann Dryden; Queralt, Magaly; Witt, Robert; Griesinger, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    We provide descriptive evidence from Miami-Dade County (MDC) in FL and from five representative areas in Massachusetts (MA) that government policies governing welfare reform, the child-care subsidy system, and minimum-standards regulations have had considerable influence on the availability, price, and quality of infant and toddler care as welfare reform progressed from 1996 to 2000. We suspect that the markedly different proportion of the population that is native born and differences in inc...

  7. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie;

    2015-01-01

    about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... the results. Practical implications – The study shows that there is a national market for welfare-assured fish products, but education initiatives focusing on fish farming and fish welfare issues would further influence the attitudes and purchasing habits of Norwegian consumers. Originality/value – Although...

  8. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  9. Data Surveillance in Child Protection Systems Development: An Indonesian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Neil; Stark, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Successful implementation of child protection program interventions and child and family welfare services is contingent upon the availability and use of good quality information, as emphasized by the recent Convention on the Rights of the Child's General Comment 13. Yet, the role of information within child protection is not well…

  10. 45 CFR 1357.15 - Comprehensive child and family services plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) (42 U.S.C. 5101 et. seq.). (3) States must meet... services (including child abuse and neglect prevention, intervention, and treatment services; and foster... CFSP must describe the child welfare services (including child abuse and neglect...

  11. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health and safety, nutrition, first aid, the recognition of communicable diseases, child abuse detection... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child care... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to...

  12. Child poverty risks in Belgium, Wallonia, Flanders: accounting for a worrying performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Vandenbroucke; J. Vinck

    2013-01-01

    The Belgian welfare state is a mediocre performer with regard to child poverty. Moreover, child poverty is increasing. We decompose cross-country differences and changes over time in child poverty by subdividing the child population in subgroups, based on the work intensity of the household in which

  13. Adoption and the American Indian Child: A Manual for Social Service Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokan delos Reyes, Louise

    Written for social service workers involved with Indian child welfare cases in which adoption through a state court is being considered, this manual presents basic information about the requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) in cases of Indian adoption. Background material explains that the ICWA--intended to establish…

  14. Uniform pricing and social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoletti, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We re-examine the case for uniform pricing in a monopolistic third-degree price-discrimination setting by introducing differentiated costs. A profit-maximizing monopolist could then use price differentiation to reduce the production of the more costly goods, thereby decreasing average cost and increasing welfare. Indeed, monopolistic price differentiation can improve welfare and also aggregate consumer surplus even if, as in the benchmark linear case, total output does not increase. According...

  15. ABOUT WELFARE IN CULTURAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to briefly analyze the research efforts on measuring welfare indices in terms of cultural relativism. It presents the limitations of GDP and some of the proposed alternatives over time, to understand the wideness and interest in this topic, but also the consequences of imposing a certain type of indicators to reflect the progress and welfare of a country. To provide a coherent overview on the proposed subject, the approach starts with the presentation of general acceptation ...

  16. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Winckler; Fabio Napolitano; Corrado Pacelli; Fernando Grasso; Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS) systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be conside...

  17. Reciprocal Rights and Responsibilities in Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1978-01-01

    This article examines critically the case for protecting children's rights as against the case for protecting children's welfare. The principle of reciprocity in parent-child relations is rejected. (Author/AM)

  18. Risk and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Gooby, P; Dean, H; Munro, M; Parker, G

    1999-06-01

    The British welfare state developed as a state-centred response to the problem of handling the risks encountered in a typical life-course. The influential work of Giddens and others implies that the traditional welfare state is under attack from two directions: a changing international politico-economic environment limits the freedom of national governments to pursue independent policies involving relatively high taxation to finance social spending. At the same time, changes in the experience of risk and declining confidence in the expertise of welfare state planners and professionals undermine support for state-centred solutions. This approach fails to acknowledge that available non-state services are often inadequate to meet many everyday life risks and that the authority of private sector advisers, insurers and professionals is also increasingly open to question. This article discusses whether people reject welfare state solutions to problems of risk in the context of research on the perceptions and behaviour of people buying or selling their homes, considering provision for long-term care needs and defrauding social security carried out by the ESRC's Economic Beliefs and Behaviour programme. Individual responses endorse the continued provision of state welfare in order to meet unprovided risks alongside disenchantment with the record of both state and private professionals and planners and awareness that state retrenchment requires greater individual responsibility for meeting one's own needs. The theory of risk society requires development to recognize that citizens are not necessarily alienated from state welfare. PMID:15260022

  19. Welfare Reform Will Create More Misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the effects of welfare reform on American Indian families and college students. Contends that, under the new federal welfare program, tribes that choose to administer welfare will lose matching funds from state governments, resulting in a 30-50% loss of welfare benefits for eligible recipients. (JDI)

  20. Family Law Effects on Divorce, Fertility and Child Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Mullins; Christopher Flinn; Meta Brown

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the child welfare impact of policies governing divorced parenting, such as child support orders, child custody and placement regulations, and marital dissolution standards, one must consider their influence not only on the divorce rate but also on spouses' fertility choices and child investments. We develop a model of marriage, fertility and parenting, with the main goal being the investigation of how policies toward divorce influence outcomes for husbands, wives and childr...

  1. Immigrants on Welfare: Assimilation and Benefit Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Ekhaugen, Tyra

    2005-01-01

    Non-western immigrants in Norway are shown to rely heavily on welfare transfers for several years after immigration. While refugee immigrants assimilate slightly out of welfare, other non-western immigrants assimilate rapidly into welfare. Re-migration is selective for both non-western and western immigrants, insofar as the probability of re-migration correlates negatively with the probability of receiving welfare. We argue that previous studies may have reached biased estimates of welfare as...

  2. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  3. SocialWelfare Policy Changes and SocialWork Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris McGartland Rubio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Managed care, welfare reform, changes in government-sponsored health insurance, privatization, for-profit commercial activity, and increasing competition for charitable funding are affecting nonprofit social service organizations. This study of 244 nonprofit social service agencies explores the influence of social policy changes on nonprofit organizations. The effects of such changes on social work practice and social work field education within nonprofit organizations are explicated. Guidance for social work field education departments is provided.

  4. Clinical psychology and child protection

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Elaine; Carey, Sean; Carr, Alan.

    2000-01-01

    In this 1998 postal survey of 140 clinical psychologists working in eight Health Boards and Voluntary agencies in the Republic of Ireland, it was found that clinical psychologists from child mental health, adult mental health and services for people with physical and intellectual disabilities were involved in child abuse and protection work. Clinical psychologists' child protection work spanned a number of domains including validation, general assessment, risk assessment, treatment of victims...

  5. Gender and Welfare Regimes Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    demographic patterns, with more elderly persons in need of both care and support, coupled with smaller working-age populations to deliver that care and support. Mapping and comparing the combinations of welfare regarding care for the elderly in China and Denmark reveals serious inequalities of class, gender...... and generation. Both states are in principle fully committed to the wellbeing of all citizens through universal welfare state protection, but in reality both rely very much on market and civil society solutions, which leaves the population strongly differentiated and polarized, not only when it comes to gender...... and generation, but also with respect to class. The conclusion is that Denmark and China are converging towards a model of welfare combinations set within an overall framework of universalism. The most important lines of conflict revolve around generation, though class and gender also remain influential....

  6. Editorial: Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse in Ireland: Some Cautionary Comments

    OpenAIRE

    McElwee, Niall

    2000-01-01

    The last year of the previous Millennium saw the publication of the latest government document on mandatory reporting of child abuse titled the National Guidelines for the Protection and Welfare of Children. This issue has come to dominate the minds of social care workers and child protection and welfare professionals. This editorial is an edited version of research conducted for a conference on child abuse and sexual offences held in Waterford, Ireland. Mandatory reporting has become a mantr...

  7. What Can We Do to Bring the Sparkle Back into This Child's Eyes? Child Rights/Community Development Principles: Key Elements for a Strengths-Based Child Protection Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…

  8. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  9. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  10. Incentives in the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with economic incentives and welfare-state arrangements in OECD countries; it also offers some lessons for would-be welfare states. These arrangements differ, of course, among OECD countries. In particular, there is wide variation in the extent to which countries rely on four basic institutions - the state, the firm, the family and the market. Countries also differ in their reliance on (i) a common safety net, often in the form of flat-rate benefits tied to specific contingen...

  11. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  12. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  13. Children and Social Welfare: Recent Changes in England and their Implications for Social Work

    OpenAIRE

    Blyth, Eric

    2005-01-01

    I began my social work career in England in the early 1970s shortly after a major national reorganization of social work services. Formerly separate local authority Children’s and Welfare Departments – the latter primarily dealing with adults in need of social work and other welfare services - had been merged to form unified social work agencies. For the last thirty years these Social Services Departments have provided the main organizational basis for the provision of social w...

  14. 75 FR 2475 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Information Collection for the Child and Adult Care Food Program AGENCY: Food and Nutrition..., Chief, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service...

  15. Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care : The effects of the Introduction of Market Forces on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on employee governance, motivation and performance. The Dutch child-care sector is transitioning from a welfare sector into a market sector. The transition process in child care is co

  16. 45 CFR 284.20 - What information will we use to determine the child poverty rate in each State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... child poverty rate in each State? 284.20 Section 284.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.20 What information will we use to determine the child poverty rate in each State? (a) General. We will determine the child poverty rate...

  17. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  18. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  19. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    different trajectories: former state-socialist states, Continental Europe, Atlantic Europe, Southern Europe and Scandinavia. Although the number and demarcations of welfare regimes are contested (for an excellent overview see Powell and Barrientos, 2008) it is a widespread perspective and a good tool...

  20. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement...

  1. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  2. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  3. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of releva

  4. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  5. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society...

  6. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  7. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social h...

  8. Air quality and human welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  9. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure...

  10. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  11. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...

  12. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  13. Child Abuse Reporting Barriers: Iranian Nurses’ Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Borimnejad, Leili; Khoshnavay Fomani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although in many countries child abuse reporting is mandated, Iranian nurses report abused cases voluntary. Some of the cases are reported to the police and others are referred to welfare organizations or other non-governmental organizations. Absence of a uniform reporting system along with a lack of legal support in the specific cultural context of Iran has resulted challenges for the reporters of child abuse. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the Iranian nurses’ e...

  14. Child's right to special care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Gupta, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status. PMID:12317284

  15. Labour Market Reform and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...

  16. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM;

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfar......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare...

  17. The relation between child death and child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny, C; Isaac, R

    2006-01-01

    The death of a child is a sentinel event in a community, and a defining marker of a society's policies of safety and health. Child death as a result of abuse and neglect is a tragic outcome that occurs in all nations of the world. The true incidence of fatal child abuse and neglect is unknown. The most accurate incidence data of such deaths have been obtained from countries where multi‐agency death review teams analyse the causes of child fatalities, as is done in the United States and Austra...

  18. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  19. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  20. Transgender Children and Youth: A Child Welfare Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Gerald P.; DeCrescenzo, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Using an ecological framework, the existing literature and research, and the authors' combined 60 years of clinical practice with children, youth, and families, this article examines gender variant childhood development from a holistic viewpoint where children, youth, and environments are understood as a unit in the context of their relationship…

  1. Behavioral Parent Training in Child Welfare: Evaluations of Skills Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Goh, Han-Leong; Whitehouse, Cristina M.; Reyes, Jorge; Montgomery, Jan L.; Borrero, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral parent training has been proven effective through years of research with a variety of groups. However, little research has been conducted to systematically evaluate the extent to which behavioral parent training may improve parenting skills of foster and other caregivers of dependent children. The Behavior Analysis Services…

  2. Behavioral Parent Training in Child Welfare: Maintenance and Booster Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Montgomery, Jan L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Kosarek, Judith A.; Happe, Shawn; Burgos, Vanessa; Manzolillo, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of a 30-hr behavioral parent training program at increasing skill accuracy. However, it remains unknown whether skills acquisitions are maintained on a long-term basis. Few studies have evaluated the maintenance of skills learned during behavioral parent training for foster parents. The purpose of…

  3. Challenges in Using Comparison Data in Child Welfare Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Davis, Cynthia W.; Rogg, Carla; Rudlang-Perman, Kristen; Morgan, Linda Jewell; Houston, Millicent

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the evaluation of permanency roundtables, an intervention to help youth in foster care achieve legal permanency and the challenges evaluators faced in finding and using appropriate comparison data. Method: In 2009, permanency roundtables were conducted for 496 children in Georgia, most of whom had spent extended…

  4. Advertising and Consumer Welfare: Scaling versus Translating

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A.; Piggott, Nicholas E.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy has surrounded the welfare effects of advertising, mainly concerning the consumer welfare effects. Unfortunately, the measures of consumer welfare effects in most studies have been ad hoc and incorrect. The consumer welfare consequences of advertising can be measured consistently when consumer demand equations are derived from an expenditure function. This is illustrated using the Almost Ideal demand system, which is popular in econometric estimation of food demand systems. An emp...

  5. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  6. Advancing animal welfare: state, society and economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ryland, Diane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers farm animal welfare as a public good and examines the role of legislators and public bodies in adopting animal welfare standards in accordance with the democratic process, with a focus on the European Union (EU) and its pioneer status in advancing animal welfare law. Private prima facie voluntary standards of animal welfare co-exist alongside public standards, or as substitutes in the absence of the latter. Vital questions arise, inter alia, as to the extent to which th...

  7. The Future of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare.......This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare....

  8. Full Employment and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    2012-01-01

    The modern welfare state and full-employment policies have common intellectual roots. In the 1930s and 1940s, Keynesian visions of full employment and Beveridge-inspired ideas of a universal welfare state grew up in about the same intellectual environment. Both ideas emphasized a government’s responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. The two ideas were also projected by approximately the same individuals. From the very beginning, welfare-state arrangements and full-employment policies w...

  9. The Globalization-welfare State Nexus Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Meinhard; Niklas Potrafke

    2011-01-01

    Two hypotheses relate to the globalization-welfare state nexus: The efficiency hypothesis predicts that globalization reduces government sector size and governments’ capacity to finance the welfare state. The compensation hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that globalization induces a higher demand for social insurance which results in an extended welfare state. Empirical evidence on the globalization-welfare state nexus is mixed. We re-examine the evidence by investigating a yearly panel data...

  10. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare as crucial and maintains a strong focus on further improvement. Dutch scientists are working to advance the health and welfare of organically kept animals. Additionally, they focus on innovations a...

  11. Come cambia il modello di welfare europeo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    European welfare states are changing. All countries are witnessing demographic changes, and are experiencing the impact of globalization. These changes, it is expected, will have repercussions for the various welfare states. Against this background, this paper looks at how the welfare states...... in Europe have developed over the last 15-20 years, and, furthermore, discusses whether the trends we are witnessing will lead in the direction of convergence or divergence. This is done by using welfare state typologies as the structuring device....

  12. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... Hybrid III 10-year-old child test dummy that the agency seeks to use in the compliance test procedures of... response to Anton's Law, NHTSA proposed to adopt the 10-year-old child test dummy into FMVSS No. 213...

  13. Intervening at the Setting Level to Prevent Behavioral Incidents in Residential Child Care: Efficacy of the CARE Program Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Charles V; Smith, Elliott G; Holden, Martha J; Norton, Catherine I; Nunno, Michael A; Sellers, Deborah E

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the impact of a setting-level intervention on the prevention of aggressive or dangerous behavioral incidents involving youth living in group care environments. Eleven group care agencies implemented Children and Residential Experiences (CARE), a principle-based program that helps agencies use a set of evidence-informed principles to guide programming and enrich the relational dynamics throughout the agency. All agencies served mostly youth referred from child welfare. The 3-year implementation of CARE involved intensive agency-wide training and on-site consultation to agency leaders and managers around supporting and facilitating day-to-day application of the principles in both childcare and staff management arenas. Agencies provided data over 48 months on the monthly frequency of behavioral incidents most related to program objectives. Using multiple baseline interrupted time series analysis to assess program effects, we tested whether trends during the program implementation period declined significantly compared to the 12 months before implementation. Results showed significant program effects on incidents involving youth aggression toward adult staff, property destruction, and running away. Effects on aggression toward peers and self-harm were also found but were less consistent. Staff ratings of positive organizational social context (OSC) predicted fewer incidents, but there was no clear relationship between OSC and observed program effects. Findings support the potential efficacy of the CARE model and illustrate that intervening "upstream" at the setting level may help to prevent coercive caregiving patterns and increase opportunities for healthy social interactions.

  14. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  15. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare

  16. Cross-border merger and domestic welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.

  17. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...

  18. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  19. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  20. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  1. Desperately seeking fusion: on 'joined-up thinking', 'holistic practice' and the new economy of welfare professional power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris

    2003-06-01

    This paper argues that social welfare research on joined-up thinking is underpinned by two theses. The 'systemic move' thesis suggests that joined-up thinking is needed to fill gaps in welfare service provision arising from a lack of interorganizational co-ordination. The 'epistemological move' thesis advises that joined-up thinking is needed to overcome deficiencies in the institutional division and distribution of welfare knowledge. Both theses macro-systematize blame for previous social welfare failures, and both are teleological because they present joined-up thinking as a progressive solution that results in a more effective (and thus less fallible) welfare system. In this paper, I argue thatjoined-up thinking can also create a new economy of welfare professional power. First, I show how some versions of 'joined-up' thinking manifest themselves in holistic practices that can 'see everything', 'know everything' and 'do anything', and thus a 'holistic power' to discipline and control every aspect of welfare recipients lives. Since holistic power is seen as infallible, its failure to produce 'active bodies' necessitates the creation of secondary 'joined-up powers' that individualize blame and exclude those to blame from welfare resources. These 'secondary powers' match the social disciplines enforced by one welfare agency (e.g. the responsibility to work enforced by the employment service) with legal rights under another agency (e.g. the right to housing from social landlords), so that breach of the former leads to exclusion from the latter. I conclude that this power strategy is primitive and punitive because it simply excludes welfare recipients. Exclusion is also uneconomic because it pushes welfare recipients into the shade of welfare institutional power. PMID:12945871

  2. The Effects of Sample Selection Bias on Racial Differences in Child Abuse Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ards, Sheila; Chung, Chanjin; Myers, Samuel L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Incidence Study (NIS) of Child Abuse and Neglect suggest no racial difference in child maltreatment, although there are more black children within the child welfare population. This study found selection bias in the NIS design caused by the exclusion of family, friends, and neighbors that resulted in differences in NIS cases…

  3. 45 CFR 1306.30 - Provisions of comprehensive child development services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisions of comprehensive child development... Start Program Options § 1306.30 Provisions of comprehensive child development services. (a) All Head Start grantees must provide comprehensive child development services, as defined in the Head...

  4. Parental Depression and Child Outcomes: The Mediating Effects of Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…

  5. Effects of a Citizens Review Panel in Preventing Child Maltreatment Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Yager, Steve; Covington, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment (CM) fatalities are often preventable, and reviewing these deaths often highlights problems in law, policy or practice that can be addressed to prevent future deaths. Citizen Review Panels (CRPs) comprised of medical and child welfare professionals were established in 1996 to review Child Protective Services (CPS)…

  6. Investment in Child Quality over Marital States. Discussion Paper No. 1320-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meta; Flinn, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Policies governing divorce and parenting, such as child support orders and enforcement, child custody regulations, and marital dissolution requirements, can have a large impact on the welfare of parents and children. Recent research has produced evidence on the responses of divorce rates to unilateral divorce laws and child support enforcement. In…

  7. Is the Child a Political Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses child welfare within the context of social contract theory, developed by Hume, Locke, and Rousseau, and covenant theory, namely, the insistence upon the intergenerational and communal bases of life chances. The two theories are compared and contrasted, and eight regulative principles of political covenant are proposed to benefit the…

  8. Trust relationships between children, social welfare professionals and the organisations of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkney, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The chapter considers the dynamic relations of trust between children and young people, welfare professionals and the institutions of welfare. It uses three levels of analysis including individual relationships between children and welfare professionals, the organizations and institutions of welfare and wider social cultural attitudes towards children. The narrative of trust within managerialist driven welfare organizations is explored to assess the way this impacts on the dynamics of trust ...

  9. Immigrant Assimilation And Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into Or Out Of Welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jörgen; Lofstrom, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses differences in welfare utilization between immigrants and natives in Sweden using a large panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1990 to 1996. Both welfare expenditures and immigration increased substantially in Sweden in the 1990's. We find that immigrants use welfare to a greater extent than natives and that non-refugee immigrants utilize social assistance less than refugee immigrants. Differences in welfare participation and number of months on welfare between immigrants ...

  10. Welfare Quality® project: from scientific research to on farm assessment of animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Keeling; Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Welfare Quality® is the acronym of the European research project “Integration of ani- mal welfare in the food quality chain: from public concern to improved welfare and transparent quality”. This European project is focused on the integration of animal welfare in the food quality chain. Italian researchers from University of Milan, Naples, Padua, Parma and Pisa are involved in different tasks of this project. The second sub-project of Welfare Quality® aims to develop asses...

  11. Assessing the welfare of genetically altered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D J; Playle, L C; Enser, W E J; Flecknell, P A; Gardiner, M A; Holland, J; Howard, B R; Hubrecht, R; Humphreys, K R; Jackson, I J; Lane, N; Maconochie, M; Mason, G; Morton, D B; Raymond, R; Robinson, V; Smith, J A; Watt, N

    2006-04-01

    In 2003, under the auspices of the main UK funders of biological and biomedical research, a working group was established with a remit to review potential welfare issues for genetically altered (GA) mice, to summarize current practice, and to recommend contemporary best practice for welfare assessments. The working group has produced a report which makes practical recommendations for GA mouse welfare assessment and dissemination of welfare information between establishments using a 'mouse passport'. The report can be found at www.nc3rs.org.uk/GAmice and www.lal.org.uk/gaa and includes templates for the recommended welfare assessment scheme and the mouse passport. An overview is provided below.

  12. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown...... that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries......, backward-bending supply, welfare....

  13. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey Horvath; Dario Angeletti; Giuseppe Nascetti; Claudio Carere

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as...

  14. Welfare Dynamics Under Time Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model reveals that time limits provide an incentive for the consumer to conserve, or bank, her benefits. More inte...

  15. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  16. Invisible Abuse: Utah's Response to Emotional Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sirrine, Janae

    2010-01-01

    The very nature of emotional child abuse makes it difficult to detect and report. Nevertheless, scholars and professionals in the field of child welfare have identified emotional abuse as being equally detrimental to children as physical abuse and neglect. Many states, including Utah, have unclear definitions of emotional child abuse. The purpose of this study is to interpret how Utah has used its statute on emotional abuse in the court system and whether the current definition of emotional c...

  17. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints, and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with Programme for International Student Assessment test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary...... to many earlier studies, the results suggest that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12–15) is a more important...... determinant of child achievement than earlier income....

  18. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  19. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Reports Form 157 - YR 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  20. Diplomatic agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    and advocacy. It analyzes how professionalization, legalization, personalization and popularization of diplomacy have shaped diplomatic agency including how international law, bureaucracy, public diplomacy and new information technologies have impacted the scope and content of diplomatic agency. Finally...

  1. Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare. (orig.)

  2. Child Care Subsidy Receipt, Employment, and Child Care Choices of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Erdal

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of actual subsidy receipt of single mothers on their joint employment and child care mode decisions in the post-welfare reform environment, which places a high priority on parental choice with the quality and type of care chosen. Results indicate that single mothers are highly responsive to child care subsidies by increasing their employment while moving from parental and relative care to center care in the process.

  3. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  4. Advertising Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....

  5. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses......, this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...

  6. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon....... The conclusion of this article is that income inequality has been steadily increasing in Danish society; while in Portugal, despite improvements in many social domains (healthcare, poverty alleviation, unemployment protection), problems of inequality remain deeply embedded in the country’s social...

  7. Advertising, welfare economics and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Steedman, Ian

    2011-01-01

    It is a fact of life that economic resources are used to alter other's preferences over commodities. Yet this is seldom taken into account in basic economic theory, explanatory or normative. It is shown here how a certain type of advertising is readily allowed for in the Edgeworth exchange box, in the small country foreign trade model, etc.. It is found, in welfare terms, that exchange/trade with advertising can involve some agents gaining at the expense of others; there need not be mutual ga...

  8. Design of a quasi-experiment on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using the child-interview intervention during the investigation following a report of child abuse and/or neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeren, Froukje; Hoefnagels, Cees; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Baeten, Paul; Evers, Silvia MAA

    2013-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, suspected cases of child maltreatment can be reported to an advice and reporting center on child abuse and neglect (Advies- en Meldpunt Kindermishandeling or AMK). AMKs investigate these reports, screen for problems in the family and its surroundings and refer to child welfare. Over the last decades the focus of AMK investigations has changed from an adult-only approach to a more child-oriented approach using a Child-Interview intervention. The effects and cost-...

  9. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  10. Innovation policy for welfare services in a Swedish context

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Sandmark, Hélène; Hoppe, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the role of public welfare services expressed in theSwedish government’s innovation policy. The focus is on municipal and county services,such as education and health care. The study is based on an analysis of 55 documentsproduced by the government and its agencies. Although innovation policy is a major issue in Sweden, and Sweden has a large public sector, research on innovation within this fieldis very limited. The results show that the municipality and co...

  11. Welfare and evacuation sub-plan: APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sub-plan has been prepared as a contingency plan to the APTCARE document - A plan to cope with an accident at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. It details procedures to be followed for the evacuation and welfare of citizens residing in areas outside the Commission's establishment in the event that their health or safety is threatened by reason of an accident at the nuclear reactor facility which could have off-site implications. Additionally, it lists roles and tasking assignments of various counter-disaster response and support agencies in such an occurrence

  12. Economic Considerations of Animal Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bicknell, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Animal welfare considerations are becoming increasingly important for producers of animal-derived agricultural products. Recent media attention on issues of housing conditions for intensively reared livestock and induced calving in dairy production make it clear that some members of the public feel strongly about the overall welfare of farm animals. In many cases, practices that are now perceived as welfare unfriendly are also associated with lower per-unit costs of production, creating a ‘cl...

  13. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  14. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Greve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states. These include, for example, full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and a high level of public spending on welfare. The article further presents data, which enables the reader to a comparison with welfare states in Europe and to analyse whether we are witnessing convergence in Europe and/or the withering away of the Nordic Model. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model is here t...

  15. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Wereldwijd overzicht van dierenwelzijnswetgeving, praktijken en percepties, met voorbeeldstudies over kippenvlees uit Brazilië en Thailand, eieren uit India en de Verenigde Staten, welzijnswetgeving voor kweekvis en welzijnsaspecten van (vermeende) overpopulatie van wilde dieren.Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects r...

  16. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  17. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose...... these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  18. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.;

    2011-01-01

    for bad scores on others. In the opinion of most people, welfare scores do not compensate each other. This was taken into account in the Welfare Quality® scoring system by using a specific operator instead of mere weighted sums. Finally, a scoring system may either reflect societal demands for high levels...... of welfare or be based on what can be achieved in practice – in other words, an absolute assessment or a relative one may be proposed. Welfare Quality® adopted an intermediate strategy: absolute limits between welfare categories (Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced, or Excellent level of welfare) were set......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups...

  19. Child Protection Victims and the “Evil Institutions”

    OpenAIRE

    Carolus van Nijnatten; Marit Hopman; Trudie Knijn

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch child protection system has been the target of harsh criticism in recent decades. The legitimacy of child protection services seems to have eroded. In this article, we analyze this changing legitimacy of child protection against the background of declining parental authority and in relation to the disappearance of positive pedagogical ideologies and the mainly bureaucratic response of child protection agencies. Two recent inquiries in the Netherlands on child sexual abuse within chi...

  20. 45 CFR 205.70 - Availability of agency program manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of agency program manuals. 205.70... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.70 Availability of agency program manuals. State... (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) Program manuals and other policy...

  1. Teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    with their environments (Biesta & Tedder, 2007). In this chapter, we outline the latter conception of agency, developing a conceptual model for teacher agency that emphasizes the temporal and relational dimension of the achievement of agency. Why does this matter? Recent curriculum policy in many countries heralds a [re......]turn to the centrality of the teacher in school-based curriculum development. In many cases, this renewed emphasis on teachers is explicitly tied to change agendas, with teachers described as agents of change. And yet such change agentry (Fullan, 2003) and teacher agency more broadly are often circumscribed by features...

  2. The challenge of reforming child protection in Eastern Europe: The cases of Hungaryand Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Anghel; Maria Herczog; Gabriela Dima

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of reforming the child welfare and protection systems in Hungary and Romania -two countries in transition from socialism to capitalism- and the impact on children, youngpeople, families, and professionals. Brief overviews of the social, political, and economic characteristics of the two countries and of the evolution of their child welfare systems set the context of discussion. The focus is on the efforts made to deinstitutionalise children from large insti...

  3. Popular Support for Welfare State Reforms: On Welfare State Preferences and Welfare State Reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to better understand what is meant by general support for the welfare state. At the start of this study, I observed an alleged discrepancy between people’s preferences and welfare state policies. Whereas on the one hand various studies demonstrate that public

  4. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F G

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were hel...

  5. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. 81.4 Section 81.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral...

  6. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The prototy

  8. Three worlds of educational welfare states? A comparative study of higher education systems across welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Willemse; P. de Beer

    2012-01-01

    Although education is generally considered to be an important part of the welfare state, it is largely absent in the comparative welfare state literature. This article tries to fill this void by applying the central concepts of welfare state analysis of decommodification and stratification, as propo

  9. Overall animal welfare assessment reviewed. Welfare assessment based on needs and supported by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Welfare concerns that matter to animals is their state of need. Satisfaction and frustration of needs are associated with emotional states, the subjective experience of which directly determines the welfare status of an animal. Because emotional states are difficult to assess, overall welfare assess

  10. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    OpenAIRE

    Niekerk, van, M.; H. Gunnink; Reenen, van, A Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  11. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  12. Responding to Child Abuse: A Handbook = Guide sur l'intervention en cas de mauvais traitements infliges aux enfants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This handbook, in English and French, provides guidelines for reporting and investigating child abuse and neglect by child care providers, law enforcement officials, social workers, health care providers, educators, and others as required by Alberta's Child Welfare Act. The handbook addresses: (1) how to recognize abuse and neglect; (2) how to…

  13. 45 CFR 284.50 - What information will we use to determine the child poverty rate in each Territory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... child poverty rate in each Territory? 284.50 Section 284.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.50 What information will we use to determine the child poverty rate in each Territory? (a) Our intent is that, to the...

  14. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  15. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  16. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    This collection adopts novel theoretical approaches to study the diverse welfare state pathways that have evolved across Central and Eastern Europe since the fall of communism in 1989. Going beyond existing path dependency and neo-institutionalist explanations, it highlights the role of explanatory...... to be protected from the high social costs of market transitions. In the Visegrad countries, sending laid-off workers into pensions, which were relatively well protected (p. 87) was the mechanism to buy political peace from older people who were more likely to vote anyway. In the Baltic States the same aim...... received inadequate attention ... The book integrates several strands of the existing literature – ranging from national social policy models to specific policy areas – which have rarely been examined together. This is very valuable, as it is only by confronting theories with detailed country case studies...

  17. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized.

  18. How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

  19. Women, the welfare state, and their transnational dimension: the case of Mexico's community health worker programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, J

    1999-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has shown that the welfare state is not only a set of agencies and policies to distribute services, but is engaged in the promotion of normative concepts of the female through its structural arrangements and the content of its programs and policies. Yet, this scholarship conceptualizes the state as a national entity and free from external influences, ignoring its transnational dimension. States are embedded in an international network consisting of other states, international agencies, and corporations that influence the practices and discursive frame of the welfare state. To uncover the process by which the welfare state institutionalizes and promotes female identities and the transnational dimension of this process, the author analyzes the case of community health worker programs conducted by the Mexican state from the 1970s to the early 1990s. The analysis corroborates the gender practices of the welfare state and suggests a reconceptualization that takes into account the transnational dimension of the state practices. The implications for feminist theories on the welfare state and for analyses of health promotion policies and programs are discussed. PMID:10450549

  20. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)