WorldWideScience

Sample records for child vaccination status

  1. Levels of childhood vaccination coverage and the impact of maternal HIV status on child vaccination status in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa*

    OpenAIRE

    Ndirangu, James; Bärnighausen, Till; Tanser, Frank; Tint, Khin; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To analyse coverage of childhood vaccinations in a rural South African population and investigate whether maternal HIV status is associated with children’s vaccination status. Methods 2 431 children with complete information, 12–23 months of age at some point during the period January 2005 through December 2006 and resident in the Africa Centre Demographic Surveillance Area at the time of their birth were investigated. We examined the relationship between maternal HIV status and ch...

  2. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services and a...... more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who...

  3. Vaccination practices of Quebec family physicians. Influenza vaccination status and professional practices for influenza vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milord F

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess influenza vaccination status and influenza vaccination practices of family physicians in Quebec. DESIGN: Mail survey of a random sample of 1000 family physicians. SETTING: Family practices in the province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1000 Quebec family physicians sent questionnaires, 550 responded. After excluding physicians who worked only in institutions, had no patients older than 65 years, or did clinical work less than 20% of the time, 379 respondents were eligible for the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vaccination status of family physicians in 1996 and professional practices based on six clinical and administrative activities pertaining to influenza vaccination. RESULTS: Prevalence of vaccination was 35.5% (95% confidence interval 30.8% to 40.4% among responding physicians and was higher among those 60 years and older, those with a chronic condition, and those perceiving high peer pressure to get vaccinated. Most respondents frequently assessed the current influenza vaccination status of their patients, risk factors for influenza-related complications, and contraindications to the vaccine. They also frequently provided education about influenza and its vaccine, recommended vaccination, and administered the vaccine. Only a few reported assessing prior influenza vaccinations or recording vaccination status regularly. Finally, vaccinated physicians recommended the vaccine more frequently to their patients than unvaccinated physicians did. CONCLUSION: Promotion programs focusing on peer influence could increase vaccination of family physicians. This could in turn improve vaccination coverage of elderly patients.

  4. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  5. Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, ...

  6. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in ...

  7. Child and adolescent psychiatry and family status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Levin, Eline; Høyer, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much attention has been given to parental separation as a possible risk factor for adverse child development; however, little information is available regarding the family status of children referred to psychiatric facilities. AIMS: To assess the association between psychiatric illness...... children are at increased risk of not living with both biological parents independent of age of the child....

  8. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

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    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  9. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

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    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  10. Child nutritional status in poor Ethiopian households

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Alemu; Tefera, Bekele; Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Seager, John; Alemu, Tekie; Asgedom, Getachew

    2005-01-01

    Ethiopia is one the world’s poorest countries with one of the highest rates of child malnutrition. The poor nutritional status of Ethiopian children is well documented, but the causes and relative importance of various determinants of malnutrition are not well understood. Ethiopia thus lacks an integrated cross-sectoral policy to guide nutrition programmes and interventions. While the literature on child malnutrition suggests gender- and location-related differences in malnutrition rates, thi...

  11. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Operating Room Personnel in Nigeria and Their Vaccination Status

    OpenAIRE

    Kesieme, Emeka B.; Kenechi Uwakwe; Eshiobo Irekpita; Andrew Dongo; Kefas John Bwala; Bamidele J. Alegbeleye

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well recognised occupational health hazard preventable by vaccination. Objectives. To determine the knowledge of operating room personnel (ORP) in Nigeria about the Hepatitis B vaccine, their perception of Hepatitis B vaccination and vaccination status against HBV. Methods. Four university hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 228 ORP after obtaining consent. Result. Only 26.8% of OR...

  12. Analysis of vaccination status and its influencing factors of tetanus toxoid vaccine of child-bearing age women in Hainan high-risk areas.%海南省育龄妇女破伤风疫苗接种影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱坚; 符振旺; 王春雷

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解影响海南省育龄妇女破伤风类毒素疫苗(TT)接种因素,为制定消除新生儿破伤风方案提供科学依据.方法 选取海南省新生儿破伤风发病较高的4个市县8个乡镇作抽取40个行政村作为问卷调查点.每个调查点随机抽取10名18 ~49岁育龄妇女进行问卷调查.结果 共完成399名育龄妇女问卷调查,大部分群众和育龄妇女对新生儿破伤发病原因和防治相关知识缺乏了解;孕产妇在家分娩率为62.4%,选择在家分娩的主要原因是住院分娩费用太高、交通不便、封建迷信与落后的风俗习惯影响;育龄妇女接种TT主动意识不高,TT接种率为57.79%.,未接种的原因主要有外出打工、怕影响生育、怕影响劳动和收费.群众易于接受宣传形式依次是电视、口头宣传、宣传画和广播.结论 海南省新生儿破伤风高危地区群众和育龄妇女对新生儿破伤发病原因和防治相关知识缺乏了解,育龄妇女TT接种率较低,应加强消毒接生与TT接种的宣传工作.%Objective To know the vaccination status and its influencing factors of tetanus toxoid vaccine of child-bearing age women in neonatal tetanus high-risk areas in Hainan to provide scientific basis for eliminating neonatal tetanus in Hainan province. Methods To choose four villages and towns of two city and county which incidence of neonatal tetanus was highest as investigation sites. Project interview and questionnaire survey in families were taken to investigate information. Results The interview of 218 persons of 24 groups and questionnaire survey of 199 child-bearing age women were completed. Most of the women didn't know the reason and prevention of neonatal tetanus. 62.4% of puerperant gave birth to children at home. The main reasons were high cost in hospital,traffic inconvenience,feudal superstition and backward customs. The active consciousness of child-bearing age women for inoculating tetanus toxoid was not

  13. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Operating Room Personnel in Nigeria and Their Vaccination Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka B. Kesieme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a well recognised occupational health hazard preventable by vaccination. Objectives. To determine the knowledge of operating room personnel (ORP in Nigeria about the Hepatitis B vaccine, their perception of Hepatitis B vaccination and vaccination status against HBV. Methods. Four university hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 228 ORP after obtaining consent. Result. Only 26.8% of ORP were vaccinated against HBV. The primary reason for not being vaccinated or for defaulting from vaccination was lack of time. Differences in age, sex, duration of practice and respondent's institution between vaccinated and unvaccinated ORP were not significant (P>0.05. The majority (86.8% had the awareness of the existence of Hepatitis B vaccine. 83.8% of respondents believed that the vaccine should be given to the ORP as part of work place safety measures. The majority were aware of the modes of transmission of HBV infection. 78.9% of respondents believed that Hepatitis B vaccine is safe and 81.1% would recommend it to another staff. Conclusion. Despite a good knowledge about HBV infection and vaccine, most of ORP are still not vaccinated. Hepatitis B vaccination should be a prerequisite for working in the theatre, hence putting surgical patients at reduced risk.

  14. Perceived vaccination status in ecotourists and risks of anthropozoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Martinez, Leigh Ann; Lemke, Andrea A; Ambu, Laurentius; Nathan, Senthilvel; Alsisto, Sylvia; Andau, Patrick; Sakong, Rosman

    2008-09-01

    Anthropozoonotic (human to nonhuman animal) transmission of infectious disease poses a significant threat to wildlife. A large proportion of travelers to tropical regions are not protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses, and a majority of these travelers demonstrate poor recall of actual vaccination status. Here we characterize self-perceived vaccination status among a large sample of ecotourists at the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Malaysia. Despite their recognized travel itinerary to view endangered animals, tourists at wildlife sanctuaries are not adequately protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses. Of 633 surveys, over half reported being currently vaccinated against tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, and measles. Fewer participants reported current vaccination status for influenza, rabies, and chickenpox. Despite the fact that the majority of visitors to Sepilok are from temperate regions where influenza is relatively more prevalent, 67.1% of those surveyed with medical-related occupations reported not being currently vaccinated for influenza. Ecotourists concerned about environmental protection are themselves largely unaware of their potential contribution to the spread of diseases to animals. The risks of negatively affecting animal populations must be communicated to all concerned parties, and this may begin by urging travelers to examine their actual vaccination status, particularly as the ecotourism industry continues its rapid expansion, and is seen increasingly as a possible tool to save great ape populations from extinction. PMID:18810550

  15. Status of vaccine research and development for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, A Louis; Wierzba, Thomas F; Walker, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly among infants and young children in developing countries. Still, the true impact on child and traveler health is likely underestimated. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC, but studies indicate high public health impact, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of immune protection through vaccination. ETEC vaccine development remains a World Health Organization priority. Traditionally, ETEC vaccine development efforts have focused on inducing antitoxin and anticolonization antigen immunity, as studies indicate that antibodies against both antigen types can contribute to protection and thus have potential for vaccines. Leading cellular vaccine candidates are ETVAX (a mixture of four inactivated strains) and ACE527 (a mixture of three live attenuated strains), both of which have been found to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1/2 trials. ETVAX is the furthest along in development with descending-age studies already underway in Bangladesh. Other ETEC vaccine candidates based on protein subunits, toxoids (both LT and ST), or novel, more broadly conserved ETEC antigens are also under development. Of these, a protein adhesin-based subunit approach is the most advanced. Impact and economic models suggest favorable vaccine cost-effectiveness, which may help expand market interest in ETEC vaccines. Combination vaccine formulations may help improve the economic case for development and use, and better point-of-care diagnostics will help to raise awareness of the true health burden of ETEC and highlight the potential public health benefit of ETEC vaccine introduction. Better diagnostics and vaccine demand forecasting will also improve vaccine development financing and support accelerated uptake once a licensed vaccine becomes available. PMID:26988259

  16. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in reducing deaths attributable to malaria, it continues to claim approximately 500,000 lives per year and is associated with approximately 200 million infections. New tools, including safe and effective vaccines, are needed to ensure that the gains of the last 15 years are leveraged toward achieving the ultimate goal of malaria parasite eradication. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency announced the adoption of a positive opinion for the malaria vaccine candidate most advanced in development, RTS,S/AS01, which provides modest protection against clinical malaria; in early 2016, WHO recommended large-scale pilot implementations of RTS,S in settings of moderate-to-high malaria transmission. In alignment with these advancements, the community goals and preferred product characteristics for next-generation vaccines have been updated to inform the development of vaccines that are highly efficacious in preventing clinical malaria, and those needed to accelerate parasite elimination. Next-generation vaccines, targeting all stages of the parasite lifecycle, are in early-stage development with the most advanced in Phase 2 trials. Importantly, progress is being made in the definition of feasible regulatory pathways to accelerate timelines, including for vaccines designed to interrupt transmission of parasites from humans to mosquitoes. The continued absence of financially lucrative, high-income markets to drive investment in malaria vaccine development points to continued heavy reliance on public and philanthropic funding. PMID:26993333

  17. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas G; Schrager, Lew; Thole, Jelle

    2016-06-01

    TB is now the single pathogen that causes the greatest mortality in the world, at over 1.6 million deaths each year. The widely used the 90 year old BCG vaccine appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence despite some efficacy in infants. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past 15 years, with 15 candidates entering human trials; two vaccines are now in large-scale efficacy studies. Modeling by three groups has consistently shown that mass vaccination that includes activity in the latently infected population, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new disease transmission. At present the field requires better validated animal models, better understanding of a correlate of immunity, new cost-effective approaches to Proof of Concept trials, and increased appreciation by the public health and scientific community for the size of the problem and the need for a vaccine. Such a vaccine is likely to also play a role in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance. Ongoing efforts and studies are working to implement these needs over the next 5 years, which will lead to an understanding that will increase the likelihood of a successful TB vaccine. PMID:26973073

  18. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. PMID:26973063

  19. Rabies DNA Vaccines: Current Status and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Padinjaremattathil Thankappan Ullas; Anita Desai; Shampur Narayan Madhusudana

    2012-01-01

    Rabies continues to be a significant cause of human and animal mortality, despite the availability of safe and effective prophylactics. Apart from limited access, the cost and complex schedules of rabies biologics often impact on the success of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans in the endemic countries. Mass vaccination of dogs, critical in rabies control, often fails to achieve its goal in rabies-endemic countries due to logistic, animal and vaccine-related issues. DNA vaccination has been...

  20. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976

  1. Health reform, population policy and child nutritional status in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of child nutritional status in seven provinces of China during the 1990s, focusing specifically on the role of two areas of public policy, namely health system reforms and the one child policy. The empirical relationship between income and nutritional status, and the extent to which that relationship is mediated by access to quality healthcare and being...

  2. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for GBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Paul T

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. Intrapartum antibiotic strategies have reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal GBS in a number of countries but have had no impact on late onset GBS infection (LOD). In low/middle income settings, the disease burden remains uncertain although in several countries of Southern Africa appears comparable to or higher than that of high-income countries. As disease may be rapidly fulminating cases can be missed before appropriate samples are obtained and this may lead to underestimation of the true burden. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth as well as the deficiencies in IAP strategies and absence of a solution for preventing LOD, it is clear that administration of a suitable vaccine in pregnancy could provide a better solution in all settings; it should also be cost effective. The current leading vaccine candidates are CPS-protein conjugate vaccines but protein-based vaccines are also in development and one has recently commenced clinical trials. PMID:26988258

  3. AIDS vaccine: Present status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a preventive vaccine for HIV is the best hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. HIV has, however, proved a difficult pathogen to vaccinate against because of its very high mutation rate and capability to escape immune responses. Neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize diverse field strains have so far proved difficult to induce. Adjuvanting these vaccines with cytokine plasmids and a "prime-boost," approach is being evaluated in an effort to induce both CTL and antibody responses and thereby have immune responses active against both infected cells and free viral particles, thereby necessitating fewer doses of recombinant protein to reach maximum antibodies titers. Although obstacles exist in evaluation of candidate HIV vaccines, evidence from natural history studies, new molecular tools in virology and immunology, new adjuvants, new gene expression systems, new antigen delivery systems, recent discoveries in HIV entry and pathogenesis, and promising studies of candidate vaccines in animal models have provided reasons to hope that developing a safe and effective AIDS vaccine is possible and within reach.

  4. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau....

  5. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

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    Doshi V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to

  6. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    OpenAIRE

    Rammohan Anu; Awofeso Niyi; Fernandez Renae C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of p...

  7. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  8. Women's status and child survival in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayatun

    1991-03-01

    This study is introduced by a literature review of the concept of women's status, and related factors that determine infant and child mortality. Women's status is primarily defined by education, occupation and economic activity, which affect women's decision-making in the home and their independence in larger society. Cluster analysis was used to identify geographical patterns of standardized women's status variables among 20 regencies and 4 municipalities in West Java. Euclidian distances were computed between pairs of regencies across the 13 indicators. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression were used to compare associations between women's status variables and infant and child mortality, after controlling for economic development. Using data from the 1980 census, the study demonstrated large regional variations in women's status in West Java, with higher status in both the household and in society in the south and central highlands than in the north and west. Women's status is closely related to infant and child mortality, independent of the level of development. There was 1 notable exception, the municipality of Bogor, where infant and child mortality were higher than average rates for the cluster of areas with higher women's status. The results suggest that improved education, and increase in age at 1st marriage are key elements for improving the status of women in West Java. PMID:12343263

  9. Anti-nicotine vaccine: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Prakash Giri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco abuse has an enormous impact on health. Nicotine is the main substance responsible for dependence on tobacco-containing products. The vast majority of cigarette smokers who try to quit ultimately fail because of high relapse rates. Clearly, novel approaches are needed for the treatment and prevention of nicotine addiction. Having an efficient vaccine that would generate antibodies to sequester the drug and prevent its access to the brain could go a long way toward helping a motivated addict quit an addiction. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1309-1313

  10. The Child's Status in the Democratic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    1975-01-01

    Examines and questions the child and universal adult suffrage, justifying the child's exclusion, establishing criteria for voter competence, evaluating the competence of children, and chronological age as a criterion. Journal available from Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (ND)

  11. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

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    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  12. Association between maternal health literacy and child vaccination in India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S. V.; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Koné, Georges K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pahwa, Smriti

    2015-01-01

    Background Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using Indian child health promotion materials. The outcome was receipt of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. We used multivar...

  13. STATUS OF THE CHILD LABOR IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer TOR

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes numerical data and sectoral distribution relating to child labor in Turkey. The information is taken the labor force research data collected by the Turkish Statistical Institute. Several attempts have been made to resolve the problems of child workers in Turkey. The first stage was the implementation of the International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO/IPEC. After introduction of the program, many organizations started various activities directed towards children workers in Turkey. Since these initiatives were coordinated and complementary activities there were remarkable developments in the fight against problems of the child workers. The Turkish Statistical Institute examined the child labor force proportion by means of three separate statistical components and the results revealed that number of the child workers has a tendency to decrease. Despite some statistical research carried out in Turkey, the precise number of children that are working cannot be determined. Some of the leading factors can be listed as paucity of research carried out in this area, inaccurate official statistical data regarding the number of children who are working illegally, employed as unpaid family workers, working in the streets, working on the temporary or seasonal basis, and other related factors.

  14. Post Approval Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake Is Higher in Minorities Compared to Whites in Girls Presenting for Well-Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Modesitt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, there remains low uptake compared to other adolescent vaccines. There is limited information postapproval about parental attitudes and barriers when presenting for routine care. This study evaluates HPV vaccine uptake and assesses demographics and attitudes correlating with vaccination for girls aged 11–12 years. A prospective cohort study was performed utilizing the University of Virginia (UVA Clinical Data Repository (CDR. The CDR was used to identify girls aged 11–12 presenting to any UVA practice for a well-child visit between May 2008 and April 2009. Billing data were searched to determine rates of HPV vaccine uptake. The parents of all identified girls were contacted four to seven months after the visit to complete a telephone questionnaire including insurance information, child’s vaccination status, HPV vaccine attitudes, and demographics. Five hundred and fifty girls were identified, 48.2% of whom received at least one HPV vaccine dose. White race and private insurance were negatively associated with HPV vaccine initiation (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85 and RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01, respectively. In the follow-up questionnaire, 242 interviews were conducted and included in the final cohort. In the sample, 183 (75.6% parents reported white race, 38 (15.7% black race, and 27 (11.2% reported other race. Overall 85% of parents understood that the HPV vaccine was recommended and 58.9% of parents believed the HPV vaccine was safe. In multivariate logistic regression, patients of black and other minority races were 4.9 and 4.2 times more likely to receive the HPV vaccine compared to their white counterparts. Safety concerns were the strongest barrier to vaccination. To conclude, HPV vaccine uptake was higher among minority girls and girls with public insurance in this cohort.

  15. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrit, Jeffrey T; Fast, Patricia E; Gieber, Lisa; Kuipers, Hester; Dean, Hansi J; Koff, Wayne C

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of one of the most lethal pandemics in human history, although in recent years access to highly effective anti-retroviral therapy has provided new hope worldwide. Transmission of HIV by sexual contact, childbirth and injection drug use has been reduced, but 2 million are newly infected each year, and much of the transmission is from people who do not know their status. In addition to known methods, a preventive vaccine is needed to end the pandemic. The extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of HIV is an enormous challenge, but vaccines are being designed for broad coverage. Computer-aided design of mosaic immunogens, incorporating many epitopes from the entire genome or from conserved regions aim to induce CD8+ T cells to kill virus-infected cells or inhibit virus replication, while trimeric envelope proteins or synthetic mimics aim to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies similar to those cloned from some infected patients. Induction of more potent and durable responses may require new adjuvants or replicating chimeric vectors chimeras that bear HIV genes. Passive or genetic delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide broad protection and/or lead to insights for vaccine designers. Proof-of-concept trials in non-human primates and in one human efficacy trial have provided scientific clues for a vaccine that could provide broad and durable protection against HIV. The use of vaccines to destroy HIV reservoirs as part of therapy or cure is now also being explored. PMID:26993335

  16. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Brad M. Farrant; Maybery, Murray T.; Janet Fletcher

    2013-01-01

    Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males) typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months). The results sup...

  17. The decision to vaccinate a child: an economic perspective from southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Jon H; Mæstad, Ottar; Jani, Jagrati V

    2012-07-01

    The dynamics of childhood vaccination uptake in developing countries are unclear. Numerous studies document the relationship between vaccination coverage and access, socio economic and demographic factors. However, there is less knowledge about the relationship between vaccination coverage and carers' motivation and willingness to seek childhood vaccinations. The aim of this paper is to introduce a framework for studying demand for childhood vaccination and to examine the coherence between theoretical predictions and empirical findings in a rural area in Malawi. We interviewed 635 carers with children aged 18-59 months. About 96 percent of the respondents reported to have fully vaccinated their youngest eligible child for all routine vaccinations scheduled in the Expanded Program on Immunization. This paper concludes that easy access to vaccination services cannot explain why demand is high. Many carers had to travel long distances to reach vaccination delivery points and a considerable share of the respondents scored waiting and travelling time as long. Results from the present study, in combination with theoretical predictions, suggest that a high level of trust in distributors of information and vaccines may be an essential explanatory factor for why carers seek immunization for their children, even in the presence of considerable costs. Trust may be an important explanatory factor as it can be seen to generate positive perceived benefits. PMID:22571892

  18. Awareness of vaccination status and its predictors among working people in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Duvoisin Nicole; Gyurech Danielle; Naguel Claudine; Lee Chung-Yol; Schilling Julian

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Adult vaccination status may be difficult to obtain, often requiring providers to rely on individual patient recall. To determine vaccination status awareness and the sociodemographic predictors of awareness for tetanus, hepatitis A and B, tick born encephalitis (TBE) and influenza vaccination. Methods Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate a questionnaire survey of 10 321 employees (4070 women and 6251 men aged 15–72 years) of two companies in Switzerland. Results Am...

  19. Parent Perception of Provider Interactions Influences HPV Vaccination Status of Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among adolescent females is well below national public health goals. Many known barriers to HPV vaccine receipt can be addressed in parent-physician conversations. This study sought to explore parent experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination of adolescent girls, focused on interactions with providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents using a nationally representative online panel. Among parents with ≥1 daughter aged 11 to 17 years, provider recommendations for HPV vaccine and specified age to begin the HPV vaccine series were associated with HPV vaccine status. Parents who reported their daughters were unlikely to complete the HPV series were more likely to have had no discussion of HPV vaccine with the provider. Efforts to increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females should continue to focus on improving provider discussion of HPV vaccine. PMID:26450982

  20. Awareness of vaccination status and its predictors among working people in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvoisin Nicole

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult vaccination status may be difficult to obtain, often requiring providers to rely on individual patient recall. To determine vaccination status awareness and the sociodemographic predictors of awareness for tetanus, hepatitis A and B, tick born encephalitis (TBE and influenza vaccination. Methods Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate a questionnaire survey of 10 321 employees (4070 women and 6251 men aged 15–72 years of two companies in Switzerland. Results Among 10 321 respondents, 75.5% reported knowing their tetanus vaccination status, 64.1% hepatitis A, 61.1% hepatitis B, 64.3% TBE and 71.9% influenza. Between 1 in 4 and 1 in 3 employees were not aware of their vaccination status. Differences in awareness for the five vaccinations considered correlated with gender and language. These differences persisted in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Women employees, German-speaking employees and employees who paid more attention to their diet were more often aware of their vaccination status. A more reliable and readily accessible data source for vaccination status is needed in order to capitalize on opportunities to update vaccinations among Swiss employees.

  1. How does socio-economic status shape a child's personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, Thomas; Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized and fluid IQ. We measure a family's SES by the mother's and father's average years of education and household income. Our results show that children from families with higher SES are more patient, tend to be more altruistic and less likely to be risk seeking, and sc...

  2. Vaccination coverage in French 17-year-old young adults: an assessment of mandatory and recommended vaccination statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs. PMID:26159149

  3. RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine and child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Kofoed, Poul-Erik;

    2015-01-01

    Comment on Efficacy and safety of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine with or without a booster dose in infants and children in Africa: final results of a phase 3, individually randomised, controlled trial. [Lancet. 2015]......Comment on Efficacy and safety of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine with or without a booster dose in infants and children in Africa: final results of a phase 3, individually randomised, controlled trial. [Lancet. 2015]...

  4. How do parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Schmidt Jensen, Jane;

    interpretation of cases of illness and atopic diseases in their personal network and family to evaluate risk for their child to develop atopic diseases or get hospitalised. This lay epidemiologi forms the basis for their decision. Davison C, Frankel S, Davey Smith G. Inheriting heart trouble: the relevance of......Introduction: In a large prospective randomised clinical trial in Denmark we are testing the hypothesis that compared to non-BCG-vaccinated infants, infants who are BCG vaccinated at birth experience less hospitalisations, use less antibiotics, and develop less atopic disease in early childhood. My...... focus for this project is parents decision making and risk evaluation. I want to investigate how parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination and how they evaluate the risk of side effects. Method: Before the clinical trial was started, we conducted 5 focus groups with...

  5. The Current Status of BCG Vaccination in Young Children in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyejon; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Kim, Deok Ryun; FLOYD, Sian; Oh, Sue Yeon; Lee, Jin Bum; Kim, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Delivery of Bacille Calmette-Guréin (BCG) Tokyo vaccine, with the multipuncture device, has been much preferred over BCG Pasteur, with the intradermal method, possibly due to the easier manner of administration, a desire to avoid any trouble with scars, as well as side effects and higher profits to providers in South Korea. Methods To determine BCG scar status in 0~6 year old children vaccinated with two BCG vaccines (Pasteur BCG vaccine with intradermal method and BCG Tokyo vaccin...

  6. Parental Vaccine Hesitancy in Quebec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Zhou, Zhou; Deceuninck, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept frequently used in the discourse around vaccine acceptance. This study aims to contribute to the ongoing reflections on tools and indicators of vaccine hesitancy by providing results of a knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) survey conducted among parents. Methods: Data were collected in 2014 through a computer-assisted telephone interview survey administered to a sample of parents of children aged between 2 months and 17 years of age. Results: The majority of the 589 parents included in the analyses agreed on the importance of vaccination to protect their children’s health and to prevent the spread of diseases in the community. The majority of the parents (81%) reported that their child had received all doses of recommended vaccines and 40% of parents indicated having hesitated to have their child vaccinated. Fear of adverse events and low perceived vulnerability of the child or severity of the disease were the most frequent reasons mentioned by these vaccine-hesitant parents. In multivariate analyses, KAB items remaining significantly associated both with an incomplete vaccination status of the child and parents’ vaccine hesitancy were: not thinking that it is important to have the child vaccinated to prevent the spreading of diseases in the community; not trusting the received vaccination information and having felt pressure to have the child vaccinated. Discussion: Further researches will be needed to better understand when, how and why these beliefs are formed in order to prevent the onset of vaccine hesitancy. PMID:27019766

  7. [Rabies vaccines: Current status and prospects for development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, E S; Preobrazhenskaia, O V; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Yarygina, E I; Karpov, V L

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is an infectious disease among humans and animals that remains incurable, despite its longstanding research history. The only way to prevent the disease is prompt treatment, including vaccination as an obligatory component and administration of antirabies immunoglobulin as a supplement. Since the first antirabies vaccination performed in the 19th century, a large number of different rabies vaccines have been developed. Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology enabled the development of effective and safe technologies of vaccine production. Currently, new-generation vaccines are being developed based on recombinant rabies virus strains or on the production of an individual recombinant rabies antigen-glycoprotein (G protein), either as a component of nonpathogenic viruses, or in plants, or in the form of DNA vaccines. In this review, the main modern trends in the development of rabies vaccines have been discussed. PMID:26299857

  8. Current status of new tuberculosis vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhao, Aihua; Cohen, Chad; Kang, Wanli; Lu, Jie; Wang, Guozhi; Zhao, Yanlin; Zheng, Suhua

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments. However, the limited data on protective efficacy in infants evaluated by clinical trials has been disappointing, an example being MVA85A. To date, no vaccine has been shown to be clinically safer and more effective than the presently licensed BCG vaccine. Hence, before a new vaccine is developed with more promising efficacy, we must reconsider how to better use the current BCG vaccine to maximize its effectiveness in children. PMID:27002369

  9. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-11-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673

  10. Mantoux test results and BCG vaccination status in TB-exposed children

    OpenAIRE

    Fadilah Harahap; Ridwan M. Daulay; Muhammad Ali; Wisman Dalimunthe; Rini Savitri Daulay

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) infection is highly prevalent in Indonesia. The source of transmission of TB to a child is usually via an adult with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. The Mantoux test is a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis infection. The BCG vaccine has been used for the prevention of TB, but its efficacy is still debated. Objective To assess for an association between Mantoux test results and BCG vaccination in children who had contact with adult pulmonary tuberculosi...

  11. Validity of self-reported vaccination status among French healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulergue, P; Pulcini, C; Massin, S; Bernhard, M; Fonteneau, L; Levy-Brühl, D; Guthmann, J-P; Launay, O

    2014-12-01

    Data on validity of self-reported vaccinations are scarce. This study, performed on healthcare students in Paris (France), aimed to evaluate this validity for occupational vaccinations. The validity of self-reported vaccination status was compared with written information. A total of 432 students were enrolled. Sensitivity rates for BCG, hepatitis B and measles were over 74%. For diphtheria-tetanus-polio and pertussis, sensitivity was below 50%. Specificity was between 70 and 95% for dTP-pertussis, and below 35% for all others. Overall, the validity of self-reported information was low, meaning that checking medical records remains the preferable strategy for assessing immunization status. PMID:25040583

  12. Status of research and development of vaccines for Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Andrew C; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Dale, James B; Fraser, John D; Good, Michael F; Guilherme, Luiza; Moreland, Nicole J; Mulholland, E Kim; Schodel, Florian; Smeesters, Pierre R

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important global pathogen, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in low and middle income countries where rheumatic heart disease and invasive infections are common. There is a number of promising vaccine candidates, most notably those based on the M protein, the key virulence factor for the bacterium. Vaccines against Streptococcus pyogenes are considered as impeded vaccines because of a number of crucial barriers to development. Considerable effort is needed by key players to bring current vaccine candidates through phase III clinical trials and there is a clear need to develop a roadmap for future development of current and new candidates. PMID:27032515

  13. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  14. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  15. Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). PMID:26979135

  16. Q Fever Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Australia's Veterinary Workforce in 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sellens

    Full Text Available Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a serious zoonotic disease in humans with a worldwide distribution. Many species of animals are capable of transmitting C. burnetii, and consequently all veterinary workers are at risk for this disease. An effective Q fever vaccine has been readily available and used in Australia for many years in at-risk groups, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has recently also called for the use of this vaccine among at-risk groups in Europe. Little is known about attitudes towards this vaccine and vaccine uptake in veterinary workers. This study aimed to determine the Q fever vaccination status of veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes towards Q fever disease and vaccination of each cohort. An online cross-sectional survey performed in 2014 targeted all veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia. Responses from 890 veterinarians and 852 veterinary nurses were obtained. Binary, ordinal and multinomial logistic regression were used to make comparisons between the two cohorts. The results showed that 74% of veterinarians had sought vaccination compared to only 29% of veterinary nurses. Barriers to vaccination among those not vaccinated did not differ between cohorts, and included a lack of perceived risk, financial expense, time constraints, and difficulty in finding a vaccine provider. Poor knowledge and awareness of Q fever disease and vaccination were additional and notable barriers for the veterinary nursing cohort, suggesting veterinary clinics and veterinarians may not be meeting their legal responsibility to educate staff about risks and risk prevention. Further evaluation is needed to identify the drivers behind seeking and recommending vaccination so that recommendations can be made to improve vaccine uptake.

  17. Differentials in reproductive and child health status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Parchure

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.

    Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.

    Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.

    Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.

  18. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...

  19. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and varicella status in inflammatory arthritis patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, E M

    2011-11-15

    Patients with inflammatory arthritis are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections. This risk is increased by immunomodulatory therapies. Vaccination for influenza and pneumococcal disease reduces the risk. Severe cases of varicella infection have occurred in patients on biologic therapies. We sought to identify vaccination rates for commonly acquired infections and to ascertain varicella immune status in patients with inflammatory arthritis. 100 patients with inflammatory arthritis were administered a standardised questionnaire. Data collected included age, diagnosis, vaccination history, history of varicella, treatment and the presence of other indications for vaccination. 58 patients (58%) had not received the influenza vaccine in the past year. Only 19 patients (19%) had ever received pneumococcal vaccine. Anti TNF use did not predict vaccination (p = .46). An increasing number of co morbid conditions predicted both pneumococcal (p < 0.003) and influenza vaccine (p < 0.03) administration. Nineteen patients (19%) gave no history of varicella infection, none having had varicella titres checked pre treatment. Immunisation rates in patients with inflammatory arthritis on immunosuppressive therapies are low. Immunisation schedules should be available for each patient during rheumatology and general practice consultations.

  20. Status of research and development of vaccines for enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Zarifah; Cardosa, Mary Jane

    2016-06-01

    Although outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in young children have long been recognized worldwide, the occurrence of rare and life-threatening neurological, respiratory, and cardiac complications has propelled this common condition into the spotlight as a major public health problem in the affected countries. Various enteroviruses cause HFMD, but the severe complications have been mostly associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71). Medical treatment is supportive and measures to interrupt transmission have been challenging to implement. Preventive vaccines could have an important clinical impact, especially among children younger than 3 years old who are most susceptible to the neurological complications. Several groups in the highly affected Asia-Pacific region are working towards vaccines against EV71 and some candidates have progressed to late-stage clinical trials with two vaccines recently reported to have been approved by the regulatory authorities in China. This report summarizes current issues and progress in the development of vaccines against EV71. PMID:26973065

  1. Current status of vaccine development for tularemia preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Park, Pil-Gu; Seo, Sang-Hwan; Rhie, Gi-eun; Hwang, Kyuh-Jam

    2013-01-01

    Tularemia is a high-risk infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Due to its high fatality at very low colony-forming units (less than 10), F. tularensis is considered as a powerful potential bioterrorism agent. Vaccine could be the most efficient way to prevent the citizen from infection of F. tularensis when the bioterrorism happens, but officially approved vaccine with both efficacy and safety is not developed yet. Research for the development of tularem...

  2. Hepatitis-B Vaccination Status Among Dental Surgeons in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, CC; Ehizele, AO; Uche, I; Erhabor, P

    2012-01-01

    Background: The development of success-oriented hepatitis-B vaccine uptake approach among dental surgeons is dependent on the availability of comprehensive baseline data. Objective: To determine the hepatitis-B vaccination status among dental surgeons in Benin City. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of dental surgeons in Benin City was conducted in May 2011. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, occupational risk rating of contracting hepati...

  3. Status of vaccine research and development for Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S; Guerry, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with a number of sequelae, including Guillain-Barre Syndrome, reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and growth stunting/malnutrition. Vaccine development against C. jejuni is complicated by its antigenic diversity, a lack of small animal models, and a poor understanding of the bacterium's pathogenesis. Vaccine approaches have been limited to recombinant proteins, none of which have advanced beyond Phase I testing. Genomic analyses have revealed the presence of a polysaccharide capsule on C. jejuni. Given the success of capsule-conjugate vaccines for other mucosal pathogens of global importance, efforts to evaluate this established approach for C. jejuni are also being pursued. A prototypical capsule-conjugate vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against diarrheal disease in non-human primates and is currently in Phase I testing. In addition to proof of concept studies, more data on the global prevalence of capsular types, and a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of C. jejuni are needed to inform investments for a globally relevant vaccine. PMID:26973064

  4. Isolation of an Intertypic Poliovirus Capsid Recombinant from a Child with Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Javier; Samoilovich, Elena; Dunn, Glynis; Lackenby, Angie; Feldman, Esphir; Heath, Alan; Svirchevskaya, Ekaterina; Cooper, Gill; Yermalovich, Marina; Minor, Philip D.

    2002-01-01

    The isolation of a capsid intertypic poliovirus recombinant from a child with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is described. Virus 31043 had a Sabin-derived type 3-type 2-type 1 recombinant genome with a 5′-end crossover point within the capsid coding region. The result was a poliovirus chimera containing the entire coding sequence for antigenic site 3a derived from the Sabin type 2 strain. The recombinant virus showed altered antigenic properties but did not acquire type 2 antigeni...

  5. Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jessica F; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-07-01

    Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups. Second, in order to better understand the defining features of 'high-quality' input, we highlight findings from laboratory studies examining specific characteristics of the sounds, words, sentences, and social contexts of child-directed speech (CDS) that influence children's learning. Finally, after narrowing in on these particular features of CDS, we broaden our discussion by considering family and community factors that may constrain parents' ability to participate in high-quality interactions with their young children. A unification of research on SES and CDS will facilitate a more complete understanding of the specific means by which input shapes learning, as well as generate ideas for crafting policies and programs designed to promote children's language outcomes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:264-275. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27196418

  6. Exposure to partner violence and child behavior problems: a prospective study controlling for child physical abuse and neglect, child cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tuppett M; Dodds, Michele F; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2003-01-01

    Previous research suggests an association between partner violence and child behavior problems. However, methodological shortcomings have precluded the formation of directional conclusions. These limitations include failure to control for the effects of child physical abuse and general life stress, employment of nonrepresentative samples from battered women's shelters, and reliance on a single contemporaneous reporter, usually the mother, for information on both independent and dependent measures. This study used prospective, longitudinal data (N = 155) and multiple informants to examine the relation between maternal reports of partner violence in the homeand teacher- and youth-report ratings of concurrent and prospective child behavior problems. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to control for the effects of child physical abuse, child physical neglect, socioeconomic status, child cognitive ability, and life stress. The contribution of partner violence to child behavior problems was confirmed for boys' (n = 81) externalizing problems and girls' (n = 74) internalizing problems. Child developmental status at the time of exposure further influenced these relations. For boys, behavior problems in middle childhood were most strongly related to contemporaneous partner violence, whereas behavior problems among both boys and girls at age 16 were most strongly related to partner violence exposure during the preschool years. PMID:12848442

  7. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  8. Effect of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status on Serological Response to Influenza Vaccine in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Manpreet K.; Fakih, Marwan; Muindi, Josephia; Tian, Lili; Mashtare, Terry; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and influenza infection. We conducted a prospective influenza vaccination study to determine the influence of vitamin D status on serological response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. METHODS During the 2006–2007 influenza season, CaP patients treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were offered vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®, 2006–2007) and sera collected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers before and 3 months after vaccination. Response to vaccination was defined as ≥1:40 titer ratio or a fourfold increase in titer at 3 months, against any of the three strains. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D3) levels were measured using DiaSorin 125I radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS Thirty-five patients with CaP participated in the study. Median baseline 25-D3 level was 44.88 ng/ml (range: 9.16–71.98 ng/ml) Serological response against any of the three strains was noted in 80%. There was a significant effect of baseline 25-D3 level when tested as a continuous variable in relation to serological response (P = 0.0446). All patients in the upper quartile of 25-D3 level responded by mounting a serological response (P = 0.0344). None of the other baseline variables (age, race, chemotherapy status, or white cell count) had an effect on serological response. CONCLUSIONS In this study in CaP patients, a replete vitamin D status was associated with more frequent serological response to influenza vaccine. PMID:20812224

  9. Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Pediatric Asthma: The Role of Parental Perception of Child Weight Status

    OpenAIRE

    the STRONG Kids Research Team; Paige, Katie N.; Margarita Teran-Garcia; Donovan, Sharon M.; Salma M. A. Musaad; Fiese, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, o...

  10. Poliomyelitis vaccination status among children in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Haliza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polio vaccination rates remain low in certain regions of Malaysia. The Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (FTKL reported coverage of only 29.3% in 2005 and 61.2% in 2006, despite a Department of Health campaign to provide free three-round immunizations. The estimated numbers of live births used to calculate these rates may have artificially lowered the reported coverage percentages.Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional household survey was conducted throughout the FTKL in 2007 to assess the actual polio vaccination status of children aged 9 to 24 months. Minimum sample size was calculated and proportionately divided among the 11 FTKL parliamentary constituencies. Residential areas were then randomly selected for in-person interviews. We used the gathered information, verified by medical records, to calculate the actual vaccination coverage and to compare the rates determined by using estimated or registered live births for the region.Results: Of the 1713 study participants, 98.3% had completed their polio vaccination schedule. Only 21 children had been partially vaccinated, and nine children were completely unvaccinated. FTKL residents had 20 431 live births registered for 2006, as opposed to the official estimate of 28 400. When the registered value of live births was used to calculate vaccination coverage, the 2006 coverage increased (to 85.1%.Conclusion: Actual vaccination coverage in Kuala Lumpur was much higher than the estimated coverage previously reported, reflecting the expected success of the Department of Health immunization campaign. Estimated values of live births are insufficient to accurately determine vaccine status and should be avoided.

  11. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  12. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds

    2003-01-01

    From 1993 to 1997, GDP per capita in Vietnam grew by between 6 and 7 percent annually. Child labor declined by 28 percent over this period. Using a simple, nonparametric decomposition, I investigate the relationship between improvements in per capita expenditure and child labor with a panel dataset of Vietnamese households that spans this episode of growth. I find that improvements in per capita expenditure can explain 80 percent of the decline in child labor that occurs in households whose e...

  13. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  14. The Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccination Status on the Risk of Diabetes, Implicating Diabetes Risk Reduction by Successful Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Huang; Horng-Yih Ou; James Lin; Rudruidee Karnchanasorn; Wei Feng; Raynald Samoa; Lee-Ming Chuang; Chiu, Ken C

    2015-01-01

    Background The liver plays a key role in fuel metabolism. It is well established that liver disease is associated with an increased risk for diabetes mellitus. Hepatitis C virus infection has been known to increase the risk of diabetes. However, much less is known about the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in diabetes. We examined the association of diabetes based on the vaccination status for HBV. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we included adult subjects (≥20 y/o) with HBV s...

  15. Families' Status of Coping with Stress who have a Handicapped Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gulsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the status of families' coping with stress who have a handicapped child. METHOD: Sampling was not done as the study was conducted with the entire population (80 of whom 70 individuals were reached. The research data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher and the "Styles of Coping with Stress Scale." Data were evaluated with number-percentage calculations, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in styles of coping with stress and the family's degree of closeness to the child, educational level, type of work and occupational status, income level, family type, age of handicapped child, status of having social support, place of residence, and status of having a transportation problem (p<0.05. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 413-420

  16. Maternal education is associated with vaccination status of infants less than 6 months in Eastern Uganda: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tumwine James K; Tylleskär Thorkild; Nankabirwa Victoria; Sommerfelt Halvor

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite provision of free childhood vaccinations, less than half of all Ugandan infants are fully vaccinated. This study compares women with some secondary schooling to those with only primary schooling with regard to their infants' vaccination status. Methods A community-based prospective cohort study conducted between January 2006 and May 2008 in which 696 pregnant women were followed up to 24 weeks post partum. Information was collected on the mothers' education and vac...

  17. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  18. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  19. Singaporean Mothers' Perception of Their Three-year-old Child's Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuck Seng Cheng

    Full Text Available Inaccurate parental perception of their child's weight status is commonly reported in Western countries. It is unclear whether similar misperception exists in Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of Singaporean mothers to accurately describe their three-year-old child's weight status verbally and visually.At three years post-delivery, weight and height of the children were measured. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and converted into actual weight status using International Obesity Task Force criteria. The mothers were blinded to their child's measurements and asked to verbally and visually describe what they perceived was their child's actual weight status. Agreement between actual and described weight status was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistic (κ.Of 1237 recruited participants, 66.4% (n = 821 with complete data on mothers' verbal and visual perceptions and children's anthropometric measurements were analysed. Nearly thirty percent of the mothers were unable to describe their child's weight status accurately. In verbal description, 17.9% under-estimated and 11.8% over-estimated their child's weight status. In visual description, 10.4% under-estimated and 19.6% over-estimated their child's weight status. Many mothers of underweight children over-estimated (verbal 51.6%; visual 88.8%, and many mothers of overweight and obese children under-estimated (verbal 82.6%; visual 73.9%, their child's weight status. In contrast, significantly fewer mothers of normal-weight children were inaccurate (verbal 16.8%; visual 8.8%. Birth order (p<0.001, maternal (p = 0.004 and child's weight status (p<0.001 were associated with consistently inaccurate verbal and visual descriptions.Singaporean mothers, especially those of underweight and overweight children, may not be able to perceive their young child's weight status accurately. To facilitate prevention of childhood obesity, educating parents and caregivers about their child

  20. Maternal overweight/obesity characteristics and child anthropometric status in Jos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Collins John; Tomo Ichikawa; Halima Abdu; Isaac Ocheke; Udochukwu Diala; Virginia Modise-Letsatsi; Takayuki Wada; Seline Okolo; Taro Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and its relationship with childhood anthropometric status in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Maternal and child anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard WHO methods. Child anthropometric Z scores were obtained from WHO Anthroplus while BMI of mothers were also determined. Totall...

  1. Child representations of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Lourdes Ruda Santolaria

    2009-01-01

    The study explores child representations on the identity and origin of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status. Ninety children were assessed using the Child Disease Representations Interview (CDRI) inspired in seven cards graphically repre­senting the usual treatment of children with cancer. Results show that the same element of reality can be conceptualized in multiple ways and that smaller children tend to appeal to non-serious diseases whereas older children r...

  2. Maternal encouragement and discouragement: Differences by food type and child weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity prevention practice guidelines recommend that parents encourage the intake of certain types of foods and discourage the intake of others. It is unknown if parents of children of different weight statuses encourage or discourage their child's intake differently based on food type. The objective of this study was to determine the association of child weight status with maternal encouragement and discouragement of for four different types of food. A total of 222 mother-child dyads were video-taped during the standardized, sequential presentation of four foods to both participants: cupcakes (familiar dessert), green beans (familiar vegetable), halva (unfamiliar dessert) and artichoke (unfamiliar vegetable). Mother's encouragements and discouragements of child intake were reliably coded for each food type. Poisson regression models were used to test the independent association of child weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) with encouragement and discouragement for each food type. Mothers of an obese, vs. normal or overweight child, had lower rates of encouragement for a familiar dessert (p = 0.02), and a higher rates of discouragements for a familiar dessert (p = 0.001), a familiar vegetable (p = 0.01), and an unfamiliar vegetable (p = 0.001). There were no differences in encouragements or discouragements between mothers of an overweight, vs. obese child, for any of the 4 food types. Mothers of obese children may alter their feeding behavior differentially based on food type. Future work should examine how interventions promoting maternal encouragement or discouragement of different food types impact child weight status. PMID:26924561

  3. Factors associated with parental recognition of a child's overweight status - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikkonen Kaisu M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight status was defined by BMI according to internationally accepted criteria. A questionnaire to be filled in by parents was delivered by the school nurses. The parents were asked to evaluate their offspring's weight status. The child's eating habits and physical activity patterns were also enquired about. Factor groups of food and physical activity habits were formed by factor analysis. Binary logistic regression was performed using all variables associated with recognition of overweight status in univariate analyses. The significant risk factors in the final model are reported using odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Fifty-seven percent (69/120 of the parents of the overweight children considered their child as normal weight. Child's BMI was positively associated with parental recognition of overweight (OR 3.59, CI 1.8 to 7.0. Overweight boys were less likely to be recognised than overweight girls (OR 0.14, CI 0.033 to 0.58. Child's healthy diet (OR 0.22, CI 0.091 to 0.54 and high physical activity (OR 0.29, CI 0.11 to 0.79 were inversely related to parental recognition of overweight status. Conclusions Child's healthy eating habits and physical activity are inversely related to parental recognition of their offspring's overweight. These should be taken into account when planning prevention and treatment strategies for childhood obesity.

  4. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

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    Pongou Roland

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.

  5. Infant and child feeding index reflects feeding practices, nutritional status of urban slum children

    OpenAIRE

    Lohia, Neha; Udipi, Shobha A

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant and child feeding index (ICFI) an age-specific index, can be used to assess child feeding practices. We used the ICFI to assess feeding practices for urban slum children and the association between ICFI and child nutritional status. Methods 446 children aged 6 to 24 months from urban slums of Mumbai, India were studied. We used the 24-hour diet recall to study dietary diversity and a food frequency questionnaire for consumption of food groups during the preceding week. ICFI ...

  6. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791

  7. Hepatitis B vaccination status and needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Rabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a majority of countries in the Middle East show intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, which clearly poses a serious public health problem in the region, the situation in the Republic of Syria remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatitis B vaccination status, to assess the number of vaccinations administered, and to estimate the annual incidence of needlestick injuries (NSIs among healthcare workers (HCWs in Aleppo University hospitals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design with a survey questionnaire was used for exploring details of NSIs during 2008, hepatitis B vaccination status, and HBV infection among a random stratified sample of HCWs in three tertiary hospitals in Aleppo (n= 321. Results: Two hundred and forty-six (76.6% HCWs had sustained at least one NSI during 2008. Nine (2.8% had HBV chronic infection and 75 HCWs (23.4% were never vaccinated. Anesthesiology technicians had the greatest exposure risk when compared to office workers [OR=16,95% CI (2.55-100, P< 0.01], doctors [OR=10,95% CI (2.1 47.57, P < 0.01], and nurses [OR = 6.75,95% CI (1.56-29.03, P = 0.01]. HCWs under 25 and between the age of 25 and 35 years were at increased risk for NSI when compared to HCWs older than 45 years [OR = 3.12,95% CI (1.19-8.19, P = 0.02] and [OR = 3.05,95% CI (1.42-6.57, P < 0.01], respectively. Conclusion: HCWs at Aleppo University hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Precautions and protection from NSIs are important in preventing infection of HCWs. Education about the transmission of blood-borne infections, vaccination, and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented and strictly monitored.

  8. Assessment of hepatitis B vaccination status in doctors of Services hospital, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hepatitis B is the most common serious infection of the liver and can lead to premature death from liver cancer or liver failure. Of the two billion people who have been infected with Hepatitis B virus, more than 350 million have chronic infection. The objectives of this study were to assess the Hepatitis B vaccination status, reasons for non-compliance and the risk of exposure to doctors at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-two doctors were selected from the various departments of the hospital by simple random sampling. They were given a self-administered questionnaire after taking verbal consent. Some doctors refused to fill-in the questionnaire while some others were on leave during the time of study and the remaining 215 doctors responded to the questionnaire. Results: A total of 215 doctors, (age range 22-59 years) responded to the questionnaire. Amongst them 11.6% had not received even a single dose of Hepatitis B vaccine while 14.4% had not completed the required course of vaccination. Most common reason cited by doctors for non immunisation was that they had not thought about it. Consultants were more likely of the other doctors to have received completed vaccination (83.9% versus 69.9%) (p<0.05). They were also significantly more likely to know their antibody titre after completing vaccination. Needle stick injuries were common. One hundred and forty-five doctors in the study admitted having received at least one needle prick/sharp injury. Of them, 51.6% had received a needle prick/sharp injury more than once. Conclusion: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine in the market doctors continue to remain non-vaccinated. It is the lack of awareness and carelessness on part of doctors coupled with the negligence of the risk that has led them being incompletely vaccinated. There is a need to ensure that every doctor is completely vaccinated against Hepatitis B before he/she enters professional practice. (author)

  9. Factors associated with parental recognition of a child's overweight status - a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaikkonen Kaisu M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi Sirkka M; Vanhala Marja L; Laitinen Jaana H; Korpelainen Raija I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight statu...

  10. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  11. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-liang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.

  12. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424

  13. Parenting Styles, Communication and Child/Adolescent Diets and Weight Status: Let's Talk about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parletta, Natalie; Peters, Jacqueline; Owen, Amber; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Brennan, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have been associated with health-related behaviours in children and adolescents. We present a series of studies. Study 1 investigated parenting styles and parent-child communication styles as cross-sectional predictors of dietary patterns in children, and study 2 as cross-sectional predictors of weight status in adolescents. Data…

  14. Maternal Fatty Acid Status During Pregnancy and Child Autistic Traits: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-05-01

    ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for brain function and development. We examined whether maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy affects risk of autistic traits in childhood. Within the Generation R cohort, we measured maternal plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and the ω-3:ω-6 ratio in midpregnancy (Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 2001-2005). Child autistic traits at 6 years were assessed by using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form in 4,624 children. A lower maternal ω-3:ω-6 ratio during pregnancy was associated with more autistic traits in the offspring (β = -0.008, 95% confidence interval: -0.016, -0.001). In particular, a higher total ω-6 and linoleic acid status were associated with more autistic traits (all P's < 0.05). Associations were independent of child intelligence, suggesting that the fatty acid distribution specifically affects the development of autistic traits in addition to general neurodevelopment. Maternal plasma ω-3 status was not associated with child autistic traits and, consistently, neither was prenatal dietary fish intake. Our study shows that a lower prenatal ω-3:ω-6 ratio is associated with more child autistic traits, which is largely accounted for by higher ω-6 instead of lower ω-3 status. These results suggest a biological pathway between maternal fatty acid intake during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. PMID:27052119

  15. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  16. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  17. Does livestock ownership affect animal source foods consumption and child nutritional status ? evidence from rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Azzarri, Carlo; Cross, Elizabeth; Haile, Beliyou; Zezza, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, consumption of animal source foods among the poor is still at a level where increasing its share in total caloric intake may have many positive nutritional benefits. This paper explores whether ownership of various livestock species increases consumption of animal source foods and helps improve child nutritional status. The paper finds some evidence that food ...

  18. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor), ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This proce...

  19. Adult Sexual Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Vary According to Relationship Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. PMID:26804731

  20. Status report on maternal and child health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, S R; Moore, M L

    1995-06-01

    The health of pregnant women and children has improved substantially since the 1960s. In the past decade, however, progress in preventing infant deaths, reducing the incidence of low-birth-weight infants, and ensuring first trimester prenatal care has slowed. African-American infants suffer a significantly higher risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Immunization rates for preschoolers remain low. Changing social conditions including a rising child poverty rate, a high teenage birth rate, an increased rate of births to unmarried women, and higher levels of unintended pregnancy may be contributing to stalled progress. PMID:7745540

  1. Undocumented Status: Implications for Child Development, Policy, and Ethical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 5.5 million children in the United States grow up in the shadows of undocumented status. We review the ecological domains of influence in children's and adolescents' lives and briefly consider health, cognitive, socioemotional, educational, and labor market outcomes ripe for study. We also reflect upon the ethical policy…

  2. Serotype 19A bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia after 4 doses of 13-valent conjugate vaccine: a review of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    IrohTam, Pui-Ying; Hanisch, Benjamin R.; Forward, Brennan

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia due to serotype 19A in a child who had received four doses of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and review the literature on effectiveness of this vaccine. Pediatricians should be alert to the fact that up-to-date immunization status with pneumococcal vaccine does not preclude illness from invasive disease caused by a vaccine serotype.

  3. Child nutritional status in contexts of urban poverty: a reliable indicator of family health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Huergo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work questions the premise that the nutritional status of children under six years of age is a reliable indicator of family health. To do so, a research strategy based in case studies was carried out, following a qualitative design (participant observation and semistructured interviews using intentional sampling and framed within the interpretivist paradigm. The anthropometric measurements of 20 children under six years of age attending the local Child Care Center in Villa La Tela, Córdoba were evaluated. Nutritional status was understood as an object that includes socially determined biological processes, and was therefore posited analytically as a cross between statistical data and its social determination. As a statistic, child nutritional status is merely descriptive; to assist in the understanding of its social determination, it must be placed in dialectical relationship with the spheres of sociability proposed to analyze the reproduction of health problems.

  4. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K;

    1989-01-01

    When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than seroconvert...

  5. Adolescent Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Hacımustafaoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent period usually are omitted regarding the vaccination and the other health evaluations, in our country. Adolescent period is usually considered as between the ages of 8-18 years. During this period, it is important to evaluate routine adolescent examination as well as vaccination status.Childhood (0-18 years) vaccination can be considered in three stages; infantil period vaccinations (

  6. Determining the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status of FIV-vaccinated cats using point-of-care antibody kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    This study challenges the commonly held view that the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection status of FIV-vaccinated cats cannot be determined using point-of-care antibody test kits due to indistinguishable antibody production in FIV-vaccinated and naturally FIV-infected cats. The performance of three commercially available point-of-care antibody test kits was compared in a mixed population of FIV-vaccinated (n=119) and FIV-unvaccinated (n=239) cats in Australia. FIV infection status was assigned by considering the results of all antibody kits in concert with results from a commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR™). Two lateral flow immunochromatography test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV; Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) had excellent overall sensitivity (100%; 100%) and specificity (98%; 100%) and could discern the true FIV infection status of cats, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. The lateral flow ELISA test kit (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo) could not determine if antibodies detected were due to previous FIV vaccination, natural FIV infection, or both. The sensitivity and specificity of FIV RealPCR™ for detection of viral and proviral nucleic acid was 92% and 99%, respectively. These results will potentially change the way veterinary practitioners screen for FIV in jurisdictions where FIV vaccination is practiced, especially in shelter scenarios where the feasibility of mass screening is impacted by the cost of testing. PMID:26459979

  7. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  8. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and BCG-osis in an immigrant child with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome - Texas, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Robert; Atkins, Jane; Quigg, Troy C; Burns, Cara C; Wallace, Gregory S; Thomas, Mary; Mangla, Anil T; Infante, Anthony J

    2014-08-22

    Poliovirus transmission has been eliminated in most of the world through the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In the United States, use of OPV was discontinued by the year 2000 because of the potential for vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP); an average of eight cases were reported each year in the United States during 1980-2000. Polio eradication efforts in other parts of the world continue to rely on OPV to take advantage of transmission of poliovirus vaccine strains to unvaccinated persons in the population, lower cost, and ease of administration. In 2013, an infant aged 7 months who recently immigrated to the United States from India was referred to a hospital in San Antonio, Texas. The infant had fever, an enlarging skin lesion in the deltoid region with axillary lymphadenopathy, decreased activity, and inability to bear weight on the left leg, progressing to paralysis of the left leg over a 6-week period. Recognition of lymphopenia on complete blood count led to immune evaluation, which revealed the presence of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS), an inherited disorder. A history of OPV and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in India led to the diagnoses of VAPP and BCG-osis, which were confirmed microbiologically. This report demonstrates the importance of obtaining a comprehensive clinical history in a child who has recently immigrated to the United States, with recognition that differing vaccine practices in other countries might require additional consideration of potential etiologies. PMID:25144542

  9. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Merten

    Full Text Available Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease.

  10. Maternal overweight/obesity characteristics and child anthropometric status in Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and its relationship with childhood anthropometric status in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Maternal and child anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard WHO methods. Child anthropometric Z scores were obtained from WHO Anthroplus while BMI of mothers were also determined. Totally, 262 mother-child pairs were recruited. Results: Mean maternal age and mean child age were 30.8 ± 6.3 yrs (15-47 yrs and 22.3 ± 18.7 months (3-72 months. Prevalence of maternal underweight, overweight and obesity was 4.2% (11/262, 29.4% (77/262 and 25.9% (68/262, respectively. Child overweight/obesity was 5.4% (14/262, severe under-nutrition 5.7% (15/262. Mean maternal BMI was higher in the older, more educated and higher socioeconomic status (SES. Child mean birth-weight, weight-for-age Z-score and BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ were higher among mothers with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . All large-for-age babies were in mothers with maternal BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . Childhood over-nutrition was more common in maternal BMI of ≥25 kg/m 2 . Overall, BAZ was directly related with maternal BMI, maternal age and birth-weight, although it was inversely related with maternal BM I ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . Conclusion: Higher BMI is seen in educated and higher SES mothers and this impact on childhood anthropometry.

  11. Estimation of nationwide vaccination coverage and comparison of interview and telephone survey methodology for estimating vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Lee, Yeon-Kyeng; Cho, Lisa Y; Go, Un Yeong; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Choi, Bo-Youl; Lee, Moo-Sik; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong; Park, Sue K

    2011-06-01

    This study compared interview and telephone surveys to select the better method for regularly estimating nationwide vaccination coverage rates in Korea. Interview surveys using multi-stage cluster sampling and telephone surveys using stratified random sampling were conducted. Nationwide coverage rates were estimated in subjects with vaccination cards in the interview survey. The interview survey relative to the telephone survey showed a higher response rate, lower missing rate, higher validity and a less difference in vaccination coverage rates between card owners and non-owners. Primary vaccination coverage rate was greater than 90% except for the fourth dose of DTaP (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis), the third dose of polio, and the third dose of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE). The DTaP4: Polio3: MMR1 fully vaccination rate was 62.0% and BCG1:HepB3:DTaP4:Polio3:MMR1 was 59.5%. For age-appropriate vaccination, the coverage rate was 50%-80%. We concluded that the interview survey was better than the telephone survey. These results can be applied to countries with incomplete registry and decreasing rates of landline telephone coverage due to increased cell phone usage and countries. Among mandatory vaccines, efforts to increase vaccination rate for the fourth dose of DTaP, the third dose of polio, JBE and regular vaccinations at recommended periods should be conducted in Korea. PMID:21655054

  12. Socio-economic status and child behaviour: evidence from a contemporary UK cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Propper, Carol; Rigg, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether and how socio-economic status is associated with children’s behavioural development in today’s children. Using a large cohort of English children born in the early 1990s we find significant social inequalities in several dimensions of child behaviour at age 7. We examine whether these inequalities are associated with characteristics of the child’s early home environment and parental behaviours. These include the material quality of the child’s home, maternal mental...

  13. Child-caregivers’ body weight and habitual physical activity status is associated with overweight in kindergartners

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Sascha; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine whether child-caregivers’, both parents and kindergarten teachers, health parameters (age, weight status, habitual physical activity score) are significantly associated with the risk of overweight in young children. Methods We assessed the individual body mass index standard deviation score in a regional cross-sectional health study and matched a representative sample of 434 kindergartners aged 3 to 6-years with their caregivers’ weight and habi...

  14. Effect of socioeconomic status on caregivers' knowledge and beliefs regarding child health care in Savelugu Nanton, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Hekli, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Household ...

  15. Child Welfare and the Transition to Adulthood: Investigating Placement Status and Subsequent Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P; Perron, Brian E; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the transition to adulthood in child welfare focus almost exclusively on youth in foster care. Yet, research indicates that maltreated children who remain in the home may display similar risks as compared with their peers in formal foster care settings. Utilizing administrative data from child welfare, juvenile justice and adult corrections, the current study fills a gap in the literature by analyzing justice outcomes for older adolescents involved with the child welfare system regardless of their placement status. We focus on both intact family cases and formal foster care placements. The diverse sample (11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 6% Native American, 9% multi-racial, 56% female) included open child welfare cases involving 17 year olds (n = 9874). Twenty-nine percent of adolescents were associated with a long term out of home placement and 62% were associated with an intact family case. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents associated with long term foster care placement were significantly less likely to experience a subsequent arrest as compared with adolescents associated with a long term intact family case. Males, African Americans and adolescents associated with neglect were also more likely to experience a subsequent arrest. Limited focus on the intact family population in child welfare represents a lost opportunity to support critical developmental gains and facilitate a smooth transition to adulthood. PMID:26014611

  16. Correlates to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Status and Willingness to Vaccinate in Low-Income Philadelphia High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah B.; Leader, Amy; Shwarz, Michelle; Greener, Judith; Patterson, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination or willingness to be vaccinated in urban, minority adolescents. Methods: Using responses to the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Philadelphia, a random sample of high schools provided weighted data representing 20,941 9th to 12th graders. Stratified by…

  17. Maternal education is associated with vaccination status of infants less than 6 months in Eastern Uganda: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwine James K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite provision of free childhood vaccinations, less than half of all Ugandan infants are fully vaccinated. This study compares women with some secondary schooling to those with only primary schooling with regard to their infants' vaccination status. Methods A community-based prospective cohort study conducted between January 2006 and May 2008 in which 696 pregnant women were followed up to 24 weeks post partum. Information was collected on the mothers' education and vaccination status of the infants. Results At 24 weeks, the following vaccinations had been received: bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG: 92%; polio-1: 91%; Diphteria-Pertussis-Tetanus-Hepatitis B-Haemophilus Influenza b (DPT-HB-Hib 3 and polio-3: 63%. About 51% of the infants were fully vaccinated (i.e., had received all the scheduled vaccinations: BCG, polio 0, polio 1, DPT-HB-Hib1, polio 2, DPT-HB-Hib 2, polio 3 and DPT-HB-Hib 3. Only 46% of the infants whose mothers' had 5-7 years of primary education had been fully vaccinated compared to 65% of the infants whose mothers' had some secondary education. Infants whose mothers had some secondary education were less likely to miss the DPT-HB-Hib-2 vaccine (RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8, Polio-2 (RR: 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7, polio-3 (RR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.7 and DPT-HB-Hib-3 (RR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.7. Other factors showing some association with a reduced risk of missed vaccinations were delivery at a health facility (RR = 0.8; 95%CI: 0.7, 1.0 and use of a mosquito net (RR: 0.8; 95%CI: 0.7, 1.0. Conclusion Infants whose mothers had a secondary education were at least 50% less likely to miss scheduled vaccinations compared to those whose mothers only had primary education. Strategies for childhood vaccinations should specifically target women with low formal education.

  18. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by

  19. Bell's Palsy as a Possible Complication of Hepatitis B Vaccination in A Child

    OpenAIRE

    Alp, Handan; Tan, Hüseyin; Orbak, Zerrin

    2009-01-01

    Bell's Palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral temporary paralysis of facial muscles resulting from seventh cranial nerve dysfunction. Presented here is a two-year old female patient with right peripheral facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination. Readers’ attention is drawn to an uncommon cause of Bell's Palsy, as a rare complication of hepatitis B vaccination.

  20. Effect of child health status on parents’ allowing children to participate in pediatric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhelst Jérémy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify motivational factors linked to child health status that affected the likelihood of parents’ allowing their child to participate in pediatric research. Methods Parents were invited to return their completed questionnaires anonymously to assess motivational factors and factors that might improve participation in pediatric research. Results Of 573 eligible parents, 261 returned the completed questionnaires. Of these, 126 were parents of healthy children (group 1, whereas 135 were parents of sick children who were divided into two groups according to the severity of their pathology, i.e., 99 ambulatory children (group 2 and 36 nonambulatory children (group 3. The main factor motivating participation in a pediatric clinical research study was “direct benefits for their child” (87.7%, 100%, and 100% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The other factors differed significantly between the three groups, depending on the child’s health status (all p 2 test, all p ≤ 0.04, depending on the child’s health status. The main factor was “a better understanding of the study and its regulation” for the healthy children and ambulatory sick children groups (31.2% and 82.1%, respectively, whereas this was the third factor for the nonambulatory sick children group (50%. Conclusions Innovative strategies should be developed based on a child’s health status to improve information provision when seeking a child’s participation in pediatric research. Parents would like to spend more time in discussions with investigators.

  1. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis for a child with severe allergic reaction to rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Liu, Man-Qing; Chen, Li; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2016-07-01

    Most adverse events (AEs) during the immunization of rabies vaccine were slight, there was little information about the allergic reaction induced by rabies vaccines and had to stop or change the immunization program. Here, we reported a case that a 4-year-old boy had category II exposure to rabies and showed severe allergic reaction after being immunized with lyophilized purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). After the anti-allergy therapy with hormone, allergy testing indicated medium allergy to egg and milk, and implied the allergic reaction most likely associated with animal-sourced gelatin in lyophilized PVRV. Therefore, a new immunization program with liquid PVRV without stabilizers under the Zegrab regimen (2-1-1) was enrolled at day 7 post-exposure. Although lower than the levels of normal vaccines co-existing in the market, but also implied the necessary for doctors to fully understand the allergies history of patients prior to immunize rabies vaccine. PMID:26900624

  2. Generation status as a determinant of influenza vaccination among Mexican-identified adults in California, 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola, Jennifer; Do-Reynoso, Van; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2016-06-01

    First generation Latinos often have better health behaviors and outcomes than second and third generation Latinos. This study examined the correlates of seasonal influenza vaccinations among Mexican-identified (Mexican) adults, who make up the largest Latino subgroup in California. A sample of Mexican adults (N = 7493) from the 2011-12 California Interview Health Survey was used to compare the odds of first, second, and third generation Mexicans receiving influenza vaccinations in the past year. We performed a logistic regression taking into account socio-demographic characteristics, health status, and access to care. We repeated the analysis after stratifying for nativity, and then age. Being a second (odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, confidence interval (CI): 0.59, 0.92) and third generation or higher (OR = 0.66, CI: 0.51, 0.86) Mexican was associated with lower odds of getting an influenza vaccination compared to first generation Mexicans. Having a chronic disease, and access to care was associated with higher odds of vaccination, while lower age was associated with lower odds of vaccination among both US-, and foreign-born Mexicans. Given that the majority of Mexicans in California are US-born, the fact that being second- and third-generation Mexicans was associated with lower influenza vaccination rates is of significant concern. PMID:26844182

  3. Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F

    2015-01-01

    We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza. PMID:26027483

  4. Irradiation-attenuated anti-parasite vaccines in ruminants. Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only commercially available irradiated anti-parasite vaccine is Dictol, the anti-Dictyocaulus viviparus vaccine, which is still being widely used in cattle 20 years after its introduction. Several other similar helminth vaccines which showed promise early in their development or use have now been abandoned for reasons both scientific and commercial. Nevertheless, there is still active interest in the development of irradiated vaccines for fascioliasis and schistosomiasis, as recent field trials have shown that irradiated metacercarial and schistosomular vaccines are effective against F. hepatica and S. bovis in cattle. There are no commercially available irradiated vaccines against protozoal diseases. Although experiments showed that irradiated vaccines were effective against Babesia bigemina and Theileria parva in cattle, interest in these has waned as other forms of live vaccines have been introduced. Vaccination against African trypanosomiasis remains an intractable problem, because of the multiplicity of naturally occurring antigenically distinct strains. (author)

  5. Immunization Status Against Hepatitis B Among Iranian Junior Medical, Nursing, and Obstetrics Students With Different Vaccination Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the protection time by hepatitis B (HB vaccination is unclear, the strategy of immunization of junior students who previously received hepatitis vaccine is controversial. Objectives This study aimed to determine the status of immunity to hepatitis B in junior medical, nursing and obstetrics students with different hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination patterns. Patients and Methods In an analytical cross-sectional study, 255 junior medical sciences students were tested for quantitative antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs. The proportion of protective immunity was compared in different vaccination patterns. Results Vaccination coverage rates were 74.1%. About half the participants didn’t show serological evidence of protective immunity; 68.9% had their last shot more than 10 years ago and 30.4% had a vaccination history of five years or less (P < 0.001. Geometric mean level of anti-HBs titer among students, who had received a primary series vaccine at birth, was significantly lower than students who had started vaccination at an older age (P < 0.001. Also, analysis of variance for geometric mean of anti-HBs titer showed significant differences between groups based on injection time from the last shot (P < 0.001 (post hoc comparisons resulted in a P value of < 0.001 for birth versus < 5 year group, and P < 0.001 for the 5 to 10 year group. The lowest rate of non-protective level belonged to participants with complete three doses and a booster additional shot (27.1%. The final model for independent predictors of anti-HBs positive status was made by a binary logistic regression analysis. The model included presence of a booster dose, injection time from last shot, and discipline of study. Conclusions This study shows lower anti-HBs among students who were vaccinated at infancy compared to those vaccinated at older childhood or adolescence. Also, subsequent measurement of anti-HBs level at the time of entrance to

  6. Status of pandemic influenza vaccination and factors affecting it in pregnant women in Kahramanmaras, an eastern Mediterranean city of Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ozer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 314 of 522 (60.2% pregnant women who attended to the antenatal clinics of the Medical Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University's Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between December 23, 2009, and February 1, 2010. We developed a 48-question survey which was completed in a face-to-face interview at the clinic with each pregnant woman. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 314 pregnant women, 27.4% were in the first trimester, 33.8% were in the second trimester, and 38.8% were in the third trimester. Twenty-eight pregnant women (8.9% got vaccinated. Of all the women interviewed, 68.5% stated that they were comfortable with their decisions about the vaccine, 7.3% stated they were not comfortable, and 24.2% stated that they were hesitant about their decisions. The probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was 3.46 times higher among working women than housewives, 1.85 times higher among women who have a child than those who do not, and 1.29 times higher among women with a high-school education or higher than those with only a secondary-school education and below. Correct knowledge about the minimal risks associated with receipt of influenza vaccine were associated with a significant increase in the probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of pregnant women in the study group who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was very low (8.9% and two-thirds of them stated that they were comfortable with their decisions concerning the vaccine. Our results may have implications for public health measures to increase the currently low

  7. Disconnective Hemispherotomy for Medically Intractable Status Epilepticus in an 8-Year-Old Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Lucas; Bahgat, Diaa; Sharp, Gregory; Willis, Erin; Ocal, Eylem; Albert, Gregory; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-10-01

    We report here the unusual case of an 8-year-old child with left hemispheric focal epilepsy secondary to a perinatal infarction who presented with new onset absence seizures and eventual nonconvulsive status epilepticus that was refractory to medical management. Following review at our multidisciplinary Epilepsy Surgery conference, the patient underwent disconnective surgical hemispherotomy with immediate cessation of his seizures; and has remained seizure-free at 4 months following surgery. In this context, we present here an overview of hemispherectomy and related procedures, including peri-insular disconnective hemispherotomy, and we discuss the efficacy of surgery for challenging hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:26552284

  8. Evaluation of Child Self-perception Regarding Their Oro-dental Status

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Mártha I.; Sorana Roșu; Réka Gyergyay; Katalin Vikárius

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of oral health and the self-perception of children regarding their oro-dental status, their knowledge and attitude towards oral health. Methods: A sample of 130 children (11-14 years) and one of their parents were asked to complete a Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) in Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. From these, 69 children were examined and data was recorded about Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT), oral hygiene, dental malposition and...

  9. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare. PMID:9460821

  10. Current status of a hepatitis C vaccine: encouraging results but significant challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

    -specific vaccines might be required to achieve broad protection. Finally, vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model and cell culture systems, but these are currently being established. Despite these obstacles, several vaccine candidates tested in the chimpanzee HCV model have shown...

  11. Are Improvements in Child Health Due to Increasing Status of Women in Developing Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B

    2015-01-01

    This research tests the hypothesis that change over time in women's status leads to improvements in their children's health. Specifically, we examine whether change in resources and empowerment in mother's roles as biological mothers, caregivers, and providers and social contexts that promote the rights and representation of and investment in women are associated with better nutritional status and survival of young children. Analysis is based on a broad sample of countries (n = 28), with data at two or more points in time to enable examination of change. Key indicators of child health show improvement in the last 13 years in developing nations. Much of this improvement--90 percent of the increase in nutritional status and 47 percent of the reduction in mortality--is associated with improving status of women. Increased maternal education, control over reproduction, freedom from violence, access to health care, legislation and enforcement of women's rights, greater political representation, equality in the education system, and lower maternal mortality are improving children's health. These results imply that further advancement of women's position in society would be beneficial. PMID:26652680

  12. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun-Soon; Jang, Seung-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Bautista, Daniel A; Donald Ritter, G; Lillehoj, Erik P; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis vaccines and anticoccidial drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. Birds were orally vaccinated with a live, attenuated vaccine (Inovocox), or were provided with in-feed salinomycin (Bio-Cox), and body weights, serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antibodies against Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens PFO proteins, and intestinal levels of cytokine gene transcripts were measured. Vaccinated chickens had increased body weights, greater NO levels, and higher profilin and PFO antibody levels compared with salinomycin-fed birds. Transcripts for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interferon-γ were increased, while mRNAs for IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased, in immunized chickens compared with salinomycin-treated chickens. In conclusion, vaccination against avian coccidiosis may be more effective compared with dietary salinomycin for increasing body weight and augmenting pro-inflammatory immune status during commercial poultry production. PMID:23465765

  13. The Influence of Child and Parent Health Literacy Status on Health Outcomes from a Childhood Obesity Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Kamilan Aurielle

    2016-01-01

    While limited health literacy has been associated with poorer health decisions and poorer health outcomes, there remains a gap in the literature related to the influence of health literacy on weight and weight-related behaviors. The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of child and parent health literacy status on childs body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors, within an adapted evidence-based family-based childhood obesity intervention, iChoose, implemented in the medical...

  14. KNOWLEDGE OF HEPATITIS B AND VACCINATION STATUS OF SOME EXPATRIATE ETHNIC GROUPS OF BLUE COLLAR WORKERS IN NORTHERN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Sattar Khan; Maisa Al-Sweilem; Zekeriya Akturk

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find out the level of knowledge and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue color workers. Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665) livi...

  15. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rura...

  16. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology

  17. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in...... MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age < 37 weeks) completed an ASQ at 6 and 22 months. Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS: The...... -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  18. Conflict Competence of Preschool Children and its Relationship with the Sociometric Status of the Child in the Peer Group

    OpenAIRE

    Denisenkova N.S.,; Vyrotskova V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls) aged 5-7 years, attending prep...

  19. Childhood Vaccines: What They Are and Why Your Child Needs Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer or certain diseases, or who are taking drugs that lower the body's ability to resist infection. If your child has had a serious reaction to the first shot in a series of shots, your family doctor will probably talk with you about the pros and cons of giving him or her the rest of ...

  20. Heterologous and sex differential effects of administering vitamin A supplementation with vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kristoffer J.; Ndure, Jorjoh; Plebanski, Magdalena; Flanagan, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    WHO recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) to children from 6 months to 5 years of age in low-income countries, in order to prevent and treat vitamin A deficiency-associated morbidity and mortality. The current policy does not discriminate this recommendation either by sex or vaccination status of the child. There is accumulating evidence that the effects of VAS on morbidity, mortality and immunological parameters depend on concomitant vaccination status. Moreover, these interac...

  1. Association of maternal and child nutritional status in Brazil: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos Felisbino-Mendes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. METHODS: 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children 2. RESULTS: HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height was<145 cm had 1.2 lower HAZ than children whose mothers were ≥160 cm tall (p-trend<0.0001. After further adjustment for maternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WC<80 cm (p-trend<0.01. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI for stunting by the categories of maternal height (<145, 145-149, 150-154, 155-159 and ≥160 cm were, respectively, 2.95 (1.51;5.77, 2.29 (1.33;3.93, 1.09 (0.63;1.87, and 0.89 (0.45;1.77, (p-trend = 0.001. BAZ was positively associated with maternal BMI and WC. CONCLUSION: We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.

  2. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188

  3. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  4. Status of research and development of pediatric vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children, particularly in the developing world. Vaccines are a critical strategy for protecting children from pneumococcal disease and licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are having a significant impact on invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia throughout the world. Currently available PCVs do not, however, cover all pneumococcal serotypes and are complicated and relatively expensive to manufacture. While new PCV development is focused on either higher valency or more inherent affordability for developing countries, new vaccines are needed that offer serotype-independent protection. Vaccines containing proteins that are common to all pneumococcal serotypes could provide broad protection to children worldwide. Protein subunit and whole cell vaccines have advanced into Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials but face considerable challenges before they can become licensed and widely distributed. PMID:27083428

  5. Current status of a hepatitis C vaccine: encouraging results but significant challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 170 million people worldwide. Acute HCV infection is often asymptomatic, but many infected individuals develop persistent infections that may lead to development of end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma....... Thus, an HCV vaccine that could significantly lower the chronicity rate would have a major impact on the disease burden. Unfortunately, HCV is a highly mutable virus, and escape mutations can undermine vaccine-induced virus-specific immunity. Also, HCV exists as multiple genotypes, and so genotype......-specific vaccines might be required to achieve broad protection. Finally, vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model and cell culture systems, but these are currently being established. Despite these obstacles, several vaccine candidates tested in the chimpanzee HCV model have shown...

  6. Current status of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: Application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies are currently investigating the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent various infectious diseases. Multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems have been developed to avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional vaccines (i.e., live-attenuated, killed or inactivated pathogens, carrier proteins and cytotoxic adjuvants. Recently, two main approaches have been used to develop multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: (1 the addition of functional components, e.g., T-cell epitopes, cell-penetrating peptides, and lipophilic moieties; and (2 synthetic approaches using size-defined nanomaterials, e.g., self-assembling peptides, non-peptidic dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles, as antigen-displaying platforms. This review summarizes the recent experimental studies directed to the development of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems.

  7. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential. PMID:26484621

  8. Rough vaccines in animal brucellosis: Structural and genetic basis and present status

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyon, I. (Ignacio); Grillo, M.J. (María Jesús); Monreal, D.; Gonzalez-fernandez, D.; Marin, C.M.; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Mainar, R. (Raúl); Moreno, E.; Blasco, J.M. (José)

    2004-01-01

    International audience - Brucellosis control and eradication requires serological tests and vaccines. Effective classical vaccines (S19 in cattle and Rev 1 in small ruminants), however, induce antibodies to the O-polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide which may be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from infection and may thus complicate diagnosis. Rough attenuated mutants lack the O-polysaccharide and would solve this problem if eliciting protective immunity; the empirically o...

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  10. Comparison of Current Regulatory Status for Gene-Based Vaccines in the U.S., Europe and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikazu Nakayama; Atsushi Aruga

    2015-01-01

    Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing he...

  11. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taren Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls  −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls  −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p  valuesage∗green  space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.

  12. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  13. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Jayatissa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  14. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  15. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  16. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students: Focus on Auditory Status and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L

    2015-08-01

    Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:25287415

  17. Child growth in urban deprived settings: Does household poverty status matter? At which stage of child development?

    OpenAIRE

    FOTSO, JEAN CHRISTOPHE; Madise, Nyovani; BASCHIERI Angela; Cleland, John; Zulu, Eliya; Mutua, Martin Kavao; Essendi, Hildah

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data from two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya to examine patterns of child growth and how these are affected by four different dimensions of poverty at the household level namely, expenditures poverty, assets poverty, food poverty, and subjective poverty. The descriptive results show a grim picture, with the prevalence of overall stunting reaching nearly 60% in the age group 15–17 months and remaining almost constant thereafter. There is a strong associatio...

  18. The Perceived Impact of Disclosure of Pediatric HIV Status on Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence, Child Well-Being, and Social Relationships in a Resource-Limited Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeman, Rachel C.; Winstone M Nyandiko; Ayaya, Samwel O.; Walumbe, Eunice G.; Marrero, David G.; Inui, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, beliefs about disclosing a child's HIV status and the subsequent impacts of disclosure have not been well studied. We sought to describe how parents and guardians of HIV-infected children view the impact of disclosing a child's HIV status, particularly for children's antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. A qualitative study was conducted using involving focus groups and interviews with parents and guardians of HIV-infected children receiving ART in western Keny...

  19. Physician Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Patient Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Status

    OpenAIRE

    Santibanez, Tammy A.; Zimmerman, Richard Kent; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Katz Jewell, Ilene; Bardella, Inis J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Barriers to adult immunizations persist as current rates for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) receipt among eligible adults remain below national goals. This study investigated potential barriers to patients receiving the PPV, including predisposing, enabling, environmental and reinforcing factors among physicians from a variety of practice and geographic settings.

  20. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  1. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson Ann M; McCarty Maribet C; Goodman Mike; Mullooly John P; Wei Feifei; Crane Bradley; Nordin James D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilizat...

  2. IMMUNE STATUS OF CHILDREN TWO MONTHS TO SIX YEARS OLD TO POLIOVIRUSES I, II AND III INA RURAL AREA OF TEHRAN RELATED TO HISTORY OF VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sabouri

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum survey was conducted to determine the immune status of children 2 months to 6 Years old to polio virus type I, II and III related to the history of oral polio vaccination in Fashapouye (A rural area in the south of Teheran. 566 serum samples were obtained from children in 9 different villages and microneutra lization test was performed on 1;10 dilution of these sera. The study revealed that 62 per cent had received three or more doses of vaccine, 8.3 per cent two doses, 13 per cent one dose 5.6 per cent were not vaccinated. On the entire study group prevalence of immunity (serum titer 1; 10 irrespective to the history of vaccination was 90, 94 and 86 per cent for polio I, II and III respectively. The highest rate of unvaccinated and nonimmune children was in 2 to 6 months old group. The percentage of children lacking antibody to polio, I, II and III in nonvaccinated is 41, 25 and 34 percent respectively and these rates decrease in vaccinated children to reach the level of 6, 2 and 10 percent in those who have received three or more doses of vaccine. Over all results suggest that an adequate response to oral polio vaccination is observed in this rural region but an increased effort must be made for covering a higher percentage of children in all age groups especially in 2 months to one year old.

  3. Evaluation of Child Self-perception Regarding Their Oro-dental Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Mártha I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of oral health and the self-perception of children regarding their oro-dental status, their knowledge and attitude towards oral health. Methods: A sample of 130 children (11-14 years and one of their parents were asked to complete a Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 in Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. From these, 69 children were examined and data was recorded about Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT, oral hygiene, dental malposition and malocclusion, Aesthetic Component of Index of Treatment Need (AC-IOTN. Consent of the parents was obtained. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: The optimal score of CPQ evaluation is 96 and the maximum score achieved was 93, the minimum was 43. 78.10 average score can be graded as medium. As the data points out, most of the children and their parents have a medium knowledge and self-perception. The clinical examination underline the main problems: dental caries (62%, occlusal coloration (23%, dental malposition (17%, rooftop deep bite (14%, dental rotation and crowding (12%, dental plaque and tartar (10%. As far as the AC-IOTN is concerned, 48 of 69 children have no need for treatment, 18 have a high need for treatment, and 3 have a moderate need for treatment. Conclusions: Overall, the children and their parents have a poor oral health knowledge, which is reflected in the medium level of the achieved CPQ scores, in the clinical examination and can be associated with high levels of dental caries and malocclusion

  4. Child Care Choices, Food Choices, and Children’s Obesity Status

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...

  5. Childhood vaccination in informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Who gets vaccinated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettarh Remare R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations

  6. Current Status and Development of Vaccines and Other Biologics for Human Rabies Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Charles E; Nagarajan, Thirumeni; Ertl, Hildegund

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a neglected viral zoonosis with the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. Pasteur's historical accomplishments during the late 19(th) century began the process of human vaccine development, continuing to evolve into the 21(st) century. Over the past 35 years, great improvements occurred in the production of potent tissue culture vaccines and the gradual removal from the market of unsafe nerve tissue products. Timely and appropriate administration of modern biologics virtually assures survivorship, even after severe exposures. Nevertheless, in the developing world, if not provided for free nationally, the cost of a single course of human prophylaxis exceeds the average monthly wage of the common worker. Beyond traditional approaches, recombinant, sub-unit and other novel methods are underway to improve the availability of safe, effective and more affordable rabies biologics. PMID:26796599

  7. Salmonella Serogroup C: Current Status of Vaccines and Why They Are Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuche, Fabien J; Sow, Ousmane; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M

    2016-09-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS; i.e., Salmonella enterica organisms that do not cause typhoid or paratyphoid) are responsible for 94 million infections and 155,000 deaths worldwide annually, 86% of which are estimated to be foodborne. Although more than 50 serogroups and 2,600 serovars have been described, not all Salmonella serovars cause disease in humans and animals. Efforts are being made to develop NTS vaccines, with most approaches eliciting protection against serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis (serogroups B [O:4] and D [O:9], respectively), as they are widely considered the most prevalent. Here, we show that serogroup C (O:6,7, O:6,8, or O:8 epitopes) is the most common serogroup in the United States, and the prevalence of serovars from this serogroup has been increasing in Europe and the United States over the last decade. They are also the most commonly isolated serovars from healthy cattle and poultry, indicating the underlying importance of surveillance in animals. Four out of the 10 most lethal serovars in the United States are serogroup C, and reports from African countries suggest that strains within this serogroup are highly antibiotic resistant. Serogroup C consists of highly diverse organisms among which 37 serovars account for the majority of human cases, compared to 17 and 11 serovars for serogroups B and D, respectively. Despite these concerning data, no human vaccines targeting serogroup C NTS are available, and animal vaccines are in limited use. Here, we describe the underestimated burden represented by serogroup C NTS, as well as a discussion of vaccines that target these pathogens. PMID:27413069

  8. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and referral status of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Krikken; A.J. van Wijk; J.M. ten Cate; J.S.J. Veerkamp

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Treating children can be difficult for both dentist and child. In some cases treatment fails and those children are referred to a specialist paediatric dentist. Different factors can be put forward for referral of children, such as factors relating to the child, dentist and parent. Possib

  9. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  10. Understanding how family socioeconomic status mediates the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2013-01-01

    In a model of moderated mediation using matched data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Children and Young Adults, I test (1) whether family socioeconomic status (SES) mediates the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship and (2) the extent to which this mediating impact is dependent on the level of maternal intelligence. Results reveal that the mediating impact of SES on the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship varies as a function of the level of maternal intelligence. The positive effect of higher SES on children's academic ability decreases as the cognitive ability of mothers increases, such that children in low IQ households benefit most from higher SES, while children in high IQ households benefit somewhat less. PMID:24215257

  11. Comparison of Current Regulatory Status for Gene-Based Vaccines in the U.S., Europe and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakayama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing heterologous antigens for human use have yet been licensed in the U.S., Europe or Japan. In this research, we describe the current regulatory context for gene-based prophylactic vaccines against infectious disease in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. We identify the important considerations, in particular, on the preclinical assessments that would allow these vaccines to proceed to clinical trials, and the differences on the regulatory pathway for the marketing authorization in each region.

  12. Good Child is a Calm Child: Mothers' Social Status, Maternal Conceptions of Proper Demeanor, and Stranger Anxiety in One-Year Old Cameroonian Nso Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiltrud Otto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our article questions the assumption that stranger anxiety develops universally in children; thereby our study is rooted in a long tradition in psychological anthropology of testing the universality of theories formulated in Western society. We argue that the infant's behavior towards strangers is the product of socialization processes that represent adaptations to cultural contexts. Our study investigates the ethnotheory of childrearing and the development of stranger anxiety in a Cameroonian community of traditional Nso farmers. The participants of the study were 29 Cameroonian Nso mothers with one-year old children. Using a multi-method approach, we demonstrate that Nso mothers value inexpressive infants that adjust easily to others. Accordingly, a considerably large number of one-year old Nso infants showed no stranger anxiety when encountered by a stranger. Maternal social status and her social support system proved crucial to successful implementation of the socialization goal of a calm child. Our data support the view that child behavior is a product of culturally constructed experiences of daily life. The acknowledgement of the cultural construction of stranger anxiety carries implications for developmental theories, especially for attachment theory, which relies on the universality of stranger anxiety in their most acclaimed paradigm, the Strange Situation.

  13. Association of Maternal and Child Health Center (Posyandu Availability with Child Weight Status in Indonesia: A National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Andriani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237. Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21 and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93–1.07. This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.13, respectively. There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life.

  14. Looking upstream: enhancers of child nutritional status in post-flood rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background. Child undernutrition and flooding are highly prevalent public health issues in many developing countries, yet we have little understanding of preventive strategies for effective coping in these circumstances. Education has been recently highlighted as key to reduce the societal impacts of extreme weather events under climate change, but there is a lack of studies assessing to what extent parental education may prevent post-flood child undernutrition. Methods and Materials. One year after large floods in 2008, we conducted a two-stage cluster population-based survey of 6-59 months children inhabiting flooded and non-flooded communities of Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha (India), and collected anthropometric measurements on children along with child, parental and household level variables through face-to-face interviews. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we examined separately the effect of maternal and paternal education and other risk factors (mainly income, socio-demographic, and child and mother variables) on stunting and wasting in children from households inhabiting recurrently flooded communities (2006 and 2008; n = 299). As a comparison, separate analyses on children in non-flooded communities were carried out (n = 385). All analyses were adjusted by income as additional robustness check. Results. Overall, fathers with at least completed middle education (up to 14 years of age and compulsory in India) had an advantage in protecting their children from child wasting and stunting. For child stunting, the clearest result was a 100-200% lower prevalence associated with at least paternal secondary schooling (compared to no schooling) in flooded-areas. Again, only in flooded communities, an increase in per capita annual household income of 1,000 rupees was associated to a 4.7-4.9% lower prevalence of child stunting. For child wasting in flooded areas, delayed motherhood was associated to better nutritional outcomes (3.4% lower prevalence per

  15. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... younger than 3 months of age. 4. Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) Signs and symptoms can include fever, headache, stiff ... be recommended for travel to certain countries. Hib ( Haemophilus influenzae type b) 3 or 4 2 months, 4 months, (6 ...

  16. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... placebo-controlled trial of VAS, we obtained blood from 614 children at 6 wk of age and from 369 mother-infant pairs at 4 mo of age. We assessed vitamin A status on the basis of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) and measured serum C-reactive protein to monitor for concurrent infections. RESULTS: RBP...... interval (P = 0.009), particularly in girls (P for interaction = 0.01) and in vitamin A recipients (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, VAS at birth had no effect on vitamin A status. However VAS may temporarily improve vitamin A status in the subgroup of children of noneducated mothers. In vitamin A...

  17. Conflict Competence of Preschool Children and its Relationship with the Sociometric Status of the Child in the Peer Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova N.S.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls aged 5-7 years, attending preparatory groups in kindergartens in Moscow (in 2011-2013. The study was conducted using an experimental technique "Desk of cooperation" (M. Madsen, aimed at the study of conflict competence, the sociometric technique "Two Houses" (modification by R.I. Govorova, and a survey of educators aimed at identifying the status position in the preschool group peers. According to the survey, we can say that there are qualitative differences in the strategies of behavior in the conflict that children with different sociometric status choose.

  18. Predicted vitamin D status in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Jensen, Camilla B; Strøm, Marin; Cohen, Arieh; Nielsen, Nina O; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-01-01

    national registry extracts. We used multivariable log-binomial models to quantify risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI. Plasma 25(OH)D was examined in a stability analysis. RESULTS: Median (IQR) vitamin D prediction score was 58.7 (49.2-69.0) nmol/l. In main analysis, there was no association between vitamin D......BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be a risk factor for child allergic disease. However, less is known about disease risk across different levels of vitamin D. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relation between a maternal vitamin D prediction score and child allergic disease....... METHODS: A total of 32,456 pregnant women were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2003) and had data on a validated vitamin D prediction score based on 1497 mid-pregnancy plasma 25(OH)D samples. Child allergic disease was assessed at 18 months and at 7 years using questionnaire data and...

  19. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Junqing Chu; Mobarak Hossain Khan; Jahn, Heiko J.; Alexander Kraemer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ ...

  20. Child Mortality as Predicted by Nutritional Status and Recent Weight Velocity in Children under Two in Rural Africa.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    WHO has released prescriptive child growth standards for, among others, BMI-for-age (BMI-FA), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age, and weight velocity. The ability of these indices to predict child mortality remains understudied, although growth velocity prognostic value underlies current growth monitoring programs. The study aims were first to assess, in children under 2, the independent and combined ability of these indices and of stunting to predict all-cause mortality within 3 mo, and second, the comparative abilities of weight-for-length (WFL) and BMI-FA to predict short-term (<3 mo) mortality. We used anthropometry and survival data from 2402 children aged between 0 and 24 mo in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo with high malnutrition and mortality rates and limited nutritional rehabilitation. Analyses used Cox proportional hazard models and receiver operating characteristic curves. Univariate analysis and age-adjusted analysis showed predictive ability of all indices. Multivariate analysis without age adjustment showed that only very low weight velocity [HR = 3.82 (95%CI = 1.91, 7.63); P < 0.001] was independently predictive. With age adjustment, very low weight velocity [HR = 3.61 (95%CI = 1.80, 7.25); P < 0.001] was again solely retained as an independent predictor. There was no evidence for a difference in predictive ability between WFL and BMI-FA. This paper shows the value of attained BMI-FA, a marker of wasting status, and recent weight velocity, a marker of the wasting process, in predicting child death using the WHO child growth standards. WFL and BMI-FA appear equivalent as predictors.

  1. Immune Response in Goats to Different Payloads of FMDV Monovalent Vaccine: Protection Against Virulent Challenge and Development of Carrier Status

    OpenAIRE

    Madhanmohan, M.; Nagendrakumar, S. B.; Santhakumar, P.; Thiagarajan, D.; Lakshmi Narasu, M.; Srinivasan, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship of Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus antigen payload and number of dose of vaccine conferring protection against virus challenge in goats was studied. Goats vaccinated with oil adjuvant Foot-and-Mouth Disease vaccines containing different antigen payloads with or without booster resisted virulent challenge at 21 days post-vaccination or 7 days after booster respectively. However, localized sub-clinical infection was observed in two vaccinated goats on 35 days post-challenge. RNA c...

  2. Evaluation of the transcriptional status of host cytokines and viral genes in the trachea of vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after challenge with the infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Riblet, Sylva; Zavala, Guillermo; Ecco, Roselene; Afonso, Claudio L; García, Maricarmen

    2016-02-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is a highly contagious disease of chickens responsible for significant economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by Gallid herpesvirus-1 (GaHV-1) commonly known as the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Although characterized by their potential to regain virulence, chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines are the most effective vaccines against laryngotracheitis as they significantly reduce the replication of challenge virus in the trachea and conjunctiva. Knowledge on the nature of protective immunity elicited by CEO vaccines is very limited. Therefore, elucidating the origin of the immune responses elicited by CEO vaccination is relevant for development of safer control strategies. In this study the transcription levels of key host immune genes (IFN-γ, IFN-β, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18) and viral genes (ICP4, ICP27, UL46, UL49), as well as viral genome loads in trachea were quantified at 6 and 12 hours post-challenge of CEO vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens. Immediately after challenge a significant increase in IFN-γ gene expression was followed by a significant reduction in viral replication. In contrast to the rapid induction of IFN-γ, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and type I IFN β was either slightly reduced or remained at basal levels. These suggest that the former cytokines may not play important roles during immediate early responses induced by ILTV challenge in either vaccinated or non-vaccinated chickens. Overall, these results suggest that the rapid expression of IFN-γ may induce pathways of antiviral responses necessary for blocking early virus replication. PMID:26926298

  3. The Role of Parenting Styles and Socio-Economic Status in Parents' Knowledge of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…

  4. Counting on Kin: Social Networks, Social Support, and Child Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia; Donato, Katharine M.; Thompson-Colon, Theresa; Stainback, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of new data collection in Mexico about the relationship between child well-being and social networks. Two research questions guide the analysis. First, under what conditions do networks generate greater (lesser) support? Second, what kinds of networks are associated with healthier children? We explore the health…

  5. Socioeconomic Status and Parent-Child Relationships Predict Metacognitive Questions to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Foster, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of metacognitive language exposure to early educational achievement is widely recognized in the development literature. However, few studies have explored parents' metacognitive language, while accounting for family SES and stress within the parent-child relationship. This is a preliminary descriptive study to explore…

  6. Predictors of Vaccination Card Retention in Children 12-59 months old in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Sadiq Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the factors associated with retaining the vaccination card among care takers of 12-59 months old children in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study in Karachi. Households were randomly selected throughout a multistage cluster sampling technique. Data was collected for 504 children of 12- 59 months of age. Questionnaire was administered to caretakers to gather information regarding the children’s vaccination status, socio-demographic characteristics and reviewing their vaccination cards. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 19 using logistic regression. Results: Among 462 vaccinated children, caretakers of 33% provided vaccination cards. Odds of card retention decrease if the caretaker has a large household i.e., >5 people sharing one room (AOR 0.277, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.797 and if the child is of four to five years of age (AOR 0.544, 95% CI: 0.305, 0.970. Gender of the child, and the caretaker’s education and access to electronic media were not significant predictors of vaccination card retention in our study. Conclusion: Our study showed that vaccination card retention for children 12-59 months of age was low (33% in Karachi. There is a need to educate caretakers of young children regarding the importance of keeping vaccination card and to disseminate this information through healthcare providers. Improving vaccination card retention is one of the key measures which will help towards accurately estimating coverage and to inform health policy decisions.

  7. Chikungunya vaccines in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  8. Early pregnancy B vitamin status, one carbon metabolism, pregnancy outcome and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Navais, Pol; Cavallé-Busquets, Pere; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D; Murphy, Michelle M

    2016-07-01

    Periconception supplementation with folic acid is recommended until 12 gestational weeks to prevent neural tube defects. Doses of folic acid contained in supplements and timing and length of use during pregnancy vary. The effects of status in periconception and pregnancy folate, cobalamin, betaine and their interactions on one carbon metabolism (1C), as well as the global effect of 1C on foetal growth and pregnancy outcome, are reviewed. Results from prospective studies are reviewed. Cessation of folic acid supplement use after the first trimester is associated with a sharp drop in plasma folate status and enhanced conversion of betaine to dimethylglycine. Dimethylglycine production is also higher in mothers with low folate status than in those with normal-high folate status. The effects of high doses of folic acid on one carbon metabolism in mothers with low early pregnancy cobalamin status and on foetal growth are also reviewed. Several studies report that moderately elevated early pregnancy fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is inversely associated with birth weight and a predictor of intrauterine growth retardation. There is also evidence for increased risk of preterm birth when maternal folate status is low. PMID:26700149

  9. Development Status and Trend Analysis in Aquaculture Vaccines%水产疫苗研究开发现状与趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠良; 王蓓; 鲁义善; 吴灶和

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture vaccines not only boost immunity of aquatic animals and prevent aquaculture diseases, but also reduce the use of drugs, lower the cost of aquaculture reproduction and solve problems of food safety and environment pollutions caused by drug residues, and finally lead aquaculture to develop in the green and sustainable direction. As thus, aquaculture vaccines become one of the research hotspots in the diseases control for aquatic animals. In this paper, the history of vaccine development, vaccine types, and vaccine delivery methods are summarized. The status and trend of key technologies in aquaculture vaccines are introduced.%水产疫苗不仅能够增强水产动物的免疫力,预防水产病害发生,还能减少各类药物的使用,降低生殖生产成本,解决各种药物残留带来的食品安全和环境污染等问题,使水产养殖业向绿色、可持续方向发展。因此,水产疫苗已成为水产动物病害防治领域的研究热点。综述了水产疫苗的发展历程、水产疫苗种类与接种方式,并介绍了水产疫苗关键技术发展现状与趋势。

  10. Effect of gender and age on the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hepatitis B and C and vaccination status of hepatitis B among medical students of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the vaccination status for hepatitis B and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B and C among medical students of Karachi and to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the responses, regarding vaccination and KAP for Hepatitis B and C. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 7 medical colleges/ universities of Karachi. Convenient sampling was used to collect the information. Questionnaire regarding awareness about prevention, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and vaccination availability for hepatitis B and C was completed from each individual. In addition, vaccination status of hepatitis B and the awareness of students regarding post exposure prophylaxis was also documented. One thousand five hundred and nine students participated in this study. Results: The mean age of medical students (1509) was 20.35 +- 1.72 years. Female participants were 1075 (71.2%) and 937 62.1%) of the respondents were studying in public institutions. Eighty five percent of the respondents indicated that they were aware of availability of a vaccine for hepatitis B. Only 57.1% medical students showed excellent knowledge regarding the route of spread of hepatitis B and C. Students showing good knowledge of treatment procedures for hepatitis B and C were 48.2%. Half of the respondents (49.8%) showed good knowledge regarding spread of hepatitis by dental procedures. Seventy six percent of participating medical students did not have any knowledge about the post exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B and C. Seventy four percent indicated that the hepatitis patients should not be isolated. Seventy nine percent of the students reported that they were vaccinated for hepatitis B and 70.6% of them were completely vaccinated (3 doses). About half of the respondents (49.4%) indicated that they were screened for hepatitis B and only 27.1% were screened for hepatitis C. Half of the students reported that they have had needle pricks in their

  11. Altered Mental Status in a Child With an Unwitnessed Fall: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurat, Michelle R; Zaia, Brita E

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of altered mental status in a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department after presumed head trauma. A computed tomography head was conducted and its findings were normal, and the boy was discharged home. He returned the next day with persistent altered mental status and was found to have an abnormal MR brain suggestive of embolic strokes. An echocardiogram revealed a large atrial mass that was later confirmed by pathology to be an atrial myxoma. This is a unique and, to our knowledge, unreported presentation of a known but rare disease process in a pediatric patient. PMID:27253357

  12. Febrile infection-related status epilepticus in a child after a common infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Helene; Hansen, Lars Kjærsgaard

    2014-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy developed seizures and intractable status epilepticus a week after having had a sore throat. Ketogenic diet possibly had some effect. Antibodies to calmodulin dependent protein kinase II were found and could possibly suggest an immunologic aetiology.......A 13-year-old boy developed seizures and intractable status epilepticus a week after having had a sore throat. Ketogenic diet possibly had some effect. Antibodies to calmodulin dependent protein kinase II were found and could possibly suggest an immunologic aetiology....

  13. Poliovirus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Isik Yalcin

    2008-01-01

    The two types of poliovirus vaccines are inactivated vaccine, given parenterally, and live virus vaccine, given orally. Oral poliovirus is the vaccine of choice for global eradication. Either inactivated vaccine or oral vaccine may be given concurrently with other routinely recommended childhood vaccines. No serious adverse events have been associated with the vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine can cause vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

  14. Efficacy of Nursing Safety Management in Child Vaccination%儿童预防接种护理安全管理的实施效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢立娜; 朱会群

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析儿童安全预防接种护理的实施效果。方法选取200例接受预防接种儿童,随机分为对照组(100例)与研究组(100例),对照组采取常规免疫接种,研究组采取安全预防接种护理,对比两组护理效果。结果研究组家长满意度、知晓率分别为98.00%(98/100)、92.00%(92/100),对照组分别为89.00%(89/100)、81.00%(81/100),研究组高于对照组(P<0.05)。研究组儿童配合率、疫苗接种率分别为80.00%(80/100)、96.00%(96/100),对照组分别为67.00%(67/100)、88.00%(88/100),研究组高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论采取儿童安全预防接种护理能提高儿童配合度与接种率。%ObjectiveTo analysis effect of safety nursing inoculation against child.Methods Chose 200 patients who underwent vaccination of children,were randomly divided into control group(100)and(100)study group,control group adopted routine immunization and vaccination team take safety nursing,nursing effect compared to two groups.ResultsThe team parents satisfaction and witting rate were 98.00% and 98.00% respectively,the control group were 89.00%,81.00%,the team was higher than the control group(P<0.05). Group children matching rate,vaccination rates were 80.00%,96.00%,the control group were 67.00%,88.00%,the team was higher than the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion Take vaccinating children against safety nursing can improve children's cooperation degree and coverage.

  15. Update on Veterinary Tuberculosis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Objective: At the conclusion of this presentation, the participant will know the current status of veterinary tuberculosis vaccine research and development, and understand the challenges which remain for the future introduction of tuberculosis vaccines intended for wildlife and livestock...

  16. A comparison of folate status in women of child-bearing age in Korea and in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taisun Hyun,1 Suguna Badiga,2 Han Byul Jang,1 Young-Hee Han,1 Chandrika J Piyathilake21Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea; 2Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Even though several studies have demonstrated that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid (FA reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects, FA fortification has been a topic of intense debate due to the possible adverse effects of higher folate status on several health conditions. Several countries, including Korea, have been indecisive as to whether fortification is warranted or not. It is therefore helpful for these countries to compare folate concentrations in their populations with populations exposed to mandatory FA fortification.Purpose: To evaluate the differences in the distribution of circulating concentrations of folate in Korea and the United States (US at different time points.Methods: The Korean study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in 1999 and in 2009. The US study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in the post FA fortification era (2005 and 2009. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC folate concentrations were measured using the Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay.Results: The percentage of US women with neural tube defect-protective levels of RBC folate was significantly higher compared to Korean women in 1999 and 2009. However, in 2009, when FA supplements became readily available for Koreans, 50% of Korean women in the study achieved the neural tube defect-protective level of RBC folate; 11% of them demonstrating supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate. Even though FA fortification in the US resulted in more than 80of women achieving >400 ng/mL of RBC folate by 2009, nearly 50% also demonstrated having supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate, which prompted some researchers to

  17. Does Socioeconomic Status Matter? A Meta-Analysis on Parent Training Effectiveness for Disruptive Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged family socioeconomic status (SES) is often assumed to diminish parent training program effectiveness. In examining effects of SES, influences of initial problem severity have been largely ignored. In the present meta-analysis, we examined (a) whether there is a differential influence of SES on parent training effectiveness at…

  18. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates. PMID:26918890

  19. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorepractices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status. PMID:26435007

  20. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  1. Child overweight in France and its relationship with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Lioret, S.; Maire, Bernard; Volatier, J. L.; Charles, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: (1) To assess the prevalence of childhood overweight (OW) and obesity in France; (2) to examine how physical activity and sedentary behaviour are involved in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW, while taking into account total energy intake. Design and subjects: Representative sample of French children aged 3-14 years (n=1016) taken from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French INCA (Enquete Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) food consum...

  2. The interplay among socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting in the prediction of child conduct problems and callous-unemotional behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Willoughby, Michael T; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Wagner, Nicholas; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    Child conduct problems (CP) reflect a heterogeneous collection of oppositional, aggressive, norm-violating, and sometimes violent behaviors, whereas child callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors reflect interpersonal styles of interactions reflecting a lack of guilt and empathy as well as uncaring and shallow emotional responses to others. Taken together, high levels of child CP and CU behaviors are thought to identify a relatively homogenous group of children at elevated risk for persistent and more severe problem behaviors across childhood and into adulthood. Although a large body of research has examined the developmental etiology of CP behaviors, only recently has a developmental psychopathology approach been applied to early CU behaviors. The current study examines multiple levels of contextual influences during the first years of life, including family socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting behaviors, on CP and CU behaviors assessed during the first-grade year. Whereas previous studies found associations between parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors moderated by household chaos, the current study found no evidence of moderation. However, path analyses suggest that the associations between child CP and CU behaviors and the contextual variables of socioeconomic status (family income and parental education) and household chaos (disorganization and instability) were mediated by maternal sensitive and harsh-intrusive parenting behavior. Analyses are presented, interpreted, and discussed with respect to both bioecological and family stress models of development. PMID:27427804

  3. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel

    2014-09-01

    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. PMID:24816322

  4. Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample. PMID:24958453

  5. Status of a Unique Vaccine against hCG for Contraception and Advanced Stage Cancers expressing ectopically hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar GP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear Egon!br God bless you on your 95th Birthday! May you complete 100 years.br Being submitted in your honor is a brief article on my continuing work to make available a unique vaccine preventing pregnancy in women without blocking ovulation, her normal production of sex steroid hormones and retaining her regular menstrual cycles and bleeding profiles.br The vaccine is directed at the Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, which emerges following fertilization of the egg [1]. Healthy, non-pregnant women do not make it, the basis on which its detection in serum or urine serves as a reliable test for diagnosis of pregnancy. It plays a critical role in implantation of the embryo & thereby to the onset of pregnancy. The purpose of the vaccine is to generate bioeffective antibodies neutralizing hCG & thereby prevent the onset of pregnancy.br As you can imagine, the making of a workable vaccine, competent to make antibodies against a tolerant molecule to the woman’s immune system (she literally bathes in hCG during pregnancy was not simple. What was also demanded was high immunogenicity of the vaccine to make fairly high titres of antibodies to counteract the large amount of hCG made in early pregnancy. At each stage, it required testing in humans and before that could be done, appropriate toxicology studies & approval of Regulatory and Ethics Committees was needed each taking its time. Eventually the vaccine has to be amenable to industrial production to reach the public, hence a recombinant vaccine had to be developed. Given below is a brief write-up on the evolution of the vaccine against the human chorionic gonadotropin.br Yours, Pran

  6. Generation status as a determinant of influenza vaccination among Mexican-identified adults in California, 2011–12

    OpenAIRE

    Mendiola, Jennifer; Do-Reynoso, Van; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2015-01-01

    First generation Latinos often have better health behaviors and outcomes than second and third generation Latinos. This study examined the correlates of seasonal influenza vaccinations among Mexican-identified (Mexican) adults, who make up the largest Latino subgroup in California. A sample of Mexican adults (N = 7493) from the 2011–12 California Interview Health Survey was used to compare the odds of first, second, and third generation Mexicans receiving influenza vaccinations in the past ye...

  7. 猪带绦虫TSOL18疫苗的研制现状%The status in the research of TSOL18 vaccine for Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文桂; 陈雅棠

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is one type of zoonosis seriously endangering human health.It' s mainly prevalent in central Africa,southern Africa,Latin America,eastern Asia and southern Asia.It recently becomes highlight to control this disease by use of vaccines.The review outlined the status in the research of the encoding gene,DNA vaccine and protein vaccine of TSOL18 of Taenia solium.%猪囊尾蚴病是一种严重危害人类健康的人兽共患寄生虫病,主要流行于中非、南非、拉丁美洲、东亚和南亚等地区.采用疫苗防治该病是当前研究的热点.该文对TSOL18的编码基因、DNA疫苗和蛋白疫苗等方面的研究现状进行了综述.

  8. Status of prevention of parent to child transmission services among HIV-positive mothers from rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbarasi Subramaniyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tamil Nadu comes under group I high-prevalence state, with <1% prevalence of HIV infection in ante-natal women but above 5% prevalence in high-risk group. One of the ways to control HIV/AIDS in India is through prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT, the success of which lies in the utilization of services. Materials and Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the status of utilization of PPTCT services by rural HIV-positive mothers, in the Gingee Block of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu. All the mothers who tested positive between June 2006 and May 2010 were interviewed in-depth using an interview guide. Results: There were 21 HIV-positive mothers during this period, 19 of whom gave consent for the study. Thirteen out of 19 mothers (68% received Nevirapine prophylaxis, while 15 out of 20 infants born to these mothers (75% received Nevirapine syrup. During the study period, it was found that 61% of the mothers were not compliant to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Conclusion: Poor access to the ART centers was reflected in majority of the cases (79%. There is a pressing need to improve access to quality PPTCT services especially during the intranatal period.

  9. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. PMID:27589048

  10. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540

  11. Venous stroke and status epilepticus due to milk-induced anemia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Leslie; Piantino, Juan; Goldstein, Joshua; Wainwright, Mark S

    2015-02-01

    The risk factors for cerebral sinus venous thrombosis include dehydration, infection, and anemia. The clinical presentation in children of venous strokes associated with cerebral venous thrombosis is variable and may include seizures. Acute management should focus on the treatment of the primary cause and anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy if needed. Early recognition and targeted treatment is important because survivors are at increased risk for long-term neurologic complications. We report a case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with status epilepticus and was subsequently found to have a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the transverse and sigmoid sinus, with venous infarction in the temporal lobe. Laboratory results were significant for a microcytic anemia caused by excessive milk intake. Although iron deficiency anemia is a common pediatric disorder, this uncommon presentation demonstrates the potential for neurologic complications secondary to anemia, as well as the need for a high index of suspicion in order to identify venous stroke as a cause in children who present to the emergency department with seizures. PMID:25513978

  12. Immunobiology of Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...

  13. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms "enterovirus 71" and "epidemiology" or "pathogenesis" or "molecular epidemiology" or "vaccine" in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing. PMID:27618078

  14. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  15. One health/veterinary links associated with TB vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: participants will understand the current status of veterinary tuberculosis (TB) vaccine research for cattle and wildlife and their potential applications for development of human TB vaccines. Vaccines are lacking for many chronic intracellular pathogens requiring cell-mediated immunity ...

  16. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Ann M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study. Results The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services. Conclusion Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases.

  17. Predicting Maternal Parenting Stress in Middle Childhood: The Roles of Child Intellectual Status, Behaviour Problems and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C.; Baker, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The…

  18. 猪带绦虫45W蛋白疫苗的研制现状%Status of research on a 45W protein vaccine for Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文桂; 陈雅棠

    2012-01-01

    猪囊尾蚴病是一种严重危害人类健康的人兽共患寄生虫病,主要流行于中非、南非、拉丁美洲、东亚和南亚等地区.采用疫苗防治该病是当前研究的热点.本文对45W蛋白的起源、编码基因和45W蛋白疫苗等方面的研究现状进行了综述.%Cysticercosis cellulosae is a type of zoonosis that serious endangers human health and that is prevalent mainly in central and southern Africa, Latin America, and East and Southern Asia. Attention has focused on using a vaccine to control this disease. This review outlines the status of research on the origins of the 45W protein of Taenia solium, the gene that codes for it, and 45W protein vaccines.

  19. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.

  20. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...

  1. Factors predicting BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria: a behavioral-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Lawan, Umar

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the predictors of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization status among infants in northern Nigeria using a behavioral-ecological model. The findings show only 37.3 percent of the children had received BCG vaccine, and reveal that BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria is influenced by multiple layers of factors, including child's characteristics, parental or household factors, community characteristics, vaccine supply and the policy environment. At the child's level, place of birth and ownership of an immunization card are the two most significant predictors. The parental and household predictors of BCG immunization status include maternal use of antenatal care, maternal knowledge about immunization, maternal exposure to child health information, social influence and paternal approval of immunization. Both the regularity of vaccine supply to the health facility and the state of residence are associated independently with BCG immunization status. These findings stress the need for interventions at multiple levels in order to increase BCG immunization status. PMID:19240190

  2. Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzaetype b carrier status among children 10 years after the introduction of Hib vaccine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Cobo Zanella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzaetype b (Hib nasopharyngeal (NP colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%. NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558 and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379 and 53.9% (636/1,179, respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558 of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379 and 0.4% (5/1,179 among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099 and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608 compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491. The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine.

  3. Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b carrier status among children 10 years after the introduction of Hib vaccine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Andrade, Ana Lúcia; Ogassavara, Cinthya Terumi; Fiório, Cleiton Eduardo; Brandão, Angela Pires; Almeida, Samanta Cristine Grassi; Lemos, Ana Paula Silva; Gorla, Maria Cecília; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina; Sato, Helena; Liphaus, Bernadete; Nerger, Maria Lígia; Conde, Monica; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%). NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m) old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558) and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379) and 53.9% (636/1,179), respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558) of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379) and 0.4% (5/1,179) among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099) and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608) compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491). The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine. PMID:26517654

  4. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  5. Parental care and authority versus the prosperity of the child - reflections on the present legal status in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmenger, W

    2000-09-11

    Two case reports are presented where parental care and authority is in conflict and stands against the prosperity of a child. Problems, practical and legal aspects and current perspectives in Germany are discussed in detail. PMID:10978665

  6. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Maternal and Child Positive Behaviors in Daily Life Among Youth With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Imami, Ledina; Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Lupro, Toni H.; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional outcomes in children with asthma. This study investigated the associations between maternal income and education and naturalistically observed behaviors and affect during everyday parent–child interactions. Methods 53 predominantly low-income youth with asthma, aged 10–17 years, wore a naturalistic event-sampling device, the Electronically Activated Recorder, for 4 days to assess mother and child positive ...

  7. The Role of Health Behaviors and Socioeconomic Status in Explaining the Relationship Between Child Abuse and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alcala, Hector Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has linked experiences of child abuse to cancer later in life. However much of the available research has failed to look at the independent effects of child abuse types (i.e. physical, sexual and emotional abuse) and does not attempt to test potential reasons for this association. To address these shortcomings, the purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of three health behaviors (i.e. smoking, overweight or obesity and alcohol drinking) and two measures of so...

  8. Whose education affects a child's nutritional status? From parents' to household's education

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Burchi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2) to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household membe...

  9. An Unusual Case of Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports a case involving an immunocompetent, previously well child who, despite two previous doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, developed severe flaccid paralysis consistent with polio after receiving oral polio vaccine.

  10. An Unusual Case of Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, S.; Diener, T; BJ-K Tan; NJ Lowry; C Talukdar; WM Chrusch; Wiebe, S

    2014-01-01

    The present article reports a case involving an immunocompetent, previously well child who, despite two previous doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, developed severe flaccid paralysis consistent with polio after receiving oral polio vaccine.

  11. Advances in vaccine stability monitoring technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Stephen E

    2006-08-14

    Electronic time-temperature indicator (eTTI) monitors can be programmed to exactly follow the stability characteristics of vaccines with a high degree of realism. The monitors have a visual output, enabling vaccine status to be assessed at a glance, and can also output more detailed statistical data. When packaged with vaccine vials in groups of about 10 vials per box, the eTTI can remain with a vaccine throughout most of the vaccine's lifetime. The monitors can detect essentially all cold-chain breaks, and can detect issues, such as inadvertent freezing, that are presently not detected by other vaccine stability monitors such as Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM). PMID:16759766

  12. The research status of immunization route of the parasite vaccine%寄生虫疫苗免疫途径的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万小波; 周必英

    2014-01-01

    寄生虫病是一种呈世界性分布、种类繁多、危害严重的重要疾病.目前防治寄生虫病的方法主要是健康教育、化疗、环境改造等综合防治措施相结合,其中抗寄生虫药一直是主要的防治手段.然而,随着耐药性和人类健康等问题的出现,寄生虫疫苗的研制已成为控制寄生虫病综合防治措施的重要补充手段.用不同的方法接种寄生虫疫苗,其保护效果不尽相同.该文就几种常见的寄生虫疫苗免疫途径研究现状作一综述.%Parasitosis is a group of important,worldwide,various,and dangerous diseases.Right now,the methods for prevention and control of parasitic diseases are the combining measures mainly including health education,chemotherapy,and environmental reconstruction and so on.Antiparasitic agents are always the main prevention and control methods.However,the development of the parasite vaccines has become effective and economic means of control of parasitic diseases,with the emergence of drug-resistance and human health problems.The protective effects against the parasites is different with different immunization methods.This review reported the research status of immunization route of several common parasite vaccines.

  13. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  14. Pneumococcal vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.

  15. Polio Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to its advantages over IPV in providing intestinal immunity and providing secondary spread of the vaccine to unprotected contacts. Who needs this vaccine and when? Side Effects Excerpt from Vaccine Information Statement A Polio-Free ...

  16. Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  17. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  18. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Miranda L., E-mail: Miranda_Lynch@urmc.rochester.edu [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Huang, Li-Shan [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Strain, J.J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Myers, Gary J. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bonham, Maxine P. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Shamlaye, Conrad F. [Ministry of Health, Republic of Seychelles (Seychelles); Stokes-Riner, Abbie [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy

  19. Under-two child mortality according to maternal HIV status in Rwanda: assessing outcomes within the National PMTCT Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mugwaneza, Placidie; Umutoni, Nadine Wa Shema; Ruton, Hinda; Rukundo, Alphonse; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Bizimana, Jean de Dieu; Tsague, Landry; Wagner, Claire M.; Nyankesha, Elévanie; Muita, Jane; Mutabazi, Vincent; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Karema, Corine; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We sought to compare risk of death among children aged under-2 years born to HIV positive mother (HIV-exposed) and to HIV negative mother (HIV non-exposed), and identify determinants of under-2 mortality among the two groups in Rwanda. Methods In a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design, we selected mother-child pairs using national Antenatal Care (ANC) registers. Household interview with each mother was conducted to capture socio-demographic data and information related t...

  20. The relationship between family and child weight status by household structure in South Korea: 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H-S; Duffey, K J; Kim, C-i; Popkin, B M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Parental obesity has been identified as a predominant risk factor for childhood overweight and obesity. We investigated the relationship between parent and child obesity in South Korea, particularly linked with varying family structures. Subjects and methods: Data for households with children aged 2–18 years were taken from the pooled data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007–2010 conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  1. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  2. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  3. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  4. 农村儿童保健系统管理和预防接种情况调查%Investigation on child health care system management and vaccination situations in rural area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月; 龚磊; 陈福宽; 孙大勤; 王萱萱; 董昀球; 康琦; 陈家应

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解农村地区儿童保健系统管理和预防接种情况.方法:采取多阶段分层随机抽样方法,通过自行设计的儿童系统管理保健情况和预防接种情况调查表对抽取的样本入户进行定量调查.结果:有45名儿童的母亲在产后有医务人员到家中访视,占91.8%,2人未接受产后访视,还有2人记不清,各占4.1%.平均访视次数为3.2次.产后访视主要由村卫生室医生进行,占88.9%,乡镇卫生院医生访视占8.9%,市县妇幼保健所医生访视占2.2%.97.8%的产后访视在村卫生室和乡镇卫生院进行;受访儿童建卡率100.0%,绝大部分按时接种疫苗.接种中,有97.3%的医务人员告知了孩子家长所接种疫苗的品种、作用原理、禁忌证、不良反应及注意事项,有1.8%的医务人员未告知,还有0.9%的家长不知道医务人员是否告知.结论:调查地区儿童保健管理较系统和全面,预防接种工作开展较好,但仍需要提高乡、村两级医疗机构的应急反应能力与医疗水平.%Objective; To understand child health care system management and vaccination situations in rural area. Methods; Multistage stratified random sampling method and a self - designed questionnaire were used to survey the respondents quantitatively. Results: The mothers of 45 children were visited by medical workers after delivery, accounting for 91. 8% ; two mothers didnt receive postpartum visit, accounting for 4. 1% ; and two mothers couldnt remember the situation, accounting for 4. 1%. The mean times of postpartum visit was 3. 2 times. Postpartum visit was conducted by medical workers from village clinics (88. 9% ) , township hospitals (8. 9% ) , and maternal and child health institutions at city/county level (2. 2% ) . 97. 8% of postpartum visit was carried out in village clinics and township hospitals ; 100. 0% of the children established cards, most of the children vaccinated regularly. In the course of vaccination

  5. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  6. Alimentação, estado nutricional e condição bucal da criança Food, nutritional status and oral condition of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rodrigues Vieira Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre alimentação, estado nutricional e a condição bucal ainda não está bem esclarecida, apresentando, muitas vezes, versões controversas e conhecimento limitado. Existe certa concordância de que a alimentação e, conseqüentemente, o estado nutricional, possam exercer certa influência sobre a condição bucal imediata e futura da criança. O objetivo desta comunicação é apresentar possíveis relações entre alimentação, estado nutricional e a condição bucal da criança. O estado nutricional pode afetar os dentes durante o seu período de formação e após a erupção na cavidade bucal. Os efeitos sistêmicos provenientes da nutrição podem alterar o desenvolvimento dos dentes, a quantidade e a qualidade da saliva, assim como os efeitos externos também podem determinar uma maior prevalência de cárie dentária, uma vez que tanto a quantidade de sacarose ingerida, quanto a freqüência de ingestão são importantes fatores envolvidos em sua etiologia. As reflexões deste trabalho sugerem a necessidade de ações interdisciplinares para obtenção de resultados na prevenção e no tratamento das doenças bucais.The relationship among food, nutritional status and oral condition is not yet well established, many times presenting controversial versions and limited knowledge. There seems to be an agreement that eating, and consequently, the nutritional status, may have a certain amount of influence over present and future oral conditions of the child. The objective of this communication is to discuss possible relations among food, nutritional status and oral condition in the child. Nutritional status may affect the teeth during their formation period and after eruption in the oral cavity. Systemic effects of nutrition may alter the development of teeth, quantity and quality of saliva, and the external effect may also determine a bigger prevalence of dental cavities, since both the quantity and the frequency of

  7. Splitting hair for cortisol? Associations of socio-economic status, ethnicity, hair color, gender and other child characteristics with hair cortisol and cortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account. PMID:26773401

  8. Vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and child's IQ at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonilla

    Full Text Available Vitamin B-12 is essential for the development and maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Brain development occurs primarily in utero and early infancy, but the role of maternal vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy on offspring cognitive function is unclear. In this study we assessed the effect of vitamin B-12 status in well-nourished pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC. We then examined the association of SNPs in maternal genes FUT2 (rs492602 and TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756 that are related to plasma vitamin B-12, with offspring IQ. Observationally, there was a positive association between maternal vitamin B-12 intake and child's IQ that was markedly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (mean difference in offspring IQ score per doubling of maternal B-12 intake, before adjustment: 2.0 (95% CI 1.3, 2.8; after adjustment: 0.7 (95% CI -0.04, 1.4. Maternal FUT2 was weakly associated with offspring IQ: mean difference in IQ per allele was 0.9 (95% CI 0.1, 1.6. The expected effect of maternal vitamin B-12 on offspring IQ, given the relationships between SNPs and vitamin B-12, and SNPs and IQ was consistent with the observational result. Our findings suggest that maternal vitamin B-12 may not have an important effect on offspring cognitive ability. However, further examination of this issue is warranted.

  9. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  10. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages. PMID:26263200

  11. Paternal child-feeding attitudes in relationship to the obese or lean status of their elementary school age son

    OpenAIRE

    Frigge, Caren

    1985-01-01

    The present study assessed the relationship between the paternal use of food in a contingency manner and the physical status of the respective son. The prevalence of childhood obesity has been documented to be significant in this country (Mayer, 1968; Collipp, 1975; Forbes, 1975; Hafen, 1981). The etiology of the increasing percentages of obese children is based upon a variety of variables. Parental influence on children's eating habits and socioeconomic variables, which ...

  12. First Pregnancy, Somatic and Psychological Status of a 4-Year-Old Child Born following Annexin V TESA Sperm Separation

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    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case - The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI (TESA-ICSI in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany was used. Conclusion - The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done.

  13. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  14. Recording actions to prevent child morbidity in children's health cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Daniele de Souza; Santos, Nathanielly Cristina Carvalho de Brito; Costa, Dayse Kalyne Gomes da; Pereira, Mayara de Melo; Vaz, Elenice Maria Cecchetti; Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the registering of preventative actions in relation to child morbidity using information regarding vaccinations, as well as iron and vitamin A supplements, which are recorded in children's health cards. This transversal study used a quantitative approach and was performed in Family Health Units in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba; the sampling was by convenience and totaled 116 children's health cards. The data was collected by observing the cards and the analysis was simple, statistical. The highest percentage of children had their vaccination cards up to date (92.2%) and those that did not were aged between 6 and 12 months: 78.9% of the cards did not have records relating to iron and vitamin A supplements and others only had records of one of the supplements being administered. The vaccination status of children in the first year of life was found to be satisfactory; however, discrepancies were observed in the recordings of the administration of iron and vitamin A supplements, which complicates monitoring performed by child health care professionals. It is hoped that this study will contribute to discussions and strategies aimed at improving the monitoring and recording of micronutrients in children's health cards. PMID:27383363

  15. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, James P

    2010-10-01

    Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially in areas of Africa and Asia where human rabies infections are endemic. A single-dose vaccine would greatly benefit efforts to combat this global health threat. However, a single-dose vaccine based on current inactivated vaccines does not appear feasible and other approaches are needed. Technology has advanced since modern human rabies vaccines were developed over 40 years ago. In addition, our understanding of immunological principles that influence the outcome of vaccination has increased. This article describes the current status of inactivated rabies virus vaccines and recent developments arising from the use of reverse genetics technologies designed to develop replication-deficient or single-cycle live rabies virus-based vectors for use as a single-dose rabies vaccine for humans. PMID:20923268

  16. 北京市安定镇15岁以下人群水痘疫苗接种情况%Vaccination status of varicella among people under 15 years old in Anding town of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀合

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] To understand the vaccination status of varicella among people under IS years old in Anding town of Beijing, provide the basis for improvement of varicella vaccination coverage rate and control of varicella epidemic. [ Methods] The data of varicella vaccine history of people under 15 years old in Anding town of Beijing collected from immunization program information system and emergency vaccination tables were analyzed descriptively. [Results] A total of 3 461 people were investigated, and the varicella vaccination coverage rate was 66. 57% (76. 62-34. 39%). The coverage rate in 1 to 7 year-old age group was high (71. 64%-76.62% ), and there was a significant difference in coverage rate among different age groups (P<0.01). The coverage rate of the local population and the immigrant population was 60.78% and 67.56% respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The coverage rate of imported varicella vaccine increased with decreasing age, the coverage rate of students in the nurseries, the primary schools and the secondary schools was 77.72% , 63.84 % and 41.40% respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.01). The number of emergency vaccination accounted for 42. 52% of total vaccinated cases, and the number of emergency vaccination in students of the primary schools and the secondary schools respectively accounted for 52.67% and 94.76% of vaccinated cases in that age group. [ Conclusion] It is essential to increase publicity about varicella vaccination among people under IS years old in Anding town, and improve the coverage rate, so as to control the varicella outbreak in nurseries and schools.%目的 了解北京市安定镇15岁以下人群水痘疫苗接种情况,为提高水痘疫苗接种率和控制水痘疫情提供依据.方法 对北京市安定镇全部15岁以下人群通过免疫规划信息系统和查阅应急接种表,对水痘疫苗接种史进行描述性分析.结果 共调查3461人

  17. The effect of adding ready-to-use supplementary food to a general food distribution on child nutritional status and morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence is lacking as to the effectiveness of such preventive interventions. This study examined the effect of a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF on the prevention of wasting in 6- to 36-mo-old children within the framework of a general food distribution program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled pragmatic intervention study in a sample of 1,038 children aged 6 to 36 mo in the city of Abeche, Chad. Both arms were included in a general food distribution program providing staple foods. The intervention group was given a daily 46 g of RUSF for 4 mo. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded monthly. Adding RUSF to a package of monthly household food rations for households containing a child assigned to the intervention group did not result in a reduction in cumulative incidence of wasting (incidence risk ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.11; p = 0.25. However, the intervention group had a modestly higher gain in height-for-age (+0.03 Z-score/mo; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04; p<0.001. In addition, children in the intervention group had a significantly higher hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study than children in the control group (+3.8 g/l; 95% CI: 0.6, 7.0; p = 0.02, thereby reducing the odds of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.82; p = 0.004. Adding RUSF also resulted in a significantly lower risk of self-reported diarrhea (-29.3%; 95% CI: 20.5, 37.2; p<0.001 and fever episodes (-22.5%; 95% CI: 14.0, 30.2; p<0.001. Limitations of this study include that the projected sample size was not fully attained and that significantly fewer

  18. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Foss, Kim Thestrup; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Andersen, Andreas; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. Design This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. Setting Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in Denmark. Participants Children born at gestational age (GA) 32 weeks and above. All women planning to give birth at the three sites were invited during the recruitment period. Out of 4262 randomised children, 144 were premature (GA BCG and 2133 randomised (73 premature) to the control group. Interventions BCG vaccination 0.05 ml was given intradermally in the upper left arm at the hospital within seven days of birth. Children in the control group did not receive any intervention. Parents were not blinded to allocation. Main outcome measures Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age BCG vs. control, 95% confidence interval; -3.7 to 2.4), p = 0.67, corresponding to an effect size of Cohen’s d = -0.015 (-0.082 to 0.052). The mean difference in ASQ score for premature children at 22 months was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). Conclusions A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108 PMID:27123570

  19. Health Status of Immigrant Children and Environmental Survey of Child Daycare Centers in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnuankiat, Surapol; Wanichsuwan, Molee; Bhunnachet, Ekaporn; Jungarat, Nahathai; Panraksa, Kanitha; Komalamisra, Chalit; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pubampen, Somchit; Adisakwattana, Poom; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-02-01

    Samut Sakhon is a Thai province popular among immigrants attracted to work in factories and the Thai food industry, especially people from Myanmar. Poor personal-hygiene behaviors, crowded accommodation and limited sanitation, result in health problems among immigrant workers. Various infectious diseases among this group are seen and managed by Samut Sakhon General Hospital. The impact of intestinal parasitic infections on public health is well known; they can spread from infected immigrant areas to uninfected areas via close contact and fecal-oral transmission from contaminated food and water. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among 372 immigrant children at 8 child-daycare centers during their parents' work time, by physical examination, fecal examination, and examination of the environment around the centers. Physical examinations were generally unremarkable, except that head-lice and fingernail examinations were positive in two cases (0.8 %). The results showed intestinal parasitic infections to be highly prevalent, at 71.0 %. These infections comprised both helminths and protozoa: Trichuris trichiura (50.8 %), Enterobius vermicularis (25.2 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.3 %), hookworm (11.6 %), Giardia lamblia (10.2 %), Endolimax nana (3.5 %), Entamoeba coli (2.7 %), and Blastocystis hominis (0.5 %). The environmental survey found a small number of houseflies near the accommodation to be positive for helminthic eggs (0.2 %), including A. lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, hookworms, Taenia spp., and minute intestinal flukes. Regarding the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children, it has been conjectured whether they were infected, along with their parents, during their daily lives before or after settling in Thailand. Intestinal parasites among immigrant children may involve a significant epidemiological impact, since immigrant children can serve as carriers and transmitters of disease

  20. Effect of media use on mothers' vaccination of their children in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-05-21

    While several studies have examined the crucial role that parents' vaccination behaviors play in reducing disease spread and severity among children, few have evaluated the connection between parents' media use and their decision on whether or not to vaccinate their child, specifically in relation to the BCG (Bacillus Calmetter Guerin), DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) polio, and measles vaccines. Media channels are a critical source of health information for parents, which is especially true in Sub-Saharan Africa, as there is often a dearth of local healthcare providers. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role that media use plays in a mothers' choice to vaccinate their infant children in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically focusing on whether media use is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) and a mothers' vaccination of their children. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys of 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-2010) were pooled. A multivariate Poisson regression of 151,209 women was used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations among SES, media use, and immunization. Education and wealth were found to be strongly and positively associated with vaccine-uptake behaviors. The effects of media use (radio and television) were found to be associated with the relationships between SES and vaccine uptake. However, it did not reduce the impact of SES on vaccination. These findings indicate that mass media may be an important tool for future efforts to reduce the health discrepancies between children from high- and low-socioeconomic backgrounds. Going forward, immunization strategies should include communication plans that will address and mitigate potential immunization disparities among parents of different SES backgrounds. PMID:25896379

  1. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  2. Diphtheria Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...

  3. Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...

  4. DNA vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Cevayir; Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Tozuka, Miyuki; Ishii, Ken J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of DNA vaccines two decades ago, this attractive strategy has been hampered by its low immunogenicity in humans. Studies conducted to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have shown that understanding the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines might be the key to successfully improving their immunogenicity. Our current understanding is that DNA vaccines induce innate and adaptive immune responses in two ways: (1) encoded protein (or polypeptide) antigen(s) by the DNA...

  5. Early childbirth, health inputs and child mortality: recent evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Maitra, Pushkar; Pal, Sarmistha

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early childbearing, parental use of health inputs and child mortality in Bangladesh. In order to account for the potential endogeneity of the age at birth and use of health inputs, (hospital delivery and child vaccination) in the child mortality regression, we jointly estimate mother’s age at childbirth, hospital delivery, child vaccination and child mortality taking into account of unobserved mother level heterogeneity. There is evidence of signif...

  6. Current Status and Challenges ofLeptospira Vaccine Development in China%我国钩端螺旋体疫苗的发展现状与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖华; 辛晓芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:总结分析我国钩端螺旋体的发展现状以及面临的问题与挑战。方法:根据国内外文献材料进行整理、归纳和分析。结果与结论:应解决钩体疫苗发展中面临的一些困境,进一步优化我国钩体疫苗,从而保证国家扩大计划免疫规划成功实施。%Objective: To analyze and summarize current status as well as problems and challenges of Leptospira vaccine development in China.Methods: The relevant domestic and international literatures were sorted, analyzed and summarized.Results and Conclusion: The problems in Leptospira vaccine development should be solved, and this vaccine product in China should be further optimized, so as to ensure the successful implementation of national program on expanded immunization.

  7. Household transmission of rotavirus in a community with rotavirus vaccination in Quininde, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lopman

    Full Text Available We studied the transmission of rotavirus infection in households in peri-urban Ecuador in the vaccination era.Stool samples were collected from household contacts of child rotavirus cases, diarrhea controls and healthy controls following presentation of the index child to health facilities. Rotavirus infection status of contacts was determined by RT-qPCR. We examined factors associated with transmissibility (index-case characteristics and susceptibility (household-contact characteristics.Amongst cases, diarrhea controls and healthy control household contacts, infection attack rates (iAR were 55%, 8% and 2%, (n = 137, 130, 137 respectively. iARs were higher from index cases with vomiting, and amongst siblings. Disease ARs were higher when the index child was <18 months and had vomiting, with household contact <10 years and those sharing a room with the index case being more susceptible. We found no evidence of asymptomatic infections leading to disease transmission.Transmission rates of rotavirus are high in households with an infected child, while background infections are rare. We have identified factors associated with transmission (vomiting/young age of index case and susceptibility (young age/sharing a room/being a sibling of the index case. Vaccination may lead to indirect benefits by averting episodes or reducing symptoms in vaccinees.

  8. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  9. Alternative administration routes and delivery technologies for polio vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; van der Stel, Wanda; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery. PMID:26912100

  10. Current status of medication adherence and infant follow up in the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission programme in Addis Ababa: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up in the PMTCT programme. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 282 HIV-positive mothers attending 15 health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and mulitivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results Of 282 mothers enrolled in the cohort, 232 (82%, 95% CI 77-86% initiated medication during pregnancy, 154 (64% initiated combined zidovudine (ZDV prophylaxis regimen while 78 (33% were initiated lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART. In total, 171 (60%, 95% CI 55-66% mothers ingested medication during labour. Of the 221 live born infants (including two sets of twins, 191 (87%, 95% CI 81-90% ingested ZDV and single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP at birth. Of the 219 live births (twin births were counted once, 148 (68%, 95% CI 61-73% mother-infant pairs ingested their medication at birth. Medication ingested by mother-infant pairs at birth was significantly and independently associated with place of delivery. Mother-infant pairs attended in health facilities at birth were more likely (OR 6.7 95% CI 2.90-21.65 to ingest their medication than those who were attended at home. Overall, 189 (86%, 95% CI 80-90% infants were brought for first pentavalent vaccine and 115 (52%, 95% CI 45-58% for early infant diagnosis at six-weeks postpartum. Among the infants brought for early diagnosis, 71 (32%, 95% CI 26-39% had documented HIV test results and six (8.4% were HIV positive. Conclusions We found a progressive decline in medication adherence across the perinatal period. There is a big gap between mediation initiated during pregnancy and actually

  11. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  12. Development of a schistosomiasis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Rojo, Juan U; Siddiqui, Sabrina Z; Gray, Sean A; Carter, Darrick; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2016-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) of public health importance. Despite decades of implementation of mass praziquantel therapy programs and other control measures, schistosomiasis has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas. A schistosomiasis vaccine could play an important role as part of a multifaceted control approach. With regards to vaccine development, many biological bottlenecks still exist: the lack of reliable surrogates of protection in humans; immune interactions in co-infections with other diseases in endemic areas; the potential risk of IgE responses to antigens in endemic populations; and paucity of appropriate vaccine efficacy studies in nonhuman primate models. Research is also needed on the role of modern adjuvants targeting specific parts of the innate immune system to tailor a potent and protective immune response for lead schistosome vaccine candidates with the long-term aim to achieve curative worm reduction. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:26651503

  13. 留守环境对农村独生子女心理健康状况的影响%Impact of Left-home Environment in Rural Area on Mental Health Status of the Only Child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽华; 陈登峰; 傅文青; 阙墨春; 杨凤池; 徐美才

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨留守环境对农村独生子女心理健康状况的影响.方法:采用中国中学生心理健康量表,对安徽省望江县某乡镇初级中学进行整群调查.结果:留守状况与独生状况在中学生强迫、抑郁因子上的交互作用显著(P<0.05),在B类留守儿童组,独生子女的得分高于非独生子女;留守环境可解释独生子女心理健康状况2.2%的方差变异(P=0.049),其中,以单亲外出的留守环境影响作用较大(β=0.225);留守环境对非独生子女心理健康状况的影响无统计学意义.结论:留守环境对独生子女心理健康状况的影响较为显著,以单亲外出的影响较大.%Objective: To study the impact of left-home environment in rural area on mental health status of the only child. Methods: Mental Health Inventory of Middle-School Students(MMHI-60) was adopted to investigate a whole junior middle school in a town of Wangjiang county in Anhui province. Results: The interaction effect on obsessive-compulsive and depression of left-home status and only child was significant (P<0.05); the only child scored higher than the non-only child in the group of one-parent-left-for-work students; left-home environment could explain 2.2% of the variation of mental health status of only child (p=0.049), thereinto, "one parent left for work" had more effects(β=0.225). Conclusion: Left-home environment in rural area has significant impact on the only child in mental health status, of which one-parent-left-for-work environment is more.

  14. Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Trends and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Arif; Saman Nazir; Maryam Naeem Satti; Shujaat Farooq

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this paper to examine the determinants of child malnutrition, based on the Pakistan Panel Household Survey (PPHS-2010). The study has focused on individual (child), household and community variables to understand differentials in child malnutrition. Child illness, health status of their mothers and poverty status of households are the key factors utilized in this study to understand the malnutrition phenomenon. [PIDE Working paper]. URL:[http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Worki...

  15. A Comparison of Parent-child Communication of Students with Different Academic Status%不同学业成绩儿童的亲子沟通比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池丽萍; 俞国良

    2012-01-01

    Previous literature has indicated that parent-child communication, e.g. , parents' communication ability, and the quality or style of the communication, potentially lead to their children's different status in academic achievement. However, there was not a clear distinction among these different levels or aspects of the communication in the existing research, which might lead to confusions of find- ings. Therefore, in the present study, we adopted a comprehensive Three-Level Model of Parent-Child Communication as a framework to measure and compare the parent-child communication of high, middle and low achieving students. In the model, the family is regarded as a system consisting of all family members, their relations and the interaction of the relations. Specifically, the model describes the parent-child communication on the following three levels : ( 1 ) the component level, measuring the communication ability of each family member, such as father, mother, and child; (:2) the relationship level, examining the quality of dyadic communication occurring be- tween father and child or mother and child; (3) the system level, emphasizing the relationship of mother-child and father-child commu- nlcatlons. A "parent-child communication scale" designed to measure the above three levels was applied in the present study to examine the parent-child communication of students with high, middle and low achievements. The results showed that : ( 1 ) high-achieving students' communication abilities in terms of initiative, clarity and sensitivity were better than those of low-achieving students ; the fathers of high- achieving students' outperform the fathers of low-achieving students in the clarity and openness of communication; (2) high-achieving students were at a higher level than low-achieving students in the quality of both relationship-oriented and problem-solving-oriented com- munication with their parents; (3) for high-achieving students, their mothers' and fathers

  16. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  18. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child marries; (3) The child attains age 18 and, (i) Is not... the month in which he attains age 18; (4) If the child's entitlement is based on his status as a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child....

  19. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  20. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  1. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  2. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  3. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  4. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    OpenAIRE

    David Bishai; Heena Brahmbhatt; Ron Gray; Godfrey Kigozi; David Serwadda; Nelson Sewankambo; El Daw Suliman; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Maria Wawer

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright’s coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of ...

  5. Leptospirosis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...

  6. [Which vaccinations for which travel-destination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crom, Susan; Veit, Olivia; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Several vaccinations are recommended to protect international travellers, especially to tropical countries, from diseases in other parts of the world. Firstly, the routine schedule of childhood vaccinations and booster shots according to the Swiss immunisation programme should be checked, updated or even completed. Additional vaccinations against hepatitis A and B, typhoid fever, poliomyelitis, rabies or Japanese encephalitis may be recommended. This will depend on a number of factors including the exact destination and route (developing countries, rural areas), planned activities (backpacker, family visit, business trip), duration of travel, season, age of the traveller and current health status including the current medication and previous vaccinations. Some vaccinations, such as yellow fever, may be required for travellers to certain countries and the international certificate of vaccination may even be required when entering a country from another country where yellow fever is endemic. The international certificate of vaccination (or a letter of exemption when appropriate) is considered valid only if it is administered by an approved vaccination centre. Furthermore, the meningococcal vaccination (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. It is recommended to start the vaccinations four to six weeks before departure to ensure enough time to administer all the necessary doses for an adequate immune response. All commonly used vaccines can be administered on the same day. The basic health insurance does not usually cover travel vaccines. PMID:27268450

  7. Differential detection of classical swine fever virus challenge strains in C-strain vaccinated pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Helen E.; Crudgington, Bentley S; Sosan-Soulé, Olubukola; Crooke, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Control of classical swine fever (CSF) by vaccination ideally requires that field strain infection can be detected irrespective of the vaccination status of the herd. To inform on the usefulness of molecular tests compatible with genetic Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) principles when using live-attenuated vaccines, tonsil homogenates from a vaccination-challenge experiment were analyzed using a differential real-time qRT-PCR for the C-strain vaccine or r...

  8. Pulmonary Vaccine Delivery : A Realistic Approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnis, Wouter F; Kersten, Gideon F; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; de Boer, Anne H; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary vaccine delivery has gained increasing attention during the last decade because this vaccination method combines potential advantages such as the fact that it omits the use of needles and may elicit immunity at the port of entry for many pathogens. In this review the current status of pulm

  9. Determinants of European parents' decision on the vaccination of their children against measles, mumps and rubella: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Napoli, Giuseppe; Marchese, Valentina; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Casuccio, Alessandra; Vitale, Francesco; On Behalf Of The Esculapio Working Group

    2016-07-01

    Low measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization levels in European children highlight the importance of identifying determinants of parental vaccine uptake to implement policies for increasing vaccine compliance. The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors associated with partial and full MMR vaccination uptake in European parents, and combine the different studies to obtain overall quantitative measures. This activity is included within the ESCULAPIO project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. ORs and CIs were extracted, sources of heterogeneity explored and publication bias assessed. Forty-five papers were retrieved for the qualitative study, 26 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The following factors were associated with lower MMR vaccine uptake: misleading knowledge, beliefs and perceptions on vaccines (OR 0.57, CI 0.37-0.87); negative attitudes and behaviors toward vaccination (OR 0.71, CI 0.52-0.98); demographic characteristics, such as different ethnicity in Southern populations (OR 0.44, CI 0.31-0.61), higher child's age (OR 0.80, CI 0.76-0.85); low socio-economic status (OR 0.64, CI 0.51-0.80), especially low income (OR 0.39, CI 0.25-0.60) and education (OR 0.64, CI 0.48-0.84), high number of children (OR 0.54, CI 0.42-0.69), irregular marital status (OR 0.80, CI 0.66-0.96). The factors explaining heterogeneity were country location, administration modality, collection setting and responses reported on MMR alone or in combination. Findings from this study suggest policy makers to focus communication strategies on providing better knowledge, correct beliefs and perceptions on vaccines, and improving attitudes and behaviors in parents; and to target policies to people of ethnic minority from Southern Europe, low educated and deprived, with higher number of children and non-married marital status. PMID:27163657

  10. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  11. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  12. Child rights & child development in India: a regional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chandan

    2011-01-01

    Being the signatory of UNCRC (1992), India globally recognized the significance of child rights. The Constitutions of India also guarantees certain child rights covering basic issues, like ‘health’, ‘education’ and protection from ‘hazardous employment’ and ‘exploitation’. However, despite the existence of many legal provisions, the vulnerability of Indian children in different dimensions cannot be undermined. This paper attempts to locate the status of child in development ladder of Indian e...

  13. Personalized peptide vaccination for advanced biliary tract cancer: IL-6, nutritional status and pre-existing antigen-specific immunity as possible biomarkers for patient prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitomi, Munehiro; Yutani, Shigeru; Matsueda, Satoko; IOJI, TETSUYA; Komatsu, Nobukazu; SHICHIJO, SHIGEKI; Yamada, Akira; ITOH, KYOGO; SASADA, TETSURO; Kinoshita, Hisafumi

    2011-01-01

    Considering that the prognosis of patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) remains very poor, with a median survival of less than 1 year, new therapeutic approaches need to be developed. In the present study, a phase II clinical trial of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) was conducted in advanced BTC patients to evaluate the feasibility of this treatment and to identify potential biomarkers. A maximum of 4 human leukocyte antigen-matched peptides, which were selected based on th...

  14. Estimating rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Japan using a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kaoru; Hara, Megumi; Sakanishi, Yuta; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nishida, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Muneaki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a highly contagious, acute viral disease that imposes a significant health burden worldwide. In Japan, rotavirus vaccines have been commercially available since 2011 for voluntary vaccination, but vaccine coverage and effectiveness have not been evaluated. In the absence of a vaccination registry in Japan, vaccination coverage in the general population was estimated according to the number of vaccines supplied by the manufacturer, the number of children who received financial support for vaccination, and the size of the target population. Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified by reviewing the medical records of all children who consulted 6 major hospitals in Saga Prefecture with gastroenteritis symptoms. Vaccination status among these patients was investigated by reviewing their medical records or interviewing their guardians by telephone. Vaccine effectiveness was determined using a screening method. Vaccination coverage increased with time, and it was 2-times higher in municipalities where the vaccination fee was supported. In the 2012/13 season, vaccination coverage in Saga Prefecture was 14.9% whereas the proportion of patients vaccinated was 5.1% among those with clinically diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis and 1.9% among those hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis. Thus, vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 69.5% and 88.8%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate rotavirus vaccination coverage and effectiveness in Japan since vaccination began. PMID:26680277

  15. Typhoid vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Dutta, A K

    2001-08-01

    Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries with about 33 million cases per year. Protective efficacy of traditional acetone/phenol killed vaccines is similar to newer typhoid vaccines (Ty21A and Vi antigen vaccine) but side effects of these newer vaccines are considerably less. Though the mortality is low, typhoid fever causes considerable morbidity and loss of working days. Problems during treatment are increasing due to emergence and spread of multidrug resistant S. typhi. Hence to decrease the incidence of typhoid fever in addition to ensuring safe water supply and excreta disposal a typhoid vaccine needs to be introduced in the National Immunization Schedule. PMID:11563251

  16. Study on hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG's effect on preventing HBV transmission from mother to child during pregnancy%乙肝疫苗和免疫球蛋白阻断乙肝母婴传播效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋婷婷; 单芙香; 程锦泉; 尹平

    2011-01-01

    positve HBsAg (14.29 %/2.94 % ), HBeAg and HBcAb compared with those with mothers carrying positive HBsAg and HBcAb (P<0.05). The positive rates of HBsAg in infants whose mothers had been inoculated with HBIG or not during pregnancy were 8.57 96 and 7.77 % respectively, without significant difference between them (P >0.05). There was no significant difference for the positive rates of HBsAg in infants whose mothers choosing cesarean section (9.68%) or natural delivery (3.08%). Regarding different feeding methods, there were also no significant difference found for the positive rates of HBsAg in infants (6.45%/7.69% ). Conclusions In current study, inoculating hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG in infants have significant effects on blocking HBV mother-to-child transmission. The blocking effect is significantly associated with the infection status of HBV in mothers. No relationship was found between the blocking effect and the situation of inoculating HBIG during pregnancy, delivery methods and feeding methods.

  17. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  18. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  19. Parent-child relationship status and self-congruence in college students%亲子关系与大学生自我和谐的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶甜美; 刘新民; 金明琦

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大学生自我和谐的现状,探讨亲子关系与大学生自我和谐之间的相关性.方法:采用亲子关系调查问卷和自我和谐量表(SCCS)对某医学院260名大学生进行问卷调查,对数据进行独立样本t检验、方差分析和积差相关分析.结果:①大学生自我和谐状况在性别上无显著性差异,独生子女与非独生子女在自我刻板性得分上有显著性差异.②大二年级与大一、大三、大四年级在自我与经验不和谐得分、自我灵活性得分、自我刻板性得分和自我和谐总分上有显著性差异.③亲子关系调查问卷的6个维度与自我和谐量表3个维度有显著性相关.结论:大学生的亲子关系与其自我和谐状况存在相关性.%Objective: To investigate the self-congruence status in college students and the association of this factor with parent-child relationship. Methods:Two hundred and sixty medical college students are surveyed u-sing questionnaire of parent-child relationship questionnaire and Self Consistency and Congruence Scale ( SCCS ), and the data collected were analyzed on basis of independent sample by t-test, variance analysis and product-moment correlation analysis. Results: The self-congruence status in college students had no significant difference concerning the sexes, but had striking difference regarding the stiffness of self-consistency between students from one-child family and those with than one child. The scores in freshmen and sophomore differed significantly from the junior and senior regarding the factors of the inconsistency between self and experience, flexibility of self-consistency, stiffness of self-consistency and total scoring on self-congruence. The six components on the parent-child relationship questionnaire were significantly associated with the three components on SCCS. Conclusion:The parent-child relationship is associated with the a-chievement of self-congruence in college students.

  20. The Evolution of Poxvirus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV and horsepox virus (HSPV were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV, which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.

  1. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  2. Diagnostic performance of a rapid in-clinic test for the detection of Canine Parvovirus under different storage conditions and vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantere, Maria C; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Kontos, Vassilios; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios C; Tsokana, Constantina N; Billinis, Charalambos

    2015-04-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common causes of acute haemorrhagic enteritis in young dogs, while clinical diagnosis is often indecisive. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an in-clinic rapid test in the detection of CPV infection in dogs. To this end, we compared the Rapid Diagnostic Kit of Canine Parvovirus, Coronavirus and Rotavirus antigen (Quicking(®)) to PCR, which is considered as the most reliable diagnostic method. A total of 78 duplicated faecal samples were collected from diarrhoeic dogs. Vaccination history within a month prior to the onset of diarrhoea was reported for 12 of the sampled dogs. The rapid diagnostic test was performed in 23 of the faecal samples directly, while the rest were placed into a sterile cotton tipped swab suitable for collection and transportation of viruses (Sigma Σ-VCM(®)) and stored at -20 °C. The sensitivity of the Quicking rapid diagnostic test compared to PCR in the total number of samples, in samples from non-vaccinated dogs and in samples tested directly after collection were 22.22% (95% CI: 13.27-33.57%), 26.67% (95% CI: 16.08-39.66%) and 76.47% (95% CI: 50.10-93.04%) respectively, while the specificity of the test was 100% in any case. In conclusion, negative results do not exclude parvoenteritis from the differential diagnosis, especially in dogs with early vaccination history, but a positive result almost certainly indicates CPV infection. An improved sensitivity may be expected when the test is performed immediately. PMID:25707551

  3. Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Villumsen, Marie; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence from observational studies and randomized trials in low-income countries that vaccinations have non-specific effects. Administration of live vaccines reduces overall child morbidity and mortality, presumably due to protection against non-targeted infections. In Denmark, ...

  4. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard;

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...

  5. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  6. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-02-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia's emergency pockets under ENCU's supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8-11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  7. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the intr...

  8. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  9. Childcare immunization programme – to what extent are children covered by vaccinations in Greenland?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason Skifte, Turid

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: New vaccines in the child healthcare programme are regularly considered. When considering the introduction of the Hepatitis-B vaccine into the programme, it was asked to what extent children in Greenland were actually covered by the existing immunization series. Would introducing new vaccines make any sense if the percentage of children immunized was shown to be low? A telephone enquiry conducted in 2000 showed a tendency of very high percentage of full coverage per child (98-99 %...

  10. Arthropod vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  11. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  12. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  13. DETERMINANTS OF CHILD LABOR IN MALAWI AND TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Courage C. MUDZONGO; Christopher M. WHITSEL

    2013-01-01

    Using the Malawi Integrated Household Survey of 2009 and the Tanzania National Panel Survey of 2010, this study seeks to understand the factors that increase a child`s likelihood of labor participation. A greater percentage of children in the Tanzania sample than those from the Malawi sample participate in child labor. Logistic regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, the greatest influence on child labor observed at the individual level is the child`s school enrollment status. Enrol...

  14. Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage. PMID:26367185

  15. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  16. Vaccines Against Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    No licensed malaria vaccine currently exists; however, final phase 3 testing results of a leading candidate vaccine are forthcoming. Continued challenges to malaria vaccine developers include genetically diverse strains found in nature and establishment of a vaccine correlate of protection.

  17. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). What is the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine provides protection against some types of HPV. ... I am pregnant. Should I get the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women because ...

  18. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  19. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  20. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  1. A study to assess and measure the breaches in the child rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children signify eternal optimism in the human being and provide potential for the development. Every nation whether developed or developing, links its future with the status of child. An understanding of the physical, social and behavioral factors is conducive to assess the current situation and vulnerability of any child. To ensure the utmost level of health and safety of a child, we need to have an insight of the violation of child rights. We conducted this study to assess and measure the breaches in child rights. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children between 10 to 18 years of age in one of the field practice areas of Community Medicine department, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results: More than 90% of the children were born in the hospital settings, fully vaccinated and living with their parents. Of these, 60% of the children reported to have some kind of illness in the past one year, and majority of them approached healthcare facility for that the treatment. Of these, 26% of them had low birth weight (LBW and 68% had body mass index (BMI <18.5. About 93% of the children were enrolled in either government or private school and out of them, 54% complained of the burden of either homework or tuition. Of these, 6.5% children were school dropouts and all of them were girls; 4% of them were child labors. Conclusion: The study indicated positive findings in the areas of child survival, development and to some extent, in the domain of right to participation, though there were poor environmental conditions and recreational activities. Prevalence of malnutrition and child labor was also high. Study results highlighted the need for adequate services in these areas.

  2. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress

  3. Intake of Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Saponin Enhances the Protection Conferred by Vaccination with Inactivated Influenza A Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Yoo Ri; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination is the main strategy for preventing influenza infection. However, vaccine efficacy is influenced by several factors, including age and health status. The efficacy of the influenza vaccine is much lower (17% to 53%) in individuals over 65 yr of age compared with young adults (70% to 90%). Therefore, increasing vaccine efficacy remains a challenge for the influenza vaccine field. In this study, we investigated the impact of supplementing vaccination with the dietary intake of Korean...

  4. Programa Bolsa Família e estado nutricional infantil: desafios estratégicos Bolsa Família Program and child nutritional status: strategic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anemia e desnutrição, principais carências nutricionais na infância, têm como principais determinantes os socioeconômicos. Assim, por se tratar da principal política de combate à pobreza, espera-se que o Programa Bolsa Família (PBF promova impacto no estado nutricional infantil. Objetivou-se analisar as diferenças na situação nutricional de crianças cadastradas no PBF de um município da Zona da Mata Mineira. Foram avaliadas 446 crianças com idade entre 6 e 84 meses, sendo que 262 eram beneficiárias e 184 não-beneficiárias. A avaliação nutricional constituiu-se da análise dos parâmetros peso e estatura, através dos índices peso/idade, peso/estatura, estatura/idade e Índice de Massa Corporal/idade, e dos níveis de hemoglobina, com uso do Hemocue. As prevalências de anemia, déficit estatural e obesidade foram 22,6, 6,3 e 5,2%, respectivamente, sendo que não houve diferença estatística entre os beneficiários e não-beneficiários. Inicialmente, o grupo beneficiário apresentava piores condições socioeconômicas, porém, com o recebimento do benefício, os grupos se igualaram financeiramente. É possível que a similaridade dos dois grupos também quanto ao estado nutricional possa ser atribuída ao recebimento do benefício, tanto devido ao incremento financeiro, quanto ao acompanhamento nutricional exigido como condicionalidade do programa.The main nutritional deficiencies during childhood, namely anemia and malnutrition, are predominantly related to socio-economic factors. Thus, as the Bolsa Família Program (BFP is the main policy to combat poverty, it is expected that it will have an impact on child nutrition. The aim was to analyze the differences in the nutritional situation of children registered with the BFP of a municipality located in Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais state. 446 children aged between 6 and 84 months were evaluated, of which 262 were non-beneficiaries and 184 were beneficiaries. Nutritional

  5. Preparing Your Child for a New Sibling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... about an older child feeling left out. Take advantage of chances for one-on-one time with ...

  6. Tetanus trismus in a 2 year old child: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar, Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. It occurs in children mainly in the unimmunized, due to parental ignorance and objection to vaccination. This potentially fatal disease caused by a neurotoxin, tetanospasmin released from wounds infected with Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic gram–positive bacillus. As tetanus becomes less common, cases are likely to be misdiagnosed or go unrecognized. In this case report, we present a case of tetanus in a partially immunized 2 year old girl who presented with trismus. She was treated with the recent recommendations and adequate supportive care. Detection of tetanus at a very early stage can favor lifesaving interventions. Trismus, infected wound and partially immunized/unimmunized status of a child were the key features leading to the prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

  7. 肠道病毒71型灭活疫苗相关研究现状%Current status of research of inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨二霞

    2013-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a life-threatening infectious disease of children under 5 years old.In recent years,major outbreaks of HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) have emerged in the Asia-Pacific region,and have resulted in millions of cases and hundreds of deaths each year in China since 2008.Because EV71 is one of the main pathogens of HFMD resulting in severe diseases and death,the pathogenesis of HFMD is still unclear,and no effective therapeutic drugs for EV71 infection are currently available,development of vaccines against EV71 is urgently needed.This review summarizes research progress of inactivated EV71 vaccines.%手足口病是一种威胁5岁以下儿童生命健康的传染病,近年来已在亚太地区造成了多次上百万患者发病的大规模暴发,仅在中国大陆,自2008年以来,每年发病人数就超过百万,死亡数百人.然而,由于肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是导致重症和死亡病例的主要病原体,而其致病机制尚不清楚,目前尚无有效的治疗性药物,因此EV71疫苗研究成为迫切需要解决的问题.此文就EV71灭活疫苗研究进展进行综述.

  8. The status survey of only child loss families and only child disabled families in Renhe district of Panzhihua city%四川攀枝花市仁和区失独及独生子女伤残家庭现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天蓉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the status of only child loss families and only child disabled families in Renhe district of Panzhihua city,to provide the basis for government policy making. Methods A total of 174 only child loss families and only child disabled families were surveyed,the reasons of child loss,conditions of disability,influence factors of reproduction and endowment situation were analyzed. Results Among 174 only child loss families,the main reasons of child loss included illness,contingency, traffic accident which accounted for 87 % . The conditions of disability mainly were physical disability,cerebral diseases and hearing disability which accounted for 74 % . The psychical factors were the dominating influence factors of reproduction in only child loss families,while the economic factors were the dominating influence factors of reproduction in only child disabled family. For endowment situation,the institutional pension accounted for 53 % ,while family pension accounted for 47 % . Conclusion The only child loss families and only child disabled families are facing the problems of psychological trauma,economic distress,reproduction difficulties, endowment,medical security,et al,which need the corresponding social insurance and care.%目的:了解攀枝花市仁和区失独及独生子女伤残家庭基本情况,为政府制定政策提供依据。方法对攀枝花市仁和区174个失独及独生子女伤残家庭开展调查,分析失独原因和伤残状况,影响再生育因素及养老状况。结果调查174户独生子女家庭,失独原因中疾病、意外事故、交通事故,占失独总数的87%。伤残现状中肢体残疾、脑部疾病,听力残疾,占伤残总数的74%。影响再生育因素:失独家庭中心理精神因素居首位,伤残中经济因素居首位。养老现状:60岁以上,机构养老占53%,家庭养老占47%。结论失独和伤残家庭面临精神创伤和经济窘迫、再生育困难

  9. Parents' Perception and their Decision on their Children's Vaccination Against Seasonal Influenza in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei He; Qiu-Yan Liao; You-Qi Huang; Shuo Feng; Xiao-Ming Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Seasonal influenza epidemic occurs every year in Guangzhou,which can affect all age groups.Young children are the most susceptible targets.Parents can decide whether to vaccinate their children or not based on their own consideration in China.The aim of this study was to identify factors that are important for parental decisions on vaccinating their children against seasonal influenza based on a modified health belief model (HBM).Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Guangzhou,China.A total of 335 parents who had at least on child aged between 6 months and 3 years were recruited from women and children's hospital in Guangzhou,China.Each eligible subject was invited for a face-to-face interview based on a standardized questionnaire.Results:Uptake of seasonal influenza within the preceding 12 months among the target children who aged between 6 months and 36 months was 47.7%.Around 62.4% parents indicated as being "likely/very likely" to take their children for seasonal influenza vaccination in the next 12 months.The hierarchical logistic regression model showed that children's age (odds ratio [OR] =2.59,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.44-4.68),social norm (OR =2.08,95% CI:1.06-4.06) and perceived control (OR =2.96,95% CI:1.60-5.50) were significantly and positively associated with children's vaccination uptake within the preceding 12 months; children with a history of taking seasonal influenza vaccine (OR =2.50,95% CI:1.31-4.76),perceived children's health status (OR =3.36,95% CI:1.68-6.74),worry/anxious about their children influenza infection (OR =2.31,95% CI:1.19-4.48) and perceived control (OR =3.21,95% CI:1.65-6.22) were positively association with parental intention to vaccinate their children in the future 12 months.However,anticipated more regret about taking children for the vaccination was associated with less likely to vaccinate children within the preceding 12 months (OR =0.21,95% CI:0.08-0.52).Conclusions

  10. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: the sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and the correlation of the results for sow serum, colostrum, and piglet serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

    2015-03-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae- and M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48-72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease-specific OD values. PMID:25613041

  11. Factors contributing to suboptimal rates of childhood vaccinations in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Catherine A; Velazco, Cristine S; Delaney, Thomas V; Bensimhon, Adam; Huang, Kuang-Ning; Jarvis, Paul R; Jolin, Jonathan S; Schaberg, Kurt B; Burke, Marianne; Finley, Christine; Carney, Jan K

    2015-12-01

    Childhood immunizations are invaluable in preventing contagious diseases. Nonetheless, vaccines have become increasingly controversial with growing numbers of caregivers refusing to vaccinate their children. The percentage of fully vaccinated children in Vermont is one of the lowest nationally. This study set out to determine Vermont caregivers' attitudes toward immunizations to better explain why the percentage of fully vaccinated children has fallen in Vermont. A survey regarding caregivers' health care knowledge about children, their vaccination concerns, and their children's vaccination status was sent to participants in the Vermont Women, Infants and Children's Program from two districts. In total, 83% (n = 379) of respondents reported their children received all recommended vaccinations for their age. Respondents who considered themselves highly knowledgeable regarding their children's health care and confident about the safety of vaccinations were significantly associated with reporting their children as being current on vaccinations and with their intent to continue vaccinations. Respondents indicated highest concern regarding the safety and number of vaccinations administered during one visit. Primary care providers were indicated as important resources for addressing concerns about vaccinations and health care knowledge of children. The results help to understand low vaccination rates in Vermont and can be used for targeting health campaigns to improve vaccination rates. PMID:24821076

  12. The Hidden Cost of Caring: Compensation and Child Care. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Child Care Resource and Referral Network, Rochester.

    Intended for audiences with an interest in child care, this video examines the low compensation characteristic of the child care field and the social factors contributing to the low status and wages of caregivers. The video first looks at the social history of child care, noting that the function served by child care differed by social class. The…

  13. A Study to Assess the Vaccination Coverage of University Students in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Limaye, Vaidehi; Limaye, Dnyanesh; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the most cost-effective intervention for infectious diseases, which are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccines not only protect the individual who is vaccinated but also reduce the burden of infectious vaccine-preventable diseases for the entire community.1 Adult vaccination is very important given that >25% of mortality is due to infectious diseases.2 There is a scarcity of information on the vaccination status of young adults and the role of socioecon...

  14. Challenges and Opportunities in Early Childhood: Views of the CEOs of the Big Three--Twenty-First Annual Status Report on For Profit Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the viewpoints of the CEOs of the three largest for profit child care organizations in North America about trends in their field. The three individuals are: (1) David Lissy, CEO, Bright Horizons Family Solutions; (2) Felicia Thornton, CEO, Knowledge Universe Education, U.S. (parent company for Knowledge Learning Corporation);…

  15. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on immunization coverage among infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Feifei; Xu Stanley; France Eric K; Yu Xian-Jie; Chan K Arnold; Kleinman Ken; Lin Nancy D; Mullooly John; Santoli Jeanne; Lieu Tracy A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to the U.S. recommended childhood immunization schedule in the year 2000 added three injections to the number of vaccinations a child is expected to receive during the first year of life. Surveys have suggested that the addition of PCV has led some immunization providers to move other routine childhood vaccinations to later ages, which could increase the possibility of missing these vaccines. The purpose of this stud...

  16. Progress towards meningitis prevention in the conjugate vaccines era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Borges Laval

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years old. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most important agents of bacterial meningitis in developing countries. The development of the conjugate vaccines in the beginning of the 90's, especially type b H. influenzae (Hib, and more recently the heptavalent pneumococcal and the serogroup C meningococcal vaccines, have contributed directly to changes in the epidemiological profile of these invasive diseases (direct effect and of their carriage status (indirect effect. We review the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine in Latin American countries, where this vaccine has been implemented, and the potential of pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines for the reduction of meningitis worldwide. We also address constraints for the development and delivery of these vaccines and review new candidate state-of-the-art vaccines. The greatest challenge, undoubtedly, is to implement these vaccines worldwide, especially in the developing regions.

  17. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe. PMID:27066937

  18. Study on depression status of only-child and non-only-child middle school students in Hefei: a cross-sectional study%合肥市中学生独生与非独生子女的抑郁状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章清荷; 董永海; 张志华; 郑睿智; 刘娟娟; 董青; 张茜; 黄芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To realize the current situation and influencing factors on the depression status of only-child students in the middle school in Hefei City. Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to select 2 964 only-child students from 3 urban middle schools of Hefei City. These students were surveyed by self-rating depression scale ( SDS) , UCLA loneliness scale, the self-esteem scale (SES) , simplified coping style questionnaire (SCSQ) as well as demographic information. Results Total rate of depression was 39. 51 % among middle school students and the rate of depression in only-child students (37. 14% ) was lower than those in non-only-child students (42. 01% ). Only-child students' depression scores (47. 11 ±8. 14) was lower than that of non-only students (47. 75 ±8. 48) , and both of them were higher than that of Chinese norm(41. 88 ± 10. 57). Multiple factors analysis revealed that loneliness, self-esteem and subjective well-being were main factors for only-child and non-only-child students. Moreover, non-only-child boys' emotion of depression was related to parents' divorce. Study pressure had a great impact on depression among only-child students, especially among only-child girls. Conclusions Emotion of depression is widespread among middle school students, so we should take pertinent measures to develop psychological healthy education associated with school, family and society.%目的 了解合肥市城区独生子女与非独生子女的抑郁状况及其影响因素,为独生子女的心理健康教育提供依据.方法 运用分层整群抽样方法,采用抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS),UCLA孤独量表、自尊量表(the self-esteem scale,SES)和简易应对方式问卷(simplified coping style questionnaire,SCSQ),对合肥市3所中学共2 964名学生进行问卷调查.结果 本次调查自评抑郁检出率为39.51%,其中独生子女抑郁检出率(37.14%)低于非独生子女(42.01%)

  19. Vaccine Vexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates

  20. Survey on the Immunization Status of Category B Vaccine among Children Aged 1 to 2 Years in China%中国1~2岁儿童第二类疫苗接种现况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑景山; 曹玲生; 王华庆; 曹雷; 郭世成; 阿克忠; 王雷; 余文周; 袁平; 姜柯羽; 张国民

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中国(未包含香港、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区,下同)1~2岁儿童第二类疫苗的接种特征,为规范管理第二类疫苗提供参考.方法 在31个省(自治区、直辖市)和新疆生产建设兵团各随机抽取一个县(区、市、旗、师,下同),在调查县采用按容量比例概率抽样法,入户调查1岁、2岁各75名儿童的第二类疫苗接种情况.结果 共调查4681名1岁、2岁儿童,2875名(61.42%)接种过第二类疫苗;其中接种水痘减毒活疫苗、b型流行性感冒(流感)嗜血杆菌结合疫苗、口服轮状病毒减毒活疫苗、流感疫苗、7价肺炎球菌结合疫苗5种儿童常用第二类疫苗的比例,分别为46.93%、45.31%、23.67%、17.47%和9.91%:接种替代免疫规划的乙型肝炎疫苗、脊髓灰质炎灭活疫苗、无细胞百日咳-白喉-破伤风联合疫苗、麻疹-流行性腮腺炎-风疹联合减毒活疫苗、A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗、流行性乙型脑炎灭活疫苗、甲型肝炎灭活疫苗等第二类疫苗的比例,分别为0.70%、0.53%、7.67%、2.26%、5.70%、2.34%、11.66%.经济发展较快地区儿童接种第二类疫苗比例较高;需要全程接种多剂次的第二类疫苗免疫程序执行的完整性较差.结论 中国1~2岁儿童第二类疫苗的预防接种服务较为普遍,需要规范第二类疫苗预防接种服务管理.%Objective To analysis the immunization status of category B vaccine (chargeable vaccine) among children aged 1 to 2 years, and to provide reference for the management of category B vaccine. Methods 150 children aged 1 to 2 years from each selected county were investigated by probability proportional to size ( PPS) sampling method, to understand their immunization status for category B vaccine. Results 61.41% (2875) of 4681 children aged 1-2 years old received category B vaccines. Among 4681 children, the coverage of varicella attenuated live vaccine

  1. What Vaccinations Does My Child Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  2. Family Characteristics Associated with Likelihood of Varicella Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Sheila; Mullooly, John P; Drew, Lois; Chun, Colleen S

    2016-01-01

    Context: The introduction of the varicella vaccine as a routine pediatric immunization in the US, in 1995, provided an opportunity to assess factors associated with uptake of new vaccines in the member population of the Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) Health Plan. Objective: Identify factors associated with varicella vaccination in the KPNW population in the first five years after varicella vaccine was introduced. Design: A retrospective cohort of children under age 13 years between June 1995 and December 1999, without a history of varicella disease was identified using KPNW automated data. Membership records were linked to vaccine databases. Cox regression was used to estimate likelihood of varicella vaccination during the study period in relation to age, sex, primary clinician’s specialty, and Medicaid eligibility. For a subset whose parents answered a behavioral health survey, additional demographic and behavioral characteristics were evaluated. Main Outcome Measure: Varicella vaccination. Results: We identified 88,646 children under age 13 years without a history of varicella; 22% were vaccinated during the study period. Varicella vaccination was more likely among children who were born after 1995, were not Medicaid recipients, or had pediatricians as primary clinicians. In the survey-linked cohort, positively associated family characteristics included smaller family size; higher socioeconomic status; and parents who were older, were college graduates, reported excellent health, and received influenza vaccination. Conclusion: Understanding predictors of early varicella vaccine-era vaccine acceptance may help in planning for introduction of new vaccines to routine schedules. PMID:27104589

  3. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India. PMID:27570336

  4. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  5. Malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  6. Replicating vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  7. Determining vaccination frequency in farmed rainbow trout using Vibrio anguillarum O1 specific serum antibody measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holten-Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. STUDY DESIGN: Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were compared with the vaccine status of the fish (vaccinated/unvaccinated as evaluated through visual examination. RESULTS: Repeated immunisation with the experimental vaccine lead to increasing levels of specific serum antibodies in the vaccinated rainbow trout. The farmed rainbow trout responded with high antibody levels to a single injection with the commercial vaccine. However, the diversity in responses was more pronounced in the farmed fish. Primary visual examinations for vaccine status in rainbow trout from the commercial farm revealed a large pool of unvaccinated specimens (vaccination failure rate=20% among the otherwise vaccinated fish. Through serum analyses using the ELISA in a blinded set-up it was possible to separate samples collected from the farmed rainbow trout into vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. CONCLUSIONS: Much attention has been devoted to development of new and more effective vaccines. Here we present a case from a Danish rainbow trout farm indicating that attention should also be directed to the vaccination procedure in

  8. [Vaccination safety and media publicity strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J B; Guo, X M; Li, K L; Zhang, X M

    2016-03-10

    Due to the over negative report of adverse event following immunization (AEFI) by media, some people began to question the safety of vaccination. Date published since 2005 were collected by literature retrieval, mainly including relative AEFI date, current status of media report of AEFI, public awareness about AEFI. Public concern about the vaccination safety mainly focused on the serious diseases which might be caused, influence on immune system. Media' s over negative reactions to AEFI and lack of related knowledge in general public have led to the public' s concern about vaccination safety. Vaccination is the most economical and effective measure for the prevention of diseases and AEFI incidence rate is very low. Therefore, it is necessary for media to give more positive report about vaccination safety. PMID:27005553

  9. Child Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan)

    2006-01-01

    Child support is a private transfer, which for many people is mediated by the government, and which mainly benefits lone parents. Children in lone parent families represented 42 per cent of all poor children in 2003/4. Therefore child support might play an important part in reducing child poverty. Although this was not an aspiration of the 1991 Child Support Act it was certainly the main aspiration of the Child Support, Pensions and Social Security Act 2000. This paper is a review of the pote...

  10. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  11. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  12. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  13. Underlying Constructs in the Development and Institutionalization of the Child Drama Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Stephani Etheridge

    1998-01-01

    Examines the invisible incorporation of constructions from the Victorian and Progressive eras regarding children, women, and theatre art, into the field of child drama. Discusses child drama as a moral calling; women and the gendered status of child drama; child drama as an amateur field; child drama as education in democracy; and the construction…

  14. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro;

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death.......Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  15. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-05-17

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a "South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines" was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  16. Vaccine-associated paralytic Poliomyelitis: a case report of domiciliary transmission Poliomielite associada à vacina: descrição de caso por transmissão domiciliar

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Paz; Marcelo G. Vallada; Silvia N. C. H. Marques; Erasmo B. Casella; Heloisa H.S. Marques; Maria J. Marques-Dias

    2000-01-01

    Poliomyelitis associated with live strain vaccine is defined as the paralytic form of the acute anterior poliomyelitis related to the vaccine strain. Since these strains behave similarly to the wild-type virus, we can differentiate, epidemiologically, two types of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis: cases in which the patient was vaccinated and cases in which the patient had had contact with vaccinated individuals. We herein present the case of an unvaccinated child, with a clinical picture of ...

  17. Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Rebolj, Matejka; Valentiner-Branth, Palle;

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening has helped decrease the incidence of cervical cancer, but the disease remains a burden for women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is now a promising tool for control of cervical cancer. Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) are...... relatively wealthy with predominantly publicly paid health care systems. The aim of this paper was to provide an update of the current status of introduction of HPV vaccine into the childhood vaccination programs in this region....

  18. Principles of malaria vaccine trials: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The Scientific Working Groups on Immunology of Malaria and on Applied Field Research in Malaria of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases held a joint meeting at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, on 4-8 February 1985 to consider the current status of malaria vaccine research. Although experience with vaccines against bacterial and viral infections provides valuable information, the advanced stages of development of malaria vaccines pose...

  19. Invasive pneumococcal infection despite 7-valent conjugated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Joye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death.

  20. Current challenges in the development of vaccines for pneumonic plague

    OpenAIRE

    Smiley, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of Yersinia pestis bacilli causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and exceptionally virulent disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains exist and we currently lack a safe and effective pneumonic plague vaccine. These facts raise concern that Y. pestis may be exploited as a bioweapon. Here, I review the history and status of plague vaccine research and advocate that pneumonic plague vaccines should strive to prime both humoral and cellular immunity.

  1. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  2. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...

  3. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  4. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  5. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine For Public Children under age 13 years should ... who have never had chickenpox or received chickenpox vaccine should get two doses, at least 28 days ...

  6. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

  7. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  8. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  9. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Vaccines for Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... and your growing family healthy. If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, the specific vaccinations you ...

  10. Performance of a Redesigned HIV Selectest Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Optimized To Minimize Vaccine-Induced Seropositivity in HIV Vaccine Trial Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Penezina, Oksana; Krueger, Neil X; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.; Busch, Michael P; Hural, John; Kim, Jerome H.; O'Connell, Robert J.; Hunter, Eric; Aboud, Said; Higgins, Keith; Kovalenko, Victor; Clapham, David; Crane, David; Levin, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine-induced seropositivity (VISP) or seroreactivity (VISR), defined as the reaction of antibodies elicited by HIV vaccines with antigens used in HIV diagnostic immunoassays, can result in reactive assay results for vaccinated but uninfected individuals, with subsequent misclassification of their infection status. The eventual licensure of a vaccine will magnify this issue and calls for the development of mitigating solutions in advance. An immunoassay that discriminates between antibodies...

  11. Progress and controversies in developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speiser Daniel E

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy has become a standard approach for cancer management, through the use of cytokines (eg: interleukin-2 and monoclonal antibodies. Cancer vaccines hold promise as another form of immunotherapy, and there has been substantial progress in identifying shared antigens recognized by T cells, in developing vaccine approaches that induce antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients, and in developing new technology for monitoring immune responses in various human tissue compartments. Dramatic clinical regressions of human solid tumors have occurred with some cancer vaccines, but the rate of those responses remains low. This article is part of a 2-part point:counterpoint series on peptide vaccines and adoptive therapy approaches for cancer. The current status of cancer vaccination, and associated challenges, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to increase our knowledge of cancer immunobiology, as well as to improve monitoring of cellular immune function after vaccination. Progress in both areas will facilitate development of effective cancer vaccines, as well as of adoptive therapy. Effective cancer vaccines promise to be useful for treatment and prevention of cancer at low cost and with low morbidity.

  12. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pillsbury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccine effectiveness analysis serves as a critical evaluation for immunization programmes and vaccination coverage. It also contributes to maintaining public confidence with the vaccine providers. This study estimated measles vaccine effectiveness at the population level using Australian national notifications data between 2006 and 2012. Methods: Notification data were obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination status was classified according to whether a case had received zero, one or two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Cases aged less than 1 year and those with unknown vaccination status were excluded. All children with disease onset between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012 who were born after 1996 were included. Cases were matched to controls extracted from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register according to date of birth and jurisdiction of residence. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated by conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test data robustness. Results: Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.5–98.0% for one dose and 99.7% (95% CI: 99.2–99.9% for two doses of measles vaccine. For at least one dose, effectiveness was estimated at 98.7% (95% CI: 97.9–99.2%. Sensitivity analyses did not significantly alter the base estimates. Discussion: Vaccine effectiveness estimates suggested that the measles vaccine was protective at the population level between 2006 and 2012. However, vaccination coverage gaps may have contributed to recent measles outbreaks and may represent a serious barrier for Australia to maintain measles elimination status.

  13. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  14. Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...

  15. Effectiveness of BCG Vaccination in Prevention of Childhood Tuberculosis: A Prospective Study from Kishanganj, Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Shahnawaz, Goutam Sarkar, Palash Das, Mausumi Basu, Biman Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: BCG vaccine has shown consistently high efficacy against childhood tubercular meningitis and miliary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. It is considered to be a safe vaccine with a low incidence of adverse effects. Efficacy of BCG vaccine found in different clinical trials is variable in different geography. Objectives: Study was done to assess the efficacy of BCG vac-cine. Materials and Methods: All the children who were less than three years of age and were previously BCG vaccinated and not-vaccinated, were included in this study. A total of sixty (60 vaccinated children and sixty non-vaccinated children were selected. These children were followed up prospectively for 24 months, at the end of which, it was seen whether they developed tuberculosis or not. Results: Out of these 60 children in both the cases and control groups, total number of BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 4 (i.e. 6.6% and total number of Non-BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 12 (i.e. 20%. Thus, the efficacy of BCG vaccine calculated in our study was 67%. Conclusion: Most studies in different parts of the world have shown that the efficacy of BCG vaccine varies from zero to eigh-ty percent. This study favors the efficacy of BCG vaccine. This vaccination strategy will be favorable for our children. Creation of awareness among the parents and family members for an early administration of BCG vaccine after child birth can be recom-mended.

  16. Dengue vaccine: an update on recombinant subunit strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Hermida, L

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an increasing public health problem worldwide, with the four serotypes of the virus infecting over 390 million people annually. There is no specific treatment or antiviral drug for dengue, and prevention is largely limited to controlling the mosquito vectors or disrupting the human-vector contact. Despite the considerable progress made in recent years, an effective vaccine against the virus is not yet available. The development of a dengue vaccine has been hampered by many unique challenges, including the need to ensure the absence of vaccine-induced enhanced severity of disease. Recombinant protein subunit vaccines offer a safer alternative to other vaccine approaches. Several subunit vaccine candidates are presently under development, based on different structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Novel adjuvants or immunopotentiating strategies are also being tested to improve their immunogenicity. This review summarizes the current status and development trends of subunit dengue vaccines. PMID:26982462

  17. [Poliovirus vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world. PMID:23189825

  18. Vaccines against malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    There is no licenced vaccine against any human parasitic disease and Plasmodium falciparum malaria, a major cause of infectious mortality, presents a great challenge to vaccine developers. This has led to the assessment of a wide variety of approaches to malaria vaccine design and development, assisted by the availability of a safe challenge model for small-scale efficacy testing of vaccine candidates. Malaria vaccine development has been at the forefront of assessing many new vaccine technol...

  19. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic immunotherapy reduces the size of melanoma tumors in phase 3 trial EV71 vaccine protects children against HFMD Influenza vaccination important for risk groups Bharat‘s rotavirus vaccine is safe and modestly efficacious Successfully avoiding the cold-chain for vaccines FDA approval for Stallergenes’ sublingual grass pollen allergy immunotherapy HPV vaccination campaign could change from three to two doses in the UK Valneva continues phase 2/3 trial of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine PMID:25290656

  20. 失独者的心理健康状况及其影响因素%Investigation on the psychological status and its influencing factors in parents lost their only child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭荣华; 陶金花; 张文嘉; 董亚歌; 张雪娇

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the psychological status and its influencing factors in parents lost their only child .Methods:Symptom Check list 90 (SCL-90),Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire(SCSQ)and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were applied to surveying on 186 parents lost their only child(observational group) and another 200 counterparts(control subjects) with general condition inventory.Results:Compared with the controls,the ob-servational group scored totally higher on individual components on SCL-90 and negative coping styles,yet lower on items of positive coping styles,general self-efficacy,and availability of social support and auto-support.The two groups were significantly different(P<0.05 or P<0.01).Total scoring on SCL-90 for observational group was positively correlated with negative coping styles,whereas negatively with marriage status and living status,religious belief, willingness to give birth to another child,positive coping styles,availability of auto-support and objective support as well as total scores on social support and self-efficacy(P<0.05 or P <0.01).Positive coping styles,marriage and spouse living status,religious belief were positive contribution to mental health,whereas negative coping styles were negatively associated with mental health.Conclusion:The mental health levels are overall lower in parents lost their only child,and associated to a certain extent with their current marital status,religious beliefs,possibility to give birth to another child,coping style to the bereavement,availability of social support and self-efficacy.Coping styles can be predictive role in estimation of the mental health status in this popula-tion.%目的:研究失独者的心理健康状况及其影响因素。方法:采用一般情况调查表、90项症状清单( SCL-90)、社会支持评定量表( SSRS)、简易应对方式问卷( SCSQ)和一般自我效能感量表( GSES)对186名失独者(研究组)和200名非失独者

  1. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) is a serious disease that causes painful ...

  2. 乙肝疫苗联合乙肝免疫球蛋白阻断乙肝母婴传播的效果评价%Clinical Evaluation of Hepatitis B Vaccine Combined with Hepatitis B Immunoglobulinin in Blocking Mother-to-child Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 李开艳; 王丽颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Hepatitis B vaccine combined with Hepatitis B immunoglobulin ( HBIG) in bloc-king mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) .Methods One hundred and eighty-six cases of HBsAg positive pregnant women were randomly divided into two groups .In hepatitis B vaccine combined with hepatitis B immunoglobulinin group ,93 cases received in-tramuscular injection of HBIG (200IU per time once one week for 4 weeks) and hepatitis B vaccine (20μg per time once one week for 4 weeks,at the different positions) at 24,28,32,36 week during pregnancy.In theHBIG group,93 cases were only given HBIG at the same time and the dose was unchanged .The HBV marker and content of HBV-DNA in the blood samples of mothers and their neonates were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQPCR) respectively.Results Compared with the HBIG group,content of HBV-DNA of hepatitis B vaccine combined with HBIG group were significantly decreased .The detection rate of HBsAb of hepatitis B vaccine combined with HBIG group was 69.89% and was significantly higher than those (45.16%) in the HBIG group.The incidence of intrauterine infection were 5.38% and 12.90% respectively and there were significant difference between two groups.Conclusion Hepatitis B vaccine combined with HBIG during pregnancy can notably reduce the incidence of intrauterine infection and its effect in blocking mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus is better than that of HBIG .%目的:评价乙肝疫苗联合乙肝免疫球蛋白( HBIG)阻断乙肝母婴传播的综合治疗疗效。方法对186例孕检的孕妇HBsAg阳性者随机分为治疗组(93例)和对照组(93例),治疗组分别于孕24周、28周、32周、36周肌肉注射HBIG共4次,每次200IU,同时在不同部位注射乙肝疫苗20μg,共4次;对照组在同时间、同剂量单用HBIG。采用酶联免疫吸附测定法,检

  3. Issues and considerations in the use of serologic biomarkers for classifying vaccination history in household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Adam; Lee, Chung-Won; Dietz, Vance

    2014-09-01

    Accurate estimates of vaccination coverage are crucial for assessing routine immunization program performance. Community based household surveys are frequently used to assess coverage within a country. In household surveys to assess routine immunization coverage, a child's vaccination history is classified on the basis of observation of the immunization card, parental recall of receipt of vaccination, or both; each of these methods has been shown to commonly be inaccurate. The use of serologic data as a biomarker of vaccination history is a potential additional approach to improve accuracy in classifying vaccination history. However, potential challenges, including the accuracy of serologic methods in classifying vaccination history, varying vaccine types and dosing schedules, and logistical and financial implications must be considered. We provide historic and scientific context for the potential use of serologic data to assess vaccination history and discuss in detail key areas of importance for consideration in the context of using serologic data for classifying vaccination history in household surveys. Further studies are needed to directly evaluate the performance of serologic data compared with use of immunization cards or parental recall for classification of vaccination history in household surveys, as well assess the impact of age at the time of sample collection on serologic titers, the predictive value of serology to identify a fully vaccinated child for multi-dose vaccines, and the cost impact and logistical issues on outcomes associated with different types of biological samples for serologic testing. PMID:25045821

  4. 深圳市宝安区托幼机构人员甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率及其影响因素%Vaccination Coverage of Influenza A (H1N1) and the Influential Factors Among Child-care Staff in Bao'an District of Shenzhen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海庄; 李苑; 刘开钳; 吴泰顺; 马智超

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the vaccination coverage of influenza A (H1N1) and the its influential factors among child - care staff in Bao'an district of Shenzhen. Methods A survey of random sampling was carried out for 530 health - care workers from 100 kindergartens with anonymous questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis, Rank sum test, x2 test and Logistic regression analysis were used for univariate analysis and multiva-riate analysis to evaluate influential factors of vaccine coverage. Results The vaccination coverage rate of influenza A ( H1N1 ) in child - care staff in Bao'an district of Shenzhen was 39. 96%% , the main reason for un - inoculation was concerning about side effects. The multivariate analysis showed that the sex [ male, odds ratio (OR) = 3.193, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 1. 285 - 7. 936 ] , being sanitarian and nursery governess (sanitarian, OR = 12.583, 95% CI = 2.825 - 56.082; nursery governess, OR = 7.581, 95% CI = 1. 881 - 30. 554) , length of service (11 -15, OR =6. 299, 95% CI = 1. 169-33. 945) and with a seasonal influenza vaccination in the past three years (vaccinated, OR =8. 856, 95% CI =4. 139 - 18. 703; obscurity, OR = 4. 322, 95% CI = 1. 588 - 11. 766) were correlated with influenza A ( H1N1) vaccination (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The child - care staff in Bao'an had high vaccination coverage of influenza A ( H1N1). It is important to strengthen the propaganda of the effectiveness and security of influenza A (H1N1) vaccine, especially to women, being teacher, people who have length of service less than five years and without the history of seasonal influenza vaccination in the past three years.%目的 了解深圳市宝安区托幼机构人员甲型H1N1流行性感冒(甲流)疫苗接种率及其影响因素.方法 随机抽取深圳市宝安区100家托幼机构530人作为面访匿名问卷调查对象.采用描述性分析、秩和检验、x 2检验和Logistic回归分析分别对疫苗接种率的影响因素进行单

  5. Trends in childhood vaccine purchase costs in the US public sector: 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Messonnier, Mark; Zhou, Fangjun

    2016-09-01

    While vaccination remains as one of the most cost-effective preventive strategies, the cost of fully immunizing a child has grown considerably over the last few decades. This study examines trends in non-influenza childhood vaccine purchase costs in the public sector from 1996 to 2014. Non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child for children aged 0 through 18years was calculated based on public-sector purchase prices. Purchase cost changes were then decomposed into changes attributable to recommendation updates and changes attributable to price variation. The study analyzed the growth rate of combination vaccine prices separately and compared these prices with the sum of prices of component vaccines. It is found that the average annual growth rate of non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child during 1996-2014 was 12.6%. The growth rate attributable to price changes was 1.0% on average. Combination vaccine prices showed greater variation. The study concludes that vaccine price variation was one but a minor reason for purchase cost changes. Recommendation updates, particularly the introduction of new vaccines, played a much larger role in raising the purchase costs. If the 12.6% annual growth rate found during 1996-2014 in the study continues to apply, the purchase costs of childhood vaccines may more than double by 2020. PMID:27522176

  6. Factors associated with adults' perceived need to vaccinate against hepatitis B in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lijie; Wang, Jian; Wangen, Knut R; Chen, Ruohan; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public-health issue in China. While the hepatitis B vaccine is effective in preventing HBV infection, the HBV vaccination coverage rates among Chinese adults remain low. From a survey of rural adults from 7 provinces in China, we identified a unique HBV at-risk group: rural adults who had no history of HBV vaccination and had no plan to HBV vaccinate in the future. We divided this 'no history-no plan' group into those who identified No-need to vaccinate and those that perceived a Need to vaccinate (even if they had no plan to do so). We found age, marital status, health status, perceived HBV infection environment, perceived HBV infection risk and perceived HBV infection severity explained differences between the 'No-need' and 'Need" to HBV vaccinate groups. Education, occupation and knowledge of hepatitis B and HBV transmission were not associated with HBV vaccination need. Our results showed that free HBV vaccinations and reimbursement for vaccinating could significantly increase the HBV vaccinate take-up rate for both Need and No-need rural adults. A tailored public health HBV campaign, especially targeting the No-need subgroup, would increase vaccination rates by better informing rural adults about HBV transmission routes, the dangers of HBV infection, the effectiveness of HBV vaccinations and the safety of HBV vaccinations. PMID:27042968

  7. [Anti-pneumococcal vaccine coverage for hospitalized risk patients: Assessment and suggestions for improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C; Le Garlantezec, P; Lamand, V; Rasamijao, V; Rapp, C

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause invasive infections. Incidence and severity are linked to patients' risk factors. Due to the resistance to leading antibiotics, the anti-pneumococcal vaccination has become a major public health issue. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the anti-pneumococcal vaccine coverage in a population of adults with risk factors. This was a prospective study that included patients with at least one recommendation for pneumococcal vaccination as indicated by the Weekly Epidemiological Bulletin (BEH), to which three further US recommendations were added (diabetes, obesity and age>65years). One hundred and thirty-four patients with an average age of 70 years were included. The physician could only confirm 68 % of the patients' vaccination status. Vaccination coverage as recommended by the BEH board was 30 % (n=54). All HIV patients were vaccinated (n=2) and the vaccination coverage was 75 % (n=8) for patients treated for autoimmune diseases and only 10 % (n=20) for patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with no vaccination didn't know the existence of the vaccine or didn't know that vaccination was recommended to them. This study has highlighted a deficit in pneumococcal vaccination coverage and a high level of ignorance of the existence of recommended vaccination. In addition to awareness campaign for patients and caregiver training, the expansion of the vaccine e-book utilization could improve the vaccination status. PMID:26619926

  8. Race/Ethnic and Nativity Disparities in Child Overweight in the United States and England

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Child overweight is a growing problem in wealthy countries. There is also evidence that child overweight varies by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In this article, the authors use data from two recent birth cohort studies in the United States and England to address four questions: (1) Are race/ethnic and immigrant status associated with child overweight? (2) Is the association between socioeconomic status and child overweight similar across race/ethnic and nativity subgroups? (3) Doe...

  9. Gender differentials in the timing of measles vaccination in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rammohan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a highly contagious but vaccine-preventable disease. Gender differences in measles vaccination outcomes have been widely reported in India. Objective: An overlooked factor is whether female children are less likely to be vaccinated age-appropriately. Methods: In this paper we use data from the nationally representative 2008 District Level Household Survey (DLHS to analyse if there are any gender differences in the propensity to vaccinate a child for measles, and, among the vaccinated sample, whether there are any gender differences in the probability of age-appropriate measles vaccination. Results: Our analysis confirms that girls have both a significantly lower probability of being vaccinated and of being vaccinated age-appropriately.

  10. Anthrax vaccine as a component of the strategic national stockpile: a dilemma for Homeland Security

    OpenAIRE

    Rempfer, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The author explains how past problems with the Defense Department anthrax vaccine currently affect Department of Homeland Security and Department of Health and Human Services policy. The departments included the BioThrax® anthrax vaccine in the Strategic National Stockpile following the 2001 anthrax letter attacks. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the vaccine's "failing" status possibly motivated the letter attacks to create demand for the vaccine. This ...

  11. Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Nutritional Status among the Women of Child Bearing Age: A Case-Control Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul H. Milton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 µg/L through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5 and 360 controls (BMI 18.5–24.99 were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant’s age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 µg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.6 increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20–45 years.

  12. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  13. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized. PMID:27087465

  14. Influenza vaccination coverage in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Klincewicz, Beata; Łazowska-Przeorek, Izabella; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Kąkol, Paulina; Mytyk, Aleksandra; Kofla, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influenza vaccination status among paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Poland. This was a questionnaire-based study. 242 patients with IBD and 142 controls were enrolled in the study. Of patients with IBD, 7·8% received an influenza vaccine, compared to 18·3% of controls (P = 0·0013). There were no statistically significant differences in time from IBD diagnosis, disease activity and in drugs, between vaccinated and non-vaccin...

  15. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  16. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  17. Malaria vaccine: a current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhona Sharma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The observation that inactivated Plasmodium sporozoites could protect against malaria is about a hundred years old. However, systematic demonstration of protection using irradiated sporozoites occurred in the nineteen-sixties, providing the impetus for the development of a malaria vaccine. In 1983, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP, a major sporozoite surface antigen, became the first Plasmodium gene to be cloned, and a CSP-based vaccine appeared imminent. Today, 25 years later, we are still without an effective malaria vaccine, despite considerable information regarding the genomics and proteomics of the malaria parasites. Although clinical immunity to malaria has been well-documented in adults living in malaria endemic areas, our understanding of the host-immune responses operating in such malaria immune persons remains poor, and limits the development of immune control of the disease. Currently, several antigen and adjuvant combinations have entered clinical trials, in which efficacy against experimental sporozoite challenge and/or exposure to natural infection is evaluated. This review collates information on the recent status of the field. Unresolved challenges facing the development of a malaria vaccine are also discussed.

  18. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  19. ADVERSE EVENTS POST-DTAP AND DTwP VACCINATION IN THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Librada; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a prospective study to compare the development of fever (axillary T ≥ 37.9 °C) within 4 hours of vaccination, determine the proportion of children who develop high fever (T ≥ 39°C) and evaluate parental days missed from work due to their children's vaccination with either the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) or diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. The results of this study can help physicians and parents decide whether to have their child vaccinated with the DTwP or more expensive DTaP vaccine. We studied 140 healthy Thai children aged 2 months to 6 years from December 2011 to March 2012 who presented for vaccination. Parents recorded their child's temperature, local and systemic adverse reactions and missed days from work due to these adverse events on a diary card. Of the 140 participants, 72 received the DTwP vaccine and 68 received the DTaP vaccine. The median (IQR) age was 4 (2-6) months and the median weight was 7.1 (5.6-8.7) kg. Twenty children developed fever (axillary T ≥ 37.9°C) within 4 hours following vaccination, 17 (23.6%) had received the DTwP vaccine and 3 (4.4%) had received the DTaP vaccine (p = 0.040). One child (1.4%) who had received the DTwP vaccine and none who received the DTaP vaccine developed high fever (T ≥ 39°C) within 4 hours of vaccination (p = 0.329). Parents of two children who received the DTwP vaccine and one child who received the DTaP vaccine missed work following vaccination (p = 0.059). In conclusion, children who received the DTwP vaccines were more likely to have early post-vaccination fever and higher fever but there was no significant difference between the two groups in parental days lost from work. PMID:26867397

  20. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  1. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...

  2. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  3. Studies on the duration of immunity induced in cattle after natural FMD infection and post vaccination with bivalent oil vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect the proper time for vaccination of infected calves after the onset of clinical signs and revaccination for previously vaccinated animals with bivalent FMD montanide ISA206 inactivated vaccine. Materials and Methods: Twenty calves naturally infected with foot and mouth disease (FMD showing clinical signs represented by lesions on the tongue, buccal mucosa and feet. Samples were collected from these calves including tongue epithelial and oropharyngeal fluid (OP. The causative virus was isolated from such samples through inoculation of baby mice and typed by indirect Sandwich ELISA and was confirmed in 2 tongue epithelia samples using PCR. Results: The serum antibody titers were determined using SNT and ELISA in the sera of the 20 infected calves revealing that the infected farms should be vaccinated with inactivated bivalent FMD vaccine for (type O and A Adjuvanted with montanide ISA206 after 32 weeks from the appearance of clinical signs. In addition the FMD immune status was monitored in 2 farms in EL-Fayoum and El-Sharkia Governorates where 50 calves in each farm were vaccinated with the bivalent FMD inactivated vaccine adjuvaned with montanide ISA206 and serum samples were collected monthly from these animals to determine their immune status using SNT and ELISA. The obtained results showed that vaccinated calves with the bivalent FMD montanide ISA206 inactivated vaccine should be revaccinated after 36 weeks post vaccination. Conclusions: naturally infected calves should be vaccinated on the 32 weeks post infection while vaccinated calves should be revaccinated on the 36 weeks post vaccination. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 603-608

  4. Understanding Child Rights in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  5. Vaccine-Related Beliefs and Practices of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alicia; Zeldin, Ari; Schuster, Erica; Barrett, Christopher; Lehrer, Danise

    2012-01-01

    Although the assertion of a link between vaccines and autism has been scientifically rejected, the theory continues to be popular and may influence the attitudes of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. The authors sought to assess how often parents change or discontinue their child's vaccine schedule after autism spectrum disorder…

  6. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocy

  7. Nonfebrile Seizures after Mumps, Measles, Rubella, and Varicella-Zoster Virus Combination Vaccination with Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Serum, Throat, and Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Eckerle, Isabella; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Santibanez, Sabine; Buderus, Stephan; Hillmann, Matthias; Drosten, Christian; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a child presenting with nonfebrile seizures 6 and 13 days after the first vaccination with a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine. Measles virus RNA was detected in the patient's serum, throat, and urine. Genotyping revealed the Schwarz vaccine virus strain.

  8. Factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among children in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundSeasonal influenza vaccine was once part of the routine immunization schedule that is routinely offered to all children in Japan, but it is now excluded from the schedule. This study aimed to investigate factors influential to parents’ decision to have their children receive seasonal influenza vaccine, as well as types of seasonal influenza vaccine information that is given to parents.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 555 participants who have at least one child...

  9. Local public health response to vaccine-associated measles: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Monica; Schwartz, Kevin L; Frenette, Crystal; Mogck, Isabelle; Jonathan B Gubbay; Severini, Alberto; Hiebert, Joanne; Shelley L Deeks; Shaun K Morris

    2013-01-01

    Background The most appropriate public health approach to vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients is unknown, mainly because these cases are rare and transmission of vaccine-associated measles has not been previously documented. In this case report, we describe Peel Public Health’s response to a vaccine-associated measles case in an immunocompromised child in Ontario, Canada. Case presentation A five-year-old Canadian-born boy with a history of a hematopoetic stem cell transp...

  10. Pediatric HIV Type 1 Vaccine Trial Acceptability among Mothers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace C.; John, Francis N.; Kabura, Marjory N; Kiarie, James N

    2006-01-01

    Vaccination of infants against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Successful trials and immunization efforts will depend on the willingness of individuals to participate in pediatric vaccine research and acceptance of infant HIV-1 vaccines. In a cross-sectional study, pregnant women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic for routine care were interviewed regarding their attitudes toward participation in research studies and HIV-1 vacc...

  11. A 6-month-old with vaccine-hesitant parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Feemster, Kristen A; Omer, Saad B; Orenstein, Walter A; Richter, Monica; Lantos, John D

    2014-03-01

    Many primary care pediatricians find vaccine hesitancy to be one of the most frustrating situations that they face. Parents who refuse to vaccinate their children implicitly call into question an intervention that most pediatricians see as one of the safest and most effective health care interventions of all time. Many pediatricians respond by refusing to care for children whose parents refuse vaccines, and some may consider that the parent's refusal warrants referral to child protective services. We present a case in which a pediatrician faces this dilemma, with responses from pediatricians in academia and private practice. PMID:24515506

  12. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  13. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  14. Who Should Not Get Vaccinated with These Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be updated.) Top of Page HPV-Cervarix (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine or ... updated.) Top of Page HPV-Gardasil-9 (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine. Anyone ...

  15. Status of hepatitis B infection - a decade after hepatitis B vaccination of susceptible Nicobarese, an indigenous tribe of Andaman & Nicobar (A&N) islands with high hepatitis B endemicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Ghosal, S.R.; Roy, Subarna; Sugunan, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, home to six primitive tribes, constituting about 10 per cent of the total population of these Islands have been detected with high endemicity of hepatitis B infection. During 2000, a total of 936 individuals ≤ 45 yr, negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody anti-HBs were vaccinated with three doses of a recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine in two villages of Car Nicobar Islands. The present study was undertaken...

  16. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation. PMID:24755623

  17. Malaria vaccines:looking back and lessons learnt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronique; Lorenz; Panagiotis; Karanis

    2011-01-01

    The current status of malaria vaccine approaches has the background of a long and arduous path of malaria disease control and vaccine development.Here,we critically review with regard to unilateral interventional approaches and highlight the impact of socioeconomic elements of malaria endemicity. The necessity of re-energizing basic research of malaria life-cycle and Plasmodium developmental biology to provide the basis for promising and cost-effective vaccine approaches and to reach eradication goals is more urgent than previously believed.We closely analyse the flaws of various vaccine approaches,outline future directions and challenges that still face us and conclude that the focus of the field must be shifted to the basic research efforts including findings on the skin stage of infection.We also reflect on economic factors of vaccine development and the impact of public perception when it comes to vaccine uptake.

  18. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  19. Measles vaccine coverage and factors related to uncompleted vaccination among 18-month-old and 36-month-old children in Kyoto, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shigeru

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to low vaccine coverage, Japan has not only experienced outbreaks of measles but has also been exporting it overseas. This study aims to survey measles vaccine coverage and the factors uncompleted vaccination among community-living children. Methods Subjects were the parents whose children had undergone either an 18-month or a 36-month checkup publicly provided by Kyoto City during November 2001 to January 2002. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted. Results The coverage was 73.2% among the 18-month-old children (n = 2707 and 88.9% among the 36-month-old children (n = 2340, respectively. The following characteristics of mothers were related to uncompleted measles vaccination: aged below 30, working, concerned about the adverse events of the vaccine, and had insufficient knowledge. Similarly, the following characteristics among children were related to uncompleted measles vaccination: not the first-born child, interacting with other children in group settings. The coverage was the lowest among the children whose mothers were concerned about the adverse events of the vaccine without proper knowledge of measles and its vaccination. Conclusion To increase vaccine coverage among children, parents' awareness about measles and vaccination against it should be promoted, especially for working mothers. Efforts to enhance access to vaccination services and to communicate with parents about changing vaccination schedules are necessary.

  20. Concerns regarding hepatitis B vaccination and post-vaccination test among Brazilian dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Rosângela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B infection is the major cause of acute and chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide and has long been recognized as an occupational hazard among dentists. The aim of the present study was to examine factors associated to the self-reporting of hepatitis B vaccination and immunization status among dentists working in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 1302 dentists in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After signing a term of informed consent, the participants answered a structured questionnaire on their knowledge regarding their vaccination and immunization status against hepatitis B. Data on demographic, behavioural and occupational exposure aspects were also collected through questionnaires. Results The results revealed that 73.8% of the dentists reported having received three doses of the vaccine. Multivariate analysis revealed that gender (p = 0.006, use of individual protective equipment (p = 0.021, history of blood transfusion (p = 0.024 and history of illicit drug use (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vaccination against hepatitis B. Only 14.8% had performed a post-vaccination test. The use of individual protective equipment (p = 0.038, dentists who asked patients about hepatitis during dental treatment (p Conclusions Although there were a large number of vaccinated dentists in Belo Horizonte, the percentage was less than what was expected, as Brazil offers the National Program of Viral Hepatitis Vaccination, which provides free hepatitis B vaccinations to all healthcare workers. Despite being part of a high risk group for contamination, most of the dentists did not know their immunization status.

  1. Why does the world need another rotavirus vaccine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Ward

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Richard L Ward1, Monica M McNeal1, A Duncan Steele21Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: A “Meeting on Upstream Rotavirus Vaccines and Emerging Vaccine Producers” was held at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland on March 28–30, 2006. The purpose was to discuss, evaluate, and weigh the importance of additional rotavirus vaccine candidates following the successful international licensure of rotavirus vaccines by two major pharmaceutical companies (GlaxoSmithKline and Merck that had been in development for many years. Both licensed vaccines are composed of live rotaviruses that are delivered orally as have been all candidate rotavirus vaccines evaluated in humans. Each is built on the experience gained with previous candidates whose development had either been discontinued or, in the case of the previously licensed rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine (Rotashield, was withdrawn by its manufacturer after the discovery of a rare association with intussusception. Although which alternative candidate vaccines should be supported for development and where this should be done are controversial topics, there was general agreement expressed at the Geneva meeting that further development of alternative candidates is a high priority. This development will help insure that the most safe, effective and economic vaccines are available to children in Third World nations where the vast majority of the >600,000 deaths due to rotavirus occur each year. This review is intended to provide the history and present status of rotavirus vaccines as well as a perspective on the future development of candidate vaccines as a means of promulgating plans suggested at the Geneva meeting.Keywords: rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus immunity, candidate vaccines

  2. Child's right to special care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Gupta, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status. PMID:12317284

  3. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  6. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Last Updated December 7, 2015 On ... schedule are included in this update. Chart of Vaccines* in Delay or Shortage Vaccines are listed in ...

  7. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...

  8. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  9. A Study of the Cycle of Abuse among Child Molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2001-01-01

    This study of 147 sex offenders on probation explores whether there is support for the cycle of abuse theory among child molesters. Results indicate that being abused as a child is related to being a child molester. It was also found that the MMPI-2 did not predict the status of the subjects in regard to being abused as a child and having a victim…

  10. Nonstandard Work and Child Care Choices of Married Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Kimmel; Lisa Powell

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to examine the interplay between nonstandard employment (i.e., shift work) and child care choice decisions of married mothers with young children. We contribute to the child care choice literature by examining the impact of nonstandard work on the child care choice decisions of mothers taking into account the likely endogeneity of nonstandard work. Also, we examine the extent to which child care prices simultaneously affect work status (no work versus standard work ...

  11. Relationship between parent held child records for immunisations, parental recall and health service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jessop, L

    2011-03-01

    Parent held child records (PHCR) were introduced in Ireland in 2008. This study investigated the relationship between the PHCR, parental recall and regional Health Service Executive (HSE) records for immunisation uptake. It used the Lifeways cohort study of 1070 singleton children to compare immunisation data from PHCR at one year, parental recall at five years and information from the HSE. When compared to HSE records, full recording of primary immunisations in the PHCR was reported for 695 of 749 (92.8%) children. Parental recall was correct for 520 of 538 (96.7%) children. Of the 307 completed PHCRs, 207 (75.9%) agreed with the HSE records. Agreement between the three sources for primary immunisations was 74-93% but was not statistically significant. Agreement was 91% (p < 0.001) for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines between parental recall and HSE records. PHCRs underestimated and parental recall overestimated immunisation status when compared with HSE records.

  12. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114

  13. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...

  14. Valuable Work, Minimal Rewards: A Report on the Wisconsin Child Care Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alice; And Others

    A 1994 state-wide survey examined the status of child care profession in Wisconsin. Surveyed were 326 family child care providers, 104 child care center directors, and 254 center teaching staff. Responses indicated that child care teaching staff have experienced a wage increase of just over 1 percent per year since 1988, and continue to earn low…

  15. Factors likely to affect community acceptance of a malaria vaccine in two districts of Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Meñaca

    Full Text Available Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Ghana. As part of the effort to inform local and national decision-making in preparation for possible malaria vaccine introduction, this qualitative study explored community-level factors that could affect vaccine acceptance in Ghana and provides recommendations for a health communications strategy. The study was conducted in two purposively selected districts: the Ashanti and Upper East Regions. A total of 25 focus group discussions, 107 in-depth interviews, and 21 semi-structured observations at Child Welfare Clinics were conducted. Malaria was acknowledged to be one of the most common health problems among children. While mosquitoes were linked to the cause and bed nets were considered to be the main preventive method, participants acknowledged that no single measure prevented malaria. The communities highly valued vaccines and cited vaccination as the main motivation for taking children to Child Welfare Clinics. Nevertheless, knowledge of specific vaccines and what they do was limited. While communities accepted the idea of minor vaccine side effects, other side effects perceived to be more serious could deter families from taking children for vaccination, especially during vaccination campaigns. Attendance at Child Welfare Clinics after age nine months was limited. Observations at clinics revealed that while two different opportunities for counseling were offered, little attention was given to addressing mothers' specific concerns and to answering questions related to child immunization. Positive community attitudes toward vaccines and the understanding that malaria prevention requires a comprehensive approach would support the introduction of a malaria vaccine. These attitudes are bolstered by a well-established child welfare program and the availability in Ghana of active, flexible structures for conveying health information to communities. At the same time, it would

  16. Estimating the costs of implementing the rotavirus vaccine in the national immunisation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell B; Ustrup, Marte; Hansen, Kristian S;

    2014-01-01

    vaccine implementation in Malawi amounted to US$ 18.5 million over a 5-years period. This translated into US$ 5.8 per child in the birth cohort. With GAVI Alliance financial support, the total cost was reduced to US$ 1.4 per child in the birth cohort. Approximately 83% of the total cost was attributed to...... vaccine purchase, while 17% was attributed to system costs, with personnel, transportation and cold chain as the main cost components. CONCLUSION: The total cost of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Malawi is high compared with the governmental health budget of US$ 26 per capita per year. This...

  17. HPV Vaccine and Latino Immigrant Parents: If They Offer It, We Will Get It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragones, Abraham; Genoff, Margaux; Gonzalez, Cynthia; Shuk, Elyse; Gany, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    HPV vaccination rates remain low in the fast growing Latino children population while we continue to observe large HPV-associated cancer disparities in the Latino population. In this study, we sought to elucidate Latino immigrant parents' barriers to obtaining the HPV vaccine for their children. Five focus groups were conducted with Latino immigrant parents of minors (i.e., 9-17 year old) who had not yet initiated the HPV vaccine series. Three major findings were identified from the focus groups: (1) low levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine, (2) high confidence that parent can get the vaccine for their eligible child and (3) lack of provider recommendation as the main barrier to vaccination. Children of Latino immigrant parents could benefit from increased provider recommendation for the HPV vaccine while providing tailored HPV information to parents. PMID:26001843

  18. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  19. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  20. Does improving maternal knowledge of vaccines impact infant immunization rates? A community-based randomized-controlled trial in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha Ajmal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, only 59-73% of children 12-23 months of age are fully immunized. This randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess the impact of a low-literacy immunization promotion educational intervention for mothers living in low-income communities of Karachi on infant immunization completion rates. Methods Three hundred and sixty-six mother-infant pairs, with infants aged ≤ 6 weeks, were enrolled and randomized into either the intervention or control arm between August - November 2008. The intervention, administered by trained community health workers, consisted of three targeted pictorial messages regarding vaccines. The control group received general health promotion messages based on Pakistan's Lady Health Worker program curriculum. Assessment of DPT/Hepatitis B vaccine completion (3 doses was conducted 4-months after enrollment. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate effect of the intervention. The multivariable Poisson regression model included maternal education, paternal occupation, ownership of home, cooking fuel used at home, place of residence, the child's immunization status at enrollment, and mother's perception about the impact of immunization on child's health. Results Baseline characteristics among the two groups were similar. At 4 month assessment, among 179 mother-infant pairs in the intervention group, 129 (72.1% had received all 3 doses of DPT/Hepatitis B vaccine, whereas in the control group 92/178 (51.7% had received all 3 doses. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant improvement of 39% (adjusted RR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.06-1.81 in DPT-3/Hepatitis B completion rates in the intervention group. Conclusion A simple educational intervention designed for low-literate populations, improved DPT-3/Hepatitis B vaccine completion rates by 39%. These findings have important implications for improving routine immunization rates in Pakistan.

  1. Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine among Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Abdolsamadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Hepatitis B infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Dental students who are frequently in contact with body fluids like blood and saliva are still at high risk for HBV exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccine and personal factors associated with serologic evidence of the immune response."nMethods: A descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out using data from Hamadan dental school students that received just three doses of HBV vaccine. The serum sample of 86 dental clinical students were examined in order to determine hepatitis B surface antigen and the level of anti-HBs using IEMA method. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship of vaccine response to the variables Sex, age weight, smoking status and the time lasting from the third dose of vaccine injection."nResults: Ninety-three percent had positive anti-HBs response and 7% were non-responders. No one showed HBsAg. Vaccine response was most strongly associated with age, smoking status, sex and weight. The time lasting from the third dose was unrelated to vaccine response."nConclusion: Clinical dental students had desirable immune response to the HBV vaccine nevertheless recommended num­ber of doses, standard protocol and early vaccination are critical to adequate protection against hepatitis infection among all health care workers, in particular dental students and dentists who are often exposed to blood and other body fluids.

  2. Thermostable Subunit Vaccines for Pulmonary Delivery: How Close Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foged, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, vaccines have contributed to a significant improvement in global public health by preventing a number of infectious diseases. Despite this, the vaccine field is still facing challenges related to incomplete vaccine coverage and persistent difficult vaccine targets, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and Ebola, for which no good universal vaccines exist. At least two pharmaceutical improvements are expected to help filling this gap: i) The development of thermostable vaccine dosage forms, and ii) the full exploitation of the adjuvant technology for subunit vaccines to potentiate strong immune responses. This review highlights the status and recent advances in formulation and pulmonary delivery of thermostable human subunit vaccines. Such vaccines are very appealing from compliance, distribution and immunological point of view: Being non-invasive, inhalable vaccines are self-administrable, can be distributed independently of functioning freezers and refrigerators, and can be designed to induce mucosal and/or cell-mediated immunity, which is attractive for a number of diseases requiring stimulation of local mucosal immunity for protection. However, the design and delivery of thermostable dry powder-based vaccines represents a technological challenge: It calls for careful formulation and dosage form design, combined with cheap and efficient delivery devices, which must be engineered via a thorough understanding of the physiological barrier and the requirements for induction of mucosal immunity. Here, I review state of the art and perspectives in formulation design and processing methods for powder-based subunit vaccines intended for pulmonary administration, and present dry powder inhaler technologies suitable for translating these vaccines into clinical trials. PMID:26831645

  3. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a ...

  4. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  5. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  6. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  7. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerix-B® ... a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus.In ...

  8. Teen Vaccines (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-24

    No child should miss the opportunity for lasting protection against dangerous infectious diseases and some cancers, but unfortunately, many do. In this podcast, Dr. Laurie Elam-Evans discusses the importance of ensuring teenagers are up-to-date on their vaccinations.  Created: 7/24/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/24/2014.

  9. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.

    2016-01-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  10. Parents’ and Adolescents’ Willingness to be Vaccinated Against Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease during a Mass Vaccination in Saguenay–Lac-St-Jean (Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Dubé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93% and adolescents (75%. Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated.

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  12. RECOMBINANT INFLUENZA VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Sedova, E.; Shcherbinin, D.; Migunov, A.; Smirnov, Iu; Logunov, D.; Shmarov, M.; Tsybalova, L.; Naroditskiĭ, B.; O. Kiselev; Gintsburg, A.

    2012-01-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery pla...

  13. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...

  14. Vaccines and global health

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing ...

  15. Vaccination during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Pina; Narducci, Andrea; Einarson, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Question One of my patients is studying to become a dental hygienist. Owing to the program requirements, she received several vaccinations last week, including measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B (HB) vaccines, as well as a tetanus booster. However, today a blood test confirmed that she is currently 6 weeks pregnant. What is known about the safety of these vaccines during pregnancy, and are there any general recommendations for vaccines for women who are planning to become pregn...

  16. Vaccine chronicle in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner’s cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, ...

  17. Clinical vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical e...

  18. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  19. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  20. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  1. Status and influencing factors of child sexual abuse prevention skills of elementary school pupils in rural ar-ea%农村儿童应对性侵犯能力现况及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁博成; 王迎春; 金春玉

    2014-01-01

    To understand the status of child sexual abuse prevention skills of elementary school pupils in rural area and explore its influential factors,to provide scientific basis for the prevention of child sexual a-buse.Methods:1345 pupils from three rural areas of grade 3 to 6 from 6 schools in Hebei province were surveyed by questionnaires which were Social Anxiety Scale for Children,Children’s Loneliness Scale,Children’s self-concept Scale and anonymous collective self-administered questionnaire.Results:Rural children had low vigilance against familiar people and liker;only 29.2% of them knew the liker may also touch them in unpleasant ways. When sexual assault occurred,they seldom turned to the people not in their family,for only 42.6% of them knew that they could also turn to people outside the family for help.Multivariate analysis showed that loneliness,junior grade and long-time away from their mother were main influence factors for sexual abuse prevention ability of rural children.Conclusion:The child sexual abuse prevention ability of rural children still needs to be improved,and factors such as loneliness,junior grade and long-time away from their mother have important effects on the ability. Therefore,related work should be conducted with focus and plan,to achieve comprehensive control and focused in-tervention.%目的:了解农村儿童应对性侵犯能力现况并探索其影响因素,为预防儿童性侵犯提供科学依据。方法:抽取河北省3个农村地区6所小学3~6年级学生1345名,采用儿童社交焦虑量表、儿童孤独量表、Piers-Harris儿童自我意识量表及自编问卷进行集体匿名问卷调查。结果:农村儿童对熟悉的人和喜欢的人警惕性较低,仅29.2%的学生知道喜欢的人也可能用让人感觉不好的方式接触自己的身体。遇到性侵犯发生时,除了家人外较少求助家庭以外的人,仅42.6%的学生知道可以向家庭以外的人求助。多因素

  2. 安徽省县区级妇幼保健机构发展现状及对策研究%Study on development status of maternal and child health institutions at county level in Anhui province and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑜; 万宇辉; 阙敏; 吴海燕; 邵子瑜

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the development status of maternal and child health (MCH) institutions at county level in Anhui province, and provide references for health administration authorities to formulate construction solutions and development countermeasures for MCH institutions. Methods: Cluster sampling method was used in the study, and national " maternal and child health resources and operating situation questionnaire" and " national Maternal and child institutions management information network report system" were used to conduct complete investigation among 101 MCH institutions in Anhui province. Results: The personnel of 87. 13% of the medical workers was not up to the national standard, most health technical staffs were intermediate or junior certificate and college degree or under; apparatus equipments were relatively scarce, service projects were restricted; 73. 27% of the institutions was in long - term liabilities, the developing force was weak; scientific research and teaching level were backward, the integrated development of institution was restricted. Conclusion: The capacity building of MCH institutions at county level should be strengthened, the function should be clearly positioned, financial input and policy support should be enhanced more, population health care work should be strengthened, the talent team building should be accelerated. Then the service ability and service level will be improved.%目的:了解安徽省县区级妇幼保健机构发展现状,为卫生管理部门制定妇幼保健机构能力建设方案和发展对策提供参考依据.方法:采取整群抽样的方法,应用全国统一的“妇幼保健机构资源与运营情况调查表”和《全国妇幼卫生机构管理信息网络报告系统》对全省101所县区级妇幼保健机构进行全面调查.结果:87.13%的县区级妇幼保健机构人员编制未达国家标准,卫生技术人员中以中、初级职称和大专及以下学历为主;妇幼保

  3. Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine protection in mice challenged with ectromelia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Scott; Crump, Ryan; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Lanier, E Randall; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Trost, Lawrence C; Buller, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Natural orthopoxvirus outbreaks such as vaccinia, cowpox, cattlepox and buffalopox continue to cause morbidity in the human population. Monkeypox virus remains a significant agent of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Furthermore, monkeypox virus's broad host-range and expanding environs make it of particular concern as an emerging human pathogen. Monkeypox virus and variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox) are both potential agents of bioterrorism. The first line response to orthopoxvirus disease is through vaccination with first-generation and second-generation vaccines, such as Dryvax and ACAM2000. Although these vaccines provide excellent protection, their widespread use is impeded by the high level of adverse events associated with vaccination using live, attenuated virus. It is possible that vaccines could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to reduce the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events, or as a preventive in individuals with uncertain exposure status or contraindication to vaccination. We have used the intranasal mousepox (ectromelia) model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with Dryvax or ACAM2000 in conjunction with treatment using the broad spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001). We found that co-treatment with BCV reduced the severity of vaccination-associated lesion development. Although the immune response to vaccination was quantifiably attenuated, vaccination combined with BCV treatment did not alter the development of full protective immunity, even when administered two days following ectromelia challenge. Studies with a non-replicating vaccine, ACAM3000 (MVA), confirmed that BCV's mechanism of attenuating the immune response following vaccination with live virus was, as expected, by limiting viral replication and not through inhibition of the immune system. These studies suggest that, in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis, co-administration of BCV with vaccination should be considered

  4. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  5. A Dengue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  6. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Kharit

    2014-01-01

    Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

  7. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the same shot with other vaccines.Routine hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for some U.S. adults and children ... 95%, and by 75% in other age groups.Vaccination gives long-term protection from hepatitis B infection, possibly lifelong.

  8. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  9. Vanishing vaccinations: why are so many Americans opting out of vaccinating their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrillo, Steve P

    2004-01-01

    Vaccinations against life-threatening diseases are one of the greatest public health achievements in history. Literally millions of premature deaths have been prevented, and countless more children have been saved from disfiguring illness. While vaccinations carry unavoidable risks, the medical, social and economic benefits they confer have led all fifty states to enact compulsory childhood vaccination laws to stop the spread of preventable diseases. Today, however, vaccines are becoming a victim of their success--many individuals have never witnessed the debilitating diseases that vaccines protect against, allowing complacency toward immunization requirements to build. Antivaccination sentiment is growing fast in the United States, in large part due to the controversial and hotly disputed link between immunizations and autism. The internet worsens fears regarding vaccination safety, as at least a dozen websites publish alarming information about the risks of vaccines. Increasing numbers of parents are refusing immunizations for their children and seeking legally sanctioned exemptions instead, apparently fearing vaccines more than the underlying diseases that they protect against. A variety of factors are at play: religious and philosophical beliefs, freedom and individualism, misinformation about risk, and overperception of risk. State legislatures and health departments now face a difficult challenge: respecting individual rights and freedoms while also safeguarding the public welfare. Nearly all states allow vaccination exemptions for religious reasons and a growing number provide "philosophical" opt-outs as well. However, in all but a handful of jurisdictions, neither objection is seriously documented or verified. Often, the law requires a parent to do no more than simply check a box indicating she does not wish her child to receive immunizations. The problem is exacerbated by financial incentives schools have to encourage students to opt out of vaccinations

  10. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines – Meeting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-01-01

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a “South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines” was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  11. Hepatitis B virus (HBV status of children born to HIV/HBV co-infected women in a French hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sellier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Mother-To-Child-Transmission (MTCT and prevention by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART have been extensively studied. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women and prevention by antiretroviral therapy with dual activity have been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to assess HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women in a developed country with a large access to cART. Materials and Methods: HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women attending the Obstetrics Department from 1st January 2000 to 1st January 2012 could be included in the study (NCT02044068. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, injection of immunoglobulin and/or vaccine to newborns was retrospectively recorded. We assessed HBV status of children at least as old as two years. Results: Forty nine (9.2% from 530 HIV-infected women followed in the hospital were HIV/HBV co-infected. 34 (69.4% had given birth to 57 children in the hospital. 13 of these women (22 children were lost-to-follow-up, 21 women (35 children could be studied. Twenty six children (74.3% had HBs Ab at a protective level, 22 of them had received immunoglobulin at birth; 24 had received a complete vaccine schedule during the first six months of life (with immunoglobulin in 21 cases. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during eight and nine pregnancies respectively. Eight children (22.8% were tested negative for HBs Ag, HBs Ab and HBc Ab: 4 (11.4% had received immunoglobulin and a complete vaccine schedule; in two children, immunoglobulin was uncertain; in one child, the vaccine schedule was incomplete; in the last one, data about immunoglobulin and the vaccine schedule were lacking. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during five and two pregnancies respectively. One child had HBc Ab and HBs Ab, immunoglobulin was uncertain and the vaccine schedule was incomplete. The woman had been given lamivudine

  12. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Liashenko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were ...

  13. Importance of vaccination habit and vaccine choice on influenza vaccination among healthy working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-11-10

    This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. PMID:20638452

  14. Brief Client-Centered Motivational and Behavioral Intervention to Promote HPV Vaccination in a Hard-to-Reach Population: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Bernstein, Judith; Pelton, Steve; Belizaire, Myrdell; Goff, Ginette; Horanieh, Nour; Freund, Karen M

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a client-centered behavioral intervention (Brief Negotiated Interviewing) on mothers' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine knowledge and vaccination initiation for their adolescent daughters. Methods We randomized mothers to intervention (n = 100) and control (n = 100) groups, and followed them over 12 months. Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine vaccination status. The primary outcome was receipt of the first vaccine. The secondary outcome was HPV vaccine knowledge among mothers. Results Brief Negotiated Interviewing intervention mothers demonstrated increased knowledge about HPV (pre/post mean score of 5 to 10 out of a possible 11; P vaccine were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Increasing HPV vaccine knowledge did not translate into increased vaccine uptake or completion of vaccination series. Future intervention must explore vaccine reminders to increase HPV vaccination rates. PMID:26968631

  15. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitta B Harboe

    Full Text Available A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by PCV7-serotypes. We report the results from a nationwide population-based cohort study of laboratory confirmed IPD cases in children younger than 5 years during October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 and describe the characteristics of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number and 105 (55% caused by one of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F and 23F. One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13 serotypes had been vaccinated by PCV13 and there were therefore no PCV13-vaccine failures in the first 8-months after PCV13 introduction in Denmark.

  16. Folate status and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeid, Rima; Oexle, Konrad; Rißmann, Anke; Pietrzik, Klaus; Koletzko, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    worldwide by applying fortification with folic acid. Periconceptional supplementation of folic acid also reduces the risk of congenital heart diseases, preterm birth, low birth weight, and health problems associated with child mortality and morbidity. All European governments failed to issue folic acid...... health centers for prenatal care and fortification with folic acid in Europe are urgently needed. Only such an action will sufficiently improve folate status, prevent at least 50% of the NTD cases, reduce child mortality and morbidity, and alleviate other health problems associated with low folate such...

  17. Outstanding challenges for rotavirus vaccine introduction in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustrup, Marte; Madsen, Lizell B; Bygbjerg, Ib C;

    2011-01-01

    -associated diarrhoea in low-income countries where the disease burden is greatest. However, before the vaccines can be introduced into the national immunisation programmes in these countries, many challenges related to the financing of vaccine purchase, the cold chain capacity and vaccine efficacy must be overcome....... There is also a need for political commitment to prevent rotavirus infections as well as a need for an overall strengthening of the health systems in low-income countries. If these challenges were met, rotavirus vaccination could substantially improve child health and survival from rotavirus...

  18. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  19. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  20. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romagosa Anna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i non-vaccinated (NV, (ii vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE, and (iii vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO. The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p R (95%CI was 1 (0.39-2.09 and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46 in NV pigs (p

  1. Vaccine-Associated Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2016-01-01

    All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491

  2. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    GSK`s Synflorix: Highly effective at preventing invasive pneumococcal disease Positive phase 1 interim results for killed whole-virus HIV vaccine Therapeutic HBV vaccine drives immune responses in liver New tuberculosis vaccine candidate to enter the clinic Novartis receives positive CHMP opinion for MenB vaccine Bexsero New research points way to faster flu vaccines New Meth vaccine shows promise in animals RTS,S malaria vaccine reduces malaria by approximately one-third in African infants

  3. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  4. Singleton status and childhood obesity: Investigating effects and mechanisms Status :

    OpenAIRE

    Maoyong Fan; Yanhong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past four decades, paralleling the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the share of families with only one child has been rising steadily. Using three waves of the National Survey of Children's Health, we examine the effect of being the only child in a family on childhood obesity and the mechanisms through which singleton status might affect childhood obesity. We find gender-specific and age-dependent singleton effects. That is, singletons have a higher level of body mass ind...

  5. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination. PMID:25466762

  6. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development. PMID:24519704

  7. Economic evaluation of vaccination programme of mumps vaccine to the birth cohort in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2014-07-16

    The most common preventative measure against mumps is vaccination with mumps vaccine. In most parts of the world, mumps vaccine is routinely delivered through live attenuated Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine. In Japan, receiving mumps vaccine is voluntary and vaccine uptake rate is less than 30%. The introduction of mumps vaccine into routine vaccination schedule has become one of the current topics in health policy and has raised the need to evaluate efficient ways in protecting children from mumps-related diseases in Japan. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model and calculated incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of 11 different programmes; a single-dose programme at 12-16 months and 10 two-dose programmes with second dose uptakes at ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. Our base-case analyse set the cost per shot at ¥6951 (US$72; 1US$=96.8). Results show that single-dose programme dominates status quo. On the other hand, ICERs of all 10 two-dose programmes are under ¥6,300,000 (US$65,082) per QALY from payer's perspective while it ranged from cost-saving to <¥7,000,000 (US$72,314) per QALY from societal perspective. By adopting WHO's classification that an intervention is cost-effective if ICER (in QALY) is between one and three times of GDP as a criterion, either of the vaccination programme is concluded as cost-effective from payer's or societal perspectives. Likewise, to uptake second dose at 3-5 years old is more favourable than an uptake at any other age because of lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. PMID:24923640

  8. Assessment of humoral and cell-mediated immune response to measles–mumps–rubella vaccine viruses among patients with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Kwang Ha; Agarwal, Kanishtha; Butterfield, Michael; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.; Juhn, Young J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of asthma status on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine viruses. We compared the virus-specific IgG levels and lymphoproliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to MMR vaccine viruses between asthmatic and nonasthmatic patients. The study subjects included 342 healthy children aged 12–18 years who had received two doses of the MMR vaccine. We ascertained asthma status by applying predetermined c...

  9. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  10. Vaccines against papillomavirus infections and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Luisa Lina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.

  11. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    vaccination status. PMID:23539924

  12. Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    , regardless of the vaccination status.

  13. Mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus: a cause for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A M; Raghavendran, A; Sivakumar, J; Radhakrishnan, M; Rose, W; Abraham, P

    2015-02-01

    Mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important public health issue. India introduced HBV vaccine in 10 states as part of its Universal Immunization Program (UIP). Here we show evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HBV in three families from Jharkhand and Bihar states where HBV vaccination is not yet included in the UIP. This report illustrates the need for active screening of HBV in pregnant women and implementation of HBV vaccine across all states in India to reduce the burden of disease. PMID:25657134

  14. The Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of ICDS In 7 Anganwadi Centres On The Health Status Of Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni M.N

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Integrated child Development Services (ICDS scheme in 7 Anganwadi centers of Davangere Block on the health status of pre-school children were studied for a period of one year. Total of 547 children, who were enrolled for supplementary nutrition and non-formal education, formed the study group. Impact of the programme on nutritional status was seen only in severely malnourished children (Grade III & IV. Severely malnourished children constituted 9.3% of total initially and 3.9 percent at the end of the study. The number of children belonging to grade I & II malnutrition were 74% initially and 81.5% at the end of the study. Not much improvement in the immunization status for BCG., all three doses of oral polio vaccine and DPT was 42.4, 59.4 and 73.3 percent at the baseline study and 56, 67.7 and 82 percent respectively at the end of the study. The supply of supplementary nutrients and vaccines was irregular. High prevalence of vit. ‘A’ Deficiency and anemia were noted.

  15. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

  16. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  17. EPSDT Impact on Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, P.H.; Conroy-Hughes, Rosemary

    1981-01-01

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT), a large-scale operational screening program which has generated a tremendous volume of data on the socio-demographic characteristics and health status of Medicaid-eligible children, seems to provide an ideal context within which to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive child health care. Concerns about health care expenditures generally, and the effectiveness of preventive child health services specifically, lead to the questio...

  18. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

  19. Animal Models for Influenza Viruses: Implications for Universal Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Margine; Florian Krammer

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Depending on the virulence of the influenza virus strain, as well as the immunological status of the infected individual, the severity of the respiratory disease may range from sub-clinical or mild symptoms to severe pneumonia that can sometimes lead to death. Vaccines remain the primary public health measure in reducing the influenza burden. Though the first influenza vaccine preparation wa...

  20. Vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky's disease by the intradermal route using live attenuated and inactivated virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, P; Cariolet, R

    1989-09-01

    A study was undertaken of the protection induced by inactivated and live Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines. The vaccines were administered using a special device which, without the use of a needle, delivered the preparation intradermally. The trials were performed on 88 pigs which were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period both in experimental conditions and in pig herds. All the pigs were challenged at the end of the fattening period in isolation units. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the same vaccines injected intramuscularly. It was shown that vaccination via the intradermal route induced good protection in the vaccinated animals and was similar to that conferred by live virus vaccine injected intramuscularly. The results, with the inactivated virus vaccine, were not so good when it was injected via the intradermal route. Studies with intradermal vaccination showed no local lesion or very small nodules strictly localized to the dermis. The results also confirmed that the effects of challenge exposure depended on the health status of animals prior to infection and show the necessity to use a synthetic value (delta G) to interpret the data and mainly to compare the results objectively. In fattening pigs this vaccination procedure is attractive because (i) less animal constraint is needed than would be for intramuscular injections, (ii) injection can be checked by the presence of a visible papula at the site of inoculation and, (iii) pigs can be vaccinated in the ham while they are feeding. Injection without a needle also contributes to avoiding bacterial contamination under practical farm conditions of vaccination. PMID:2554623