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Sample records for child health survey

  1. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Abanimi Amugsi

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  2. Mental Health Need and Access to Mental Health Services by Youths Involved with Child Welfare: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Barbara J.; Phillips, Susan D.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Barth, Richard P.; Kolko, David J.; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Method: Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were…

  3. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B.; Oduro, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s) This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. Methods The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers’ ages 15–49 and their youngest child (ages 6–36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother’s recall of her own and her child’s consumption of 15 food groups...

  4. Association between maternal and child dietary diversity: An analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B.; Oduro, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s). This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. Methods. The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers’ ages 15–49 and their youngest child (ages 6–36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother’s recall of her own and her child’s consumption of 15 food g...

  5. Bullying Experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service-users: A Pilot Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, Kevin; Teggart, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Victims and perpetrators of bullying experience a variety of psychological problems. The aim of the current pilot study was to explore the bullying experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) service-users. The investigation was conducted as a cross-sectional survey at a community-based specialist CAMH service. A modified version of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to assess bullying experiences. Participants comprised an opportunity sample of 26 adolescent...

  6. Creating a child feeding index using the demographic and health surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Ruel, Marie T.; Menon, Purnima

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for five Latin American countries (seven data sets) were used to explore the feasibility of creating a composite feeding index and to examine the association between feeding practices and child height-for-age (HAZ). Urban/rural differences were also examined...The data sets used were Bolivia, 1994 and 1998; Colombia, 1995; Guatemala, 1995 and 1999; Nicaragua, 1998; and Peru, 1996...This work shows that the data available in DHS data sets can ...

  7. National Conference on Findings of Egyptian Maternal and Child Health Survey (7-8 September 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A national conference was held September 7-8, 1992, by the Central Agency for Mobilization and Statistics to discuss the findings of the Egyptian Maternal and Child Health Survey. The infant mortality rate (IMR) declined from 116 deaths/1000 live births during 1971-75 to 56/1000 during 1986-89. Residence and mother's education had major effects upon IMR. The prevention and control of diarrheal illness could further reduce the rates of infant and child mortality. The survey emphasizes the importance of promoting the awareness of the need for immunization, especially among rural mothers, and stresses the importance of providing medical care during pregnancy and at delivery to the health of both children and mothers. Increasing educational opportunities have contributed to the decline in early marriage and the upward trend in age at first marriage. Compared to urban residents, a higher proportion of rural residents marry their first cousins, while dissolution of marriage is due to either death or divorce. There is an inverse relationship between level of education and completed and complete fertility rates. 63% of women stated their desire to have 2-3 children as the ideal family size, with rural upper Egyptian women tending to report the highest ideal number of children. Egyptian women prefer a combination of sons and daughters with a higher tendency for son preference. There is almost universal knowledge of contraception in Egypt, with the IUD and oral pills the methods used most often by Egyptian women. Approximately 61% of urban women and 38% of rural women were using contraception at the time of the survey. Reasons for future non-use of contraception were the desire to bear more children, fatalism, being infecund, husband's disapproval, and the fear of contraceptives' side effects. PMID:12179787

  8. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

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    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan. PMID:23580067

  9. Trends and social differentials in child mortality inRwanda 1990–2010 : results from three demographicand health surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Binagwaho, Agnes; Persson, Lars-Åke; Selling, Katarina Ekholm

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rwanda has embarked on ambitious programmes to provide equitable health services and reduce mortality in childhood. Evidence from other countries indicates that advances in child survival often have come at the expense of increasing inequity. Our aims were to analyse trends and social differentials in mortality before the age of 5 years in Rwanda from 1990 to 2010. Methods: We performed secondary analyses of data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 an...

  10. Differences in reporting of maternal and child health indicators: A comparison between routine and survey data in Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Q

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qing Du,1,2 Øyvind Næss,1,3 Espen Bjertness,1,4 Gonghuan Yang,5 Linhong Wang,6 Bernadette Nirmal Kumar71Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Binzhou Medical College, Yantai, China; 3The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Tibet University Medical College, Lhasa, China; 5Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 6National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 7Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, NorwayBackground: The quality of routine data, such as the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, infant mortality rate (IMR, and under-five mortality rate (U5MR is often questioned. The objective of this study was to compare routine and survey data on key maternal and child health indicators, including the MMR, IMR, and U5MR in the Guizhou Province of China.Methods: In 2008, an urban area and a rural area in the Guizhou Province were randomly selected. All households in the selected areas were included and, of the total 5466 households therein, 5459 were visited. The response rate was 99.9%. Survey data were collected from mothers (46.0%, fathers (32.5%, grandmothers (11.1%, grandfathers (9.0%, and other caregivers (1.4%. Data from routine records of the health bureaus in selected areas were reviewed for the same indicators. The Chi-square test was used to study the differences between routine data and survey data.Results: We found the differences between the routine and survey data live births in the survey data (68 was fewer than in the routine data (94 in the rural area, while live births in the survey data (106 was larger than in the routine data (96 in the urban area. The IMR was higher in the survey data (51.7 per thousand as compared with routine data (31.6 per thousand. The U5MR was higher (69.0 per thousand in the survey data than in the routine data (42.1 per thousand. Indicators related to the

  11. Health Consequences of Child Labour in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Ahmed; Ranjan Ray

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of b...

  12. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

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    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  13. Priority Medicines for Maternal and Child Health: A Global Survey of National Essential Medicines Lists

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Suzanne; Yang, Annie; Bero, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a list of “priority medicines” for maternal and child health based on 1) the global burden of disease and 2) evidence of efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of these priority medicines on national essential medicines lists. Methods and Findings All essential medicines lists published since 1999 were selected from the WHO website collection. The most-up-to date list for each count...

  14. Child Care Practices, Resources for Care, and Nutritional Outcomes in Ghana: Findings from Demographic and Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The overarching empirical question of this study is this: how are children growing in Ghana and how is childcare related to child growth? Child health is a fundamental public health issue, for children's sake AND because good child health sets one up for life long health and functioning, and well-being. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), child physical health is of particular concern due the high rates of illness and mortality in this region. The leading causes of chil...

  15. Association between intimate partner violence and poor child growth: results from 42 demographic and health surveys

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    Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children’s growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner violence and child stunting and wasting. Findings Prior exposure to intimate partner violence was reported by 69 652 (34.1%) of the 204 159 ever-married women included in our analysis. After adjusting for a range of characteristics, stunting in children was found to be positively associated with maternal lifetime exposure to only physical (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09–1.14) or sexual intimate partner violence (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05–1.13) and to both forms of such violence (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05–1.14). The associations between stunting and intimate partner violence were stronger in urban areas than in rural ones, for mothers who had low levels of education than for women with higher levels of education, and in middle-income countries than in low-income countries. We also found a small negative association between wasting and intimate partner violence (aOR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.90–0.98). Conclusion Intimate partner violence against women remains common in low- and middle-income countries and is highly detrimental to women and to the growth of the affected women’s children. Policy and programme efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence and impact of such violence. PMID:27147763

  16. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To review the knowledge on child health and child health problems in Greenland. METHOD: The review was based on theses, national statistics, national and international reports, and a search in Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and WHOLIB databases from 1985 to 2005. The resulting articles...... importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....

  17. Child Dental Health

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    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  18. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. PMID:22906219

  19. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  20. Trends and social differentials in child mortality in Rwanda 1990–2010: results from three demographic and health surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Binagwaho, Agnes; Persson, Lars-Åke; Selling, Katarina Ekholm

    2015-01-01

    Background Rwanda has embarked on ambitious programmes to provide equitable health services and reduce mortality in childhood. Evidence from other countries indicates that advances in child survival often have come at the expense of increasing inequity. Our aims were to analyse trends and social differentials in mortality before the age of 5 years in Rwanda from 1990 to 2010. Methods We performed secondary analyses of data from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2010 in Rwanda. These surveys included 34 790 children born between 1990 and 2010 to women aged 15–49 years. The main outcome measures were neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) over time, and in relation to mother's educational level, urban or rural residence and household wealth. Generalised linear mixed effects models and a mixed effects Cox model (frailty model) were used, with adjustments for confounders and cluster sampling method. Results Mortality rates in Rwanda peaked in 1994 at the time of the genocide (NMR 60/1000 live births, 95% CI 51 to 65; U5MR 238/1000 live births, 95% CI 226 to 251). The 1990s and the first half of the 2000s were characterised by a marked rural/urban divide and inequity in child survival between maternal groups with different levels of education. Towards the end of the study period (2005–2010) NMR had been reduced to 26/1000 (95% CI 23 to 29) and U5MR to 65/1000 (95% CI 61 to 70), with little or no difference between urban and rural areas, and household wealth groups, while children of women with no education still had significantly higher U5MR. Conclusions Recent reductions in child mortality in Rwanda have concurred with improved social equity in child survival. Current challenges include the prevention of newborn deaths. PMID:25870163

  1. Priority medicines for maternal and child health: a global survey of national essential medicines lists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO published a list of "priority medicines" for maternal and child health based on 1 the global burden of disease and 2 evidence of efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of these priority medicines on national essential medicines lists. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All essential medicines lists published since 1999 were selected from the WHO website collection. The most-up-to date list for each country was then selected, resulting in 89 unique country lists. Each list was evaluated for inclusion of medicines (chemical entity, concentration, and dosage form on the Priority Medicines List. There was global variation in the listing of the Priority Medicines. The most frequently listed medicine was paracetamol, on 94% (84/89 of lists. Sodium chloride, gentamicin and oral rehydration solution were on 93% (83/89 of lists. The least frequently listed medicine was the children's antimalarial rectal artesunate, on 8% of lists (7/89; artesunate injection was on 16% (14/89 of lists. Pediatric artemisinin combination therapy, as dispersible tablets or flexible oral solid dosage form, appeared on 36% (32/89 of lists. Procaine benzylpenicillin, for treatment of pediatric pneumonia and neonatal sepsis, was on 50% (45/89 of the lists. Zinc, for treatment of diarrhoea in children, was included on only 15% (13/89 of lists. For prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage in women, oxytocin was more prevalent on the lists than misoprostol; they were included on 55 (62% and 31 (35% of lists, respectively. Cefixime, for treatment of uncomplicated anogenital gonococcal infection in woman was on 26% (23/89 of lists. Magnesium sulfate injection for treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia was on 50% (45/89 of the lists. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that countries need to urgently amend their lists to provide all priority medicines as part of the efforts to

  2. Association between intimate partner violence and poor child growth: results from 42 demographic and health surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jeanne; Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children’s growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner viole...

  3. Design of the Nationwide Nursery School Survey on Child Health Throughout the Great East Japan Earthquake

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    Hiroko Matsubara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted severe damage on the Pacific coastal areas of northeast Japan. Although possible health impacts on aged or handicapped populations have been highlighted, little is known about how the serious disaster affected preschool children’s health. We conducted a nationwide nursery school survey to investigate preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster. Methods: The survey was conducted from September to December 2012. We mailed three kinds of questionnaires to nursery schools in all 47 prefectures in Japan. Questionnaire “A” addressed nursery school information, and questionnaires “B1” and “B2” addressed individuals’ data. Our targets were children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005 (those who did not experience the disaster during their preschool days and children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007 (those who experienced the disaster during their preschool days. The questionnaire inquired about disaster experiences, anthropometric measurements, and presence of diseases. Results: In total, 3624 nursery schools from all 47 prefectures participated in the survey. We established two nationwide retrospective cohorts of preschool children; 53 747 children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005, and 69 004 children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007. Among the latter cohort, 1003 were reported to have specific personal experiences with the disaster. Conclusions: With the large dataset, we expect to yield comprehensive study results about preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster.

  4. Complementary feeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old. PMID:24118777

  5. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  6. Reducing one million child deaths from birth asphyxia – a survey of health systems gaps and priorities

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    Manandhar Ananta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of child deaths and stillbirths are attributable to birth asphyxia, yet limited information is available to guide policy and practice, particularly at the community level. We surveyed selected policymakers, programme implementers and researchers to compile insights on policies, programmes, and research to reduce asphyxia-related deaths. Method A questionnaire was developed and pretested based on an extensive literature review, then sent by email (or airmail or fax, when necessary to 453 policymakers, programme implementers, and researchers active in child health, particularly at the community level. The survey was available in French and English and employed 5-point scales for respondents to rate effectiveness and feasibility of interventions and indicators. Open-ended questions permitted respondents to furnish additional details based on their experience. Significance testing was carried out using chi-square, F-test and Fisher's exact probability tests as appropriate. Results 173 individuals from 32 countries responded (44%. National newborn survival policies were reported to exist in 20 of 27 (74% developing countries represented, but respondents' answers were occasionally contradictory and revealed uncertainty about policy content, which may hinder policy implementation. Respondents emphasized confusing terminology and a lack of valid measurement indicators at community level as barriers to obtaining accurate data for decision making. Regarding interventions, birth preparedness and essential newborn care were considered both effective and feasible, while resuscitation at community level was considered less feasible. Respondents emphasized health systems strengthening for both supply and demand factors as programme priorities, particularly ensuring wide availability of skilled birth attendants, promotion of birth preparedness, and promotion of essential newborn care. Research priorities included operationalising

  7. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  8. FastStats: Child Health

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    ... State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates ... Links National Health Interview Survey National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Data NCHS Survey Measures Catalog: ...

  9. Pregnancy smoking, child health and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Koshy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research in this thesis was to assess, through cross-sectional school child health surveys, the health and nutrition of primary school children (5-11 years) in Merseyside, England, in relation to their mother’s history of pregnancy smoking. Childhood health outcomes assessed included

  10. Health Status of Immigrant Children and Environmental Survey of Child Daycare Centers in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnuankiat, Surapol; Wanichsuwan, Molee; Bhunnachet, Ekaporn; Jungarat, Nahathai; Panraksa, Kanitha; Komalamisra, Chalit; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pubampen, Somchit; Adisakwattana, Poom; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-02-01

    Samut Sakhon is a Thai province popular among immigrants attracted to work in factories and the Thai food industry, especially people from Myanmar. Poor personal-hygiene behaviors, crowded accommodation and limited sanitation, result in health problems among immigrant workers. Various infectious diseases among this group are seen and managed by Samut Sakhon General Hospital. The impact of intestinal parasitic infections on public health is well known; they can spread from infected immigrant areas to uninfected areas via close contact and fecal-oral transmission from contaminated food and water. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among 372 immigrant children at 8 child-daycare centers during their parents' work time, by physical examination, fecal examination, and examination of the environment around the centers. Physical examinations were generally unremarkable, except that head-lice and fingernail examinations were positive in two cases (0.8 %). The results showed intestinal parasitic infections to be highly prevalent, at 71.0 %. These infections comprised both helminths and protozoa: Trichuris trichiura (50.8 %), Enterobius vermicularis (25.2 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.3 %), hookworm (11.6 %), Giardia lamblia (10.2 %), Endolimax nana (3.5 %), Entamoeba coli (2.7 %), and Blastocystis hominis (0.5 %). The environmental survey found a small number of houseflies near the accommodation to be positive for helminthic eggs (0.2 %), including A. lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, hookworms, Taenia spp., and minute intestinal flukes. Regarding the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children, it has been conjectured whether they were infected, along with their parents, during their daily lives before or after settling in Thailand. Intestinal parasites among immigrant children may involve a significant epidemiological impact, since immigrant children can serve as carriers and transmitters of disease

  11. Prevalence and determinants of the gender differentials risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mosharaf Hossain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. METHODS: The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. RESULTS: In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females. The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186 with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years: OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815, women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903, mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249, and mothers who delivered their child by non

  12. Breastfeeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Haiti's national nutrition policy prioritises breastfeeding, but limited data are available to inform strategy. We examined national trends in early initiation of breastfeeding (ErIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) over a 10-year period using data from three Haitian Demographic and Health Surveys (1994-1995, 2000 and 2005-2006). We used multivariate regression methods to identify determinants of ErIBF and EBF in the 2005-2006 data set and to examine relationships to growth. There was no change in ErIBF across surveys [1994-1995: 36.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.9-43.9; 2000: 49.4%, 95% CI 44.1-54.8; 2005-2006: 43.8%, 95% CI 40.5-47.1]. EBF among 0-5-month-olds increased sharply (1994-18995: 1.1%, 95% CI 0.4-3.2; 2000: 22.4%, 95% CI 16.5-29.5; 2005-2006: 41.2%, 95% CI 35.4-47.2). The proportion of breastfeeding children 0-5 months who received soft, solid or semi-solid foods decreased (1994-1995: 68.5%, 95% CI 57.3-77.9; 2000: 46.3%, 95% CI 39.3-53.4; 2005-2006: 30.9%, 95% CI 25.9-36.5). Child age at time of survey [odds ratio (OR) 1.73; P = 0.027], lower maternal education (OR = 2.14, P = 0.004) and residence in the Artibonite Department (OR 0.31; P = 0.001) were associated with ErIBF among children 0-23 months. Age group and department were significant predictors of EBF among children 0-5 months. ErIBF was associated with higher weight-for-age z-scores [effect size (ES) 0.22; P = 0.033] and height-for-age z-scores (ES 0.20; P = 0.044). There was no statistically significant relationship between EBF and growth. The 10-year ErIBF and EBF trends in Haiti echo global and regional trends. ErIBF and EBF are related practices but with different determinants in the Haitian context. These differences have implications for intervention delivery. PMID:23952968

  13. An analysis of socio-demographic patterns in child malnutrition trends using Ghana demographic and health survey data in the period 1993–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A small but growing body of research indicates that progress in reducing child malnutrition is substantially uneven from place to place, even down to the district level within countries. Yet child malnutrition prevalence and trend estimates available for public health planning are mostly available only at the level of global regions and/or at country level. To support carefully targeted intervention to reduce child malnutrition, public health planners and policy-makers require access to more refined prevalence data and trend analyses than are presently available. Responding to this need in Ghana, this report presents trends in child malnutrition prevalence in socio-demographic groups within the country’s geographic regions. Methods The study uses the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS) data. The GDHS are nationally representative cross-sectional surveys that have been carried out in many developing countries. These surveys constitute one of the richest sources of information currently available to examine time trends in child malnutrition. Data from four surveys were used for the analysis: 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008. Results The results show statistically significant declining trends at the national level for stunting (F (1, 7204) = 7.89, p ≤ .005), underweight (F (1, 7441) = 44.87, p ≤ .001) and wasting (F (1, 7130) = 6.19, p ≤ .013). However, analyses of the sex-specific trends revealed that the declining trends in stunting and wasting were significant among males but not among females. In contrast to the national trend, there were significantly increasing trends in stunting for males (F (1, 2004) = 3.92, p ≤ .048) and females (F (1, 2004) = 4.34, p ≤ .037) whose mothers had higher than primary education, while the trends decreased significantly for males and females whose mothers had no education. Conclusions At the national level in Ghana, child malnutrition is significantly declining

  14. Assessing early access to care and child survival during a health system strengthening intervention in Mali: a repeated cross sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari D Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, 6.6 million children under age five died worldwide, most from diseases with known means of prevention and treatment. A delivery gap persists between well-validated methods for child survival and equitable, timely access to those methods. We measured early child health care access, morbidity, and mortality over the course of a health system strengthening model intervention in Yirimadjo, Mali. The intervention included Community Health Worker active case finding, user fee removal, infrastructure development, community mobilization, and prevention programming. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted four household surveys using a cluster-based, population-weighted sampling methodology at baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 months. We defined our outcomes as the percentage of children initiating an effective antimalarial within 24 hours of symptom onset, the percentage of children reported to be febrile within the previous two weeks, and the under-five child mortality rate. We compared prevalence of febrile illness and treatment using chi-square statistics, and estimated and compared under-five mortality rates using Cox proportional hazard regression. There was a statistically significant difference in under-five mortality between the 2008 and 2011 surveys; in 2011, the hazard of under-five mortality in the intervention area was one tenth that of baseline (HR 0.10, p<0.0001. After three years of the intervention, the prevalence of febrile illness among children under five was significantly lower, from 38.2% at baseline to 23.3% in 2011 (PR = 0.61, p = 0.0009. The percentage of children starting an effective antimalarial within 24 hours of symptom onset was nearly twice that reported at baseline (PR = 1.89, p = 0.0195. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based health systems strengthening may facilitate early access to prevention and care and may provide a means for improving child survival.

  15. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among ...

  16. Parental health and child schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; Mendola, Mariapia

    2011-01-01

    Evidence on the role of parental health on child schooling is surprisingly thin. We explore this issue by estimating the short-run effects of parents\\' illness on child school enrollment. Our analysis is based on household panel data from Bosnia-Herzegovina, a country whose health and educational systems underwent extensive destruction during the 1992-1995 war. Using child fixed effects to correct for potential endogeneity bias, we find that — contrary to the common wisdom that shocks to the ...

  17. Teenage childbearing and child health in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremariam Woldemicael

    2005-01-01

    Data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) are used to examine teenage childbearing and its health consequences. Bivariate analysis is used to calculate trends and differentials in teenage childbearing. Logistic and Cox hazard models are employed to examine the health impact of teenage childbearing on mothers and their children. Teenage childbearing is high in Eritrea, where around half of all women aged 19 have already been pregnant with their first child. Nearly all fir...

  18. Association between biomass fuel use and maternal report of child size at birth - an analysis of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Observational epidemiological studies and a systematic review have consistently shown an association between maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight. Our aim was to further test this hypothesis. Methods We analysed the data from 47,139 most recent singleton births during preceding five years of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey (DHS. Information about birth weight from child health card and/or mothers' recall was analysed. Since birth weight was not recorded for nearly 60% of the reported births, maternal self-report of child's size at birth was used as a proxy. Fuel type was classified as high pollution fuels (wood, straw, animal dung, and crop residues kerosene, coal and charcoal, and low pollution fuels (electricity, liquid petroleum gas (LPG, natural gas and biogas. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed using SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure in SAS system. We used three logistic regression models in which child factors, maternal factors and demographic factors were added step-by-step to the main exposure variable. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs and their 95% CI were calculated. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Child's birth weight was available for only 19,270 (41% births; 3113 from health card and 16,157 from mothers' recall. For available data, mean birth weight was 2846.5 grams (SD = 684.6. Children born in households using high pollution fuels were 73 grams lighter than those born in households using low pollution fuels (mean birth weight 2883.8 grams versus 2810.7 grams, p Conclusions Use of biomass fuels is associated with child size at birth. Future studies should investigate this association using more direct methods for measurement of exposure to smoke emitted from biomass fuels and birth weight.

  19. Child Labor, Gender, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Parker, David L.; Oberg, Charles

    2005-01-01

    It is often forgotten that child labor is part of a multi-generational problem due in part to the failure to educate girls. Although the literacy rate for women has improved over the last two decades, in many countries it is less than half that of their male counterparts. This in turn leads to nutritional deficiencies, poverty, and poor health. While many researchers address the immediate health effects of child labor on the child laborers, this article addresses the issue of child labor from...

  20. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  1. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dentist or doctor suggests it. Provide healthy foods and limit sweet snacks and drinks Schedule regular dental check-ups Forming good habits at a young age can help your child have healthy teeth ...

  2. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United...

  3. The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Develop-ment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner; Hope Corman

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we...

  4. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The

  5. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health service...

  6. Prevalence and Determinants of the Gender Differentials Risk Factors of Child Deaths in Bangladesh: Evidence from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K. C.; Islam, Md. Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. Methods The data we...

  7. Birth placement and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, J; Shannon, F T

    1981-07-22

    The standards of health and health care for a sample of 1265 Christchurch children during the period birth to three years were examined. There was a systematic tendency for levels of health care and morbidity to vary with the child's birth placement: in general adopted children had the best standard of health care and the lowest rates of morbidity; children who entered single parent families at birth had the poorest standards of health care and the highest rates of morbidity. Statistical control for family social background including maternal age, education, ethnic status, family size and changes of residence tended to reduce the size of the observed differences. However, even when the results were controlled for these factors children in single parent families still has depressed levels of preventive health care and higher rates of hospital admission. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed. PMID:6944632

  8. Child nutrition, child health, and school enrollment : a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Lavy, Victor; Menon, Rekha

    1997-01-01

    Better health and nutrition are thought to improve children's performance in school, and therefore their productivity after school. Most literature ignores the fact that child health and schooling reflect behavioral choices, so the estimated impact of health and nutrition on a child's schooling reflects biases in the studies. Using an explicit dynamic model for preferred estimates, the authors use longitudinal data to investigate how children's health and nutrition affect school enrollment in...

  9. Parental Compensatory Behaviors and Early Child Health Outcomes in Cebu, Philippines*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haiyong; Mroz, Thomas; Adair, Linda

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic optimization model of parents choosing investments in their children’s health motivates an empirical model of parents’ choices of health inputs for their children and the impacts of these decisions on their children’s subsequent health. Estimates of the child health input demand functions and the child health production functions from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey accord with the prediction that optimizing behavior results in higher levels of aggregate child heal...

  10. Knowledge and reported practices of men and women on maternal and child health in rural Guinea Bissau: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory health education interventions and/or community-based primary health care in remote regions can improve child survival. The most recent data from Guinea Bissau shows that the country ranks 5th from bottom globally with an under-five mortality rate of 198 per 1000 live births in 2007. EPICS (Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival is a cluster randomised trial, which is currently running in rural areas of southern Guinea Bissau. It aims to evaluate whether an intervention package can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality. The purpose of the study described here was to understand levels of knowledge on child health and treatment-seeking and preventative behaviours in southern Guinea Bissau in order to develop an effective health education component for the EPICS trial. The study also aimed to assess the effect of gender and ethnicity on knowledge and behaviour. Methods Women and men were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire. Characteristics of the households and of the interviewed women and men were tabulated. The number of correct answers given to the health knowledge and practice questions and their percentage distribution were tabulated by items and by gender. An overall health knowledge score was derived. Results There are low levels of appropriate knowledge on child health, some inappropriate practices and generally low vaccination coverage. Health knowledge scores improve significantly amongst those who have accessed higher education. Differences in health knowledge between women and men become insignificant once age and education are accounted for. Conclusions Health education activities should be an integral part of a package to improve child survival in rural Guinea Bissau. These activities should focus on diarrhoea, malaria, pneumonia, pregnancy, delivery, neonatal care and vaccination coverage, as these are areas where knowledge and

  11. Parental unemployment and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Mörk, Eva; Sjögren, Anna; Svaleryd, Helena

    2014-01-01

    We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17 percent more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental...

  12. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0% were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentists, and information about their knowledge and attitudes regarding child abuse were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed, and associations were tested by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. From all dentists surveyed, 123 (71.9% reported providing treatment for children. Most dentists believed they could detect cases of child abuse (78.7%, but 85.7% had never suspected it. Among those who did suspect, 76.0% did not report the cases to authorities. No differences were observed between sexes, years of graduation, types of licenses, and the frequency at which children were treated. A higher proportion of dentists working at university had suspected child abuse. Even though dentists considered themselves able to identify suspicious cases, only a small percentage reported those suspicions, indicating a lack of awareness by these professionals in the adoption of protective measures for victims of aggression. It is necessary that dental professionals receive interdisciplinary training to enhance their ability to care for and protect children.

  13. Child abuse in 28 developing and transitional countries ? results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Akmatov, Manas K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child abuse is a worldwide recognized public health and social problem. Using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) we aimed to a) compare different forms of child abuse across countries and regions, and b) examine factors associated with different forms of child abuse. Methods Information on child abuse was available in 28 developing and transitional countries from the third round of MICS conducted in 2005 and 2006 (n=124 916 childr...

  14. Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Manoj K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generation...

  15. Child labour: A review based on data from the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, L; C. A. Valdivia

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, the UNICEF Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) programme has enabled many developing countries to produce statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of a range of indicators in the areas of health, education and child protection. The current paper draws on MICS datasets to provide a review of child labour in the countries where the survey programme has been implemented. The MICS programme provides information on children’s involvement in child labo...

  16. ATSDR Marines Health Survey

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    This podcast gives an overview of the health survey ATSDR is conducting of more than 300,000 people who lived or worked at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton in the 1970s and 1980s.  Created: 8/30/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  17. Child care subsidies, maternal health, and child-parent interactions: evidence from three nationally representative datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal

    2014-08-01

    A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being. PMID:23832797

  18. Poverty experience, race, and child health.

    OpenAIRE

    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  19. 78 FR 62309 - Child Health Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ...' health insurance until age 26, and no child can be denied coverage based on a pre-existing condition.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24500 Filed 10-15-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9036 of October 4, 2013 Child Health Day, 2013 By the President of the...

  20. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. Methods The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. Results The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children’s health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children’s health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage. PMID:27152596

  1. A Shoulder Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Steven; Conus, Sean; Haltom, Douglas; Hirshorn, Kurt; Pak, Youngju; Vigdorchik, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Shoulder pain and loss of shoulder function are common complaints reported by a variety of patients. This article suggests that shoulder pain and loss of function are directly proportional to lifestyle choices, including smoking and obesity. To investigate possible relationships between lifestyle choices and shoulder health, the authors conducted an online survey combining the Oxford Shoulder Questionnaire, the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire, and the Subjective Shoulder Rating System. Data wer...

  2. The impact of parental health on child labor: the case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bazen, Stephen; Salmon, Claire

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies that examine the economics of child labor and more particularly the determinants of children's labor supply in developing countries. This paper provides a new angle on the causes of child labor force participation by showing that parents' health affects child labor through family labor supply decisions. Using a survey with detailed information on health matters for Bangladesh, we find that child labor supply is sometim...

  3. Parental Health and Child Behavior: Evidence from Parental Health Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Westermaier, Franz; Mühlenweg, Andrea M.; Morefield, Brant

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the importance of parental health in the development of child behavior during early childhood. Our analysis is based on child psychometric measures from a longitudinal German dataset, which tracks mothers and their newborns up to age six. We identify major changes in parental health (shocks) and control for a variety of initial characteristics of the child including prenatal conditions. The results are robust to placebo regressions of health shocks that occur after the out...

  4. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  5. A profile of child health, child and adolescent mental health and maternity services in England 2007.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Di; Parker, Ethna; Wistow, Richard; Dean, Richard; Thomson, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This is a report of the 2006/07 national child health, child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) and maternity services mapping exercise. This was the second year that child health and maternity service data was collected and the fifth year that the CAMHS exercise had been carried out. For the first time, data collection in these three areas was combined, underlining their joint aim to contribute to the monitoring of the implementation of the National Service Framework for Children, ...

  6. Dental survey of the Falkland Islands' child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M; Walters, B

    2015-09-01

    In November 2013 the first dental epidemiological survey of 5, 12 and 15 year old children was undertaken on The Falkland Islands. The census survey used the ICDAS II system and achieved an overall response rate of 87.4%. To allow international comparisons obvious decay experience is reported. The mean dmft of 5-year-olds was 1.2 teeth, the prevalence of decay experience was 34.6%. The mean DMFT of 12-year-old children was 0.9 teeth, the prevalence of decay experience was 36.7%. The mean DMFT of 15-year-olds was 1.78 teeth, and the prevalence of decay experience was 66.7%. This first dental survey showed that levels of child dental decay in the Falkland Islands are similar to western European countries. The results can now be used as a baseline and benchmark to follow future trends in dental health in this British Overseas Territory. PMID:26513857

  7. The evolutionary biology of child health

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    I apply evolutionary perspectives and conceptual tools to analyse central issues underlying child health, with emphases on the roles of human-specific adaptations and genomic conflicts in physical growth and development. Evidence from comparative primatology, anthropology, physiology and human disorders indicates that child health risks have evolved in the context of evolutionary changes, along the human lineage, affecting the timing, growth-differentiation phenotypes and adaptive significanc...

  8. Thai physicians health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanasirichaigoon, Somkiat; Ruksakom, Hansa; Polboon, Navapun; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Visanuyothin, Taweesin

    2004-10-01

    Physicians often conduct research on other occupations' health or general populations' health, but their health has hardly been studied systematically. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive survey on 440 physicians systematically selected from their medical license numbers. The response rate was 86.4% (380 out of 440). Two-hundred and twenty-nine were male, and 151 were female. Their average age was 40.8 years (range: 22-74). Most of them were Buddhists (93.9%), specialists (64.2%), married only once and still lived with their spouses (59.5%), and concurrently practiced medicine (95.5%). Their overall satisfaction as physicians was 60.2% high, and 37.2% moderate. Their average sleep time was 6-8 hours per night for 58.9%. Most had eye problems (74.9%) and most were refractive errors such as myopia. Most (63.8%) of them did not have any prevalent diseases. Whereas those who had diseases had (in order) allergy, hypertension, asthma, diabetes, and cancer. Their current illnesses included respiratory tract infection. Most physicians did not smoke (94.2%) nor drink alcohol (70.5%). Most of them were not vegetarians (60.4%), did not eat fast food (99.2%). Interestingly, 41.4% of them were accounted for spending less than twice per week for exercise. As expected, 23.7% of them were exposed to blood, 14.5% to respiratory tract secretion, and 13.7% to pus/secretion from wounds. This study serves as a basis for health promotion approach to medical community and does create awareness of health among Thai physicians. PMID:21218585

  9. MedlinePlus: Child Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Health Topics → Child Mental Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  10. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides in...... the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic...... illness do have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  11. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya; Dawns Jesse; Khawaja Marwan; Yamout Rouham

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child he...

  12. Maternal-Child Health Data from the NLSY: 1988 Tabulations and Summary Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Frank L.; Quinlan, Stephen V.

    This report uses data from the 1983 through 1988 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to provide information about prenatal, infant, and child health. Objectives of the report are to present statistics which should be of value to maternal and child health policymakers, and to provide NLSY users with baseline information about…

  13. A child health report card: 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Wynder, E L

    1993-07-01

    It is because of statistics like the ones included above in the Report Card that the health of our children has become a topic of great concern. These statistics, however, reflect only a small piece of a much larger problem, which includes child poverty, child neglect, child abuse, family disintegration, educational failure, violence, and crime. Indeed the biggest threats to child health have roots in the past and present core of our social and environmental conditions. Improving the health of our children will require innovative and comprehensive approaches that include health education, health services, and family support. The cost of our failure to fund preventive programs in the area of child and family health is significant and mounting. Prenatal care for a pregnant women for 9 months cost about $600; however, medical care for a premature baby for only one day may cost more than four times as much ($2,500). Similar comparisons for the cost of prevention versus treatment are listed in Table 8. It is clear that unless we as a nation place more emphasis on funding preventive medicine, the health of our children will continue to suffer, with grave consequences for the future of our country. PMID:8415515

  14. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  15. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  16. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  17. Association between maternal health literacy and child vaccination in India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S. V.; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Koné, Georges K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pahwa, Smriti

    2015-01-01

    Background Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using Indian child health promotion materials. The outcome was receipt of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. We used multivar...

  18. Conflict, Child Health, and Household Adjustments in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Child stunting in growth currently affects 164 million children globally, and has dire consequences for the future well-being of the affected children. Wars disproportionately affect children and is believed to raise levels of stunting due to malnutrition and diseases. Using the 2002 Eritrean Demographic and Health Survey, this thesis adopts a differences-in-differences methodology and finds that the 1998-2000 border war between Eritrea and Ethiopia raised levels of stunting in affected regio...

  19. The Trade-off between Family Size and Child Health in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Peters; Rees, Daniel I.; Rey Hernández-Julián

    2013-01-01

    Most of the work testing the quantity–quality model has concentrated on the trade-off between family size and educational attainment. We argue that child health is a plausible measure of child quality that has not been fully explored in the empirical literature. Using data from the Matlab Health and Socioeconomic Survey, we estimate the effect of family size on child mortality and several measures of child health. Our results suggest that even in rural Bangladesh there is little evidence of a...

  20. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sousa Azevedo; Marília Leão Goettems; Adão Brito; Anna Paula Possebon; Juliana Domingues; Flávio Fernando Demarco; Dione Dias Torriani

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0%) were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentist...

  1. Maternal and child health in Brazil: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Aquino, Estela M L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Barros, Fernando C; Szwarcwald, Celia L

    2011-05-28

    In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988

  2. Child Health Booklet: experiences of professionals in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understanding the experiences of health professionals in primary care with the Child Health Booklet in child health care. Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach, in which participated nurses and doctors from six teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Belo Horizonte, MG. In total, were carried out 12 non-directive interviews, using two guiding questions. Results: A comprehensive analysis of the speeches enabled the construction of three categories that signal the experiences of the professionals with the booklet. The experiments revealed difficulties arising from the limitations of knowledge about the instrument; incomplete filling out of the booklet by many professionals that care for children; the daily confrontations of the process and the organization of work teams; disinterest of families with the instrument. Conclusion: The research points possible and necessary ways to improve the use of booklets as an instrument of full child health surveillance.

  3. Parental investment in child health in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national study of health-seeking behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring’s condition. Here, we make use of household data on health seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey ...

  4. Child abuse: concerns for oral health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Salim; Dincer, Elvir; Almas, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are prevalent issues that permeate all ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic segments of society. Parents of abused children frequently change physicians in order to prevent detection, but they are more likely to continue to visit the child's dentist. Most states recognize four major types of maltreatment: neglect; physical abuse; psychological maltreatment; and sexual abuse. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines dental neglect as "the willful failure of parent or guardian to seek and follow through with treatment necessary to ensure a level of oral health essential for adequate function and freedom from pain and infection." The oral health practitioner must uphold his or her legal and ethical responsibility if there is suspicion, record and report the incidence. It may help save a child from further abuse. PMID:24027895

  5. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-02-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia's emergency pockets under ENCU's supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8-11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  6. Differentials in reproductive and child health status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Parchure

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.

    Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.

    Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.

    Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.

  7. Can health-insurance help prevent child labor? An impact evaluation from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Andreas; Frölich, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Child labor is a common consequence of economic shocks in developing countries. We show that reducing vulnerability can affect child labor outcomes. We exploit the extension of a health and accident insurance scheme by a Pakistani microfinance institution that was set up as a randomized controlled trial and accompanied by household panel surveys. Together with increased coverage the microfinance institution offered assistance with claim procedures in treatment branches. We find lower incidence of child labor, hazardous occupations and child labor earnings caused by the innovation. Boys are more often engaged in child labor in our sample, but also seem to profit more from the insurance innovation. PMID:25461898

  8. Involvement with child protective services: is this a useful question in population-based surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E

    2013-09-01

    Direct questions on child maltreatment in population-based surveys are often limited by ethical and methodological issues. This restricts the ability of researchers to examine an important aspect of early adversity and its relationship to health and behavior. An alternative to excluding issues of maltreatment entirely in population-based surveys is to include questions on child and family involvement with child protective services (CPS). A school-based adolescent survey that included a question on child and family involvement with CPS yielded results that were generally consistent with other studies relating child maltreatment to health and behavioral outcomes such as psychological distress symptoms, delinquency, aspects of bullying, and health service utilization. Such findings suggest that questions on involvement with CPS may be a reasonable proxy for child maltreatment. Despite the lack of information on the reason for involvement or specific categories of maltreatment, CPS involvement questions highlight the shared familial experience that surrounds CPS involvement and serves as a general reflection of an adverse experience that can be utilized by researchers interested in early experiences. PMID:23838213

  9. Mothers' motivations to participate in a pregnancy health survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, D; Shaw, G M

    1992-01-01

    An important question in interpreting epidemiologic data is why some persons agree to participate in a health survey while others do not. Information about why people agree to interview or answer a questionnaire could help researchers to devise procedures for a health survey and to chose information to be communicated in the interview or questionnaire so as to increase subjects' participation. The authors interviewed 180 mothers who gave birth to a child with a birth defect and 198 mothers wh...

  10. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 345 million to support families through the voluntary home visiting program (04/01/2016) White House Rural IMPACT Initiative (08/04/2015) HRSA awards $5 million to support families of children with special health care needs (05/14/2015) ...

  11. The Impact of Household Participation in Community Based Organizations on Child Health and Education in Rural India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidya, Mugdha; Katoch, Meghna; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    This paper explores whether rural Indian households’ membership in community based organizations (CBOs) affect child human capital formation in terms of health and education. Using the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS), both OLS and IV models show that membership in one or more CBOs...... improves child educational performance. When considering specific CBOs, women’s groups (Mahila Mandal) emerge as being best at reducing child malnourishment while youth clubs are beneficial for both child health and education. Religious groups have a negative impact on child health but improve school...... performance. Caste associations have a detrimental effect on both health and education....

  12. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  13. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. PMID:27044708

  14. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  15. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  16. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration. PMID:24188296

  17. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.

  18. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth. PMID:16303196

  19. Water, Sanitation and Children’s Health : Evidence from 172 DHS Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Isabel; Fink, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This paper combines 172 Demography and Health Survey data sets from 70 countries to estimate the effect of water and sanitation on child mortality and morbidity. The results show a robust association between access to water and sanitation technologies and both child morbidity and child mortality. The point estimates imply, depending on the technology level and the sub-region chosen, that w...

  20. A review of national health surveys in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Pandey, Anamika; Dandona, Lalit

    2016-04-01

    Several rounds of national health surveys have generated a vast amount of data in India since 1992. We describe and compare the key health information gathered, assess the availability of health data in the public domain, and review publications resulting from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the District Level Household Survey (DLHS) and the Annual Health Survey (AHS). We highlight issues that need attention to improve the usefulness of the surveys in monitoring changing trends in India's disease burden: (i) inadequate coverage of noncommunicable diseases, injuries and some major communicable diseases; (ii) modest comparability between surveys on the key themes of child and maternal mortality and immunization to understand trends over time; (iii) short time intervals between the most recent survey rounds; and (iv) delays in making individual-level data available for analysis in the public domain. We identified 337 publications using NFHS data, in contrast only 48 and three publications were using data from the DLHS and AHS respectively. As national surveys are resource-intensive, it would be prudent to maximize their benefits. We suggest that India plan for a single major national health survey at five-year intervals in consultation with key stakeholders. This could cover additional major causes of the disease burden and their risk factors, as well as causes of death and adult mortality rate estimation. If done in a standardized manner, such a survey would provide useable and timely data to inform health interventions and facilitate assessment of their impact on population health. PMID:27034522

  1. Child Homicide: A Global Public Health Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Naeemah Abrahams; Shanaaz Mathews; Martin, Lorna J.; Carl Lombard; Nadine Nannan; Rachel Jewkes

    2016-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Child mortality (death) is a global public health concern. In 2015, 5.9 million children (43 out of every 1,000 children born alive) died before their fifth birthday. Nearly half of these deaths occurred among neonates (babies 28 days old or younger); three-quarters of them occurred among infants (children less than one year old). Most of these deaths happened in resource-limited countries following delivery complications, infections, and other natural causes. Some...

  2. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...

  3. Children of Drought: Rainfall Shocks and Early Child Health in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Ramona Molitor; Sebastian Vollmer

    2014-01-01

    Barker's fetal origins hypothesis suggests a strong relationship between in utero conditions, health, and overall child development after birth. Using a nationally representative population survey, this paper analyzes the impact of rainfall on early child health in rural India. We find that drought experienced in utero has detrimental effects on the nutritional status of children. Effects appear to be stronger for boys, low caste children, and children exposed to drought in the first trimeste...

  4. Child health and living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermeyer, S; Andrade Mollinedo, P; Huicho, L

    2009-10-01

    The health of children born and living at high altitude is shaped not only by the low-oxygen environment, but also by population ancestry and sociocultural determinants. High altitude and the corresponding reduction in oxygen delivery during pregnancy result in lower birth weight with higher elevation. Children living at high elevations are at special risk for hypoxaemia during infancy and during acute lower respiratory infection, symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension, persistence of fetal vascular connections, and re-entry high-altitude pulmonary oedema. However, child health varies from one population group to another due to genetic adaptation as well as factors such as nutrition, intercurrent infection, exposure to pollutants and toxins, socioeconomic status, and access to medical care. Awareness of the risks uniquely associated with living at high altitude and monitoring of key health indicators can help protect the health of children at high altitude. These considerations should be incorporated into the scaling-up of effective interventions for improving global child health and survival. PMID:19066173

  5. Infant mental health screening in the general child health surveilliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Andersen, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    Title: Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Screening, CIMHS: Construct validity and predictivity of a general population measure. Introduction: The Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Screening (CIMHS) was developed as first part of an intervention program embedded in the existing services...... and Methods: At age 9-10 months a consecutive sample of 2,973 infants were assessed by community health nurses, using the CIMHS. Item-response analyses were used to explore construct validity and define cases. A case-cohort sample of 418 children was assessed at 1½ year in a two hour session comprising Bayley...... Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III), parent interviews (including Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5), video-recordings of play and eating. Diagnostic classification was completed by experienced child psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health...

  6. Relationships of Shared Decision Making with Parental Perceptions of Child Mental Health Functioning and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M; Weller, Bridget; Titus, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Experts encourage parents and practitioners to engage in shared decision making (SDM) to provide high quality child mental health care. However, little is known regarding SDM among families of children with common mental health conditions. The objectives of this study were to examine associations between parental report of SDM and parental perceptions of (a) receiving child mental health care and (b) child mental health functioning. We analyzed cross-sectional data on children with a common mental health condition (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder, anxiety, or depression) from the 2009/2010 National Survey of Children with Special Healthcare Needs (N = 9,434). The primary independent variable was parent-reported SDM, and the dependent variables were parental perception of (a) their child receiving all needed mental health care (b) their children's impairment in school attendance and extracurricular activity participation, and (c) severity of their children's mental health condition. Multivariate logistic and multinomial regression analyses were conducted. Greater parent-reported SDM was associated with parental perceptions of receiving all needed child mental health care and children not having school or extracurricular impairment. Greater SDM was also associated with perceptions of children having a mild mental health condition compared to children having a moderate or severe condition. Findings provide a basis for future longitudinal and intervention studies to examine the benefit of SDM for improving parental perceptions of the quality of child mental health care and mental health functioning among children with common mental health conditions. PMID:25577238

  7. The Waterford mental health survey

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan; Keenleyside, Mairi; Fitzhenry, Mark; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the Waterford Mental Health Survey was to document the prevalence of co-morbid personality disorders in a sample of inpatients and outpatients attending the HSE mental health service in Waterford and outline the implications of this for service development. Between July 2011 and June 2014, 100 inpatients and 99 outpatients were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV axis I and II disorders, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Global Assessmen...

  8. Forced migration and child health and mortality in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Avogo, Winfred Aweyire; Agadjanian, Victor

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of...

  9. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Ethiopian Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…

  10. Child Physical Abuse and concurrence of other types of Child Abuse : associations with health and risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, Carl Göran; Wingren, Gun; Gustafsson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse and health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teen-agers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors. Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in two different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (N=7 262). The respon...

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Charmian M. Bennett; Sharon Friel

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expect...

  12. Lifetime Health Consequences of Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chanyoung; Orazem, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The health consequences of child labor may take time to manifest themselves. This study examines whether children who began working at a young age experience increased incidence of illness or physical disability as adults.. When child labor and schooling are treated as chosen without consideration of unobserved abilities or health endowments, child labor appears to have small adverse effects on a wide variety of health measures. Some adverse health consequences such as heart disease or hypert...

  13. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  14. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165

  15. Research inventory of child health: A report on roadmaps for the future of child health research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé, Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23...

  16. Family Child Care Providers’ Compliance With State Physical Activity Regulations, Delaware Child Care Provider Survey, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams Leng, MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Delaware is one state that has implemented comprehensive child care regulations to foster healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors of young children. This study describes the Delaware family child care environment and providers’ knowledge of and compliance with physical activity regulations. We analyzed the data to determine characteristics associated with predictors of knowledge of and compliance with these regulations. Methods A random stratified sample of 663 licensed Delaware family child care providers was mailed a survey on family child care characteristics and providers’ awareness and practices of the child care regulations. Three logistic regression models were used to explore the association between provider characteristics and their knowledge of and compliance with the regulations. Results Ultimately, 313 of the 663 eligible family child care providers participated in the survey (47.2% response rate. Controlling for covariates, we found that family child care providers’ education level was significantly associated with knowledge of the physical activity regulation. Another model showed that family child care providers with larger amounts of outdoor space were more likely to report compliance with the recommendation for unstructured physical activity than those without this described space (odds ratio, 2.45. A third model showed a significant association between available indoor space for all activities including running and reported greater compliance with the recommendation for structured physical activity than was reported by caregivers with less indoor space (odds ratio, 11.2. Conclusion To provide the recommended levels of physical activity for children in child care, the available physical space environment is an important area of focus for advocates of physical activity recommendations within the family child care environment.

  17. Environmental Health and Child Survival : Epidemiology, Economics, Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report complements Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development by looking at environmental health issues that affect child health broadly, while also exploring the links through malnutrition. This report argues that environmental health interventions are preventive measures that are imperative to improve child survival with sustainable results in the long term. Preventive measur...

  18. 45 CFR 1304.22 - Child health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.22 Child health and safety. (a) Health... procedures for emergencies (e.g., fire or weather-related) which are practiced regularly (see 45 CFR 1304.53... allow for easy access to each child. (f) First aid kits. (1) Readily available, well-supplied first...

  19. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Marislei Nishijima; André Portela Fernandes de Souza; Flávia Mori Sarti

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey) from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008). The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The results suggest t...

  20. The social determinants of child health: variations across health outcomes – a population-based cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorino Charlemaigne C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in child health outcomes persist despite advances in medical technology and increased global wealth. The social determinants of health approach is useful in explaining the disparities in health. Our objective in this paper is four-fold: (1 to test whether the income relationship (and the related income gradient is the same across different child health outcomes; (2 to test whether the association between income and child health outcomes persists after controlling for other traditional socioeconomic characteristics of children and their family (education and employment status; (3 to test the role of other potentially mediating variables, namely parental mental health, number of children, and family structure; and (4 to test the interaction between income and education. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study used data from the 2003 US National Survey of Children's Health involving 102,353 children aged 0 to 17 years. Using multivariate logistic regression models, the association between household income, education, employment status, parental mental health, number of children, family structure and the following child health outcomes were examined: presence or absence of asthma, headaches/migraine, ear infections, respiratory allergy, food/digestive allergy, or skin allergy. Results While the associations of some determinants were found to be consistent across different health outcomes, the association of other determinants such as household income depended on the specific outcome. Controlling for other factors, a gradient association persisted between household income and a child having asthma, migraine/severe headaches, or ear infections with children more likely to have the illness if their family is closer to the federal poverty level. Potentially mediating variables, namely parental mental health, number of children, and family structure had consistent associations across health outcomes. Conclusion

  1. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  2. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Daniel J.; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ec...

  3. Raising the bar for health and safety in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Patti

    2002-01-01

    During the past few decades, this country has experienced many socio-economic changes including a rise in the number of dual-income families and single parent homes. Combined with a fluctuating economy and drastic reforms in welfare, one of the results has been an ever-increasing number of children being cared for in out-of-home settings. With almost 75% of all children under age 5 years and 50% of infants in some form of child care on a regular basis, opportunities abound for nurses to promote optimal health and safety in child care. To ensure quality child care for these children, health care professionals are uniquely positioned to provide consultation services to centers and family child care settings. With expertise in child development, infection control, disease prevention, and health promotion, pediatric and public health nurses can provide many types of child care health consultation services to impact the care of these children positively. PMID:12087643

  4. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...

  5. Aggregate Economic Shocks, Child Schooling, and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Do aggregate economic shocks, such as those caused by macroeconomic crises or droughts, reduce child human capital? The answer to this question has important implications for public policy. If shocks reduce investments in children, they may transmit poverty from one generation to the next. This paper uses a simple framework to analyze the effects of aggregate economic shocks on child schoo...

  6. NATIONAL SURVEY OF YOUTH - CHILD SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) is an outgrowth of a larger research project initiated in the 1960s by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) to analyze the sources of variation in the labor market experience of the U.S. population. In 1979, the DOL initiated the NLS...

  7. Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) is a biennial, cross-sectional survey of a nationally-representative sample of American adults that is used to...

  8. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Strasser

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1

  9. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Nishijima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008. The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM. The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country’s labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes and indirectly (losses in educational attainment. Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  10. Long-term health and socioeconomic consequences of child labor: Evidence from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuelian

    2012-01-01

    Child labor may impose positive and negative, direct and indirect effects on the long-term development of an individual. This study employs the Brazil Living Standards Measurement Study Survey to examine the long-run consequences of child labor on an adults income, health and educational attainment. When possible, the estimated models take into account of possible endogeneity and measurement error problems. The results suggest that early working has a negative and substantial income impact on...

  11. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masako; Shirasu, Mika; Fujita, Rei; Hirasawa, Yukei; Touhara, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child’s body (n = 507). The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384). Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs) was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888). We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child’s bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child’s development. PMID:27138751

  12. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  13. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M; Horowitz, Carol R; Kleinman, Lawrence C; Galvez, Maida P

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child's health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3-15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children's weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child's weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child's weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  14. COMMUNITY DENTAL HEALTH SURVEY TRAINING TO DENTAL HEALTH PERSONNEL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Ita Yulita

    2015-01-01

    Dentist and dental nurse as dental health personnel in community health center are spearheads in community dental health service. The effectiveness and efficacy of community dental health service needs updated adequate dental health knowledge and skill. One effort to assure the fulfillment of those needs is by providing community dental health survey training. This training aims at improving the skill and capability of dental health personnel to conduct dental health survey. The training cons...

  15. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  16. Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158709.html Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health Problems might ... 2016 FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Harsh parenting may leave more than psychological scars, it might ...

  17. Diet quality, child health, and food policies in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of diet quality for improving child health is widely recognized, the roles of environmental factors and the absorption of nutrients for children's physical growth and morbidity have not been adequately integrated into a policy framework. Moreover, nutrient intakes gradually affect child health, so it is helpful to use alternative tools to evaluate short-term interve...

  18. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(2), and 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1), “entry” means the first day that Early Head Start or Head... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health...

  19. 河北省赵县孕产妇和儿童健康管理现状研究%Survey on maternal and child health care management in Zhao County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 吴琼; 陈藜; 张淑一; 李烨; 张延峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查分析河北省赵县基本公共卫生服务项目中孕产妇和儿童健康管理实施现状,为改进服务质量提供研究资料和建议。方法根据国家基本公共卫生服务规范要求的服务内容设计调查问卷,主要包括体格检查、化验和咨询指导,现场观察乡镇卫生院妇幼保健人员的产前保健和儿童保健服务过程,并对保健人员进行访谈以了解其对自己的工作量、收入和提供喂养咨询指导的看法。结果调查共观察了88名孕妇的产前保健和194名儿童的保健服务。产前保健中有80%以上的孕妇进行了体格检查,但进行实验室化验者不足5%。保健人员很少提供咨询指导,没有孕妇得到母乳喂养方面的指导。儿童保健中98.5%的儿童测量了体重和身长,但分别只有6.2%和4.6%对照生长标准曲线进行了评价。只有21.6%的儿童家长接受了喂养指导。结论赵县基本公共卫生服务项目中产前保健和儿童保健的体格检查部分工作开展较好,但实验室化验和咨询指导方面的服务质量有待提高;保健人员反映工作量大、收入低,同时需要更多高质量的培训。%Objective To investigate the current status of maternal and child health care management provided by Basic Public Health Services Project in Zhao County in Hebei Province and to provide evidence-based recommendations on improving quality of health services. Methods Questionnaires were developed based on national guidelines on Basic Public Health Services and health facility survey was conducted in township hospitals, including physical check, laboratory test and counselling.Healthcare workers ’ services for pregnant women, children and their caregivers were observed, and some healthcare workers were interviewed to understand their perspective on workload, income and providing feeding counseling.Results Totally 88 pregnant women were observed in

  20. The Homeless Child Health Care Inventory: assessing the efficacy of linkages to primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Redlener, I.; Karich, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Each year, the New York City homeless family shelter system provides transitional housing for nearly 20,000 homeless children. While the health care needs of these children are substantial, there is currently no system-wide mechanism for ensuring that they have access to appropriate medical care. This report analyzes information from the Homeless Child Health Care Inventory, a survey conducted by Montefiore Medical Center's Division of Community Pediatrics, to examine the adequacy of health c...

  1. Seasonal effects of water quality on infant and child health in India

    OpenAIRE

    Brainerd, Elizabeth; Menon, Nidhiya

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health using data on water quality combined with data on the health outcomes of infants and children from the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 Demographic and Health Surveys of India. Because fertilizers are applied at specific times in the growing season, the concentrations of agrichemicals in water vary seasonally and by cropped area as some Indian states plant predominantly summer crops while others plant ...

  2. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999 to 2014. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults...

  3. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  4. Mental Health Problems in Young Children Investigated by U.S. Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Fisher, Emily; Landsverk, John; Stein, Ruth E. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence/predictors of mental health (MH) problems and services use in 12- to 36-month-old children who had been investigated for maltreatment. Method: Data came from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), a longitudinal study of youth ages 0 to 17.5 years referred to U.S. child…

  5. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as Dimensional Measure of Child Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Two large surveys of children and adolescents in the general British population is used to evaluate the dimensionality of the total difficulties score of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The findings support the use of SDQ as a measure of child mental health.

  6. Using Cumulative Risk to Screen for Mental Health Problems in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Barth, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that information typically collected during a maltreatment investigation can be used to screen children for mental health problems. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Cumulative risk scores were created for 3,022 children and compared to reports of clinical-level…

  7. 社区儿童家长口腔保健知识及健康教育效果调查%Community Child Parents Oral Health Knowledge and Health Education Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective children aged 3-12 for my area of orallhealth knowledge among parents of investigation and analysis, and health education for parents. Methods July 2012 - May 2013, on the 128 parents conducted a questionnaire survey, and the resulting data were analyzed and summarized, and carry out health education activities. Results After carrying out health education activities, parents on orallhealth knowledge and awareness activities to be significantly higher than before (P <0.05). Conclusion community parents' knowledge of orallhealth level, there is a very obvious dif erences, there are some parents in this knowledge is very poor, the need for parents, children's orallhealth knowledge targeted publicity and education.%目的:对我辖区3~12岁儿童家长的口腔健康知识知晓率进行调查和分析,同时对家长进行健康教育。方法2012年7月~2013年5月,对128例家长进行了问卷的调查,对所得的数据进行分析和总结,并开展健康教育活动。结果经过开展健康教育活动之后,家长在口腔健康知识的知晓上要明显高于活动之前(P<0.05)。结论社区家长在口腔健康知识的认识水平上,存在很明显的差异,还有一些家长在这方面的知识非常的贫乏,需要对家长、儿童进行针对性的口腔健康知识宣传和教育。

  8. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  9. Parental investment in child health in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national study of health-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring's condition. Here, we make use of household data on health-seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 17 sub-Saharan African countries, we examine whether maternal factors (age, health, marital status) and child factors (birth order, health, sex, age) independently influence parental investment in health-seeking behaviours: two preventative behaviours (malaria net use and immunization) and two curative ones (treating fever and diarrhoea). Results indicate that children with lower birth order, older mothers and mothers with better health status have higher odds of investment. The effects of a child's sex and health status and whether the mother is polygynously married vary depending on the type of health-seeking behaviour (preventative versus curative). We discuss how these results square with predictions from parental investment theory pertaining to the state of mothers and children, and reflect on some potential mechanisms and directions for future research. PMID:26998319

  10. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph J Amon; Jane Buchanan; Jane Cohen; Juliane Kippenberg

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and envi...

  11. Child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Releva, M; Boskovska, M; Apceva, A; Polazarevska, M; Novotni, A; Bonevski, D; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia since 1993. The evolution of services through the Mental Crisis Centre for Children and Adolescents, funded by the Open Society Institute, and located in six cities is outlined. The paper also defines traditional services, the nature of child mental health emergencies, the evaluation process, follow-up care and training and supervision. It concludes with concern that the mental health emergency system is not sufficient to meet the needs of the child and adolescent population, particularly in the face of the Kosovar refugee crisis. Recommendations for the future are made. PMID:11508566

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charmian M; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world's poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health. PMID:27417491

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmian M. Bennett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.

  14. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. PMID:25982869

  15. Health reform, population policy and child nutritional status in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of child nutritional status in seven provinces of China during the 1990s, focusing specifically on the role of two areas of public policy, namely health system reforms and the one child policy. The empirical relationship between income and nutritional status, and the extent to which that relationship is mediated by access to quality healthcare and being...

  16. Financial Health of Child Care Facilities Affects Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Mary R.; Sull, Theresa M.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that child care facility owners, boards of directors, staff, and parents need to focus on financial management, as poor financial health compromises the quality of care for children. Specifically addresses the issues of: (1) concern for providing high quality child care; (2) the connection between quality and money; and (3) strengthening…

  17. The influence of child care on maternal health and mother-child interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kröll, Alexandra; Borck, Rainald

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, formal child care coverage rates have increased markedly over the past few decades. The expansion in coverage is particularly pronounced for under 3 year-olds. The present paper is concerned with how mothers' mental and physical health is affected by whether they place their child in formal day care or not. Furthermore, the effects of formal child care usage on mother-child interaction are examined. The analysis is based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 2...

  18. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education. PMID:25073762

  19. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  20. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  1. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  2. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  3. Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10–12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  4. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2013-01-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. ...

  5. Follow-up skeletal survey use by child abuse pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nancy S; Lewis, Terri; Eddleman, Sonja; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal survey is frequently used to identify occult fractures in young children with concern for physical abuse. Because skeletal survey is relatively insensitive for some abusive fractures, a follow-up skeletal survey (FUSS) may be undertaken at least 10-14 days after the initial skeletal survey to improve sensitivity for healing fractures. This was a prospectively planned secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of 2,890 children who underwent subspecialty evaluation for suspected child physical abuse at 1 of 19 centers. Our objective was to determine variability between sites in rates of FUSS recommendation, completion and fracture identification among the 2,049 participants who had an initial SS. Among children with an initial skeletal survey, the rate of FUSS recommendation for sites ranged from 20% to 97%; the rate of FUSS completion ranged from 10% to 100%. Among sites completing at least 10 FUSS, rates of new fracture identification ranged from 8% to 28%. Among completed FUSS, new fractures were more likely to be identified in younger children, children with higher initial level of concern for abuse, and those with a fracture or cutaneous injury identified in the initial evaluation. The current variability in FUSS utilization is not explained by variability in occult fracture prevalence. Specific guidelines for FUSS utilization are needed. PMID:26342432

  6. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  7. 76 FR 62295 - Child Health Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... hosted the White House Conference on Bullying Prevention because no child should feel unsafe or be afraid... the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26149 Filed 10-6-11; 8:45...

  8. Vietnamese Immigrants in Brisbane, Australia: Perception of Parenting Roles, Child Development, Child Health, Illness, and Disability, and Health Service Utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Uyen N. T. L.

    2012-01-01

    The limited research into Vietnamese immigrants suggests that this group may have different perceptions relating to parenting roles, child development, child health, illness, and disability, and differing patterns of health service utilisation. The author conducted a pilot study exploring how Vietnamese immigrants differ from Anglo-Australian in relation to these issues. The pilot, utilising a mixed quantitative and qualitative method, was conducted in Brisbane, Australia, with subjects being...

  9. Teacher-reported prevalence and management of child health problems at primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Anna F; Pickett, Kate E; Barber, Sally; McEachan, Rosemary; Wright, John

    2016-06-01

    We explored primary school teacher-reported experiences, prevalence and management of child health and developmental problems and medication administration from one multi-ethnic urban community in England. A survey was delivered to 90 reception class teachers in 45 primary schools, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight respondents. Fifty-six percent of teachers completed the questionnaire. Findings suggest that teachers and school staff may represent an underused resource for identifying children with developmental and health conditions and that the connections formed between schools and families could be utilized by other services by delivering interventions in schools where possible. Whilst most schools use a policy to inform the management of child health in school, some key areas such as training and documentation of medication administration may not be followed in practice. Interview findings supported and expanded on survey data by identifying barriers to collaboration between services and families. PMID:25713008

  10. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health. PMID:11978356

  11. Parental investment in child health in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national study of health-seeking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring’s condition. Here, we make use of household data on health-seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 17 sub-Saharan African countries, we examine whether maternal factors (age, health, marital status) and child factors (birth order, health, sex, age) independently influence parental investment in health-seeking behaviours: two preventative behaviours (malaria net use and immunization) and two curative ones (treating fever and diarrhoea). Results indicate that children with lower birth order, older mothers and mothers with better health status have higher odds of investment. The effects of a child’s sex and health status and whether the mother is polygynously married vary depending on the type of health-seeking behaviour (preventative versus curative). We discuss how these results square with predictions from parental investment theory pertaining to the state of mothers and children, and reflect on some potential mechanisms and directions for future research. PMID:26998319

  12. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  13. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  14. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Kevin; Kitzman, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest that that the United States is failing to make significant progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities. One missing element from the US strategy for achieving this goal is a focus on gaps in child development and achievement. Academic achievement and education seem to be critical determinants of health across the life span and disparities in one contribute to disparities in the other. Despite these linkages, national policy treats child education and health as separate. Landmark education legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, is due for Congressional reauthorization. It seeks to eliminate gaps in academic child achievement by 2014. It does so by introducing accountability for states, school districts, and schools. In this special article, we review health disparities and contributors to child achievement gaps. We review changes in achievement gaps over time and potential contributors to the limited success of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its unfunded mandates and unfounded assumptions. We conclude with key reforms, which include addressing gaps in child school readiness through adequate investment in child health and early education and reductions in child poverty; closing the gap in child achievement by ensuring equity in school accountability standards; and, importantly, ensuring equity in school funding so that resources are allocated on the basis of the needs of the students. This will ensure that schools, particularly those serving large numbers of poor and minority children, have the resources necessary to promote optimal learning. PMID:19255042

  15. Role of Child Nutrition Programs in Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. Josephine

    The role of health educators in integrating child nutrition programs into school health education is discussed and issues attending such programs are considered. The importance of breakfast and lunch programs in the school is stressed with particular emphasis on using these programs to instruct children in sound nutritional practices. It is…

  16. 45 CFR 1304.24 - Child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services. (1) Grantee and delegate agencies must work collaboratively with parents (see 45 CFR 1304.40(f... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  17. 77 FR 4569 - Revision to Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Institute of Child Health and Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... time that the enrolled child is 6 months of age to the time the child is 5 years of age. 30-Month Data... Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the National Children's Study, Vanguard (Pilot) Study... of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will...

  18. Children's Experiences of Completing a Computer-Based Violence Survey: Finnish Child Victim Survey Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Monica; Ellonen, Noora

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of children as research subjects requires special considerations with regard to research practices and ethics. This is especially true concerning sensitive research topics such as sexual victimization. Prior research suggests that reflecting these experiences in a survey can cause negative feelings in child participants, although posing only a minimal to moderate risk. Analyzing only predefined, often negative feelings related to answering a sexual victimization survey has dominated the existing literature. In this article children's free-text comments about answering a victimization survey and experiences of sexual victimization are analyzed together to evaluate the effects of research participation in relation to this sensitive issue. Altogether 11,364 children, aged 11-12 and 15-16, participated in the Finnish Child Victim Survey in 2013. Of these, 69% (7,852) reflected on their feelings about answering the survey. Results indicate that both clearly negative and positive feelings are more prevalent among victimized children compared to their nonvictimized peers. Characteristics unique to sexual victimization as well as differences related to gender and age are also discussed. The study contributes to the important yet contradictory field of studying the effects of research participation on children. PMID:27472509

  19. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  20. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  1. 77 FR 9666 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will... purpose of this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  2. Gender bias in child care and child health: global patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Lodha, Rakesh; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-04-01

    Gender-based discrimination is reported across the spectrum of paediatric healthcare including emergency, inpatient, outpatient and preventive care and is mostly reported from South Asia and China with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. Biases against young girls have been documented even in immunisation percentage, home food allocation, seeking medical care for childhood ailments and percentage of household healthcare expenditures allocated to them. Such gender discrimination in access to medical care is likely to have an influence on the overall health of female children. Over the last five decades, the under-5 sex ratios are worsening in India with declining number of girls. Deliberate parental neglect of girls' essential and life-saving medical care is also an important contributing factor apart from sex-selective abortions to the declining gender ratios. Corrective measures and focused action are needed. PMID:24344176

  3. Child Labor and Health: Quantifying the Global Health Impacts of Child Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graitcer, Philip L.; Lerer, Leonard B.

    Child labor remains one of the most controversial challenges at the end of the 20th century. Approximately 250 million children in developing countries work either full- or part-time. Child labor is not confined to less-developed countries, as economic transitions bring shifts in the prevalence and nature of child labor. Throughout the world,…

  4. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavilainen Eija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38, intervene in it better (4.15, and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6. Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better P<0.001, intervene better P<0.001, and implement the guideline better P<0.001 than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice.

  5. Multiple trauma and mental health in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-10-01

    The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mental health of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mental health outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mental health outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers. PMID:21053376

  6. The Rhythm of the Rains: Seasonal Effects on Child Health in The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Gajigo, Ousman; Schwab, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the consequences of seasonal variation in maternal consumption on child health using two nationally representative Gambian household surveys. Seasonal fluctuation in consumption stems from difficulties borrowing when incomes are low during the rainy season and saving when they peak after harvest. The resulting fluctuations in maternal nutritional intake can affect birth outcomes and lactational performance. Using mother fixed effects to isolate the effect of birth season, we find t...

  7. Child Malnutrition, Social Development and Health Services in the Andean Region

    OpenAIRE

    LARREA CARLOS; MONTALVO PEDRO; RICAURTE ANA

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes social, ethnic and regional determinants of child malnutrition, as well as the effects of access to health services in the Andean Region, through a comparison between Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. These three countries share a profile with high stunting prevalence and strong socio-economic, regional and ethnic disparities. The analysis is conducted using DHS (Peru 1992, 1996 and 2000, Bolivia 1997) and LSMS (Ecuador 1998) surveys and it focuses on an international comparative...

  8. Repository on maternal child health: Health portal to improve access to information on maternal child health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. Methods The portal ‘Repository on Maternal Child Health’ was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. Results The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01, increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00, and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03. There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa

  9. THE GUATEMALAN SURVEY OF FAMILY HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guatemalan Survey of Family Health, known as EGSF from its name in Spanish, was designed to examine the way in which rural Guatemalan families and individuals cope with childhood illness and pregnancy, and the role of ethnicity, poverty, and social support and health beliefs ...

  10. Courses in reproductive and child health in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining the human resource needs for providing quality maternal, newborn, and child health services across such a large and diverse population country like India is truly challenging. The effective response to significant challenges and increased requirements of evidence-based effectiveness of the public health projects on maternal and child health is putting pressure on existing program managers to acquire new advanced academic training and information. The data regarding the existing courses on reproductive and child health and related fields in the country were obtained by a predefined search made on the Internet through the Google search engine in December 2011. The collected data were the name and location of the institution offering the respective course, theme, course duration, course structure, eligibility criteria, and mode of learning. In India, around 15 institutes are offering certificate/postgraduate diploma courses on maternal and child health either as a regular program or through distance education program. The admission procedure for each institute is independent of others. The courses vary in terms of duration, eligibility criteria, and fee structure. Conceptualizing an educational initiative in response to national demands for increased workforce capacity to eliminate key medical and nonmedical educational barriers and financial and nonfinancial barriers to advanced academic preparation would enhance the quality of services available in the region.

  11. Health survey on cancers about the Tricastin nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey aims at describing the health status of the population around the Tricastin site, and more particularly at determining whether there is a difference between death or cancer occurrence frequencies observed around this site with respect to reference frequencies. It does not aim at assessing the health impact of the site industrial installations. Cancer mortality data, cancer diagnosis data, demographic data, child cancer data, data related to hospital stays in relationship with cancer, long duration hospital stay data, and mortality data are used. Several indicators are defined and used: standardised mortality ratio, standardised hospitalisation ratio. Data are also analysed in terms of location, and socio-demographic categories. It appears that there is no specific health situation for the considered area, except for pancreas cancer for women

  12. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  13. 77 FR 10758 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ]...

  14. 77 FR 30294 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... 1995, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of....--It is the purpose of this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and...

  15. 77 FR 14530 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National... the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development* to conduct a national longitudinal...

  16. 77 FR 19022 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development* to conduct a... Child Health and Human Development* shall establish a consortium of representatives from...

  17. The influence of economic development level, household wealth and maternal education on child health in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael H; Racine, Yvonne; Georgiades, Katholiki; Snelling, Dana; Hong, Sungjin; Omariba, Walter; Hurley, Patricia; Rao-Melacini, Purnima

    2006-10-01

    This study estimates the relative importance to child health (indicated by weight and height for age) of economic development level [gross domestic product (GDP) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates: GDP-PPP], household wealth and maternal education and examines the modifying influence of national contexts on these estimates. It uses information collected from mothers aged 15-49-years participating in Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 42 developing countries. In multilevel regression models, the three study variables exhibited strong independent associations with child health: GDP-PPP accounted for the largest amount of unique variation, followed by maternal education and household wealth. There was also substantial overlap (shared variance) between maternal education and the other two study variables. The regressions of child health on household wealth and maternal education exhibited substantial cross-national variation in both strength and form of association. Although higher education levels were associated with disproportionately greater returns to child health, the pattern for household wealth was erratic: in many countries there were diminishing returns to child health at higher levels of household wealth. We conclude that there are inextricable links among different strategies for improving child health and that policy planners, associating benefits with these strategies, must take into account the strong moderating impact of national context. PMID:16790308

  18. Health insurance and child mortality in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schoeps

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micro health insurance schemes have been implemented across developing countries as a means of facilitating access to modern medical care, with the ultimate aim of improving health. This effect, however, has not been explored sufficiently. Objective: We investigated the effect of enrolment into community-based health insurance on mortality in children under 5 years of age in a health and demographic surveillance system in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Design: We analysed the effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality with a Cox regression model. We adjusted for variables that we found to be related to the enrolment in health insurance in a preceding analysis. Results: Based on the analysis of 33,500 children, the risk of mortality was 46% lower in children enrolled in health insurance as compared to the non-enrolled children (HR=0.54, 95% CI 0.43–0.68 after adjustment for possible confounders. We identified socioeconomic status, father's education, distance to the health facility, year of birth, and insurance status of the mother at time of birth as the major determinants of health insurance enrolment. Conclusions: The strong effect of health insurance enrolment on child mortality may be explained by increased utilisation of health services by enrolled children; however, other non-observed factors cannot be excluded. Because malaria is a main cause of death in the study area, early consultation of health services in case of infection could prevent many deaths. Concerning the magnitude of the effect, implementation of health insurance could be a major driving factor of reduction in child mortality in the developing world.

  19. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  20. The Child Health Disadvantage of Parental Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Fragile Families data (N = 2,160) to assess health differences at age 5 for children born to cohabiting versus married parents. Regression analyses indicate worse health for children born to cohabiting parents, including those whose parents stably cohabited, dissolved their cohabitation, and married, than for children with stably…

  1. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  2. Charting the use of electronic health records and other information technologies among child health providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Robert G

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies regarding the use of information technologies (IT specifically among pediatricians and other physicians who treat children are lacking. As such, the objective of this study is to examine the use of electronic health record (EHR systems and other IT applications among pediatricians and other child health providers (CHPs in Florida. Methods We focus on pediatricians and other CHPs who responded to a state-wide physician survey of IT use. CHPs included general pediatricians, pediatric sub-specialists, and family physicians who self-reported a practice composition of at least 20% children. We compared general pediatricians to other CHPs and all CHPs (including pediatricians to other physicians with respect to computer and internet availability, and to the use of personal digital assistants and EHRs. Those with an EHR were also compared regarding the availability of key functions available in their system. Statistical analyses included chi-square analysis and logistic regression models which controlled for numerous factors. Results A total of 4,203 surveys (28.2% response including 1,021 CHPs, were returned. General pediatricians (13.7% were significantly less likely to be using an EHR than both CHP family physicians (26.1% and pediatric sub-specialists (29.6%; p Conclusion Physicians caring for children, and especially pediatricians, in Florida, are significantly slower than other doctors to adopt EHRs, and important electronic patient safety functionalities, into their office practices.

  3. What Every Child Needs for Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teen Eating Disorders Teen Depression and Suicide Teen Self-esteem Feeling Good About Yourself Teen Stress: A Guide to Surviving Stress SOURCES “Facts for Families," America Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry “Children’s and Adolescent’s Mental Health," US Dept. ...

  4. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy. Five years subsequent to the child labor experience we find significant negative impacts on education, and also find a higher probability of wage w...

  5. Why Should We Care About Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    Although there is extensive literature on the determinants of child labor and many initiatives aimed at combating it, there is limited evidence on the consequences of child labor on socioeconomic outcomes such as education, wages, and health. The authors evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy. Five years subsequent to the child labor experience, they find significant negative effects on sch...

  6. Evaluating web sites: reliable child health resources for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golterman, Linda; Banasiak, Nancy C

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a framework for evaluating the quality of health care information on the Internet and identifies strategies for accessing reliable child health resources. A number of methods are reviewed, including how to evaluate Web sites for quality using the Health Information Technology Institute evaluation criteria, how to identify trustworthy Web sites accredited by Health On the Net Foundation Code of Conduct, and the use of portals to access prescreened Web sites by organizations, such as the Medical Library Association. Pediatric nurses can use one or all of these strategies to develop a list of reliable Web sites as a supplement to patient and family teaching. PMID:21661608

  7. Global child health: challenges and goals in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R S

    1994-01-01

    The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to

  8. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  9. Child Health USA 2013: Prenatal Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Services Utilization > Prenatal Care Utilization Prenatal Care Utilization Narrative Early and adequate prenatal care helps to ... 20.3 6.0 Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Upon Initiation, * by Maternal Race/Ethnicity, 2011 Race/ ...

  10. Traditional perspectives on child and family health

    OpenAIRE

    Warne, Donald

    2005-01-01

    First Nations and American Indian communities experience significant health disparities compared with the general populations of Canada and the United States. Children from these communities experience higher rates of infant mortality, suicide and unintentional injury. From a traditional Lakota perspective, many of the health disparities faced in Aboriginal communities are linked to imbalances in the family and community. These imbalances can lead to detrimental behaviours, including substanc...

  11. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Da Dalt, Liviana; Putoto, Giovanni; Carraro, Dante; Gatta, Alessandra; Baraldi, Eugenio; Perilongo, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (It...

  12. Homework for Parents -- Your Child's Back-To-School Health Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Child Emergencies Homework for Parents — Your Child's Back-To-School Health ... advise parents and guardians to do a little homework of their own and go through a back- ...

  13. Social context, social position and child survival : Social determinants of child health inequities in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, Diddy

    2010-01-01

    Under-five mortality rate is a key indicator of the level of child health and overall well-being of a given population and is an indicator of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4. Of the estimated more than 10 million children that die worldwide each year, 41% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. With over one million children dying yearly from preventable diseases in Nigeria, the country may not meet the other Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Child...

  14. Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H

    2013-10-01

    In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies. PMID:24096792

  15. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Owoaje, Eme T.; Adedoyin D. Omidokun; Ige, Olusimbo K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed pregnant women’s perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria.Objective: Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Car...

  16. The Impact of Child SSI Enrollment on Household Outcomes: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan; Melissa Schettini Kearney

    2005-01-01

    The federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has become a primary source of cash assistance for low-income families with children in the United States, with 1.04 million children currently receiving SSI benefits and 6 percent of children in a household with some SSI income. In this paper we use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to investigate the impact that child SSI enrollment has on household outcomes such as poverty, household earnings, and health i...

  17. The dynamic relationship between cash transfers and child health: can the child support grant in South Africa make a difference to child nutrition?

    OpenAIRE

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Ramokolo, Vundli; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Doherty, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cash transfer programmes targeting children are considered an effective strategy for addressing child poverty and for improving child health outcomes in developing countries. In South Africa, the Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest cash transfer programme targeting children from poor households. The present paper investigates the association of the duration of CSG receipt with child growth at 2 years in three diverse areas of South Africa. Design The study analysed data on CSG ...

  18. To Unfold a Hidden Epidemic: Prevalence of Child Maltreatment and Its Health Implications among High School Students in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C. W.; Leung, Phil W. S.; Tang, Catherine S. K.; Chen, Wei-Qing; Lee, Albert; Ling, Davina C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment as perpetrated by parents, its associated health outcomes, and its resilient factors among high school students in China. Methods: A multi-level stratified random school-based survey was conducted in 2005. Twenty four high schools were randomly chosen from eight districts in…

  19. 78 FR 70309 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel... Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  20. 76 FR 50743 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maintenance of Child Health and Development Studies Name and Address Files... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  1. 75 FR 54897 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Review of T32 Applications from the... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  2. 75 FR 8974 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Maternal and Child Health in Poor Countries: Evidence from Randomized... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  3. 76 FR 37133 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Development, Special Emphasis Panel. The Role of Human-Animal Interactions in Child Health and Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  4. 78 FR 37233 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in Pregnancy... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; 68-2 Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child...

  5. Child health developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developm...

  6. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  7. Child Maltreatment, Family Characteristics, and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Add Health Data

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; TARUI, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is widely regarded as a serious social and public health problem that affects large numbers of children in the United States. In 2012, U.S. state and local child protective services received an estimated 3.4 million referrals of children being abused or neglected. There is increasing evidence that exposure to child maltreatment can lead to many emotional, behavioral, and physical health problems. However, little...

  8. Early childbirth, health inputs and child mortality: recent evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Maitra, Pushkar; Pal, Sarmistha

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early childbearing, parental use of health inputs and child mortality in Bangladesh. In order to account for the potential endogeneity of the age at birth and use of health inputs, (hospital delivery and child vaccination) in the child mortality regression, we jointly estimate mother’s age at childbirth, hospital delivery, child vaccination and child mortality taking into account of unobserved mother level heterogeneity. There is evidence of signif...

  9. The importance of including both a child perspective and the child's perspective within health care settings to provide truly child-centred care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderbäck, Maja; Coyne, Imelda; Harder, Maria

    2011-06-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) asserts the right of every child to self-determination, dignity, respect, non-interference, and the right to make informed decisions. The provision of quality care in health services tailored to children's preferences means that health professionals have a responsibility to ensure children's rights, and that the child is encouraged and enabled to make his or her view known on issues that affect them. This paper will help illuminate and differentiate between a child perspective and the child's perspective in health care settings. The issues are supported with research which illustrates the different perspectives. Both perspectives are required to perceive and encounter children as equal human beings in child-centred health care settings. PMID:21685225

  10. Child health care demand in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    This study examines how quality, price, and access to curative health care influence use of modern public, modern private, and traditional providers among 3,000 children age 0-2 years in Cebu, Philippines. The analysis relies on a series of household, community, and health facility surveys conducted in 33 rural and urban communities during 1983-1986. The inclusion of data on potential health care users and available providers makes it possible to investigate the impact of the health care envi...

  11. La salud en la infancia Child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Colomer-Revuelta

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available En España, la infancia aparece como un grupo de población con escasas necesidades y problemas de salud, lo que lo hace casi invisible en la investigación y en la planificación de servicios. En general, no se tiene en cuenta que se trata de un período de desarrollo y de alta vulnerabilidad a los riesgos físicos y psicosociales, y de respuesta positiva a los factores protectores. En este artículo se recogen datos y reflexiones sobre algunos problemas que mejoran (mortalidad, cáncer y otros que persisten o empeoran (calidad del ambiente, maltrato, salud mental, obesidad, discapacidades y estilos de vida, y se plantean nuevos desafíos relacionados con la calidad de vida y la equidad de género y clase social. Además se revisan las respuestas que se dan desde los servicios de salud, las políticas medioambientales y de promoción de la salud, y se propone una atención específica a la salud de niños y niñas desde un enfoque de los derechos humanos.Children in Spain are considered as being a population group with few health problems and needs therefore making it almost invisible in research and services' planning. Generally, it is not taken into account that this is a development period with very high vulnerability to physical and psychosocial risks whereas there is a positive response to protective factors. This article covers some data and thoughts on their health problems that are improving (mortality, cancer, those that persist or worsen (environmental quality, abuse, mental health, obesity, disabilities and lifestyles and new challenges relating to quality of life and gender and social class equity. Responses provided by the health services are reviewed, as are environmental policies and health promotion and specific care is proposed for boys' and girls' health from a children's human rights-focused perspective.

  12. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health to...

  13. The social determinants of child health: variations across health outcomes – a population-based cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Victorino Charlemaigne C; Gauthier Anne H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Disparities in child health outcomes persist despite advances in medical technology and increased global wealth. The social determinants of health approach is useful in explaining the disparities in health. Our objective in this paper is four-fold: (1) to test whether the income relationship (and the related income gradient) is the same across different child health outcomes; (2) to test whether the association between income and child health outcomes persists after contro...

  14. Poverty and Child Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Almost half of young children in the United States live in poverty or near poverty. The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to reducing and ultimately eliminating child poverty in the United States. Poverty and related social determinants of health can lead to adverse health outcomes in childhood and across the life course, negatively affecting physical health, socioemotional development, and educational achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates for programs and policies that have been shown to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for children and families living in poverty. With an awareness and understanding of the effects of poverty on children, pediatricians and other pediatric health practitioners in a family-centered medical home can assess the financial stability of families, link families to resources, and coordinate care with community partners. Further research, advocacy, and continuing education will improve the ability of pediatricians to address the social determinants of health when caring for children who live in poverty. Accompanying this policy statement is a technical report that describes current knowledge on child poverty and the mechanisms by which poverty influences the health and well-being of children. PMID:26962238

  15. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, D

    2002-01-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II will determine the incidence of and risk factors for the development of allergic disease, atopy and rapid loss of lung function in middle-aged adults living in Europe. From 1991-1993, >18,000 individuals took part in ECRHS I and provided in

  16. Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Ahmed; Choo Wan-Yuen; Mary Joseph Marret; Cheah Guat-Sim; Sajaratulnisah Othman; Karuthan Chinna

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and ...

  17. Infant and Young Child Feeding: a Key area to Improve Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam; Gholam Hasan Khodaee; Maryam Ajilian Abbasi; Masumeh Saeidi

    2015-01-01

    Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition acc...

  18. School Counselors and Child Abuse Reporting: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…

  19. Filipino Child Health in the United States: Do Health and Health Care Disparities Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce R. Javier, MD, MPH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFilipinos are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States, but few studies have examined health and health care disparities in Filipino children. The objectives of this review are 1 to appraise current knowledge of Filipino children’s health and health care and 2 to present the implications of these findings for research, clinical care, and policy.MethodsWe identified articles for review primarily via a Medline search emphasizing the terms Filipino and United States crossed with specific topics in child and adolescent health that fall under one of Healthy People 2010’s 28 focus areas. ResultsFilipino children are underrepresented in medical research. Studies that compare Filipino children and adolescents with white children or children of other Asian Pacific Islander subgroups suggest disparities with regard to gestational diabetes, rates of neonatal mortality and low birth weight, malnutrition in young children, overweight, physical inactivity and fitness, tuberculosis, dental caries, and substance abuse. Studies that compare Filipino adults with white adults describe adult Filipino health problems similar to those of Filipino children, including higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Health care disparities remain to be determined.ConclusionHealth and health care disparities appear to exist for Filipino children, but more research is needed to confirm these findings. Practitioners serving this population need to consider social and cultural factors that can increase or diminish risk for health problems. There are priorities in research and policy that, if pursued, may improve the health care and health outcomes of Filipino children.

  20. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia; Doruk Ozgediz; Sudha Jayaraman; Patrick Kyamanywa; Milton Mutto; Kobusingye, Olive C.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and i...

  1. General practitioner training needs for child health surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhart, L C

    1991-01-01

    A postal questionnaire was sent to 136 Hackney general practitioners inquiring about their plans for child health surveillance. A total of 112 responded and detailed their training needs, both practical and theoretical. Ninety one responders were providing or planning to provide surveillance. Responders were eager for further training particularly in premature baby follow up, mental handicap, speech and hearing assessment, and social and behavioural problems.

  2. Maternalmental health after a child's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, EA; Kuo, AA

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Importance:The prevalence of psychological distress among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests a need for interventions that address parental mental health during the critical period after the child's autism diagnosis when parents are learning to navigate the complex system of autism services.Objective: To investigate whether a brief cognitive behavioral intervention, problem-solving education (PSE), decreas...

  3. Promoting equity to achieve maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sarah; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Målqvist, Mats; Sanneving, Linda; Saxena, Deepak; Tana, Susilowati; Yuan, Beibei; Byass, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Maternal and child mortality rates, the targets for two of the eight Millennium Development Goals, remain unacceptably high in many countries. Some countries have made significant advances in reducing deaths in pregnancy, childbirth, and childhood at the national level. However, on a sub-national basis most countries show wide disparities in health indices which are not necessarily reflected in national figures. This is a sign of inequitable access to and provision of health services. Yet there has been little attention to health equity in relation to the Millennium Development Goals. Instead, countries have focused on achieving national targets. This has led to an emphasis on utilitarian, as opposed to universalist, approaches to public health, which we discuss here. We recommend a policy of "proportionate universalism". In this approach, universal health care and a universal social policy are the ultimate goal, but in the interim actions are carried out with intensities proportionate to disadvantage. We also briefly describe an initiative that aims to promote evidence-based policy and interventions that will reduce inequity in access to maternal and child health care in China, India, Indonesia and Viet Nam. PMID:22118151

  4. Latino Caregiver Psychosocial Factors and Health Care Services for Children Involved in the Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caitlin; Brinkmann, Andrea; Schneiderman, Janet U.

    2015-01-01

    Children in the child welfare system have a high prevalence of health problems, making pediatric health service use critical. Latino children represent a growing proportion of the child welfare system, and are at increased risk for health problems. Many have argued that Latino caregivers can provide Latino children with the least disruptive out-of-home placement, but little is known about how caregiver factors might relate to health services utilization or child health status within this popu...

  5. FastStats: Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates ... Links Child Health Mortality Data National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Health Interview Survey Centers for ...

  6. The Health Development Organization: An Organizational Approach to Achieving Child Health Development

    OpenAIRE

    Halfon, Neal; Inkelas, Moira; Hochstein, Miles

    2000-01-01

    The health development organization (HDO) is a new approach to the organization and delivery of children’s health and social services. The HDO would combine the best features of vertically integrated HMOs with horizontally integrated, child-focused social services and longitudinally integrated health promotion strategies. Its mandate would be to develop the health of children in a community. The impetus for creating HDOs is a growing body of evidence in chronic disease epidemiology, developme...

  7. HIV infection and maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, P

    1988-01-01

    Collaborative studies to determine the consequences of pregnancy in HIV infected women have been begun in the last 2 years. Both HIV and HIV antibodies pass through the placenta, and 30-50% of infants born to HIV infected mothers are infected in utero. In developed countries it is feasible to screen pregnant women in high risk groups for HIV positivity. In developing countries, where heterosexual transmission is the main route of infection, there are no high risk groups, and it is not feasible to screen all pregnant women. Some data have shown that HIV infection in pregnancy is associated with intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and high infant mortality. There is no evidence that cesarean section reduces infection in neonates, and it should not be performed on HIV infected women. By 1987 almost 1.5% of AIDS cases in the US were in vertically infected infants. In Africa also the main factor in HIV in infancy is vertical transmission. AIDS in infancy follows 1 of 2 distinct patterns: failure to thrive and death from Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia within the 1st year or else apparent health during infancy but death from opportunistic infections by age 3. HIV infection in childhood is uncommon and can usually be traced to blood transfusions or unsterilized needles used for vaccinations. Neurological symptoms often develop early in children. Breast feeding probably does not infect any infants who have not already been infected in utero, and in developing counties breast feeding is still the best assurance of total nutrition. Pooled, unpasteurized milk banks, on the other hand, represent an unnecessary danger, and milk donors should be screened. Since there is no evidence that routine immunization accelerates the course of HIV infection, and since mass screening is not feasible in developing countries, the World Health Organization recommends that routine immunizations be continued. Since the best protection from in utero HIV infection is the use of

  8. Obesity prevention in early life: an opportunity to better support the role of Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, R.; Campbell, K. J.; van der Pligt, P.; Ball, K.; Lynch, J.; Russell, G; Taylor, R.; Denney-Wilson, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because parents with young children access primary health care services frequently, a key opportunity arises for Maternal and Child Health (MCH) nurses to actively work with families to support healthy infant feeding practices and lifestyle behaviours. However, little is known regarding the extent to which MCH nurses promote obesity prevention practices and how such practices could be better supported. Methods This mixed methods study involved a survey of 56 MCH nurses (response ra...

  9. Conceptualizing childhood health problems using survey data: a comparison of key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Anton R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many definitions are being used to conceptualize child health problems. With survey data, commonly used indicators for identifying children with health problems have included chronic condition checklists, measures of activity limitations, elevated service use, and health utility thresholds. This study compares these different indicators in terms of the prevalence rates elicited, and in terms of how the subgroups identified differ. Methods Secondary data analyses used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Canadian children (n = 13,790. Descriptive analyses compared healthy children to those with health problems, as classified by any of the key indicators. Additional analyses examined differences between subgroups of children captured by a single indicator and those described as having health problems by multiple indicators. Results This study demonstrates that children captured by any of the indicators had poorer health than healthy children, despite the fact that over half the sample (52.2% was characterized as having a health problem by at least one indicator. Rates of child ill health differed by indicator; 5.6% had an activity limitation, 9.2% exhibited a severe health difficulty, 31.7% reported a chronic condition, and 36.6% had elevated service use. Further, the four key indicators captured different types of children. Indicator groupings differed on child and socio-demographic factors. Compared to children identified by more than one indicator, those identified only by the severe health difficulty indicator displayed more cognitive problems (p Conclusion We provide information useful to researchers when selecting indicators from survey data to identify children with health problems. Researchers and policy makers need to be aware of the impact of such definitions on prevalence rates as well as on the composition of children classified as

  10. Can family pediatricians in Italy identify child abuse? A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Lucia; Gibelli, Daniele; Giannotta, Federica; Zocchi, Maria T; Rossi, Roberto C; Kustermann, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of the concept of child abuse has radically changed the mode of interaction between pediatricians and children, but also the practice of sanitary personnel in primary care centers, who are often the first to see victims of maltreatment. This study aims at illustrating the results of a questionnaire sent to family doctors, pediatricians and hospitals in Milan and surrounding areas concerning child abuse. Among all the operators, 273 returned the questionnaires. The results show scarce knowledge on how to report to judicial authority in cases of child abuse (51.5%), mainly because of lack of basilar information concerning the manner of reporting. For what concerns specific training, almost half the subjects recruited for the study admitted not to have attended any congress or meeting concerning child maltreatment in the last three years. In the same time span, more than one third has not read any scientific articles concerning child abuse. In addition, 75.6% admit to not ever having attended any professional training course concerning child maltreatment. This study highlights the scarce knowledge on the behalf of pediatricians and general practitioners regarding how to deal with child abuse and the importance of proper training programs. PMID:27176667

  11. The influence of Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) program on community pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal S; Hobson, Wendy L; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Finneran, Maureen; Varrasso, Denia A; Keller, David

    2014-01-01

    The CATCH (Community Access to Child Health) Program, which supports pediatricians who engage with the community to improve child health, increase access to health care, and promote advocacy through small seed grants, was last evaluated in 1998. The objective was to describe the characteristics of CATCH grant recipients and projects and assess the community impact of funded projects. Prospective data was collected from CATCH applications (grantee characteristics, topic area and target population for projects funded from 2006-2012) and post-project 2-year follow-up survey (project outcomes, sustainability, and impact for projects funded from 2008 through 2010). From 2006 through 2012, the CATCH Program awarded 401 projects to grantees working mostly in general pediatrics. Eighty-five percent of projects targeted children covered by Medicaid, 33% targeted uninsured children, and 75% involved a Latino population. Main topic areas addressed were nutrition, access to health care, and medical home. Sixty-nine percent of grantees from 2008 to 2010 responded to the follow-up survey. Ninety percent reported completing their projects, and 86% of those projects continued to exist in some form. Grantees reported the development of community partnerships (77%) and enhanced recognition of child health issues in the community (73%) as the most frequent changes due to the projects. The CATCH Program funds community-based projects led by pediatricians that address the medical home and access to care. A majority of these projects and community partnerships are sustained beyond their original CATCH funding and, in many cases, are leveraged into additional financial or other community support. PMID:24323996

  12. Impact of information and communication technology on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eugenia Hc; White, Peter; Lai, Christopher Wk

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a general framework for understanding the use of information and communication technology in education and discusses the impact of computer usage on students' health and development. Potential beneficial and harmful effects of computer use by children are discussed. Early epidemiological and laboratory studies have indicated that children are at least of similar risk of developing musculoskeletal and vision problems as adults, and musculoskeletal and visual health problems developed in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood. This article, therefore, aims to provide a reflection on the deficits of existing policy and recommendations for child-specific guidelines in computer use. PMID:27333844

  13. Child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the UK National Health Service: an historical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rous, Elizabeth; Clark, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review developed from a discussion with the late Professor Richard Harrington about interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health services (CAMHS) that lacked an evidence base. Our aim is to investigate the literature for signs that child psychoanalysis is a declining paradigm within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the United Kingd...

  14. 76 FR 69747 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Special Emphasis Panel; Infertility Treatment, Child Growth and Development to age Three Years... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  15. 77 FR 24964 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... at every study visit contact from the time that the enrolled child is 6 months of age to the time the child is 5 years of age. 30-Month Data Collection Module: We propose piloting an age- specific module... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  16. [Reflections on the development of maternal and child health in public health nursing in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Ching

    2014-06-01

    Continued global economic difficulties and Taiwan's health insurance scheme have focused the domestic healthcare system excessively on medical treatments and made this system overly market-oriented. The NHI (national health insurance) Reimbursement Policy lacks adequate flexibility to adjust to current health needs. The situation constrains the medical service budget and causes nursing shortages in hospitals, which in turn marginalizes the public health nurses working at health centers. It is important for the government and professional associations to establish a public healthcare model that adequately meets the needs of the community. In addition to strengthening the role and function of public health nurses, a service model must be developed and piloted. This paper analyzes the situation and problem of maternal and child healthcare in Taiwan, studies the successful experiences of maternal and child healthcare from other counties, and then provides recommendations for the future development of public health nursing in Taiwan. PMID:24899555

  17. Child labour in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Some lessons drawn from a survey on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Song Ntamack

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although child labour is a phenomenon widely studied around the world, there are few papers that tackle the problem in Cameroon. The objective of this paper is to fill the gap by questioning the subject in Yaoundé, the capital city. But child labour phenomenon is analysed here from a questionnaire that has two distinctive features: (i the questionnaire is exclusively devoted to child labour, and (ii all the participants in the survey are exclusively children themselves. No adult (parent, guardian, elder, employer, etc. was consulted and given a chance to answer on behalf of a child. This process is extremely rare in child labour, since in general individuals other than children are requested to testify and answer inslead of children. While some results obtained from a standard Logit model on the determinant of child labour are well known, the others are either not known or insignificant. We suspect that the reason is the data collection.

  18. Recording actions to prevent child morbidity in children's health cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Daniele de Souza; Santos, Nathanielly Cristina Carvalho de Brito; Costa, Dayse Kalyne Gomes da; Pereira, Mayara de Melo; Vaz, Elenice Maria Cecchetti; Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the registering of preventative actions in relation to child morbidity using information regarding vaccinations, as well as iron and vitamin A supplements, which are recorded in children's health cards. This transversal study used a quantitative approach and was performed in Family Health Units in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba; the sampling was by convenience and totaled 116 children's health cards. The data was collected by observing the cards and the analysis was simple, statistical. The highest percentage of children had their vaccination cards up to date (92.2%) and those that did not were aged between 6 and 12 months: 78.9% of the cards did not have records relating to iron and vitamin A supplements and others only had records of one of the supplements being administered. The vaccination status of children in the first year of life was found to be satisfactory; however, discrepancies were observed in the recordings of the administration of iron and vitamin A supplements, which complicates monitoring performed by child health care professionals. It is hoped that this study will contribute to discussions and strategies aimed at improving the monitoring and recording of micronutrients in children's health cards. PMID:27383363

  19. When do parents and child health professionals agree on child’s psychosocial problems? Cross-sectional study on parent–child health professional dyads

    OpenAIRE

    Crone, Mathilde R; Zeijl, Elke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background About one third of all parents have concerns about their child’s psychosocial development. Agreement between child health professionals (CHPs) and parents about such concerns may improve treatment adherence and outcomes. This study investigates which child, parenting and/or environmental stressors are associated with (dis)agreement in concerns regarding psychosocial problems in children, in parent-CHP dyads. Methods During routine child health assessments, data were collected from ...

  20. Child Health and Young Adult Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14482

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Stabile, Mark; Manivong, Phongsack; Roos, Leslie L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown a strong connection between birth weight and future child outcomes. But this research has not asked how insults to child health after birth affect long-term outcomes, whether health at birth matters primarily because it predicts future health or through some other mechanism, or whether health insults matter more at some…

  1. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 to 2014. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  2. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victimschild advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS. PMID:26602155

  3. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  4. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  5. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercilene T Machisa

    Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and

  6. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.I.E. Staal; J.M.A. Hermanns; A.J.P. Schrijvers; H.F. van Stel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional j

  7. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric dis...

  8. [QOL research in child health. Present state and issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Makiko; Umeno, Yuko; Kato, Noriko

    2006-11-01

    The evaluation of QOL (Quality of Life) in the medical field has revolved around the development of self-measurement scales comprising two or more questions based on psychometric theory. QOL research in the field of child health progressed in the latter half of the 80s in the United States, and aspects of ambiguity and adaptation to the environment of children were recognized. Objective health and subjective health differ significantly among children and are strongly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, QOL in early life anticipates the later health status in adolescence and youth. For these reasons, QOL research in the field of child health is very important. More than 20 scales, exemplified by CHQ, PedsQL, TACQOL/TAPQOL, and COOP charts, exist as standard generic QOL indices for children. Disease-specific scales cover epilepsy, asthma, and allergic disease, as discussed in a number of early studies. Diabetes, skin disease, and cancer are also major research subjects. Self-evaluation is one of the principles of QOL research; it is stated that children in the age group of 5-6 years are already capable of expressing pain and their physical condition and that the competency to describe abstract concepts such as pride and happiness matures around the age of 9-10 years. Sources of information such as the computer have developed and spread remarkably in recent years. The use of such technology facilitates the evaluation of young children with a high level of accuracy. The problems currently faced are the low reliability of responses of children, difficulties in cross-cultural comparison, and transformation of the sense of values according to growth. In conclusion, the development of QOL research in the field of child health should allow realization of an improved health situation in which children's points of view are included in the decision-making process for required treatments and health care policy. Further, health administration can be expected to

  9. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:27294412

  10. Population Health Considerations for Pediatric Asthma: Findings from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Byrd, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a prevalent and costly chronic condition. Optimal management enables secondary and tertiary prevention. The goal was to identify population health considerations for pediatric asthma in California to inform the development of quality improvement interventions. California Health Interview Survey 2011-2012 is a random-digit dial telephone survey conducted in 5 languages. It includes 44,000 households from all 58 counties in California. This study assessed factors related to symptom control and health care use in children ages 2-11 years with asthma. An estimated 492,385 (9.6%) of children in California currently have asthma. Urban and rural residents face comparable asthma disease burdens. School-age male children as well as Asian and African American children are disproportionately affected. Asthma causes significant morbidity, with poorer health status, high utilization of emergency care, and the need for daily medication use. Only 38% of children with asthma have a recent asthma management plan. Half of all children with asthma did not receive influenza immunization in the past year, although this reflects the overall low rate of influenza vaccination. Parents of children with asthma frequently utilize the Internet for health information and communication with their child's health care provider. Children with asthma in California face several population-level challenges, including poor health status, low influenza vaccination rates, high use of emergency care, and suboptimal use of health literacy tools. Focusing on improved care coordination and preventive care for high-risk groups is especially urgent given the expansion of public health insurance and impending shortages in the primary care workforce. (Population Health Management 2016;19:145-151). PMID:26103063

  11. Nurse prescribing in mental health: national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobel-Ober, D; Brimblecombe, N; Bradley, E

    2010-08-01

    Mental health nurses can now train to become independent prescribers as well as supplementary prescribers. Independent nurse prescribing can potentially help to reorganize mental health services, increase access to medicines and improve service user information, satisfaction and concordance. However, mental health nursing has been slow to undertake prescribing roles, and there has been little work conducted to look at where nurse prescribing is proving successful, and those areas where it is less so. This survey was designed to collect information from directors of nursing in mental health trusts about the numbers of mental health prescribers in England, gather views about prescribing in practice, and elicit intentions with regards to the development of nurse prescribing. In some Trusts, the number of mental health nurse prescribers has increased to the point where wider impacts on workforce, the configuration of teams and services are inevitable. Currently, the way that prescribing is used within different organizations, services and teams varies and it is unclear which setting is most appropriate for the different modes of prescribing. Future work should focus on the impact of mental health nurse prescribing on service delivery, as well as on service users, colleagues and nurses themselves. PMID:20633075

  12. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. 陕西省2009年妇幼保健机构人力资源调查分析%Survey on human resources of maternal and child health institutions in Shaanxi province in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盘; 甘露; 周晓娟; 杨伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the composition and distribution of human resources in maternal and child health ( MCH ) institutions below the municipal level ( including the municipal level) in Shaanxi province, so as to provide evidence for government departments in making human resources training plan and configuration for MCH institutions. Methods The cross-sectional method was adopted. The data from National MCH institutions management information network report system in Shaanxi municipal institutions and the level below in 2009 was collected to analyze the educational background, professional title and personnel allocation and the distribution status at three levels by SPSS 13.0 software. Results Professional health workers were lacked in many of MCH institutions in Shaanxi province. There were 14 institutions with less than 10 health workers, accounting for 11. 97% . The allocation of various ranks was irrational, and the proportion of physicians and registered nurses was 1. 47:1. The professional titles of health workers were relatively low, and there were 279 workers with senior titles accounting for 4. 59% , 1816 with intermediate titles accounting for 29. 88% , and 3 982 with lower titles accounting for 65. 53%. The educational background of administrative personnel in MCH institutions was low. There were 6 with master' s degree, 93 with undergraduate diploma and 238 with junior college degree, accounting for 1.78% , 27. 60% and 70. 62% , respectively. The specialty of most presidents ( directors ) was not MCH specialty, and only 18 were specialized in it, accounting for 15. 38%. The above phenomena were prominent in county MCH institutions. Conclusion The current situation of human resources in municipal MCH institutions and below the municipal level in Shaanxi province should arouse the attention of relevant administrative departments and social organizations. Personnel ration should be increased by training health professional and technical personnel and

  3. Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health care coverage in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing inequitable coverage of maternal and child health care services among different socioeconomic strata of population and across states is an important part of India's contemporary health program. This has wide implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal targets. Objective: This paper assesses the inequity in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH care services across household wealth quintiles in India and its states. Design: Utilizing the District Level Household and Facility Survey conducted during 2007–08, this paper has constructed a Composite Coverage Index (CCI in MNCH care. Results: The mean overall coverage of 45% was estimated at the national level, ranging from 31% for the poorest to 60% for the wealthiest quintile. Moreover, a massive state-wise difference across wealth quintiles was observed in the mean overall CCI. Almost half of the Indian states and union territories recorded a =50% coverage in MNCH care services, which demands special attention. Conclusion: India needs focused efforts to address the inequity in coverage of health care services by recognising or defining underserved people and pursuing well-planned time-oriented health programs committed to ameliorate the present state of MNCH care.

  4. The Influence of Child and Parent Health Literacy Status on Health Outcomes from a Childhood Obesity Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Kamilan Aurielle

    2016-01-01

    While limited health literacy has been associated with poorer health decisions and poorer health outcomes, there remains a gap in the literature related to the influence of health literacy on weight and weight-related behaviors. The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of child and parent health literacy status on childs body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors, within an adapted evidence-based family-based childhood obesity intervention, iChoose, implemented in the medical...

  5. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse. PMID:18064973

  6. Literature survey: health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was originally written as a chapter of a report entitled 'Air pollution effects of electric power generation, a literature survey', written jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Institutt for Atomenergi (IFA). (INIS RN242406). A survey is presented of the health effects of radiation. It has not, however, been the intention of the authors to make a complete list of all the literature relevant to this subject. The NILU/IFA report was meant as a first step towards a method of comparing the health effects of electric power generation by fission, gas and oil. Consequently information relevant to quantification of the health effects on humans has been selected. It is pointed out that quantitative information on the health effects of low radiation and dose rates, as are relevant to routine releases, does not exist for humans. The convention of linear extrapolation from higher doses and dose rates is used worldwide, but it is felt by most that the estimates are conservative. As an example of the use of the current best estimates, a calculation of normal release radiation doses is performed. (Auth.)

  7. Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo

    Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate....... If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family....... In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University...

  8. Political conflict, child mental health, and cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    Jürges, Hendrik; Schwarz, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Children living in the occupied Palestinian territories are exposed to poverty as well as continued physical and psychological violence and human rights violations, leading to low levels of mental health compared to children in Western countries. We use test score and survey data on approximately 4,000 students in grades 5 to 9 in the West Bank to study the effect of poor mental health on cognitive development. We show that low cognitive test scores are significantly linked with measures of m...

  9. Prioritizing Child Health Interventions in Ethiopia: Modeling Impact on Child Mortality, Life Expectancy and Inequality in Age at Death

    OpenAIRE

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Tessema, Solomon; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 1...

  10. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Corsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. Results: At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: −43.2, −14.7 after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP. At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82–0.90 after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. Conclusions: MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. PDF for Healthcare and Child Health Data Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Alan E; Schneider, Joseph H; Miller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    PDF-H is a new best practices standard that uses XFA forms and embedded JavaScript to combine PDF forms with XML data. Preliminary experience with AAP child health forms shows that the combination of PDF with XML is a more effective method to visualize familiar data on paper and the web than the traditional use of XML and XSLT. Both PDF-H and HL7 Clinical Document Architecture can co-exist using the same data for different display formats. PMID:18999257

  12. Child Physical Abuse : Characteristics, Prevalence, Health and Risk‐taking

    OpenAIRE

    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. Th...

  13. Status report on maternal and child health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, S R; Moore, M L

    1995-06-01

    The health of pregnant women and children has improved substantially since the 1960s. In the past decade, however, progress in preventing infant deaths, reducing the incidence of low-birth-weight infants, and ensuring first trimester prenatal care has slowed. African-American infants suffer a significantly higher risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Immunization rates for preschoolers remain low. Changing social conditions including a rising child poverty rate, a high teenage birth rate, an increased rate of births to unmarried women, and higher levels of unintended pregnancy may be contributing to stalled progress. PMID:7745540

  14. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  15. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  16. Quality of Health Management Information System for Maternal & Child Health Care in Haryana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Prinja, Shankar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite increasing importance being laid on use of routine data for decision making in India, it has frequently been reported to be riddled with problems. Evidence suggests lack of quality in the health management information system (HMIS), however there is no robust analysis to assess the extent of its inaccuracy. We aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the extent of completeness and quality of HMIS in Haryana state of India. Methods Data on utilization of key maternal and child health (MCH) services were collected using a cross-sectional household survey from 4807 women in 209 Sub-Centre (SC) areas across all 21 districts of Haryana state. Information for same services was also recorded from HMIS records maintained by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) at SCs to check under- or over-recording (Level 1 discordance). Data on utilisation of MCH services from SC ANM records, for a subset of the total women covered in the household survey, were also collected and compared with monthly reports submitted by ANMs to assess over-reporting while report preparation (Level 2 discordance) to paint the complete picture for quality and completeness of routine HMIS. Results Completeness of ANM records for various MCH services ranged from 73% for DPT1 vaccination dates to 94.6% for dates of delivery. Average completeness level for information recorded in HMIS was 88.5%. Extent of Level 1 discordance for iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation, 3 or more ante-natal care (ANC) visits and 2 Tetanus toxoid (TT) injections was 41%, 16% and 2% respectively. In 48.2% cases, respondents from community as well as HMIS records reported at least one post-natal care (PNC) home visit by ANM. Extent of Level 2 discordance ranged from 1.6% to 6%. These figures were highest for number of women who completed IFA supplementation, contraceptive intra-uterine device insertion and provision of 2nd TT injection during ANC. Conclusions HMIS records for MCH services at sub-centre level

  17. FAMILY AWARENESS OF LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ON CHILD WITH CEREBRAL PALSY: CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana J. Rathod

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A disability is restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. The prevalence of disability is 7 per 1000 live births in India. 20% are not aware about the legal issues for person with disability in developing countries. It has never received adequate attention from society. Ignorance, lack of awareness and lack of knowledge make the disability invisible. Most of the authorities appointed the legislation are not fully functional.This study was to find out family awareness of legal rights of person with disability to ensure dignity and legal rights. 224 legal adult family members were surveyed through schedule method with a questionnaire about disability and acts (Person with disability act, mental health act, united nation convention of person with disability and national trust act of Indian constitution including awareness. The questionnaire consisting of 20 questions about these acts were content validated for these purpose. The data were analyzed by using percentage values to make interpretation. Out of 224 surveyed 72.32% (162 did not know about the Indian constitution for disabled people. Remaining 27.67% (62 knew about the acts and only 11.60% were getting benefitted from such acts. Family awareness about legislation in child with disability is less and needs immediate attention to improve quality of life and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.

  18. Child & Adolescent Mental Health Services - first annual report 2008

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-10-01

    This Annual Report provides the first comprehensive survey carried out on community CAMHS teams and includes preliminary data collected by The Health Research Board on the admission of young people under the age of 18 years to inpatient mental health facilities. As many measures in this report do not have historic comparators it provides a baseline foundation that will be built upon in subsequent years providing an indication of trends that cannot yet be drawn on the basis of this report. The next report will include day hospital, liaison and inpatient services. Subsequent reports will further extend the mapping of mental health services for young people.

  19. 76 FR 13650 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  20. 78 FR 13359 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 75 FR 61765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ``Reproductive Panel''. Date: November 3-5... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 77 FR 12601 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  3. 78 FR 47328 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  4. 78 FR 6127 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  5. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  6. 78 FR 37232 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  7. 76 FR 64092 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  8. 77 FR 58854 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  9. 78 FR 11658 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  10. 77 FR 52338 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...., Deputy Director, Eunice Kenney Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 76 FR 72957 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  12. 77 FR 17080 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  13. 78 FR 21382 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 75 FR 36662 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  15. 76 FR 18566 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 71986 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD 20852... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  17. 78 FR 23771 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Institute, of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  18. 78 FR 48880 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  19. 78 FR 23772 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  20. 78 FR 11660 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health, and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 76 FR 71985 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 78 FR 4855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  3. 77 FR 12599 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  4. 76 FR 13649 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  5. 78 FR 17419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  6. 75 FR 36661 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  7. 76 FR 77544 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  8. 77 FR 12604 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  9. 77 FR 52337 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  10. 76 FR 13651 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 76 FR 11801 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  12. 75 FR 65496 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  13. 77 FR 58855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  14. 78 FR 60294 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as..., Program Analyst, National Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...

  15. 76 FR 11800 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  16. 75 FR 66771 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  17. 76 FR 59708 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  18. 75 FR 5603 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  19. 76 FR 37132 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  20. 75 FR 54890 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 76 FR 49780 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 76 FR 20358 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  3. 76 FR 59415 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  4. 75 FR 5602 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  5. 75 FR 18217 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  6. 76 FR 59707 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  7. 75 FR 8979 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  8. 76 FR 58283 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive ] Blvd... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  9. 76 FR 59709 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  10. 75 FR 8978 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  11. 75 FR 54891 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  12. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  13. 76 FR 40738 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive...

  14. 77 FR 19676 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  15. 76 FR 65516 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD...

  16. 77 FR 61419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  17. 77 FR 37421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  18. 78 FR 12767 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  19. 75 FR 10491 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  20. 75 FR 51827 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  1. 75 FR 12244 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  2. 77 FR 37424 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (703)...

  3. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...

  4. 76 FR 40737 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  5. 75 FR 4577 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  6. 75 FR 55807 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01,...

  7. 75 FR 12243 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd. Room 5B01, Bethesda,...

  8. 76 FR 19999 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  9. 75 FR 34457 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., National Institute of Child Health, And Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01,...

  10. 77 FR 61418 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD...

  11. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  12. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health... contact person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in...

  13. Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Joanne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively California Women's Health Survey (CWHS, a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mental health (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress, were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted. When adult mental health and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mental health status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mental health symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.

  14. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhago George M; Ngalesoni Frida N; Norheim Ole F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortal...

  15. Health literacy and child health promotion: implications for research, clinical care, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lee M; Shaw, Judith S; Guez, Ghislaine; Baur, Cynthia; Rudd, Rima

    2009-11-01

    The nation's leading sources of morbidity and health disparities (eg, preterm birth, obesity, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, mental health disorders, and cancer) require an evidence-based approach to the delivery of effective preventive care across the life course (eg, prenatal care, primary preventive care, immunizations, physical activity, nutrition, smoking cessation, and early diagnostic screening). Health literacy may be a critical and modifiable factor for improving preventive care and reducing health disparities. Recent studies among adults have established an independent association between lower health literacy and poorer understanding of preventive care information and poor access to preventive care services. Children of parents with higher literacy skills are more likely to have better outcomes in child health promotion and disease prevention. Adult studies in disease prevention have suggested that addressing health literacy would be an efficacious strategy for reducing health disparities. Future initiatives to reduce child health inequities should include health-promotion strategies that meet the health literacy needs of children, adolescents, and their caregivers. PMID:19861485

  16. Infant and Young Child Feeding: a Key area to Improve Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.

  17. AN OPHTHALMIC HEALTH SURVEY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Moradpour

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Rudsar is located in the Caspian littoral zone of Iran. In 1970 an ophthalmic health survey was carried out in 25 units, which were selected by random sampling in these areas. A total of 2,165 persons were examined and the results of this evaluation have been prepared in 6 parts, consisting of ophthalmic conditions and health customs, infectious eye diseases, visual status and diseases, blindness and its causes, eye complications of malnutrition, and other eye disease. The prevalence of trachoma is 24% and of conjunctivitis 11.2%, but infectious eye diseases are mild in these areas and their complications are very rare, and trachoma is deviated mainly to inclusion conjunctivitis. Visual defect are important problem in the Rudsar area; 17.8% of the persons examined of 10 years of age and over, had visual defects. The most important causes of visual defects are refraction abnor­malities, especially myopic astigmatism and contact. Visual defects are more prevalent in females than in males. Of the total number of persons examined, 2.63% had infectious eye diseases, 2.77% had blindness in at least one eye and 56.7% of the blindness was caused by cataracts. The eye complications of avitaminosis A and ariboflavinosis were observed, especially in rural areas. The establish­ment of an ophthalmic clinic, the use of a mobile dispensary unit for diagnosis, procedures for introducing patients to the ophthalmic clinic, and special procedures for the health of school children would be beneficial and are recommended for the control of ophthalmic disease. It is also necessary to have a special survey on toxoplasmosis, an investigation for clarification of the causes of differences in visual defects in males and females, and a survey on the causes of blepharitis.

  18. Survey report; health needs of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S U

    1989-01-01

    Sustainability of development assistance programs depends greatly on the perceptions of priorities by recipient countries. A written survey was sent by the Catholic University of America's Institute for International Health and Development to 66 ministers of health in low-income and middle-income countries to assess their views of priority problems in health sector development. Response rate was 33%, coming from countries with highly diverse gross national products (GNPs), growth rates, mortality rates and life expectancies. Nevertheless, there was widespread agreement about priorities: 1) meeting costs of health care; 2) improving health care management and administration; and 3) extending communicable disease control. Communicable disease control and child health programs were more important to low-income countries than to middle-income countries. Costs, management and administration and the control of noncommunicable diseases were predicted to increase in importance. In demographics, urbanization, overall population growth and shift of workers from agriculture to industry and services were seen as the major problems of the past, and urbanization and the aging of populations accompanied by increasing life expectancies the major challenges of the future. Highest predicted training needs were for system managers and paramedical personnel. Government budgets, user fees and donor agencies were seen as the most important sources of past funding, with social security systems and fee-based payments increasing in importance in the future. The role of donor agencies would increase as would the need for more responsiveness. Future uncertainties include national economic growth, environmental problems, issues in ethics and changes in disease and technology. PMID:12342422

  19. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  20. Parental investments in child health - maternal health behaviours and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    A growing economic literature has begun to focus on the effect of parental investments in child health in developed countries. However, this literature is not conclusive. Empirical work has concentrated on estimating the effect of a wide set of parental inputs comprising maternal health behaviours...... like smoking, alcohol consumption or diet. As most of these inputs are parental choices and we commonly do not observe all inputs relevant for the child production function, estimates on the effect of health inputs suffer from endogeneity bias. This paper explores the effect of smoking, alcohol...... consumption, exercise and diet during pregnancy on birth outcomes and considers the problem of identifying the causal effect of these endogenous maternal health behaviours. The analysis controls for a wide range of covariates and exploits sibling variation in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The paper...

  1. Maternal and Child Health Data Book: The Health of America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dana; And Others

    This databook describes the status of maternal and child health in America; the nation's progress in reducing infant mortality, low birthweight babies, and the percentage of pregnant women who receive late or no prenatal care; patterns of teenage and out-of-wedlock childbearing; and the extent to which certain safety net programs, such as Aid to…

  2. Pediatric Health Assessments of Young Children in Child Welfare by Placement Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Arnold-Clark, Janet S.; McDaniel, Dawn; Xie, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To describe health-related problems across placement types (unrelated foster, kin foster, in-home with birth parent); to examine the association of placement and demographic/child welfare variables (child gender, age, race/ethnicity; caregiver language; type of maltreatment, and length of time receiving services from child welfare)…

  3. The Knowledge of Staff in Day Nurseries about Some Basic Measures Which Promote Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Suzy S.; Nunes de Melo, Maria Clotildes; Carneiro, Nadya Bustani; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the knowledge that staff in day nurseries in Brazil had of basic measures to promote child health which are connected with high child mortality. These measures included breastfeeding, oral rehydration therapy, child growth follow-up, immunization and the identification of signs that indicate that the child…

  4. Impact of Play Therapy on Parent-Child Relationship Stress at a Mental Health Training Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…

  5. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  6. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is designed to collect information from all specialty mental health facilities in the United States, both public...

  7. Spillover Effects of Maternal Education on Child's Health and Health Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kemptner, Daniel; Marcus, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of maternal education on child's health and health behavior. We draw on a rich German panel data set containing information about three generations. This allows instrumenting maternal education by the number of her siblings while conditioning on grandparental characteristics. The instrumental variables approach has not yet been used in the intergenerational context and works for the sample sizes of common household panels. We find substantial effects on hea...

  8. Reproductive health, and child health and nutrition in India: meeting the challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Vinod Kumar; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Mavalankar, Dileep; Ramachandran, Prema; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhandari, Nita; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan; Govil, Dipti; Osrin, David; Kirkwood, Betty

    2011-01-01

    India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and...

  9. Leadership for child health in the developing countries of the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Subhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership.

  10. Association of Maternal and Child Health Center (Posyandu Availability with Child Weight Status in Indonesia: A National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Andriani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237. Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21 and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93–1.07. This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.13, respectively. There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life.

  11. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Goel; Sartaj Ahmad; Rahul Bansal; Pawan Parashar; Bhawna Pant; Parul Goel

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environm...

  12. Barriers to accessing health care in Nigeria: implications for child survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A. Adedini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existing studies indicate that about one in every six children dies before age five in Nigeria. While evidence suggests that improved access to adequate health care holds great potential for improved child survival, previous studies indicate that there are substantial barriers to accessing health care in Nigeria. There has not been a systematic attempt to examine the effects of barriers to health care on under-five mortality in Nigeria. This study is designed to address this knowledge gap. Data and method: Data came from a nationally representative sample of 18,028 women (aged 15–49 who had a total of 28,647 live births within the 5 years preceding the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The risk of death in children below age five was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and results are presented as hazards ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: Results indicate higher under-five mortality risks for children whose mothers had cultural barriers and children whose mothers had resource-related barriers to health care (HR: 1.44, CI: 1.32–1.57, p<0.001, and those whose mothers had physical barriers (HR: 1.13, CI: 1.04–1.24, p<0.001, relative to children whose mothers reported no barriers. Barriers to health care remained an important predictor of child survival even after adjusting for the effects of possible confounders. Conclusion: Findings of this study stressed the need for improved access to adequate health care in Nigeria through the elimination of barriers to access. This would enable the country to achieve a significant reduction in childhood mortality.

  13. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  14. Analysis of selected social determinants of health and their relationships with maternal health service coverage and child mortality in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving a fair and equitable distribution of health in the population while progressing toward universal health coverage (UHC is a key focus of health policy in Vietnam. This paper describes health barriers experienced by women (and children by inference in Vietnam, and measures how UHC, with reference to maternal health services and child mortality rates, is affected by selected social determinants of health (SDH, termed ‘barriers’. Methods: Our study uses a cross-sectional design with data from the 2011 Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The study sample includes 11,663 women, aged 15–49 years. Weighted frequency statistics are cross-tabulated with socioeconomic characteristics of the population to describe the extent and distribution of health barriers experienced by disadvantaged women and children in Vietnam. A subset of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years (n=1,383 was studied to assess the impact of barriers to UHC and health. Six multiple logistic regressions were run using three dependent variables in the previous two years: 1 antenatal care, 2 skilled birth attendants, and 3 child death in the previous 15 years. Independent predictor variables were: 1 low education (incomplete secondary education, 2 lack of access to one of four basic amenities. In a second set of regressions, a constructed composite barrier index replaced these variables. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were used to report regression results. Results: In Vietnam, about 54% of women aged 15–49 years in 2011, had low education or lacked access to one of four basic amenities. About 38% of poor rural women from ethnic minorities experienced both barriers, compared with less than 1% of rich urban women from the ethnic majority. Incomplete secondary education or lack of one of four basic amenities was a factor significantly associated with lower access to skilled birth attendants (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14

  15. Assessing the potential of rural and urban private facilities in implementing child health interventions in Mukono district, central Uganda–a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Buregyeya, Esther; Lal, Sham; Clarke, Sîan E.; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal; LaRussa, Philip; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2016-01-01

    Background Private facilities are the first place of care seeking for many sick children. Involving these facilities in child health interventions may provide opportunities to improve child welfare. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of rural and urban private facilities in diagnostic capabilities, operations and human resource in the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea. Methods A survey was conducted in pharmacies, private clinics and drug shops in Mukono dist...

  16. Parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for their child: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migeot Virginie

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the Internet to seek health information is becoming more common. Its consequences on health care utilisation are hardly known in the general population, in particular among children whose parents seek health information on the Internet. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for their child. Methods This cross-sectional survey has been carried out in a population of parents of pre-school children in France. The main outcome measure was the self-reported number of primary care consultations for the child, according to parental use of the Internet to seek health information, adjusted for the characteristics of the parents and their child respectively, and parental use of other health information sources. Results A total of 1 068 out of 2 197 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 49%. No association was found between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and the number of consultations within the last 12 months for their child. Variables related to the number of primary care consultations were characteristics of the child (age, medical conditions, homeopathic treatment, parental characteristics (occupation, income, stress level and consultation of other health information sources (advice from pharmacist, relatives. Conclusion We did not find any relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for children. The Internet seems to be used as a supplement to health services rather than as a replacement.

  17. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 1997 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  18. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2003 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  19. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2000 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  20. Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006 Cohort

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...

  1. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; Stel, van, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK ...

  2. Evaluation of Maternal Health Component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II Programme in Beed District, Maharashtra, India 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar Nipte,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Situation analysis of Reproductive and Child Health programme of Government of India in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India indicated lack of achievement of targeted maternal health indicators. Evaluation of the utilization of maternal health services component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II programme in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India was undertaken. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey in the rural area of Beed district using cluster sampling method was conducted. The information about the utilization of maternal health services was collected from mothers who delivered between 1st April and 30th June 2013. A facility survey using pre tested check list was undertaken. Analysis of the data using Epi Info Version 3.5.3 and proportion for selected maternal health care indicators were calculated. Results: Out of the 374 mothers included in the study, 122 (33.0% had registered within first trimester of pregnancy; nearly 50% had received more than three antenatal care (ANC visits and 90% had institutional delivery. Of the 70 mothers, who made phone call for ambulance service, 56 (80% utilized ambulance from their residence to the hospitals. Of the 183 mothers who delivered in Government hospitals, 103 (56.3% utilized it to reach home from hospitals after delivery. Of the eligible women, 96 (76.2% were registered for Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY scheme of the Government and 67 (69.8% received the benefit. In all 46 (16.4% Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs were trained as Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA. Of the 22 facilities, 14 (63.6% had delivery kits and in 6 (27.3% facilities maternal health services were monitored by medical officers. Conclusion: The utilization of maternal health care services and knowledge and implementation regarding JSY Scheme and ambulance service utilization among mothers was less than desirable. The coverage of training of ANMs as SBA was low. Provision of antenatal services in

  3. Mother and child health project in Bragin district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    constituted 4.5 % (668 cases) in 2001 already 5.5 % (806 cases) from the total number of the children born. Further problems are:predominance of stationary assistance in primary health care; absence of interdisciplinary approach and of decentralization of medical treatment; lack of the main kinds of equipment, spare materials and medications, which are necessary for providing medical treatment; difficulty for rural population in accessing the available medical services: long distances, absence of information, low interaction with medical personnel; low sanitary culture among women (contraceptives are not used, the cases of unwanted pregnancies occur very often, STD problems, late notification of the doctor when the child is getting ill); giving birth to children as a means of getting state subsidy. In the framework of technical cooperation SDC supported Gomel' regional hospital some years ago with equipment for mother and child health care. The equipment (incubators, CO2 monitors) donated in 1996 to the delivery department and department for rehabilitation and intensive therapy are still in use and in good condition. This maternity hospital provides help to women from the Gomel' area with the most serious and difficult complications during the period of pregnancy. Sixty or seventy women come to this regional hospital from Bragin district every year, and it makes 40-50% of the whole number of deliveries in the district Bragin district in the very south of the Gomel area is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus, where people still settle, hi order to help in solving the existing problems SDC in cooperation with local authorities is developing a mother and child health project for Bragin district. The aim of the project is to support and build up primary health care structures in the field of mother and child health. The duration of the project will be three years. The project consists of the following parts: community approach strategy to disseminate health messages on

  4. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 16, Number 2. March-April 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  5. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  6. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 21, Number 1. January-February 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Turner, Debra, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  7. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 18, Number 4. July-August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  8. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 2, March-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  9. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 21, Number 3, May-June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  10. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 17, Number 2. March-April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  11. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 18, Number 1. January-February 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  12. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 19, Number 3, May-June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  13. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 19, Number 2, March-April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  14. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 18, Number 2. March-April 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  15. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 20, Number 4. July-August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  16. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 20, Number 6, November-December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  17. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  18. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 18, Number 6. November-December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  19. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 3, May-June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  20. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 16, Number 4. July-August 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  1. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 21, Number 6. November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  2. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 5, September-October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  3. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 19, Number 4, July-August 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  4. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 21, Number 2. March-April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  5. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 1, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  6. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 17, Number 1. January-February 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  7. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 21, Number 4, July-August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  8. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 16, Number 3. May-June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  9. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 20, Number 2, March-April 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  10. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 20, Number 3, May-June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  11. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  12. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 19, Number 1. January-February 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  13. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 19, Number 5, September-October 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  14. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 16, Number 1. January-February 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  15. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 20, Number 1. January-February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  16. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 16, Number 5. September-October 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Jensen, Susan, Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  17. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 17, Number 3. May-June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  18. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 20, Number 5, September-October 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  19. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 17, Number 6. November-December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  20. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  1. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 4, July-August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  2. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 17, Number 5. September-October 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  3. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 19, Number 6, November-December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  4. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 18, Number 5. September-October 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  5. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 2, March-April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  6. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 16, Number 6. November-December 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Jensen, Susan, Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  7. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 17, Number 4. July-August 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith Ed.; Lucich, Mardi, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  8. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 18, Number 3. May-June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Walsh, Eileen, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  9. 75 FR 32488 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Child Health and Human Development ] Special Emphasis Panel, Maintenance of Child Health and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory...

  10. Lessons Learned From the Whole Child and Coordinated School Health Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K.; Valois, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. METHODS The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and organizations, was reviewed and synthesized to describe (1) the historical context for CSH and a whole child approach, and (2) lessons learned from the imple...

  11. Diagnosis of maternal and child health situation in the municipality of Tanque do Piauí-PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Sousa Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the diagnosis of maternal and child health in the city of Tanque do Piauí-PI. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study using epidemiological survey by downloading the database for the years of 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the Ministry of Health official systems. The variables analyzed were: demographic and socioeconomic indicators; mortality; morbidity and risk factors; resource and coverage; and SISPRENATAL indicators. Results: With the results, the main epidemiological measures for the municipality were observed, especially regarding maternal and child health situation. It was noted a situation of social vulnerability, with high rates of illiteracy, precarious basic sanitation conditions, high rates of teenage pregnancy and cesarean deliveries, infant mortality and low birth weight rates in significant proportion, and inefficient supply of information systems. Conclusion: An increase in the maternal mortality rate, the percentage of teenage pregnancy, and in the number of low birth weight infants and cesarean deliveries has been verified.

  12. NATIONAL HEALTH INTERVIEW SURVEY ON DISABILITY - (NHIS-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Health Interview Survey-Disability Survey was developed to collect data that can be used to understand disability, to develop public health policy, to produce simple prevalence estimates of selected health conditions, and to provide descriptive baseline statistics on the...

  13. 75 FR 17150 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  14. 76 FR 64091 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  15. 78 FR 17421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  16. 77 FR 8271 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  17. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1 DSG-H 53 1. Date: April 16-17... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  18. 75 FR 71449 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A50,...

  19. 78 FR 54255 - Single-Case Deviation From Competition Requirements: Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Bureau's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Requirements: Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Bureau's Research Network on Pregnancy-Related Care Program..., Diabetes during pregnancy, Obesity, Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy); Studies based on newly or soon-to-be...); Studies that assess the maternal-child health workforce (e.g., Racial and gender differences in...

  20. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  1. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  2. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  3. Caregivers' Endorsement of Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrana, Margarita; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (birth parents, relative caregivers, and foster parents), an active child welfare case, caregivers' endorsement of barriers to mental health services and mental health service use by caregivers for the children under their care. The…

  4. Mental Health Screening in Child Care: Impact of a Statewide Training Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Boothe, Allison; Keyes, Angela; Rice, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Child care settings may provide an optimal setting for identification of early childhood mental health problems. However, little is known about child care providers' attitudes or knowledge about screening for children's mental health problems. Both attitudes and perceived knowledge could affect the successful implementation of mental health…

  5. 77 FR 58855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Child Health Research Career Development Award (CHRCDA) Program. Date... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver ] National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  6. 76 FR 40737 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel, Child Health Research Career Development Program. Dates: July 29, 2011... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B0G, MSC 7510,...

  7. Health-e-Child a grid platform for european paediatrics

    CERN Document Server

    Skaburskas, K; Shade, J; Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A; Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D

    2008-01-01

    The Health-e-Child (HeC) project [1], [2] is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite [3] based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integr...

  8. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  9. The development of a survey instrument for community health improvement.

    OpenAIRE

    Bazos, D A; Weeks, W B; Fisher, E S; DeBlois, H A; Hamilton, E; Young, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a survey instrument that could be used both to guide and evaluate community health improvement efforts. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A randomized telephone survey was administered to a sample of about 250 residents in two communities in Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania in the fall of 1997. METHODS: The survey instrument was developed by health professionals representing diverse health care organizations. This group worked collaboratively over a period of two years to (1) selec...

  10. For-Profit/Nonprofit Differences in Center-Based Child Care Quality: Results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…

  11. Clinical psychology and child protection

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Elaine; Carey, Sean; Carr, Alan.

    2000-01-01

    In this 1998 postal survey of 140 clinical psychologists working in eight Health Boards and Voluntary agencies in the Republic of Ireland, it was found that clinical psychologists from child mental health, adult mental health and services for people with physical and intellectual disabilities were involved in child abuse and protection work. Clinical psychologists' child protection work spanned a number of domains including validation, general assessment, risk assessment, treatment of victims...

  12. 42 CFR 68c.1 - What is the scope and purpose of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception and Infertility Research Loan... purpose of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception and... payments under the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception...

  13. Zimbabwe's Child Supplementary Feeding Programme: a re-assessment using household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Lauchian T

    2002-09-01

    In 1992-3 and 1995-6, Zimbabwe used a Child Supplementary Feeding Programme (CSFP) to combat child malnutrition during drought-induced emergencies. Previous evaluations of the CSFP relied on routine administrative data and key informant interviews and made only cursory use of available household survey data. These evaluations concluded that the CSFP was effective in preventing an increase in malnutrition among children under five, especially in 1992-3. The more-detailed analysis of household surveys provided in this article suggests that CSFP coverage was generally patchy and disappointingly low, especially in 1995-6. There is little evidence that children from poor or nutritionally vulnerable households got preferential access to supplementary feeding. The CSFP failed to feed many malnourished and nutritionally vulnerable children even in areas where the programme was operating. Household survey evidence suggests that the CSFP's impact on nutritional status was likely marginal, especially in 1995-6. PMID:12227592

  14. Current situation and issues using maternal and child health-related information in the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign across municipalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ritei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Akiyama, Yuka; Ichikawa, Kaori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsuura, Kencho; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of maternal and child health-related information is an issue faced by the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign, a national campaign to improve the health standards of mothers and children in Japan. This study described the current situation and issues faced by municipalities across Japan that use this information.Methods Data across municipalities selected for the current survey of promoting the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign in 2013 were analyzed in this study. First, we chose prefectures where collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information was provided by the municipalities. Then, we divided the municipalities according to those prefectures where the municipalities regularly reported the maternal and child health-related information and those that did not report it regularly. Finally, the characteristics about maternal and child health in those municipalities were investigated.Results Of the 47 prefectures analyzed, 35 prefectures (74.5%) collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information provided by the municipalities. The 35 prefectures included 1,242 municipalities, of which 700 (56.4%) regularly reported maternal and child health-related information, and 542 (43.6%) did not report it regularly. The proportion of municipalities, where information about smoking during pregnancy, immunization, or low birth weight in infants was positively used, was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it (Pprevention of child abuse or low birth weight in infants with the prefectures was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it.Conclusion Among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information, coordinating projects

  15. Diarrhea and health inequity among Indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Ana Lúcia; Coimbra, Carlos EA; James R. Welch; Bernardo L. Horta; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cardoso, Andrey M

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children under five. In Brazil, mortality due to diarrhea underwent a significant reduction in recent decades principally due to expansion of the primary healthcare network, use of oral rehydration therapy, reduced child undernutrition, and improved access to safe drinking water. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nation...

  16. School based health-education programmes, health-learning capacity and child oral health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, R.; Gibson, B.; Humphris, G.; Leonard, H.; Yuan, S.; Whelton, H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health–related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Method A total of 383, 7- to 8-year-old children were invited to participate and randomly allocated into intervention and co...

  17. Commonalities and challenges: a review of Australian state and territory maternity and child health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Donovan, Jenny; Kruske, Sue; Kemp, Lynn; Homer, Caroline; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-12-01

    Nurses and midwives play a key role in providing universal maternal, child and family health services in Australia. However, the Australian federation of states and territories has resulted in policy frameworks that differ across jurisdictions and services that are fragmented across disciplines and sectors. This paper reports the findings of a study that reviewed and synthesised current Australian service policy or frameworks for maternity and child health services in order to identify the degree of commonality across jurisdictions and the compatibility with international research on child development. Key maternity and child health service policy documents in each jurisdiction were sourced. The findings indicate that current policies were in line with international research and policy directions, emphasising prevention and early intervention, continuity of care, collaboration and integrated services. The congruence of policies suggests the time is right to consider the introduction of a national approach to universal maternal, child health services. PMID:22545909

  18. Integrating mental health screening into routine community maternal and child health activity: experience from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) trial in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Iheanacho, Theddeus; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Nwanyanwu, Okey C.; Ehiri, John E.; Ohaeri, Jude; Echezona E Ezeanolue

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although the prevalence of mental health disorders in Nigeria is comparable to most developed countries, access to mental health care in Nigeria is limited. Improving access to care requires innovative approaches that deliver mental health interventions at the community level. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of integrating mental health screening into an existing community-based program for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV targ...

  19. A health survey of radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A health survey of more than 143,000 radiologic technologists is described. The population was identified from the 1982 computerized files of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, which was established in 1926. Inactive members were traced to obtain current addresses or death notifications. More than 6000 technologists were reported to have died. For all registrants who were alive when located, a detailed 16-page questionnaire was sent, covering occupational histories, medical conditions, and other personal and lifestyle characteristics. Nonrespondents were contacted by telephone to complete an abbreviated questionnaire. More than 104,000 responses were obtained. Most technologists were female (76%), white (93%), and employed for an average of 12 years; 37% attended college, and approximately 50% never smoked cigarettes. Radiation exposure information was sought from employer records and commercial dosimetry companies. Technologists employed for the longest times had the highest estimated cumulative exposures, with approximately 9% with exposures greater than 5 cGy. There was a high correlation between cumulative occupational exposure and personal exposure to medical radiographs, related, in part, to the association of both factors with attained age. It is interesting that 10% of all technologists allowed others to practice taking radiographs on them during their training. Nearly 4% of the respondents reported having some type of cancer, mainly of the skin (1517), breast (665), and cervix (726). Prospective surveys will monitor cancer mortality rates through use of the National Death Index and cancer incidence through periodic mailings of questionnaires. This is the only occupational study of radiation employees who are primarily women and should provide new information on the possible risks associated with relatively low levels of exposure

  20. Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed. PMID:23242696

  1. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  2. Parental Education and Child Health - Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Monasa Aslam; Geeta Kingdon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental schooling on the one hand, and child health outcomes (height and weight) and parental health-seeking behaviour (immunisation status of children), on the other. While establishing a correlational link between parental schooling and child health is relatively straightforward, confirming a causal relationship is more complex. Using unique data from Pakistan, we aim to understand the mechanisms through which parental schooling promotes bet...

  3. Transformation of the Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Michael C.; Lauver, Cassie B.; Dykton, Christopher; Michael D. Kogan; Lawler, Michele H.; Raskin-Ramos, Lauren; Watters, Kathy; Wilson, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the transformation of the Title V Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Services Block Grant. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration led a 21-month visioning process to engage input from MCH stakeholders and other national, state and local MCH leaders, families and other partners to improve, innovate, and transform the Title V MCH Services Block Grant. The process has helped inform the development of a new grant guidance for the...

  4. Child health nurses in the Solomon Islands: lessons for the Pacific and other developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Colquhoun Samantha; Ogaoga Divi; Tamou Mathias; Nasi Titus; Subhi Rami; Duke Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To understand the roles of nurses with advanced training in paediatrics in the Solomon Islands, and the importance of these roles to child health. To understand how adequately equipped child health nurses feel for these roles, to identify the training needs, difficulties and future opportunities. Design Semi-structured interviews. Settings Tertiary hospital, district hospitals and health clinics in the Solomon Islands. Participants Twenty-one paediatric nurses were intervi...

  5. Mental health disorders in child and adolescent survivors of post-war landmine explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati, Mohammad Ali; Shokoohi, Hamid; Masoumi, Mehdi; Khateri, Shahriar; Soroush, Mohammadreza; MODIRIAN, EHSAN; Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, Mahtab; HOSSEINI, Maryam; Mousavi, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe the mental health status of 78 child and adolescent survivors of post-war landmine explosions. Methods Child and adolescent survivors of landmine explosions who were younger than 18 years old at the time of the study were identified and enrolled in this study. The mental health status of the participants was assessed by general health assessment and psychiatric examinations. Psychiatric assessment and diagnosis were undertaken using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual...

  6. Swedish Child Health Care nurses conceptions of overweight in children: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Isma Gabriella E; Bramhagen Ann-Cathrine; Ahlstrom Gerd; Östman Margareta; Dykes Anna-Karin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Registered Sick Children’s Nurses and District Nurses employed at Child Health Care centres are in a position to help prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Prevention of this challenging public health threat could be improved through having a better understanding of how this group of nurses perceives childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the conceptions of childhood overweight, including obesity, among nurses working in Child Health Care. Method A q...

  7. Accessing maternal and child health services in Melbourne, Australia: Reflections from refugee families and service providers

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs Elisha; Davis Elise; Gibbs Lisa; Block Karen; Szwarc Jo; Casey Sue; Duell-Piening Philippa; Waters Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Often new arrivals from refugee backgrounds have experienced poor health and limited access to healthcare services. The maternal and child health (MCH) service in Victoria, Australia, is a joint local and state government operated, cost-free service available to all mothers of children aged 0–6 years. Although well-child healthcare visits are useful in identifying health issues early, there has been limited investigation in the use of these services for families from refug...

  8. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

  9. Eleven years epidemiological investigation health effects among Chernobyl child victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N.; Dukhota, T. [Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1998-07-01

    Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)

  10. Eleven years epidemiological investigation health effects among Chernobyl child victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)

  11. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders. PMID:8782954

  12. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success. PMID:20078824

  13. Child labor handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio C.; Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys many aspects and issues of child labor, including its causes and effects as well as policies associated with it. Child labor has come to be considered an expression of poverty, both a cause and an effect of underdevelopment. Child labor cannot be viewed in isolation from educational, health, fertility, and technological issues; and is not necessarily an aberration but a rational household response to an adverse economic environment. With this in mind, the following proposit...

  14. Associations between intimate partner violence, childcare practices and infant health: Findings from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Child health is significantly poorer in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV). However, a possible link to parental provision of childcare has been neglected. Methods: Utilizing data from Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examined the association between IPV and illness signs in children 0–59 months in Bolivia (n = 3586), Colombia (n = 9955) and Peru (n = 6260), taking into account socio-demographic factors, childcar...

  15. The relevance of U.S. Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child for Child Health: a matter of equity and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is a universally accepted tool to understand the social underpinnings of child health that medicine alone cannot address. Injustices plague U.S. society: Child poverty has been increasing since 2000, and the gap between the wealthiest and poorest is growing. Poverty is a toxic stress on child health and well-being. Three articles from the CRC help frame how to address this: nondiscrimination, the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health and access to health care, and the right to a standard of living adequate for complete development. PMID:21361155

  16. Ethical Issues in Maternal and Child Health Nursing: Challenges Faced By Maternal and Child Health Nurses and Strategies for Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Aderemi R.A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care givers, particularly midwives, perinatal and neonatal nurses, face ethical issues possibly because of their interactions with patients and clients in the reproductive age groups. These issues are multiple and quite complex. Aim: To identify the ethical issues related to maternal and child care, the challenges faced by the nurses and to profer strategies for decision making. Methods: This is a literature review on ethical issues in maternal and child heal...

  17. Maternal and child health in India: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1995-10-01

    The Lady Dufferin Fund, founded in 1885 in India, had by 1940 established 400 hospitals to alleviate diseases and mortality related to childbirth. After independence 2328 community health centers and 21254 primary health centers were created in the country. During 1974-94 more than 131,000 subcenters were set up and about 620,000 auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) had been trained. The Ministry of Health introduced four health prevention schemes in 1969: 1) immunization of children against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; 2) immunization of pregnant women against tetanus; 3) prophylaxis of mothers and children against nutritional anemia; and 4) prophylaxis of children against blindness caused by vitamin A deficiency. As a result, infant mortality declined from 146/1000 live births to 74/1000 in 1993; but maternal mortality still stayed around 4-5/1000. In 1993 an estimated 117,356 maternal deaths occurred out of a total of 26,057,000 births, equalling 4.5 deaths per 1000 live births. The main causes of maternal deaths are hemorrhage, anemia, abortion, toxemia, and puerperal sepsis. Only about 411 first referral units in community health centers are functioning properly. Prenatal care of mothers includes the administration of tetanus toxoid and iron-folic acid tablets. However, the prenatal coverage reached only about 50% of mothers; and the coverage was only 21.4% in Bihar, 23.8% in Nagaland, 29.3% in Rajasthan, and 29.6% in Uttar Pradesh. In these areas administrative inefficiency is widespread with nonavailability of essential drugs for malaria, infections, sepsis, dysentery, and colds. During 1992-93 the rate of hospital deliveries ranged from 6.1% in Nagaland to 88.4% in Kerala, with a national average of only 25.6%. 71% of deliveries in rural areas and 30% in urban areas were conducted by untrained assistants. Although there are 450 ANM training schools in the country, the level of training has deteriorated. The major causes of infant deaths are respiratory

  18. Factors contributing to reduced caregiver strain in a publicly-funded child mental health system

    OpenAIRE

    Accurso, Erin C.; Garland, Ann F; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined caregiver strain in families who initiated mental health services for their child. Predictors of strain and the bidirectional relation between strain and child symptoms were examined. Participants included 218 children ages 4–13 with disruptive behavior problems and their caregivers, plus 96 psychotherapists, recruited from six publicly-funded clinics. Child disruptive behavior severity and caregiver strain were assessed at baseline, four, and eight months. Multilevel mode...

  19. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination...: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of periodic surveys... Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for...

  20. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.