Sample records for child exceptional

  1. Hyperactivity: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Containing 27 references on hyperactivity selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts", the bibliography cites research reports, conference papers, journal articles, texts, and program guides. Each entry provides bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts of the documents. The…

  2. Autism: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings, the bibliography contains 47 items of research reports, conference papers, journal articles, texts, and program guides selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts". Each entry on autism provides bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and…

  3. Diagnostic Teaching: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Sixty-six references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts are included in the annotated bibliography on diagnostic teaching, one in a series of over 50 similar listings dealing with handicapped and gifted children. For each entry, bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and an abstract are…

  4. Speech Handicapped - Research: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography, which is one of a series of over 50 similar selected bibliographies dealing with handicapped and gifted children, contains 100 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts pertaining to research with speech handicapped children. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval terms, and…

  5. Aurally Handicapped - Programs: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography, one in a series of over 50 similar listings related to handicapped and gifted children, contains 89 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts dealing with programs for the aurally handicapped. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are given for all…

  6. Educable Mentally Handicapped - Programs: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    One in a series of over 50 similar listings relating to handicapped and gifted children, the bibliography contains 100 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts concerning programs for the educable mentally retarded. Bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and an abstract are included…

  7. Preschool and Early Childhood: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography cites 67 items relating to preschool and early childhood selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts." Bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are provided for each entry. One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings in the area of handicapped and gifted…

  8. Exceptional Mirizzi syndrome in a young child: A laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Prada-Arias


    Full Text Available Mirizzi syndrome is defined as an obstruction of the hepatic duct by an impacted biliary stone in the Hartmann's pouch of the gallbladder or in the cystic duct (Mirizzi type I. The gallstone may erode the bile duct causing a cholecystobiliary fistula (Mirizzi type II. This very rare complication of long standing cholelithiasis is mainly reported in adults. We report an exceptional case of a type I Mirizzi syndrome in a 3-year-old boy, incidentally discovered during a computed tomography study. Ultrasonography and cholangioresonance confirmed the diagnosis. At laparoscopy, partial fusion between the Hartmann's pouch and the hepatic duct was found. Despite difficult dissection, a total laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Preoperative diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult owing to unspecific clinical presentation and low sensitivity of the standard radiological studies. To detect and correctly identify the type of Mirizzi syndrome during surgery is very important in order to avoid serious complications and to perform the most adequate surgical treatment. Open subtotal cholecystectomy is the recommended procedure in Mirizzi type I, laparoscopic total cholecystectomy being possible in some cases. Although this entity is exceptional in children, it must be known and considered by the Pediatric Surgeon because its development is possible.

  9. Education Outside of the Box: Homeschooling Your Gifted or Twice-Exceptional Child (United States)

    Goodwin, Corin Barsily; Gustavson, Mika


    Gifted children are children first, and they have educational and social-emotional needs that run all over the map. Anyone who knows gifted children is familiar with the sudden shifts within a child who might be doing high school level scientific study, handwriting at a third grade level, display the wit and wisdom of a middle aged adult, and…

  10. Orson Scott Card's "Ender and Bean": The Exceptional Child as Hero (United States)

    Doyle, Christine


    Orson Scott Card's school stories in outer space, "Ender's Game" and "Ender's Shadow," purportedly occur at the same time and tell the "same" story, but from the perspectives of two different child protagonists. Scenes in "Ender's Shadow" even reproduce text from "Ender's Game." Nevertheless, 14 years elapsed between the publications of the two…

  11. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602. (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  12. Exceptional phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Kenneth; Moltke Martiny, Kristian

    . Through exceptional cases we can gain a deeper understanding of the ordinary. This was already a guiding thread in Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological investigations, but this paper will take the idea further by grounding the methodology in ‘hands on’ research in elite sport (football) and pathological cases...

  13. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio


    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  14. A case of exceptional reading accuracy in a child with Down syndrome – underlying skills and the relation to reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.A.; Laws, G.; Nation, K.; Bishop, D.V.M.


    We report on a case of a girl with Down syndrome (DS), K.S., whose reading accuracy is exceptional. This ability is associated with robust phonological skills and relative strengths in visual and verbal short-term memory, articulation, and speech fluency. Although her reading comprehension is age ap

  15. Aurally Handicapped - Research: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    Eighty-nine references, including research reports, texts, journal articles, and other research-related literature, are included in the bibliography on research concerning aurally handicapped children (both the deaf and the hard of hearing). The bibliography, containing bibliographic data, availability information, indexing and retrieval terms,…

  16. On exceptional quotient singularities


    Cheltsov, Ivan; Shramov, Constantin


    We study exceptional quotient singularities. In particular, we prove an exceptionality criterion in terms of the $\\alpha$-invariant of Tian, and utilize it to classify four-dimensional and five-dimensional exceptional quotient singularities.

  17. Robust ASPNET Exception Handling

    CERN Document Server

    Dumond, Lee


    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to unravel the mysteries of exception handling in ASP.NET.   First, you'll get a thorough introduction to structured exception handling in the .NET Framework, learn about the Exception class, the related C# language constructs, and how exceptions propagate up the call stack. Then, you'll delve into a variety of practical topics such as: when, where, and how to properly throw, catch, and handle exceptions in your code; how to employ "defensive programming" techniques to avoid triggering the most common CLR exceptions; adopting exception handling "best practices

  18. Child Labor - Moral Choice


    Lagasse, Caitlin


    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  19. An Exceptional Memory (United States)

    Hunter, Ian M. L.


    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  20. Grading Exceptional Learners (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.


    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  1. Unpopular exception; Ungeliebte Ausnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin


    Although it is permissible, with an exceptional license, to instal photovoltaic systems on asbestos cement roofs, many installers shy away from this. Instead, they tend to recommend re-roofing in spite of the higher cost incurred as this will also solve the pollution problem connected with asbestos cement, and the investment cost will be recovered by the photovoltaic system. (orig.)

  2. Nothing Exceptional: Against Agamben (United States)

    Colatrella, Steven


    Giorgio Agamben's work has become widely influential as a guide to explaining the extra-constitutional powers assumed by governments under the rubric of the War on Terror. His formulations, such as Homo Sacer and State of Exception, have been extended to apply to a wide variety of experiences of repression of liberties or social control, including…

  3. Giftedness: an exceptionality examined. (United States)

    Robinson, A; Clinkenbeard, P R


    The study of giftedness has practical origins. High-level performance intrigues people. Theoretically, the study of giftedness is related to the psychology of individual differences and has focused on the constructs of intelligence, creativity, and motivation. At a practical level, the research is largely related to school and family contexts, which develop gifts and talents in children and youth. Although broadened definitions of giftedness have emerged, the most extensive body of research available for review concentrates on intellectual giftedness. The varying definitions of giftedness and the impact of social context and diversity on the development of talent pose significant challenges for the field. Finally, the study of exceptionally advanced performance provides insight into basic psychological processes and the school contexts that develop talents in children and youth.

  4. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.


    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  5. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements....../deterioration of elite sport results (with a time lag)’. However, this has not previously been tested, and the contingencies explaining the seemingly widely different developments in countries such as China and India have not been explored. This paper tests the above hypothesis by means of a study of the correlation...

  6. On Exceptional Instanton Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Del Zotto, Michele


    According to a recent classification of 6d (1,0) theories within F-theory there are only 5 "pure" 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are $SU(3),SO(8),F_4,E_6,E_7$, and $E_8$. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons for the corresponding gauge groups. For $G$ simply-laced, we determine the 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(0,4)$ worldsheet theories of such BPS instanton strings by a simple geometric engineering argument. These are given by a twisted $S^2$ compactification of the 4d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theories of type $H_2, D_4, E_6, E_7$ and $E_8$ (and their higher rank generalizations), where the 6d instanton number is mapped to the rank of the corresponding 4d SCFT. This determines their anomaly polynomials and, via topological strings, establishes an interesting relation among the corresponding $T^2 \\times S^2$ partition functions and the Hilbert series for moduli spaces of $G$ instantons. Such relations allow to bootstrap the corresponding e...

  7. 38 CFR 3.57 - Child. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child. 3.57 Section 3.57..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.57 Child. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, the term child of the veteran means an...

  8. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  9. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta


    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  10. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area. (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab


    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  11. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia H


    Full Text Available Abstract In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain.

  12. Solutions in Exceptional Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Felix J. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics, London (United Kingdom)


    Exceptional Field Theory employs an extended spacetime to make supergravity fully covariant under the U-duality groups of M-theory. This allows for the wave and monopole solutions to be combined into a single solution which obeys a twisted self-duality relation. All fundamental, solitonic and Dirichlet branes of ten- and eleven-dimensonal supergravity may be extracted from this single solution in Exceptional Field Theory. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. DG categories and exceptional collections

    CERN Document Server

    Bodzenta-Skibińska, Agnieszka


    Bondal and Kapranov describe how to assign to a full exceptional collection on a variety X a DG category C such that the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on X is equivalent to the bounded derived category of C. In this paper we show that the category C has finite dimensional spaces of morphisms. We describe how it behaves under mutations and present an algorithm allowing to calculate it for full exceptional collections with vanishing Ext^k groups for k > 1. Finally, we use it to describe an example of a non-commutative deformation of certain rational surfaces.

  14. 76 FR 13241 - Excepted Service (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... Management. Director, Office of DE110016 1/5/2011 Scheduling and Advance. ] Office of the Special...

  15. 75 FR 11206 - Excepted Service (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... January 29, 2010. Department of Labor DLGS00084 Staff Assistant to the Director of Scheduling and...

  16. 76 FR 78316 - Excepted Service (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... Intergovernmental Affairs. Office of Management Deputy Director of Scheduling DE120005 10/25/2011 and...

  17. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas


    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  18. Calendrical Savants: Exceptionality and Practice (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Carney, Daniel P. J.


    The exceptionality of the skills of calendrical savants and the role of practice were investigated. Experiment 1 compared four autistic calendrical savants to Professor Conway, a distinguished mathematician with calendrical skills. Professor Conway answered questions over a greater range of years but some savants knew more calendrical…

  19. 75 FR 47031 - Excepted Service (United States)


    ... Commerce DCGS00218 Director, Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship to the Assistant Secretary for... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... June 2010. Office of Management and Budget BOGS10021 Confidential Assistant to the General...

  20. 78 FR 28652 - Excepted Service (United States)


    ... DC120012 3/29/2013 Assistant Secretary Innovation and for Economic Entrepreneurship. Development... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... Executive Resources Services, Senior Executive Service and Performance Management, Employee Services,...

  1. 77 FR 59024 - Excepted Service (United States)


    ... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Tactical Officers (Shadow Wolves) in the Papago Indian Agency in the... Department of Agriculture....... Farm Service Agency State Executive DA120089 7/3/2012 Director. Office...

  2. 77 FR 41458 - Excepted Service (United States)


    ... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice identifies Schedule A, B, and C appointing authorities applicable to a single agency that were... Director of Public DM120076 03/13/2012 Management Agency. Affairs. U.S. Customs and Advisor DM120078...

  3. Scoliosis surgery - child (United States)

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make your child unconscious and unable to feel pain ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yanhong; Sun Daochun


    In this paper,by means of the definition of Borel exceptional value method,another exceptional value of meromorphic function which is a T exceptional value is defined by linking the concept of T direction.And we construct a meromorphic function with zero as Borel exceptional value,but not as T exceptional value; and another meromorphic function with zero as T exceptional value,but not as Borel exceptional value.

  5. The Exceptional State in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Shogo


    China's relations with African states have undergone significant changes in recent years. China has projected its relationship with Africa as one of equality and ‘mutual help’. Such perceptions of foreign policy stem from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the shared experience...... of imperialist domination and economic underdevelopment. Moreover, various public statements by China's elites suggest that China is expected to play a much more prominent, even exceptional role in Africa. This purportedly entails moving beyond the hegemonic West's interventionist aid or security policies......, and is also implicitly designed to highlight the West's shortcomings in promoting African economic growth or peace. Yet where does this perception of exceptionalism come from? Why does Beijing feel that it has to play a leading role in Africa's development? How can Beijing distinguish itself from the nations...

  6. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Mojaza, Matin; Ryttov, Thomas A; Sannino, Francesco


    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according to a spinorial representation. We investigate the phase diagram using a purely perturbative four loop analysis, the all-orders beta function and the ladder approximation.

  7. Child Development (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  8. CMS : An exceptional load for an exceptional work site

    CERN Multimedia


    Components of the CMS vacuum tank have been delivered to the detector assembly site at Cessy. The complete inner shell was delivered to CERN by special convoy while the outer shell is being assembled in situ. The convoy transporting the inner shell of the CMS vacuum tank took a week to cover the distance between Lons-le-Saunier and Point 5 at Cessy. Left: the convoy making its way down from the Col de la Faucille. With lights flashing, flanked by police outriders and with roads temporarily closed, the exceptional load that passed through the Pays de Gex on Monday 20 May was accorded the same VIP treatment as a leading state dignitary. But this time it was not the identity of the passenger but the exceptional size of the object being transported that made such arrangements necessary. A convoy of two lorries was needed to transport the load, an enormous 13-metre long, 6 metre diameter cylinder weighing 120 tonnes. It took a week to cover the 120 kilometres between Lons-le-Saunier and the assembly site for...

  9. Exceptional geometry and Borcherds superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Palmkvist, Jakob


    We study generalized diffeomorphisms in exceptional geometry with U-duality group E_{n(n)} from an algebraic point of view. By extending the Lie algebra e_n to an infinite-dimensional Borcherds superalgebra, involving also the extension to e_{n+1}, the generalized Lie derivatives can be expressed in a simple way, and the expressions take the same form for any n less than 8. The closure of the transformations then follows from the Jacobi identity and the grading of e_{n+1} with respect to e_n.

  10. Child Care and Child Nutrition (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  11. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)


    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  12. Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces (United States)

    Kang, Ming; Chen, Jing; Chong, Y. D.


    An exceptional point (EP) is a degeneracy occurring in a non-energy-conserving system, in which two eigenvectors of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian coalesce. We explore how EPs can be realized in a metamaterial surface, or metasurface, consisting of a pair of lossy coupled linear antennas in each unit cell. EPs appear in the eigenvectors of the transmission matrix by tuning the frequency and the coupling and loss rates of the metasurface. Each EP is associated with the appearance of a circularly polarized transmission eigenstate; hence, within the parameter space of the system, the EPs lie along pairs of curves with distinct chirality. Our results are obtained using finite-difference time-domain simulations, as well as a fitted coupled-mode theory. The coupled-mode theory agrees well with the numerical results and is capable of accurately predicting the EP f curves.

  13. Vortex Laser at Exceptional Point

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min


    The optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) are commonly generated by modulating the available conventional light beam. This article shows that a micro-laser operates at the exceptional point (EP) of the non-Hermitian quantum system can directly emit vortex laser with well-defined OAM at will. Two gratings (the refractive index modulation and along azimuthal direction and the grating protruding from the micro-ring cavity) modulate the eigenmode of a micro-ring cavity to be a vortex laser mode. The phase-matching condition ensures that we can tune the OAM of the vortex beam to be arbitrary orders by changing the grating protruding from the micro-ring cavity while the system is kept at EP. The results are obtained by analytical analysis and confirmed by 3D full wave simulations.

  14. 42 CFR 423.578 - Exceptions process. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions process. 423.578 Section 423.578 Public..., Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.578 Exceptions process. (a) Requests for exceptions to a plan's tiered... sponsor may design its exception process so that very high cost or unique drugs are not eligible for...

  15. The Psychological Essence of the Child Prodigy Phenomenon: Sensitive Periods and Cognitive Experience. (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.


    Examination of the child prodigy phenomenon suggests it is a result of extremely accelerated mental development during sensitive periods that leads to the rapid growth of a child's cognitive resources and their construction into specific exceptional achievements. (Author/DB)

  16. Bergman kernel on generalized exceptional Hua domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; weipng(殷慰萍); ZHAO; zhengang(赵振刚)


    We have computed the Bergman kernel functions explicitly for two types of generalized exceptional Hua domains, and also studied the asymptotic behavior of the Bergman kernel function of exceptional Hua domain near boundary points, based on Appell's multivariable hypergeometric function.

  17. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty. (United States)

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C


    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  18. 48 CFR 8.706 - Purchase exceptions. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase exceptions. 8.706... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.706 Purchase exceptions. (a) Ordering offices may acquire supplies or... in a purchase exception granted by the designated central nonprofit agency. (b) The central...


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  20. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  1. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  2. A Quick Algorithm for Mining Exceptional Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Exceptional rules are often ignored because of their small support. However, they have high confidence, so they are useful sometimes. A new algorithm for mining exceptional rules is presented, which creates a large itemset from a relatively small database and scans the whole database only one time to generate all exceptional rules. This algorithm is proved to be quick and effective through its application in a mushroom database.

  3. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China? (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong


    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies.

  4. Competitive exception learning using fuzzy frequency distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.-M. van den Bergh (Willem-Max); J.H. van den Berg (Jan)


    textabstractA competitive exception learning algorithm for finding a non-linear mapping is proposed which puts the emphasis on the discovery of the important exceptions rather than the main rules. To do so,we first cluster the output space using a competitive fuzzy clustering algorithm and derive a

  5. 8 CFR 286.3 - Exceptions. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions. 286.3 Section 286.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.3 Exceptions... Great Lakes vessels on the Great Lakes and connecting waterways; (b) Persons directly connected with...

  6. Twice Exceptionality from a Practitioner's Perspective (United States)

    Omdal, Stuart


    The new definition of twice exceptionality by the National Twice-Exceptional Community of Practice (2e CoP) is a tool that will facilitate communication and collaboration for practitioners in the regular classroom, gifted education specialists, administrators, and professors. In this article, the author shares his experiences in several of these…

  7. Foundations of Child Psychiatry. (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  8. The Special Child: Symposium II C. (United States)

    Khaneja, Gurvinder Kaur; And Others

    Focusing on the exceptional child, this symposium contains a study which reports findings concerning the adjustment problems of the Malaysian visually handicapped student, by Chua Tee Tee, an abstract on adjustment and personality patterns in normal and problem children by Gurvinder Kaur Khaneja and Gopa Bharawaj, and an abstract of a study on…

  9. Office of Child Care (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  10. 15 CFR 1180.7 - Exceptions. (United States)



  11. From Ethical Exceptionalism to Ethical Exceptions: The Rule and exception Model and the Changing Meaning of Ethics In German Bioregulation. (United States)

    Braun, Kathrin


    Germany is an interesting case with respect to the governance of reprogenetics. It has a strong profile in the technosciences and high aims regarding the global bioeconomy, yet her regulation of human genetics, reproductive medicine and embryo research has for a long time been rather restrictive. German biopolitical exceptionalism has often been explained by reference to Catholicism and the legacy of the Nazi past. The Germans, so goes the common story, have learnt the lessons of history and translated them into unconditional respect for human dignity, which in turn translates into unconditional protection of human life, including the human embryo, and the firm repudiation of any eugenic distinction between 'life worth to live' and 'life not worth to live'. This, however, is not the whole story. Alongside deontological strictness we find another strand of governing body politics and reprogenetics in Germany, the rule-and-exception model, running from the mid-1970s abortion law via the 2002 Stem Cell Act to the 2011 regulation of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. In contrast to the former, that strongly draws on Kant and his concept of human dignity, the latter bears resemblances to Carl Schmitt's concept of state of exception. The article will show that the rule-and-exception model builds the exception into the rule and transforms the meaning and mandate of ethics, namely from safeguarding ethical standards to deciding about the exception. Given that the exception has now tended to become the rule, the question is whether the lessons of history will govern German reprogenetics for much longer.

  12. Desingularization algorithms I. Role of exceptional divisors


    Bierstone, Edward; Milman, Pierre D.


    The article is about a "desingularization principle" common to various canonical desingularization algorithms in characteristic zero, and the roles played by the exceptional divisors in the underlying local construction. We compare algorithms of the authors and of Villamayor and his collaborators, distinguishing between the fundamental effect of the way the exceptional divisors are used, and different theorems obtained because of flexibility allowed in the choice of "input data". We show how ...

  13. Exceptional polynomials and SUSY quantum mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V S Shiv Chaitanya; S Sree Ranjani; Prasanta K Panigrahi; R Radhakrishnan; V Srinivasan


    We show that for the quantum mechanical problem which admit classical Laguerre/Jacobi polynomials as solutions for the Schrödinger equations (SE), will also admit exceptional Laguerre/Jacobi polynomials as solutions having the same eigenvalues but with the ground state missing after a modification of the potential. Then, we claim that the existence of these exceptional polynomials leads to the presence of non-trivial supersymmetry.

  14. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  15. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses. (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul


    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  16. Exceptional points in anisotropic planar microcavities (United States)

    Richter, Steffen; Michalsky, Tom; Sturm, Chris; Rosenow, Bernd; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger


    Planar microcavities allow the control and manipulation of spin polarization, manifested in phenomena like the optical spin Hall effect due to the intrinsic polarization mode splitting. Here, we study a transparent microcavity with broken rotational symmetry, realized by aligning the optic axis of a uniaxial cavity material in the cavity plane, giving rise to exceptional points in the dispersion relation. These occur pairwise, are circularly polarized, and are cores of polarization vortices. The exceptional points are result of the non-Hermitian character of the system and are in close relationship to singular optic axes in absorptive biaxial systems.

  17. Exceptional points in anisotropic planar microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Steffen; Sturm, Chris; Rosenow, Bernd; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger


    Planar microcavities allow the control and manipulation of spin-polarization, manifested in phenomena like the optical spin Hall effect due to the intrinsic polarization mode splitting. Here, we study a transparent microcavity with broken rotational symmetry, realized by aligning the optical axis of a uniaxial cavity material in the cavity plane. We demonstrate that the in-plane optical anisotropy gives rise to exceptional points in the dispersion relation, which occur pair-wise, are circularly polarized, and are cores of polarization vortices. These exceptional points are a result of the non-Hermitian character of the system, and are in close relationship to singular optical axes in absorptive biaxial systems.

  18. Session-based Choreography with Exceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco


    Choreography has recently emerged as a pragmatic and concise way of describing communication-based systems such as web services and financial protocols. Recent studies have investigated the transition from the design stage of a system to its implementation providing an automatic way of mapping...... a choreograhy into executable code. In this work, we focus on an extension of choreography with a communication-based (interactional) exception mechanism by giving its formal semantics. In particular, we discuss through some examples how interactional exceptions at choreography level can be implemented into end...

  19. A geometric formulation of exceptional field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bosque, Pascal du; Lust, Dieter; Malek, Emanuel


    We formulate the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory in a coordinate-invariant manner. Thereby we interpret the 10-dimensional extended space as a manifold with $\\mathrm{SL}(5)\\times\\mathbb{R}^+$-structure. We show that the algebra of generalised diffeomorphisms closes subject to a set of closure constraints which are reminiscent of the quadratic and linear constraints of maximal seven-dimensional gauged supergravities, as well as the section condition. We construct an action for the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory, even when the $\\mathrm{SL}(5)\\times\\mathbb{R}^+$-structure is not locally flat.

  20. 24 CFR 51.105 - Exceptions. (United States)


    ... all the following conditions are satisfied: (1) The project does not require an Environmental Impact... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions. 51.105 Section 51.105 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  1. 75 FR 63523 - Excepted Service Appointments (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Excepted Service Appointments AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice... August 2, 2010. TNGS00037 Director of Scheduling and Advance to the United States Trade...

  2. 48 CFR 225.103 - Exceptions. (United States)


    ... (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) has determined that it is inconsistent with the public interest to... commercial technology; or (3) To maintain the same source of supply for spare and replacement parts (also see...) In order not to impair integration of the military and commercial industrial base. (B) Except...

  3. 40 CFR 60.593 - Exceptions. (United States)


    ... procedures in paragraph (b)(2). (c) Any existing reciprocating compressor that becomes an affected facility... subpart may comply with the following exceptions to the provisions of subpart VV. (b)(1) Compressors in... compressor is in hydrogen service. (2) Each compressor is presumed not to be in hydrogen service unless...

  4. 40 CFR 60.593a - Exceptions. (United States)


    ... the procedures in paragraph (b)(2). (c) Any existing reciprocating compressor that becomes an affected... following exceptions to the provisions of subpart VVa of this part. (b)(1) Compressors in hydrogen service are exempt from the requirements of § 60.592a if an owner or operator demonstrates that a...

  5. 12 CFR 344.2 - Exceptions. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions. 344.2 Section 344.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY RECORDKEEPING... accurately reflect the information required under this part and provide an adequate basis for an audit....

  6. 26 CFR 1.306-2 - Exception. (United States)


    ... dividends and isolated dispositions of section 306 stock by minority shareholders. Similarly, in the absence... TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.306-2 Exception. (a) If a shareholder terminates his entire stock.... In determining whether a shareholder has terminated his entire interest in a corporation by...

  7. An "Exceptional" NBPTS Certificate for Special Educators. (United States)

    Helms, Ronald G.


    This article describes the new National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certificate for teachers of students with disabilities. The certification process, the required Exceptional Needs portfolio, the assessment center, and the application fee are discussed, along with answers to frequently asked questions about the NBPTS.…

  8. Streamlining Exceptional Student Placement with PERT. (United States)

    Radencich, Marguerite C.


    The article explains the usefulness of PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) in streamlining exceptional student referral processes. With PERT, realistic time and personnel needs can be established, and the status of every referral can be known at all times. The initial step in PERT breaks the process into small manageable units and…

  9. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions. (United States)


    ... explosive (excluding ignition and delay charges) that are electric blasting caps with leg wires 4 feet long... vehicle, freight container, or cargo-only aircraft; (2) Off-shore down-hole tool pallet carried on an off... delay charges) may be packed as follows in which case they are excepted from the packaging...

  10. 49 CFR 391.2 - General exceptions. (United States)


    ... apply to a driver who drives a commercial motor vehicle controlled and operated by a person engaged in custom-harvesting operations, if the commercial motor vehicle is used to— (1) Transport farm machinery... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS General § 391.2 General exceptions. Link to...

  11. 77 FR 20614 - Petition Requesting Exception from Lead Content Limits; Notice Granting Exception (United States)


    ... the issues raised by the petition. In the Federal Register of November 16, 2011 (76 FR 70975), we..., 2012 (77 FR 478), we reopened the comment period for 30 days, with comments due on February 6, 2012. We... COMMISSION Petition Requesting Exception from Lead Content Limits; Notice Granting Exception AGENCY:...

  12. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  13. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion. (United States)

    Butterfield, Nicholas J


    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods.

  14. Seiberg Duality is an Exceptional Mutation

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, C P


    The low energy gauge theory living on D-branes probing a del Pezzo singularity of a non-compact Calabi-Yau manifold is not unique. In fact there is a large equivalence class of such gauge theories related by Seiberg duality. As a step toward characterizing this class, we show that Seiberg duality can be defined consistently as an admissible mutation of a strongly exceptional collection of coherent sheaves.

  15. FPG Child Development Institute (United States)

    ... Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero ... Children with Disabilities October 12, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North ...

  16. Well-child visits (United States)

    ... who has questions about issues such as feeding, circumcision , and general child health issues. After the baby ... deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ...

  17. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  18. Child abuse - physical (United States)

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  19. Child Dental Health (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  20. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia. (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S


    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  1. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal


    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  2. Child poverty and changes in child poverty. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles


    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  3. Your Child's Immunizations (United States)

    ... the number of shots a child receives. The Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ... are developed. Your doctor will determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and ...

  4. Supporting Each Child's Spirit (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa


    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  5. Child Care Services Handbook. (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  6. [Autism and child protection]. (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume


    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  7. Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rotter


    Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.

  8. Exceptional Points in three-dimensional Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Ashok; Kanté, Boubacar


    Exceptional points (EPs) are degeneracies in open wave systems where at least two energy levels and their corresponding eigenstates coalesce. We report evidence of the existence of EPs in 3D plasmonic nanostructures. The systems are composed of coupled plasmonic nanoresonators and can be judiciously and systematically driven to EPs by controlling symmetry-compatible modes via their near-field and far-field interactions. The proposed platform opens the way to the investigation of EPs for enhanced light-matter interactions and applications in communication, sensing and imaging.

  9. Kids at Hope: Every Child Can Succeed, No Exceptions! 3rd Edition (United States)

    Carlos, John P.; Miller, Rick


    "Kids at Hope" inspires, empowers, and transforms families, youth serving organizations and entire communities to create an environment where all children experience success. This book contains the following chapters: (1) The Visit Universal Truths I & II; (2) The Classroom (A Celebration of Success); (3) What Makes a Difference?; (4) No…

  10. Exceptional quantum geometry and particle physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Dubois-Violette


    Full Text Available Based on an interpretation of the quark–lepton symmetry in terms of the unimodularity of the color group SU(3 and on the existence of 3 generations, we develop an argumentation suggesting that the “finite quantum space” corresponding to the exceptional real Jordan algebra of dimension 27 (the Euclidean Albert algebra is relevant for the description of internal spaces in the theory of particles. In particular, the triality which corresponds to the 3 off-diagonal octonionic elements of the exceptional algebra is associated to the 3 generations of the Standard Model while the representation of the octonions as a complex 4-dimensional space C⊕C3 is associated to the quark–lepton symmetry (one complex for the lepton and 3 for the corresponding quark. More generally it is suggested that the replacement of the algebra of real functions on spacetime by the algebra of functions on spacetime with values in a finite-dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra which plays the role of “the algebra of real functions” on the corresponding almost classical quantum spacetime is relevant in particle physics. This leads us to study the theory of Jordan modules and to develop the differential calculus over Jordan algebras (i.e. to introduce the appropriate notion of differential forms. We formulate the corresponding definition of connections on Jordan modules.

  11. On the scalar manifold of exceptional supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciatori, S.L. [Dipartimento di Scienze ed Alta Tecnologia, Universita dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11, 22100 Como (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cerchiai, B.L. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Saldini, 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marrani, A. [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    We construct two parametrizations of the non compact exceptional Lie group G = E{sub 7(-25)}, based on a fibration which has the maximal compact subgroup [(E{sub 6} x U(1))/Z{sub 3}] as a fiber. It is well known that G plays an important role in the N = 2 d = 4 magic exceptional supergravity, where it describes the U-duality of the theory and where the symmetric space M=G/K gives the vector multiplets' scalar manifold. First, by making use of the exponential map, we compute a realization of G/K, that is based on the E{sub 6} invariant d-tensor, and hence exhibits the maximal possible manifest [(E{sub 6} x U(1))/Z{sub 3}]-covariance. This provides a basis for the corresponding supergravity theory, which is the analogue of the Calabi-Vesentini coordinates. Then we study the Iwasawa decomposition. Its main feature is that it is SO(8)-covariant and therefore it highlights the role of triality. Along the way we analyze the relevant chain of maximal embeddings which leads to SO(8). It is worth noticing that being based on the properties of a ''mixed'' Freudenthal-Tits magic square, the whole procedure can be generalized to a broader class of groups of type E{sub 7}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Exceptional quantum geometry and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois-Violette, Michel


    Based on an interpretation of the quark-lepton symmetry in terms of the unimodularity of the color group $SU(3)$ and on the existence of 3 generations, we develop an argumentation suggesting that the "finite quantum space" corresponding to the exceptional real Jordan algebra of dimension 27 (the Euclidean Albert algebra) is relevant for the description of internal spaces in the theory of particles. In particular, the triality which corresponds to the 3 off-diagonal octonionic elements of the exceptional algebra is associated to the 3 generations of the Standard Model while the representation of the octonions as a complex 4-dimensional space $\\mathbb C\\oplus\\mathbb C^3$ is associated to the quark-lepton symmetry, (one complex for the lepton and 3 for the corresponding quark). More generally it is is suggested that the replacement of the algebra of real functions on spacetime by the algebra of functions on spacetime with values in a finite-dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra which plays the role of "the algebr...

  13. From child to child: children as communicators. (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J


    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan S Terblanche


    Full Text Available In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a limited number of exceptions. The article argues that the peremptory nature of the Act means that a probation report is always required, even if reports by other experts are also available. The exceptions are limited to instances other than those where the child offender is sentenced to any form of imprisonment or to residence in a care centre. The article addresses the question of whether or not the reference to imprisonment includes alternative imprisonment which is imposed only as an alternative to a fine. It suggests that alternative imprisonment should, generally, not be imposed on child offenders. When an exception is not prevented because of the sentence, a pre-sentence report may be dispensed with only when the offence is a schedule-1 offence (the least serious class of offences or when obtaining a report would prejudice the child. It is argued that these exceptions are likely to occur rather rarely. A final aspect of the Act’s provisions on pre-sentence reports is the requirement that reasons be given for a departure from the recommendations in a pre-sentence report. This requirement merely confirms the status quo.The Act permits the prosecutor to provide the court with a victim impact statement. Such a statement is defined in the Act. It is a sworn statement by a victim or someone authorised by the victim explaining the consequences to the victim of the commission of the crime. The article also addresses the issue of whether or not the child justice court might mero motu obtain a victim impact statement when the prosecution does not do so.Finally, the article addresses appeals against and reviews of the trial

  15. Effective Discovery of Exception Class Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 魏藜; 俞舫


    In this paper, a new effective method is proposed to find class association rules (CAR), to get useful class association rules (UCAR) by removing the spurious class association rules (SCAR), and to generate exception class association rules (ECAR) for each UCAR. CAR mining, which integrates the techniques of classification and association, is of great interest recently. However, it has two drawbacks: one is that a large part of CARs are spurious and maybe misleading to users; the other is that some important ECARs are difficult to find using traditional data mining techniques. The method introduced in this paper aims to get over these flaws. According to our approach, a user can retrieve correct information from UCARs and know the influence from different conditions by checking corresponding ECARs. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  16. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department


    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  17. The dynamic landscape of exceptional language development. (United States)

    Peltzer-Karpf, Annemarie


    Developmental neurocognitive studies have shown that the brain systems supporting the emergence of sensory and cognitive abilities display different profiles of neuroplasticity. The research question posed here is to what extent sensory deprivation influences the dynamics of language development. The findings reported are grounded in studies with vision-impaired children with sighted peers featured as controls (age range 18 months to 3 years). Their data are matched against findings on advanced language development in blind children (age range: from 6 to 10 years; N = 12) and hearing-impaired and deaf children (age range: from 5 to 11 years; N = 20). The data give evidence that language acquisition in sensory-impaired children follows the same overall developmental path with respect to macrostructural changes and the succession of phase-shifts. System-specific temporal discrepancies expressed in protracted phase-shifts and delayed increases of variability are most evident in the early phases. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) help to visualize individual and group-specific variation. The dynamic framework used (1) shows a higher sensibility to system-specific changes, (2) enhances the informative value of the data assessed, and (3) facilitates reliable prognoses concerning the child's cognitive and linguistic future.

  18. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer


    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  19. Exceptional groups, symmetric spaces and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Cacciatori, Sergio L.


    In this article we provide a detailed description of a technique to obtain a simple parameterization for different exceptional Lie groups, such as G{sub 2}, F{sub 4} and E{sub 6}, based on their fibration structure. For the compact case, we construct a realization which is a generalization of the Euler angles for SU(2), while for the non compact version of G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) we compute the Iwasawa decomposition. This allows us to obtain not only an explicit expression for the Haar measure on the group manifold, but also for the cosets G{sub 2}/SO(4), G{sub 2}/SU(3), F{sub 4}/Spin(9), E{sub 6}/F{sub 4} and G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) that we used to find the concrete realization of the general element of the group. Moreover, as a by-product, in the simplest case of G{sub 2}/SO(4), we have been able to compute an Einstein metric and the vielbein. The relevance of these results in physics is discussed.

  20. An exceptional 5:4 enantiomeric structure. (United States)

    Wachter, Erin; Glazer, Edith C; Parkin, Sean; Brock, Carolyn Pratt


    The only crystals that could be grown from racemic solutions of the PF6(-) salt of the resolvable cation [Ru(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)2(dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline)](2+) have translational symmetry only (space group P1), contain nine independent sets of ions, and include numerous independent solvent molecules (11 acetone, one diethyl ether and possibly several water molecules). Layers of hydrophobic cations alternate with layers containing most of the anions and solvent molecules. All nine cations have the same basic conformation, which is distorted by the presence of the methyl substituents on the two 1,10-phenanthroline ligands. Four pairs of enantiomeric cations within a layer are related by approximate inversion centers; the ninth cation, which shows no sign of disorder, makes the layer chiral. Within the cation layers stripes parallel to [110] of six cations alternate with stripes of three; the local symmetry and the cation orientations are different in the two stripes. These stripes are reflected in the organization of the anion/solvent layer. The ca 80:20 inversion twinning found indicates that enantiomeric preference is transmitted less perfectly across the anion/solvent layer than within the cation layer. The structure is exceptional in having nine independent formula units and an unbalanced set (ratio 4:5) of resolvable enantiomers. The difficulty in growing crystals of this material is consistent with its structural complexity.

  1. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe


    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  2. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño


    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Opić


    Full Text Available 800x600 Abstract- The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of violence against teachers by students. The study included 175 teachers, five primary and five secondary schools. The age of respondents (teachers ranges from 20 to 65, with average age being 44,33 years. The used  instrument has assessed violence against teachers and has consisted of  data about the characteristics of respondents, frequency and type of violence experienced from students.The results suggest that violence against teachers in primary and secondary schools in Zagreb taken into sample is very much present. Since 74,3% teachers has experienced violence from their students during the year, that kind of behavior is more of a rule than an exception. Students in primary and secondary schools show violent behavior against their teachers at an equal level. Male teachers, as opposed to female teachers, are more frequently victims of violent behavior (posting inappropriate content online from their students. Also, there is a statistically significant correlation (negative between age (years of service in school and frequency of experienced violence from students. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";}

  4. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P


    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million

  5. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  6. Talking to Your Child's Doctor (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  7. Child neglect and psychological abuse (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  8. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools). (United States)

    Kimmel, Alain


    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  9. Child Wellness and Happiness (United States)

    Rettew, David C.


    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  10. The Child Welfare Cartel (United States)

    Stoesz, David


    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  11. Child Psychology Experiences Program. (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  12. Child Poverty & Public Policy. (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  13. Divorce Child Custody Disputes. (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.


    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  14. Child prostitution in Thailand. (United States)

    Lau, Carmen


    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  15. 20 CFR 437.6 - Additions and exceptions. (United States)


    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... classes of grants and grantees subject to this part, SSA may not impose additional administrative requirements except in codified regulations published in the Federal Register. (b) Exceptions for classes...

  16. 43 CFR 12.46 - Additions and exceptions. (United States)


    ....46 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and... administrative requirements except in codified regulations published in the Federal Register. (b) Exceptions...

  17. On the geometry of thin exceptional sets in Manin's conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Brian; Tanimoto, Sho


    Manin’s Conjecture predicts the rate of growth of rational points of a bounded height after removing those lying on an exceptional set. We study whether the exceptional set in Manin’s Conjecture is a thin set.......Manin’s Conjecture predicts the rate of growth of rational points of a bounded height after removing those lying on an exceptional set. We study whether the exceptional set in Manin’s Conjecture is a thin set....

  18. 44 CFR 13.6 - Additions and exceptions. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additions and exceptions. 13.6 Section 13.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... requirements except in codified regulations published in the Federal Register. (b) Exceptions for classes...

  19. 76 FR 70975 - Petition Requesting Exception From Lead Content Limits (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Petition Requesting Exception From Lead Content Limits AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission...'') has received a petition requesting an exception from the 100 ppm lead content limit under section 101... 101(b)(1) of the CPSIA provides for a functional purpose exception from lead content limits...

  20. Comparison of tree-child phylogenetic networks. (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel


    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of nontreelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. While much progress has been made to find practical algorithms for reconstructing a phylogenetic network from a set of sequences, all attempts to endorse a class of phylogenetic networks (strictly extending the class of phylogenetic trees) with a well-founded distance measure have, to the best of our knowledge and with the only exception of the bipartition distance on regular networks, failed so far. In this paper, we present and study a new meaningful class of phylogenetic networks, called tree-child phylogenetic networks, and we provide an injective representation of these networks as multisets of vectors of natural numbers, their path multiplicity vectors. We then use this representation to define a distance on this class that extends the well-known Robinson-Foulds distance for phylogenetic trees and to give an alignment method for pairs of networks in this class. Simple polynomial algorithms for reconstructing a tree-child phylogenetic network from its path multiplicity vectors, for computing the distance between two tree-child phylogenetic networks and for aligning a pair of tree-child phylogenetic networks, are provided. They have been implemented as a Perl package and a Java applet, which can be found at

  1. "No admittance except on business" 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bourrier


     sociologie embarquée », soit s’en dégager radicalement.“No admittance except on business”. Issues in negotiating entry into organisationsThis article has a history. The first reason for wanting to write it was linked to the development in 2007 of a master course in sociology on the conditions associated with being able to enter organisations. To my great surprise, and in spite of my efforts during the preparation of the course, I found few texts which discussed real entry conditions. This article reflects then this disappointment. The second reason concerns repeated observations of the hardening conditions in relation with studies undertaken within organisations, whether in France or the United States. Reports I have received confirm my observations that the field of high risk organisations has become particularly more and more difficult for young researchers or doctoral students to freely organize their work. Paradoxically, whilst more efforts are undertaken so that sociologists (amongst others have access to risk industries, researchers are confronted with conditions that are often rigid and hardly generous. As for the issues themselves that are studied, they are very aligned with the industrials’ own managerial questions. Ethnographic studies by immersion are abandoned in favour of action-research, in form de theses obliged, at the end of the day, to make propositions for improvements and recommendations about management tools. I have a feeling that what is happening in high-risk organisations is also the case for the sociology of organisations in general. In the first part of this article, I propose a partial revue of the way that the sociology of organisations has treated the question of entering into organisations. I will reflect on why there are so few works devoted to this question and on what the consequences may well be for the field itself. Secondly, I will examine the possibilities offered today as well as the efforts to make in order to, either, resolutely

  2. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development. (United States)

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  3. Child maltreatment in India. (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot


    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  4. Odontogenic keratocyst in a 5-year-old child: a rare cause of maxillary swelling in children. (United States)

    Smith, I M; Harvey, N; Logan, R M; David, D J; Anderson, P J


    Odontogenic keratocysts in children are uncommon. They are cysts of the jaws that have a tendency for recurrence and are usually seen in adults. We report an exceptionally rare case in a young child and discuss its management.

  5. Child Behavior Disorders (United States)

    ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets Damaging or destroying property Lying or stealing Not ...

  6. Your child's first vaccines (United States)

    ... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... baby. 2. Some children should not get certain vaccines Most children can safely get all of these vaccines. But ...

  7. My Child Is Stealing (United States)

    ... there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child ... They should also know that stealing is a crime and can lead to consequences far worse than ...

  8. Asthma - child - discharge (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  9. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the ... Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Teen Suicide ...

  10. My Child Is Stealing (United States)

    ... around. And there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child or teen angry and more likely to engage in even ...

  11. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation (United States)

    ... as feelings of betrayal, powerlessness, worthlessness and low self-esteem. It is impossible to calculate how many times a child's pornographic image may be possessed and distributed online. Each and ...

  12. CDC Child Growth Charts (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  13. Toilet Teaching Your Child (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  14. Weaning Your Child (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  15. Applying Genetic Algorithms to Test JUH DBs Exceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alshraideh


    Full Text Available Database represents an essential part of software applications. Many organizations use database as a repository for large amount of current and historical information. With this context testing database applications is a key issue that deserves attention. SQL Exception handling mechanism can increase the reliability of the system and improve the robustness of the software. But the exception handling code that is used to respond to exceptional conditions tends to be the source of the systems failure. It is difficult to test the exception handling by traditional methods. This paper presents a new technique that combines mutation testing and global optimization based search algorithm to test exceptions code in Jordan University Hospital (JUH database application. Thus, using mutation testing to speed the raising of exception and global optimization technique in order to automatically generate test cases, we used fitness function depends on range of data related to each query. We try to achieve the coverage of three types of PL/SQL exceptions, which are No_Data_Found (NDF, Too_Many_Rows (TMR and Others exceptions. The results show that TMR exception is not always covered this due to existence of primary key in the query, also uncovered status appear in nested exceptions.

  16. Music in child care


    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos


    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  17. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti


    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  18. Preventing child maltreatment: An evidence-based update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez A


    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that include one or more measures of child maltreatment and related outcomes (reports of abuse and neglect, injuries, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Most programs targeting at-risk families have not shown evidence of effectiveness in preventing abuse or neglect. An important exception is the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP, a program provided by nurses to first-time socially disadvantaged mothers beginning prenatally that has undergone rigorous evaluation in three randomized controlled trials. It has shown consistent effects in reducing reports of maltreatment and associated outcomes as well as additional benefits in maternal and child health in high-risk families. A second exception is the promising Early Start program provided by nurses and social workers to at-risk families beginning postnatally. One randomized controlled trial of the program has shown reduced rates of parental reports of severe abuse and hospital attendance for injuries and poisonings, based on records. The characteristics of the NFP and Early Start programs are discussed with special emphasis on ways in which they differ from other home visitation programs.

  19. Asymptotic behaviour of zeros of exceptional Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Milson, Robert


    The location and asymptotic behaviour for large n of the zeros of exceptional Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials are discussed. The zeros of exceptional polynomials fall into two classes: the regular zeros, which lie in the interval of orthogonality and the exceptional zeros, which lie outside that interval. We show that the regular zeros have two interlacing properties: one is the natural interlacing between consecutive polynomials as a consequence of their Sturm-Liouville character, while the other one shows interlacing between the zeros of exceptional and classical polynomials. A generalization of the classical Heine-Mehler formula is provided for the exceptional polynomials, which allows to derive the asymptotic behaviour of their regular zeros. We also describe the location and the asymptotic behaviour of the exceptional zeros, which converge for large n to fixed values.

  20. On the geometry of quiver gauge theories (Stacking exceptional collections)

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, C P; Herzog, Christopher P.; Karp, Robert L.


    In this paper we advance the program of using exceptional collections to understand the gauge theory description of a D-brane probing a Calabi-Yau singularity. To this end, we strengthen the connection between strong exceptional collections and fractional branes. To demonstrate our ideas, we derive a strong exceptional collection for every Y^{p,q} singularity, and also prove that this collection is simple.

  1. Are 1+1 and 2+2 exceptional signatures?

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, J A


    We prove that 1+1 and 2+2 target `spacetimes' of a 0-brane are exceptional signatures. Our proof is based on the requirement of SL(2,R) and `Lorentz' symmetries of a first order lagrangian. Using a special kind of 0-brane called `quatl', we also show that the exceptional signatures 1+1 and 2+2 are closely related. Moreover, we argue that the 2+2 target `spacetime' can be understood either as 2+2 worldvolume `spacetime' or as `1+1-matrix-brane'. The possibility that the exceptional 2+2-signature implies an exceptional chirotope is briefly outlined.

  2. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry. (United States)

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  3. 5 CFR 9701.522 - Exceptions to arbitration awards. (United States)


    ... 5 CFR part 550, subpart H). (c) Nothing in this section prevents the HSLRB from determining its own... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to arbitration awards. 9701... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.522 Exceptions to...

  4. 16 CFR 1101.44 - Rulemaking proceeding exception. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rulemaking proceeding exception. 1101.44 Section 1101.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Statutory Exceptions of Section 6(b)(4) § 1101.44...

  5. 16 CFR 1101.42 - Imminent hazard exception. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imminent hazard exception. 1101.42 Section 1101.42 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Statutory Exceptions of Section 6(b)(4) § 1101.42 Imminent...

  6. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  7. 9 CFR 93.101 - General prohibitions; exceptions. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General prohibitions; exceptions. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Birds § 93.101 General prohibitions; exceptions... influenza subtype H5N1 exists, which are subject to the provisions of paragraph (c)(3) of this section,...

  8. 9 CFR 93.201 - General prohibitions; exceptions. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General prohibitions; exceptions. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.201 General prohibitions; exceptions... theatrical poultry that have been in any region where highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1...

  9. 42 CFR 413.184 - Payment exception: Pediatric patient mix. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment exception: Pediatric patient mix. 413.184... patient mix. (a) Qualifications. To qualify for an exception to its prospective payment rate based on its pediatric patient mix a facility must demonstrate that— (1) At least 50 percent of its patients...

  10. 5 CFR 351.608 - Permissive temporary exceptions. (United States)


    ... leave. An agency may make a temporary exception to retain on sick leave a lower standing employee covered by chapter 63 of title 5, United States Code (or other applicable leave system for Federal... leave system for Federal employees). Except as authorized by § 351.606(b), an agency may not approve...

  11. Discovering faults in idiom-based exception handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruntink, M.; Deursen, A. van; Tourwé, T.


    In this paper, we analyse the exception handling mechanism of a state-of-the-art industrial embedded software system. Like many systems implemented in classic programming languages, our subject system uses the popular return-code idiom for dealing with exceptions. Our goal is to evaluate the fault-p

  12. 41 CFR 51-5.4 - Purchase exceptions. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase exceptions. 51-5... Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 5-CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS § 51-5.4 Purchase exceptions. (a) A central nonprofit agency will normally grant a purchase...

  13. 45 CFR 95.19 - Exceptions to time limits. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to time limits. 95.19 Section 95.19...-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits for States To File Claims § 95.19 Exceptions to time limits. The time limits in §§ 95.7...

  14. 46 CFR 503.73 - Exceptions-meetings. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions-meetings. 503.73 Section 503.73 Shipping... Federal Maritime Commission Meetings and Public Access to Information Pertaining to Commission Meetings § 503.73 Exceptions—meetings. Except in a case where the agency finds that the public interest...

  15. 14 CFR 399.21 - Charter exemptions (except military). (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charter exemptions (except military). 399.21 Section 399.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Authority § 399.21 Charter exemptions (except military). In deciding applications for exemptions...

  16. The Virasoro Algebra and Some Exceptional Lie and Finite Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Tuite


    Full Text Available We describe a number of relationships between properties of the vacuum Verma module of a Virasoro algebra and the automorphism group of certain vertex operator algebras. These groups include the Deligne exceptional series of simple Lie groups and some exceptional finite simple groups including the Monster and Baby Monster.

  17. Automatic recovery from resource exhaustion exceptions by collecting leaked resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-ying DAI; Xiao-guang MAO; Li-qian CHEN; Yan LEI


    Despite the availability of garbage collectors, programmers must manually manage non-memory fi nite system resources such as fi le descriptors. Resource leaks can gradually consume all available resources and cause programs to raise resource exhaustion exceptions. However, programmers commonly provide no effective recovery approach for resource exhaustion exceptions, which often causes programs to halt without completing their tasks. In this paper, we propose to automatically recover programs from resource exhaustion exceptions caused by resource leaks. We transform programs to catch resource exhaustion exceptions, collect leaked resources, and then retry the failure code. A resource collector is designed to identify leaked resources and safely release them. We implement our approach for Java programs. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully handle resource exhaustion exceptions caused by reported resource leaks and allow programs to complete their tasks with an average execution time increase of 2.52%and negligible bytecode size increase.

  18. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi


    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  19. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice


    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...... and family practices, and that the Danish national/cultural context probably reinforces these children as independent consumers, who are well aware of the requirements of the consumer role. Childing practices are a standard with know-how and rules that these children argue they live by—at least most...

  20. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare. (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean


    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  1. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.


    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  2. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.


    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  3. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old) (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  4. Child Labor in America's History (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold


    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  5. When Your Child Has Tinnitus (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... and public relations staff at . Tinnitus is a condition where the patient hears a ...

  6. Vaginal itching and discharge - child (United States)

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  7. Parent and Child Living Centers. (United States)

    Pushaw, David R.


    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  8. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  9. Fats and Your Child (United States)

    ... in oily fish like tuna and salmon 2. Saturated fats: Found in meat and other animal products, such ... lard, cheese, and milk (except skim or nonfat), saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  10. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... can be a heart attack or stroke. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can also diminish blood flow ... done fasting (nothing to eat or drink, except water, for 12 hours), to tell you if your ...

  11. Managing the financial cost of exception to contracting standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz


    In managing financial cost of exception to contracting standards, the first step is to put up an intelligent contract standards exception monitoring system The next step is to maintain tailor-made, fair and transparent contracting standards The third step is to eliminate unnecessary information...... and repetitiveness in contracting standards The fourth step is to enable your organization and the customers or suppliers to handle the necessary exceptions themselves Finally you should consider the use of independent contracting standards and elimination of your own standards as a tool in managing the cost...

  12. Collectivity, Phase Transitions and Exceptional Points in Open Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Heiss, W D; Rotter, I


    Phase transitions in open quantum systems, which are associated with the formation of collective states of a large width and of trapped states with rather small widths, are related to exceptional points of the Hamiltonian. Exceptional points are the singularities of the spectrum and eigenfunctions, when they are considered as functions of a coupling parameter. In the present paper this parameter is the coupling strength to the continuum. It is shown that the positions of the exceptional points (their accumulation point in the thermodynamical limit) depend on the particular type and energy dependence of the coupling to the continuum in the same way as the transition point of the corresponding phase transition.



    Laura Negredo; Óscar Herrero


    Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  14. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities. (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…


    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.


  16. Social Structure and Child Poverty (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.


    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  17. Treatment for Child Abusers (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.


    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  18. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  19. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter


    child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...

  20. Measuring Child Rhythm (United States)

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar


    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  1. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  2. The Child as Craftsman (United States)

    Feldman, David H.


    Perhaps the most important implication of the metaphor is to suggest that it may well be the main purpose of education to provide conditions under which each child will identify and find satisfaction through a chosen field or fields of work. (Author)

  3. Who Is This Child? (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.


    An Idaho education dean recounts a moving encounter with a fatherless first-grader while visiting his grandson in Eugene, Oregon. Envisioning a deadbeat dad and a burned-out mother, he pondered the statistical odds of this child graduating from college. However, the girl's warm welcome from her teacher helped revise his hopes about the little…

  4. Child Care Aware (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage ... Care Aware of America Home Newsroom Contact Us Log In Register Back About ...

  5. The Gifted Dyslexic Child (United States)

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette


    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  6. The Child Whisperer (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.


    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  7. Child Indicators: Dental Health. (United States)

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy


    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  8. Child Care Centres. (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  9. Internet and child pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Çağlar


    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet use and access is becoming increasingly common as a great entertainment, communication and educational resource for children as well as for adults. Internet is a perfect environment for children, for exploring the world, learning and having fun. However, access to illegal sites that contain violence and sexuality, and contact dangerous people are among the particular risks for children using the internet. It is a known fact that, internet and developing technology make the production and distribution of child pornography cheaper and easier. There has been consensus on the need of creating a plan and increasing the awareness in the community for the fight against child pornography. Because of the increasing internet use and the risk for children mentioned, nurses got new responsibilities. Nurses have to inform society, especially families and children, about safe internet use. In this review, legal regulations about the fight against child pornography on the internet, the reasons that lay the ground for child pornography and their negative effects on children has been addressed.

  10. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran


    Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali


    Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was st...

  11. Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in U.S. Army Families (United States)


    g use during pregnancy 1 2 3 38. other or unspecified medical neglect 1 2 3 FTP Dental = 304 details: 1 2 3 39. failure to receive routine...Children unplanned /unwanted 1. Yes 2. No C 171. Child medical problems 1. Yes 2. No p.5 VIII. 172. Children difficult or exceptional 1. Yes 2...218. Special needs child 219. Developmental challenges 220. Pregnancy 221. Stressful life events 222. History of abuse and/or injury ,223

  12. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment. (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J


    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  13. Generalized Rayleigh and Jacobi Processes and Exceptional Orthogonal Polynomials (United States)

    Chou, C.-I.; Ho, C.-L.


    We present four types of infinitely many exactly solvable Fokker-Planck equations, which are related to the newly discovered exceptional orthogonal polynomials. They represent the deformed versions of the Rayleigh process and the Jacobi process.

  14. 50 CFR 14.64 - Exceptions to export declaration requirements. (United States)


    ... products or manufactured articles, including game trophies, that are not intended for commercial use and... any specimens or parts thereof taken as a result of sport hunting. (c) Except for wildlife requiring...

  15. Dirac cohomology of unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we consider the unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups of type E with a regular lambda-lowest K-type and classify those unitary representations with the nonzero Dirac cohomology.

  16. 50 CFR 14.62 - Exceptions to import declaration requirements. (United States)


    ... reasonably practicable using the best available taxonomic information, and must declare the country of origin... the household effects of persons moving their residence to the United States, except that an...

  17. 77 FR 59932 - Single Source Award; Exception to Competition (United States)


    ... Competition AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Exception to Competition--Single Source Award to Texas Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) East--University of...

  18. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics (United States)

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang


    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging.

  19. Exceptional epidemics: AIDS still deserves a global response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia


    Full Text Available Abstract There has been a renewed debate over whether AIDS deserves an exceptional response. We argue that as AIDS is having differentiated impacts depending on the scale of the epidemic, and population groups impacted, and so responses must be tailored accordingly. AIDS is exceptional, but not everywhere. Exceptionalism developed as a Western reaction to a once poorly understood epidemic, but remains relevant in the current multi-dimensional global response. The attack on AIDS exceptionalism has arisen because of the amount of funding targeted to the disease and the belief that AIDS activists prioritize it above other health issues. The strongest detractors of exceptionalism claim that the AIDS response has undermined health systems in developing countries. We agree that in countries with low prevalence, AIDS should be normalised and treated as a public health issue--but responses must forcefully address human rights and tackle the stigma and discrimination faced by marginalized groups. Similarly, AIDS should be normalized in countries with mid-level prevalence, except when life-long treatment is dependent on outside resources--as is the case with most African countries--because treatment dependency creates unique sustainability challenges. AIDS always requires an exceptional response in countries with high prevalence (over 10 percent. In these settings there is substantial morbidity, filling hospitals and increasing care burdens; and increased mortality, which most visibly reduces life expectancy. The idea that exceptionalism is somehow wrong is an oversimplification. The AIDS response can not be mounted in isolation; it is part of the development agenda. It must be based on human rights principles, and it must aim to improve health and well-being of societies as a whole.

  20. Dynamically encircling an exceptional point for asymmetric mode switching (United States)

    Doppler, Jörg; Mailybaev, Alexei A.; Böhm, Julian; Kuhl, Ulrich; Girschik, Adrian; Libisch, Florian; Milburn, Thomas J.; Rabl, Peter; Moiseyev, Nimrod; Rotter, Stefan


    Physical systems with loss or gain have resonant modes that decay or grow exponentially with time. Whenever two such modes coalesce both in their resonant frequency and their rate of decay or growth, an ‘exceptional point’ occurs, giving rise to fascinating phenomena that defy our physical intuition. Particularly intriguing behaviour is predicted to appear when an exceptional point is encircled sufficiently slowly, such as a state-flip or the accumulation of a geometric phase. The topological structure of exceptional points has been experimentally explored, but a full dynamical encircling of such a point and the associated breakdown of adiabaticity have remained out of reach of measurement. Here we demonstrate that a dynamical encircling of an exceptional point is analogous to the scattering through a two-mode waveguide with suitably designed boundaries and losses. We present experimental results from a corresponding waveguide structure that steers incoming waves around an exceptional point during the transmission process. In this way, mode transitions are induced that transform this device into a robust and asymmetric switch between different waveguide modes. This work will enable the exploration of exceptional point physics in system control and state transfer schemes at the crossroads between fundamental research and practical applications.

  1. Priming effect in indicative and subjunctive exceptive conditionals. (United States)

    Espino, Orlando; Sánchez-Curbelo, Isana


    We report the results of three experiments that examine the mental representations underlying the comprehension stages of negative exceptive conditionals using subjunctive mood ('B a menos que A', 'B a no ser que A'; 'B excepto que A'='B unless A') and indicative mood ('B excepto si A' and 'B salvo si A'='B except if A'). The mental representations during the comprehension stage were analyzed using a priming methodology. All experiments showed that participants read the true possibility 'not-B & A' faster when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the subjunctive mood than when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the indicative mood; other possibilities ('B & A', 'B & not-A', 'not-B & not-A') were primed equally by both connectives. The experiments showed that (a) when people understand negative exceptive conditionals using the subjunctive mood, such as 'B a menos que A'/'B a no ser que A'/'B excepto que A', they access the true possibilities 'not-B & A' and 'B & not-A', and (b) when they understand negative exceptive conditionals using the indicative mood, such as 'B excepto si A'/'B salvo si A', they access 'B & not-A', but not 'not-B & A'. We discuss the implications of this for current theories of reasoning.

  2. Global Threats to Child Safety. (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E


    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  3. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič


    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  4. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.

  5. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.


    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  6. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben


    . Three hundred seventy-four have since left the study, leaving 2500 active families. The non-participants act as controls contributing data through local registries. Biological material, questionnaires, and registry data were compiled. Anthropometric data and other physical data were collected. RESULTS...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data......., the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...

  7. Child Health in Portugal. (United States)

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês


    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  9. Navy Child Care, 1980. (United States)


    months to 2 1/2 years) full-time. ............. 23.8 Preschool (2 1/2 to 5 years) such as Montessori or other nursery school developmental program...had beyond High School. *Naval Air Station, Miramar One Associate degree, five BA/ES, three Montessori Certified, three enrolled in Montessori training...comes in many forms. The child-care center at Naval Station, Adak, burned in November 1979 (Nida, 1980). Fortunately, there was no loss of life or

  10. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne


    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  11. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing. (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D


    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  12. Exceptional knowledge discovery in databases based on information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Einoshin [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Shimura, Masamichi [Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan)


    This paper presents an algorithm for discovering exceptional knowledge from databases. Exceptional knowledge, which is defined as an exception to a general fact, exhibits unexpectedness and is sometimes extremely useful in spite of its obscurity. Previous discovery approaches for this type of knowledge employ either background knowledge or domain-specific criteria for evaluating the possible usefulness, i.e. the interestingness of the knowledge extracted from a database. It has been pointed out, however, that these approaches are prone to overlook useful knowledge. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we propose an information-theoretic approach in which we obtain exceptional knowledge associated with general knowledge in the form of a rule pair using a depth-first search method. The product of the ACEs (Average Compressed Entropies) of the rule pair is introduced as the criterion for evaluating the interestingness of exceptional knowledge. The inefficiency of depth-first search is alleviated by a branch-and-bound method, which exploits the upper-bound for the product of the ACEs. MEPRO, which is a knowledge discovery system based on our approach, has been validated using the benchmark databases in the machine learning community.

  13. Child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C


    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  14. Girl child and social change. (United States)

    Seth, P


    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  15. Exceptional giftedness in early adolescence and intrafamilial divergent thinking. (United States)

    Runco, M A; Albert, R S


    Two groups of boys and their parents (N=54) were given five divergent thinking tests as one part of a longitudinal investigation on exceptional giftedness in early adolescence. One groups of adolescents was selected because their IQs were above 150, and the other group, was selected because of their outstanding math-science abilities. Canonical and bivariate analyses indicated that there was a strong correlation between the adolescents' divergent thinking test scores and their parents' divergent thinking test scores (Rc=.55). Additionally, there was some indication that these correlations differed in the two exceptionally gifted groups, with the high-IQ group having divergent thinking test scores related to those of both parents, and the math-science group having divergent thinking test scores related only to those of their mothers. These findings are very consistent with earlier investigations on exceptionally gifted adolescents.

  16. Exceptional collections and D-branes probing toric singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, C P; Herzog, Christopher P.; Karp, Robert L.


    We demonstrate that a strongly exceptional collection on a singular toric surface can be used to derive the gauge theory on a stack of D3-branes probing the Calabi-Yau singularity caused by the surface shrinking to zero size. A strongly exceptional collection, i.e., an ordered set of sheaves satisfying special mapping properties, gives a convenient basis of D-branes. We find such collections and analyze the gauge theories for weighted projective spaces, and many of the Y^{p,q} and L^{p,q,r} spaces. In particular, we prove the strong exceptionality for all p in the Y^{p,p-1} case, and similarly for the Y^{p,p-2r} case.

  17. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones

    CERN Document Server

    Zhen, Bo; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin


    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformations of the Dirac cone often reveal intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. These two fields of research are in fact connected: here we discover the ability of a Dirac cone to evolve into a ring of exceptional points, which we call an "exceptio...

  18. Law: protection of the unborn child. (United States)

    Finch, J


    Under the provisions of the UK's Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 a duty of care is owed to an unborn child via his/her mother, and, although not conclusively settled, a duty of care is probably owed to an unborn child in common law, that is independent of the statute. Thus, it is clear that the law protects the child before birth in the form of an action for damages brought on his/her behalf in respect of disabilities caused during the mother's pregnancy by someone's negligence. In certain cases the law also allows the lives of unborn children to be terminated at some time before birth, or, more precisely, until such time as the unborn child is capable of being born alive. The age at which a child can be born alive is a question of fact and "bona fide" medical evidence in each case. Children who are capable of a live birth are protected under a 1929 Act of Parliament which makes it a serious criminal offense to kill an unborn child who is capable of being born alive. The practice is often either ignored or overlooked, but this vitally important statute should not be forgotten. The offense referred to must be distinguished from the offense of abortion. Staff nurse Karen Smith needs to remember this if she becomes involved in abortions. There are circumstances in which abortion is permitted by law but this is not the same as saying that abortion is lawful. It is necessary to return to 1st principles relating to the law's protection of human life and its provision for the criminal punishment of those who offended against those principles. Subject to certain exceptions, it is murder by a deliberate act to cause or accelerate the death of a person who is "in being." From a legal perspective, this is distinguished as the deliberate ending of the life of someone before their birth. That it is not murder is not because of the fact that the unborn are not "human." Rather it is because they are not yet "in being." In the words of the Infant Life

  19. Enhanced Optomechanical Cooling at High-Order Exceptional Points

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, H; Lü, H; Nori, Franco


    We study mechanical cooling in systems of coupled passive (lossy) and active (with gain) optical resonators. We find that for a driving laser which is red-detuned with respect to the cavity frequency, the supermode structure of the system is radically changed, featuring the emergence of genuine high-order exceptional points. This in turn leads to giant enhancement of both the mechanical damping and the spring stiffness, facilitating low-power mechanical cooling in the vicinity of gain-loss balance. This opens up new avenues of steering micromechanical devices with exceptional points beyond the lowest-order two.

  20. Harmonic inversion analysis of exceptional points in resonance spectra


    Fuchs, Jacob; Main, Jörg; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter


    The spectra of, e.g. open quantum systems are typically given as the superposition of resonances with a Lorentzian line shape, where each resonance is related to a simple pole in the complex energy domain. However, at exceptional points two or more resonances are degenerate and the resulting non-Lorentzian line shapes are related to higher order poles in the complex energy domain. In the Fourier-transform time domain an $n$-th order exceptional point is characterised by a non-exponentially de...

  1. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  2. Child neglect: assessment and intervention. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail


    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  3. An Exceptional Activity for Darevskia derjugini (Nikolsky, 1898 From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Kurnaz


    Full Text Available Observations of reptiles out of their active periods in the field are very surprising for the researchers. The current short note presents data on the exceptional activity of Darevskia derjuginifor the first time in Turkey. Changing climates and global warming may affect the hibernation period of most lizards in the northern hemisphere.

  4. 75 FR 57989 - Exceptions from Periodic Reporting Rules (United States)


    ... services more aptly may be considered merely accounting services that defy meaningful measurement. 39 CFR... measurement reporting requirements. This order grants most of the requested exceptions. The Commission asks the Postal Service to explore other measurement options or use of proxies for reporting purposes...

  5. 23 CFR 656.7 - Determination of an exception. (United States)


    ... CARPOOL AND VANPOOL PROJECTS § 656.7 Determination of an exception. (a) The FHWA has determined under... on: (1) The nature of carpool projects to provide a variety of services to the public; (2) the fact that carpool projects are labor intensive and require professional and specialized technical skills;...

  6. Exceptional groups of Lie type and flag-transitive triplanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A triplane is a ( v, k, 3)-symmetric design. Let G be a subgroup of the full automorphism group of a triplane D. In this paper we prove that if G is flag-transitive and point-primitive, then the socle of G cannot be a simple exceptional group of Lie type.

  7. Twice-Exceptional Learners' Perspectives on Effective Learning Strategies (United States)

    Willard-Holt, Colleen; Weber, Jessica; Morrison, Kristen L.; Horgan, Julia


    This mixed-methods study investigates the perspectives of twice-exceptional students on learning strategies that have been recommended for them in the literature. Have the strategies recommended in the literature been implemented? Do students perceive the strategies to be beneficial in helping them learn? Participants represented a broad range of…

  8. An exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher


    Acute appendicitis is an exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan is the key to its diagnosis and helps to establish its early treatment. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented acute appendicitis with redundant and loosely attached cecum which was diagnosed based on his left lower quadrant abdominal pain.

  9. 31 CFR 103.55 - Exceptions, exemptions, and reports. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions, exemptions, and reports. 103.55 Section 103.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.55...

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.5011-2 - Exception. (United States)


    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5011-2... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception. 109-27.5011-2 Section 109-27.5011-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  11. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses. (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.


    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  12. Computer Use and Behavior Problems in Twice-Exceptional Students (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela; Miley, Neal; Seckinger, Sean


    This pilot study investigated how engagement with computer games and TV exposure may affect behaviors of gifted students. We also compared behavioral and cognitive profiles of twice-exceptional students and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students were divided into those with behavioral problems and those…

  13. Goal Setting and Its Application with Exceptional Learners. (United States)

    Johnson, LeAnn A.; Graham, Steve


    This paper focuses on goal setting in instruction of exceptional students. Goals types and such properties as specificity, proximity and difficulty are discussed, along with additional factors including feedback, commitment, participation, and student ability. Goal setting guidelines for reading, writing, mathematics, assignment completion, and…

  14. 33 CFR 151.77 - Exceptions for emergencies. (United States)


    ... Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.77 Exceptions for... Vessels Outside special areas (33 CFR 151.69) In special areas 2 (33 CFR 151.71) Fixed or Floating...: Special areas under Annex V are the Mediterranean, Baltic, Black, Red, and North Seas areas and the...

  15. Supporting Teachers to Work with Children with Exceptionalities (United States)

    Killoran, Isabel; Zaretsky, Hayley; Jordan, Anne; Smith, Deidre; Allard, Carson; Moloney, James


    The current study had two purposes: to explore further revisions to the Three-Part Schedule D Additional Qualification (AQ) courses in special education and to determine if a virtual knowledge network would be a viable and welcome tool in building teacher capacity for classroom inclusion of students with exceptionalities. Educational stakeholders…

  16. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer. (United States)


    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  17. Encouraging Discussion between Teacher Candidates and Families with Exceptional Children (United States)

    Williams, Emily


    The Families as Faculty experience assists universities to better prepare candidates for service as classroom teachers. Upon entering their practica and student teaching, many teacher candidates have had no to limited contact with exceptional students. Often candidates are unaware of the realities of having a student with disabilities in their…

  18. 46 CFR 80.20 - Exception to requirements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception to requirements. 80.20 Section 80.20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY... appear in printed advertising or promotional literature as described in § 80.30(a), in a type no...

  19. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books (United States)

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley


    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  20. Exceptional Lie groups, E-infinity theory and Higgs Boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Okaby, Ayman A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University (Egypt)], E-mail:


    In this paper we study the correlation between El-Naschie's exceptional Lie groups hierarchies and his transfinite E-infinity space-time theory. Subsequently this correlation is used to calculate the number of elementary particles in the standard model, mass of the Higgs Bosons and some coupling constants.

  1. 49 CFR 173.3 - Packaging and exceptions. (United States)


    ... for transportation by air, highway, rail, or water must be as specified in this part. Methods of.... (ii) Must have a maximum water capacity of 450 L (119 gallons). (iii) Except for liquefied nitrous... symbol of the manufacturer; and (iv) The words “SALVAGE CYLINDER” in letters at least 50 mm (2.0...

  2. Exceptional Lie Groups, E-infinity Theory and Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    El-Okaby, Ayman A


    In this paper, we study the correlation between the exceptional lie groups and El-Naschie's transfinite E-infinity spacetime theory. Subsequently this is used to calculate the number of elementary particles in the standard model, mass of the Higgs boson and some coupling constants.

  3. Exceptional memory performance in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann;


    Research to understand variability at the highest end of the cognitive performance distribution has been scarce. Our aim was to define a cognitive endophenotype based on exceptional episodic memory (EM) performance and to investigate familial aggregation of EM in families from the Long Life Family...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1245-4 - Exceptions and limitations. (United States)


    ....1245-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1245-4 Exceptions and.... Example 3. Green's will provides for the bequest of section 1245 property to trustees to pay the...

  5. Ada (Trademark) Tasking and Exceptions: A Formal Definition. (United States)


    handlerjist exception- bandler -jead sequence...of-statements E14) exceptionjiandlerjlist -. exceptionji andler..head sequence..of..statements E15...Weatherly, Richard M., A Messale-Based Kernel to Support Ada Tasking, Proceedings of the IEEE Computer 06; Society 1984 Conference on Ada

  6. 26 CFR 31.3221-4 - Exception from supplemental tax. (United States)


    ...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3221... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception from supplemental tax....

  7. 34 CFR 300.220 - Exception for prior local plans. (United States)


    ... effective date of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, the applicable... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception for prior local plans. 300.220 Section 300.220 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  8. Additional safety risk to exceptionally approved drugs in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnardottir, Arna H.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Straus, Sabine M. J.; Eichler, Hans-Georg; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Mol, Peter G. M.


    AIMS Regulatory requirements for new drugs have increased. Special approval procedures with priority assessment are possible for drugs with clear 'unmet medical need'. We question whether these Exceptional Circumstances (EC) or Conditional Approval (CA) procedures have led to a higher probability of

  9. 9 CFR 93.910 - General restrictions; exceptions. (United States)


    ... VHS virus has been isolated in cell culture or other assay determined by the competent authority to be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions; exceptions. 93.910 Section 93.910 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  10. Asynchronous Session Types – Exceptions and Multiparty Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei


    to capture many real scenarios, there are cases where they are not powerful enough for describing and validating interactions involving more complex scenarios. In this note, we shall explore two extensions of session types to interactional exceptions and multiparty session in presence of asynchronous...

  11. Counseling Exceptional Individuals and Their Families: A Systems Perspective (United States)

    Thomas, Volker; Ray, Karen E.


    This article presents three models of counseling exceptional students from a systems perspective. The authors present their definition of counseling, the goals of counseling, and the counseling relationship from a systems perspective. Each model is described, including assessment and intervention techniques appropriate for working with children,…

  12. Twice-Exceptional Learners: The Journey toward a Shared Vision (United States)

    Baldwin, Lois; Baum, Susan; Pereles, Daphne; Hughes, Claire


    For more than 50 years, the unique needs of twice-exceptional (2e) learners have challenged educators. Because of this challenge, much work has been done in different areas across the country in creating appropriate learning environments for serving this population. However, no unified way has been developed to bring together the best research and…

  13. 19 CFR 134.33 - J-List exceptions. (United States)


    ..., steel. Beads, unstrung. Bearings, ball, 5/8-inch or less in diameter. Blanks, metal, to be plated... concrete reinforcement bars; billets, blocks, blooms; ingots; pigs; plates; sheets, except galvanized.... Plugs, tie. Poles, bamboo. Posts (wood), fence. Pulpwood. Rags (including wiping rags) Rails, joint...

  14. 26 CFR 1.461-5 - Recurring item exception. (United States)


    ... satisfied, generally accepted accounting principles are an important factor, but are not dispositive. (ii... of accounting may adopt the recurring item exception described in paragraph (b) of this section as method of accounting for one or more types of recurring items incurred by the taxpayer. In the case...

  15. 77 FR 16062 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (United States)


    ... School Road NW., Suite 332, Albuquerque, NM 87104; telephone number (505) 563-5274. SUPPLEMENTARY... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Albuquerque, New.... Indian Affairs Building, 1011 Indian School Road North West, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104;...

  16. 77 FR 28897 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (United States)


    ..., Division of Performance and Accountability, 1011 Indian School Road NW., Suite 332, Albuquerque, NM 87104... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Albuquerque, New.... Mountain Time. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Hyatt Place Albuquerque/ Uptown, 6901...

  17. Dutch Plural Inflection: The Exception that Proves the Analogy (United States)

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Sandra, Dominiek; Daelemans, Walter; Gillis, Steven; Durieux, Gert; Martens, Evelyn


    We develop the view that inflection is driven partly by non-phonological analogy and that non-phonological information is of particular importance to the inflection of non-canonical roots, which in the view of [Marcus, G. F., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen, H., Wiese, R., & Pinker, S. (1995). "German inflection: the exception that proves the rule."…


    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.


  19. Problems of gifted children teaching and the phenomenon of dual exceptionality in the secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaeva E. I.


    Full Text Available In the article, the phenomenon of dual exceptionality is discussed that takes place in the specific situation when a child simultaneously has the characteristics of giftedness and the diseases impairing the learning process at school. Training the child requires from the teacher, on the one hand, the development of giftedness in a particular area, on the other hand - the correction features complicating the learning process. In this group, there more likely includes the left-handed children, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and those who had the syndrome of autistic specter. The methods of the lateral preferences assessment are described. It was discussed that children with mixed lateral parameters had the most severe problems at school. They have the problems with writing and with reading if they have different predominant parameters, for example right leading hand and left leading ear or left leading eye and right leading ear and so on. In this age corpus callosum works poorly and transmits the information from one hemisphere to another badly. In group with the children having the left lateral preferences, there are a lot of children with the autistic specter disorders and children with hyperactivity and attention deficits. The course of this fact is explained with the knowledge that left lateralization has two mechanisms. The first one is genetic one and the second one is connected with the trauma before the birth and during this process. The set of pedagogical and psychological methods are offered for the teachers for the support of all kinds of students.

  20. Child health in Colombia. (United States)

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I


    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  1. Advocacy and child neglect. (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D


    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  2. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  3. My Child Needs a Piece of Adaptive Equipment: Now What? Well, It Depends! (United States)

    Maly, Jennifer McLaughlin


    As a pediatric physical therapist, the author usually hears this question, "Now What?," after months of frustration as parents attempt to figure out the procedure of getting an item for their child. Unfortunately, there is not a specific answer except "it depends," which can be just as frustrating as the question at hand. Typically, a piece of…

  4. Questions to ask your child's doctor (United States)

    ... families who are coping with this type of cancer? My child's life after treatment: Will my child grow normally? ... able to have children as an adult? Will cancer treatment put my child at risk for health problems later in life? ...

  5. Diastematomyelia with hemimyelomeningocele: An exceptional and complex spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Singh


    Full Text Available Variations in split cord malformation (SCM have been described earlier. However, a true hemimyelomeningocele (HMM as only congenital malformation is extremely rare and is reported infrequently in published literature. We are reporting the case of a 3-month-old girl child who presented with a swelling on the lower back since birth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a type 1 SCM with right hemicord forming a HMM. Precise diagnosis and thorough anatomical detail of dysraphism is essential for optimal, individualized neurosurgical management.

  6. Child abuse by drowning. (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E


    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  7. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin


    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown that there ......Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  8. Child Shona noun prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Sibanda


    Full Text Available This article falls under the broad area of child language acquisition and it aims to present an analysis of the acquisition of Shona noun class prefixes. The data collection procedures involved fortnightly observation and audio-recording of the spontaneous speech of three children who were acquiring Shona as a mother tongue. The results of this investigation confirm findings from earlier studies and show that noun class prefixes are acquired in three partially overlapping stages. In the first stage, nouns are produced without class prefixes and as time progresses, in the second stage, they are produced with them but in the form of an onsetless vowel. In the third stage, nouns are produced with full and phonologically appropriate class prefixes. The empirical and theoretical findings of this investigation are expected to broaden and deepen our knowledge of morphology and the phonology-morphology interface in the context of child language acquisition. As there are few descriptive and theoretical studies on the acquisition of Shona, this research recommends more studies on this subject.

  9. Child Labor in the Global Economy


    Edmonds, Eric V.; Nina Pavcnik


    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  10. Early Child Care in Switzerland (United States)

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others


    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  11. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux" (United States)

    Stoesz, David


    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  12. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)


    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  13. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist. (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.


    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  14. Personal Affairs: Child Development Services (United States)


    with AEI, appendix G. d. Air deodorizing machines should be installed in child activity rooms/modules serving nontoilet–trained children and all child...Plant Listing Non–Toxic Listing Abella, Abyssinian Sword Lily, African Daisy, African Palm, African Violet, Air Fern, Airplane Plant, Aluminum Plant

  15. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen


    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  16. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  17. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa


    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  18. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa


    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  19. Is My Child's Appetite Normal? (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  20. Resonance scattering at third-order exceptional points (United States)

    Heiss, W. D.; Wunner, G.


    We analyze scattering cross sections at and near third-order exceptional points (EP3), i.e., points in physical parameter space where three energies and eigenfunctions coincide. At an EP3, the Green’s function contains a pole of third order, in addition to poles of second and first order. We show that the interference of the three pole terms produces a rich variety of line shapes at the exceptional point and in its neighbourhood. This is demonstrated by extending previous work on two harmonic oscillators to a system of three driven coupled damped oscillators. We also discuss the similarities and the differences in the behaviour of the amplitudes in the classical problem and the scattering cross sections in the quantum mechanical problem at the EP3.

  1. ADHD and giftedness: a neurocognitive consideration of twice exceptionality. (United States)

    Budding, Deborah; Chidekel, Dana


    Current models of cognition and behavioral diagnosis emphasize categorical classification over continuous considerations of function and promote the "differential diagnosis" of various conditions according to observational criteria. However, an overemphasis on a purely behavioral, categorical approach to understanding human function fails to address the comorbidity of different disorders and does not include a consideration of overlapping levels of function, from "pathological" through "normal," to "gifted" or exceptional. The frequent co-occurrence of "gifted" and "pathological" function is thus difficult to understand from a corticocentric and purely behavioral and observational point of view. This article reviews "giftedness" in relation to the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, coexistence of which is termed "twice exceptional." It additionally considers problems in assessing these functions using current neuropsychological tests and methodologies that are presumably based upon a corticocentric model of cognition.

  2. Average Exceptional Lie Group Hierarchy and High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    El Naschie, M S


    Starting from an invariant total dimension for an exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy, we drive all the essential characteristic and coupling constants of the fundamental interactions of physics. It is shown in a most simplistic fashion that all physical fields are various transfinite scaling transformation and topological deformation of each other. An extended standard model on the other hand turned out to be a compact sub group H of a version of E7 exceptional Lie group E7(−5) with dimH =69. Thus particle physics, electromagnetism as well as gravity and the bulk are all representable via modular spaces akin to the famous compactified version of F. Klein’s modular curve.

  3. Exceptional generalised geometry for massive IIA and consistent reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide; Petrini, Michela; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel


    We develop an exceptional generalised geometry formalism for massive type IIA supergravity. In particular, we construct a deformation of the generalised Lie derivative, which generates the type IIA gauge transformations as modified by the Romans mass. We apply this new framework to consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions preserving maximal supersymmetry. We find a generalised parallelisation of the exceptional tangent bundle on S^6, and from this reproduce the consistent truncation ansatz and embedding tensor leading to dyonically gauged ISO(7) supergravity in four dimensions. We also discuss closely related hyperboloid reductions, yielding a dyonic ISO(p,7-p) gauging. Finally, while for vanishing Romans mass we find a generalised parallelisation on S^d, d=4,3,2, leading to a maximally supersymmetric reduction with gauge group SO(d+1) (or larger), we provide evidence that an analogous reduction does not exist in the massive theory.

  4. Exceptional generalised geometry for massive IIA and consistent reductions (United States)

    Cassani, Davide; de Felice, Oscar; Petrini, Michela; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel


    We develop an exceptional generalised geometry formalism for massive type IIA supergravity. In particular, we construct a deformation of the generalised Lie derivative, which generates the type IIA gauge transformations as modified by the Romans mass. We apply this new framework to consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions preserving maximal supersymmetry. We find a generalised parallelisation of the exceptional tangent bundle on S 6, and from this reproduce the consistent truncation ansatz and embedding tensor leading to dyonically gauged ISO(7) supergravity in four dimensions. We also discuss closely related hyperboloid reductions, yielding a dyonic ISO( p, 7 - p) gauging. Finally, while for vanishing Romans mass we find a generalised parallelisation on S d , d = 4 , 3 , 2, leading to a maximally supersymmetric reduction with gauge group SO( d + 1) (or larger), we provide evidence that an analogous reduction does not exist in the massive theory.

  5. What Is Nigeria? Unsettling the Myth of Exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghogho Akpome


    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions and representations of Nigeria and Nigerians in the popular global imaginary. It analyses selected popular media narratives in order to foreground contradictions and paradoxes in the ways in which the country and people of Nigeria are discursively constructed. By doing so, it interrogates stereotypes of corruption and criminality as well as myths of exceptionalism about Nigeria and Nigerians originating from both within and outside the country. The analysis reveals that the generalised portrayal of Nigeria and Nigerians as exceptional social subjects is characterised by contradictions and inaccuracies in dominant representational practices and cannot be justified by the verifiable empirical information available on the country and its people.

  6. [The place of the child]. (United States)

    Molenat, F


    A child's self-construction and access to his identity depend on the conditions of affective security in which he is raised and his genealogical references, the founders of his own place in society. The quality of the professional care at the different stages of the birth process is confirmed as a major variable in the parents' sense of security, followed by the child's. The drift toward the illusion of a right to a child is tempered by the attention that can be contributed by all healthcare providers who come into contact with couples when they request artificial procreation: recognition of their request, but also of their suffering, so as to separate the child's place from parental projections that may be poorly adjusted to the child's needs.

  7. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala


    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  8. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity


    Taylor eBenson; Sohee ePark


    Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC) on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial tra...

  9. Families: from difficult to exceptional--one team's journey. (United States)

    Baker, Marilyn Kay; Miers, Anne; Sulla, Stephanie; Vines, Heilia


    Families of patients need support when the hospital stay becomes more difficult than anticipated. Healthcare providers also need assistance when caring for them. A continuous improvement team, Caring for Exceptional Families, was initiated to develop a system with tools and interventions for a proactive multidisciplinary approach to identifying families at risk for negative behavior during the hospital experience. The process and outcomes of this team are described.

  10. Confinement without a center the exceptional group G(2)

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, K; Pepé, M; Wiese, U J


    We discuss theories with the exceptional centerless gauge group G(2), paying attention to confinement and the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking. Exploiting the Higgs mechanism to break the symmetry down to SU(3), we also present how the familiar features of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking of SU(3) gauge theories reemerge. G(2) gauge theories show up as an unusual theoretical framework to study SU(3) gauge theories without the ``luxury'' of a center.

  11. Modes and exceptional points in waveguides with impedance boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Midya, Bikashkali


    A planar waveguide with impedance boundary, composed of non-perfect metallic plates, and with passive or active dielectric filling is considered. We show the possibility of selective mode guiding and amplification when homogeneous pump is added to the dielectric, and analyze differences in TE and TM mode propagation. Such a non-conservative system is also shown to feature exceptional points, for specific and experimentally tunable parameters, which are described for a particular case of transparent dielectric.

  12. W/Z properties (except mass) form ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Santaolalla, Javier


    The results on W and Z boson properties by both ATLAS and CMS (except mass) are presented in this document. The inclusive W and Z boson cross section production, the W charge asymmetry, the differential production as a function of the boson rapidity and transverse momentum, the W polarization and the sinus of the weak angle are shown in this document. The studies included are based on LHC collisions at ps = 7 TeV, recorded during 2010 and 2011.

  13. W/Z properties (except mass) from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Santaolalla Camino, Javier


    The results on W and Z boson properties by both ATLAS and CMS (except mass) are presented in this document. The inclusive W and Z boson cross section production, the W charge asymmetry, the differential production as a function of the boson rapidity and transverse momentum, the W polarization and the sinus of the weak angle are shown in this document. The studies included are based on LHC collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV, recorded during 2010 and 2011.

  14. The Discretionary Function Exception in FTCA Litigation Alleging Medical Malpractice (United States)


    discretion of the employees responsible for such oversight. Id. at 146, footnote 3. Accord, Fridge Const. v. Fed. Emergency Mqt. Agency, 797 F.Supp. 1321... Fridge , the contractor, sought to recover the additional cost of 23 The Eleventh Circuit, however, pierced the discretionary function exception’s...Karen Keir and her mother brought suit against the United States for injuries she sustained when an Army optometrist failed to refer her to an

  15. The Dilemma of Democracy: Collusion and the State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McGovern


    Full Text Available In what sense might the authoritarian practices and suspension of legal norms as means to combat the supposed threat of “terrorism,” within and by contemporary western democratic states, be understood as a problem of and not for democracy? That question lies at the heart of this article. It will be explored through the theoretical frame offered in the work of Giorgio Agamben on the state of exception and the example of British state collusion in non-state violence in the North of Ireland. The North of Ireland provides a particularly illuminating case study to explore how the state of exception—the suspension of law and of legal norms and the exercise of arbitrary decision—has increasingly become a paradigm of contemporary governance. In so doing it brings into question not only the traditional conceptualization of the “democratic dilemma” of liberal democratic states “confronting terrorism” but also challenge dominant paradigms of transitional justice that generally fail to problematize the liberal democratic order. After outlining Agamben’s understanding of the state of exception the article will chart the development of “exceptional measures” and the creation of a permanent state of emergency in the North, before critically exploring the role of collusion as an aspect of counter-insurgency during the recent conflict. The paper will argue that the normalization of exceptional measures, combined with the need to delimit the explicitness of constitutional provision for the same, provided a context for the emergence of collusion as a paradigm case for the increasing replication of colonial practices into the core activity of the contemporary democratic state.

  16. Harmonic inversion analysis of exceptional points in resonance spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jacob; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter


    The spectra of, e.g. open quantum systems are typically given as the superposition of resonances with a Lorentzian line shape, where each resonance is related to a simple pole in the complex energy domain. However, at exceptional points two or more resonances are degenerate and the resulting non-Lorentzian line shapes are related to higher order poles in the complex energy domain. In the Fourier-transform time domain an $n$-th order exceptional point is characterised by a non-exponentially decaying time signal given as the product of an exponential function and a polynomial of degree $n-1$. The complex positions and amplitudes of the non-degenerate resonances can be determined with high accuracy by application of the nonlinear harmonic inversion method to the real-valued resonance spectra. We extend the harmonic inversion method to include the analysis of exceptional points. The technique yields, in the energy domain, the amplitudes of the higher order poles contributing to the spectra, and, in the time domai...

  17. A child with narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério Macedo


    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcolepsy is a chronic disease characterized by sleep attacks, excessive daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep fragmentation. It can be associated cataplexy and other disturbance of REM sleep (sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic. Case report: A 10-year old boy was referred to Pedopsychiatry because of behavioural disturbance, irritability, sleepiness and distraction, being interpreted as an “ill-mannered child.” After clinical evaluation and comprehensive laboratory studies we concluded that he presented narcolepsy with cataplexy. Discussion/conclusion: Patients with narcolepsy face several problems due to the disease which, if left untreated or ineffectively treated, cause embarrassing or distressing symptoms, affecting their quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this problem since it is a rare condition and therefore seldom not recognized by the general public or even by health professionals.

  18. Measuring health-related quality of life for child maltreatment: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosser Lisa A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. Conclusion Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However

  19. Lesch-nyhan syndrome in an Indian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chandekar


    Full Text Available Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase-1 (HGPRT-1 leading to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS is one of the important causes of self-mutilation. Hereby, we report a case of LNS in a three and half-year-old male child, who presented with characteristic self-mutilating behavior. He had history of developmental delay, difficulty in social interaction, attention deficit and features of autism. His serum blood biochemistry was normal except for low hemoglobin levels and raised serum uric acid levels. With a diagnosis of LNS, the child was treated with allopurinol. With various modalities of physical restraint, his self-mutilating behavior came under control and currently the patient is being followed up.

  20. Foster Care and Child Health. (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M


    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care.

  1. General Theory of Spontaneous Emission Near Exceptional Points

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Adi; Miller, Owen D; Hsu, Chia W; Hernandez, Felipe; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Soljacic, Marin; Johnson, Steven G


    Exceptional points (EPs)---non-Hermitian degeneracies where both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors coalesce---have recently been realized in various optical systems. Here we present a general theory of spontaneous emission near such degeneracies, where standard mode-expansion methods lead to erroneous divergent results. We show that significant (and finite) enhancements for light-matter interaction can occur in systems with gain, whereas in passive systems the enhancement is at most four-fold. Under special conditions, the emission spectral lineshape near the EP becomes a squared Lorentzian, and the enhancement scales quadratically with the resonance lifetime.

  2. Finding Exception For Association Rules Via SQL Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUMITRIU


    Full Text Available Finding association rules is mainly based on generating larger and larger frequent set candidates, starting from frequent attributes in the database. The frequent sets can be organised as a part of a lattice of concepts according to the Formal Concept Analysis approach. Since the lattice construction is database contents-dependent, the pseudo-intents (see Formal Concept Analysis are avoided. Association rules between concept intents (closed sets A=>B are partial implication rules, meaning that there is some data supporting A and (not B; fully explaining the data requires finding exceptions for the association rules. The approach applies to Oracle databases, via SQL queries.

  3. W/Z properties (except mass form ATLAS and CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaolalla J.


    Full Text Available The results on W and Z boson properties by both ATLAS and CMS (except mass are presented in this document. The inclusive W and Z boson cross section production, the W charge asymmetry, the differential production as a function of the boson rapidity and transverse momentum, the W polarization and the sinus of the weak angle are shown in this document. The studies included are based on LHC collisions at √s = 7 TeV, recorded during 2010 and 2011.

  4. Employment-At-Will Exceptions and Jobless Recovery


    DeNicco, James


    In this paper I study the effects on jobless recovery of diminishing the power of an employer to fire an employee through Employment-At-Will Exceptions (EWEs). I do so by using a dynamic panel with quarterly data ranging from 1976 to 2010 for the 50 states in the United States. I test both changes in state unemployment rates and state-weighted GDP growth in single variable regressions and VAR regressions. My contribution to the literature is threefold. First, I show two of the three EWEs cont...

  5. Nothing in biology makes sense except in light of theology? (United States)

    Dilley, Stephen


    This essay analyzes Theodosius Dobzhansky's famous article, "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution," in which he presents some of his best arguments for evolution. I contend that all of Dobzhansky's arguments hinge upon sectarian claims about God's nature, actions, purposes, or duties. Moreover, Dobzhansky's theology manifests several tensions, both in the epistemic justification of his theological claims and in their collective coherence. I note that other prominent biologists--such as Mayr, Dawkins, Eldredge, Ayala, de Beer, Futuyma, and Gould--also use theology-laden arguments. I recommend increased analysis of the justification, complexity, and coherence of this theology.

  6. Kac-Moody exceptional E12 from simplictic tiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Frankfurt Institute for the Advancement of Fundamental Scientific Research, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt)], E-mail:


    We give various derivations for the order of a new non classical exceptional Lie group E12. We start from the simplest polyhedra of ordinary three dimensional space and arrive at the exact integer value vertical bar E12 vertical bar = 685. Subsequently we show that a corresponding infinite dimensional but hierarchal KAC-Moody algebra called 4D fusion algebra leads to an exact transfinite dimension equal to Dim E12=(5)({alpha}-bar{sub o})=685.410197, where {alpha}-bar{sub o}=137.082039325 is the E-infinity electromagnetic fine structure constant.

  7. The Bergman Kernels on Generalized Exceptional Hua Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷慰萍; 赵振刚


    @@Yin Weiping introduce four types of Hua domain which are built on four types of Cartan domain and the Bergman kernels on these four types of Hua domain can be computed in explicit formulas[1]. In this paper, two types of domains defined by (10), (11) (see below) are introduced which are built on two exceptional Cartan domains. And We compute Bergman Kernels explicitly for these two domains. We also study the asymptotic behavior of the Bergman kernel function near boundary points, drawing on Appell's multivariable hypergeometric function.

  8. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut


    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  9. QES extension of Calogero model associated with exceptional orthogonal polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Basu-Mallick, B; Roy, Pinaki


    By using the technique of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we study a quasi exactly solvable (QES) extension of the $N$-particle rational Calogero model with harmonic confining interaction. Such QES many particle system, whose effective potential in the radial direction yields a supersymmetric partner of the radial harmonic oscillator, is constructed by including new long-range interactions to the rational Calogero model. An infinite number of bound state energy levels are obtained for this system under certain conditions. We also calculate the corresponding bound state wave functions in terms of the recently discovered exceptional orthogonal Laguerre polynomials.

  10. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza


    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  11. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender


    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  12. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate


    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  13. Helping Your Child Deal with Death (United States)

    ... to tell you. Grandma died today." Pause to give your child a moment to take in your words. Listen and comfort. Every child ... being together helps people start to feel better." Give your child a role. ... if they want to take part, and how. Help your child remember the ...

  14. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior. (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others


    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  15. An Update on the CHILDES/BIB (formerly ISU/CHILDES) Database. (United States)

    Higginson, Roy


    Describes the CHILDES/BIB electronic bibliographic database, its contents, and its relationship to the CHILDES database. CHILDES is a depository of child language corpora and is the publisher of CHAT (a transcription manual) and CLAN (an electronic package for child language research). (GLR)

  16. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  17. Boys with Asperger's disorder, exceptional verbal intelligence, tics, and clumsiness. (United States)

    Nass, R; Gutman, R


    Five boys with both Asperger's disorder and Tourette syndrome, exceptional verbal intelligence, and clumsiness are reported. Each presented at early elementary school age with a prominent complaint of social difficulties with peers. History was notable for a flapping stereotypy and the neurological examination revealed motor and/or vocal tics and numerous motor soft signs. Highly specialized interests were characteristics. Language prosody and/or pragmatics was impaired. Despite exceptional verbal intelligence, the children were not, according to their teachers and parents, faring well either socially or academically. Motor difficulties, manifested psychometrically as a significant performance IQ disadvantage, interfered with school performance and social adjustment. Tics, although not noted by parents in the clinical history, compounded their social difficulties. Asperger's disorder in these highly verbal children overlaps with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) on account of the socioemotional difficulties and stereotypies seen in both. Asperger's disorder and Tourette syndrome overlap in these children on account of the tics. Finally, Asperger's disorder and the right-hemisphere-based learning disorders overlap on account of the visuoperceptual and attentional deficits that can occur in both.

  18. Architecting Fault Tolerance with Exception Handling: Verification and Validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick H. S. Brito; Rogério de Lemos; Cecília M. F. Rubira; Eliane Martins


    When building dependable systems by integrating untrusted software components that were not originally designed to interact with each other, it is likely the occurrence of architectural mismatches related to assumptions in their failure behaviour. These mismatches, if not prevented during system design, have to be tolerated during runtime. This paper presents an architectural abstraction based on exception handling for structuring fault-tolerant software systems.This abstraction comprises several components and connectors that promote an existing untrusted software element into an idealised fault-tolerant architectural element. Moreover, it is considered in the context of a rigorous software development approach based on formal methods for representing the structure and behaviour of the software architecture. The proposed approach relies on a formal specification and verification for analysing exception propagation, and verifying important dependability properties, such as deadlock freedom, and scenarios of architectural reconfiguration. The formal models are automatically generated using model transformation from UML diagrams: component diagram representing the system structure, and sequence diagrams representing the system behaviour. Finally, the formal models are also used for generating unit and integration test cases that are used for assessing the correctness of the source code. The feasibility of the proposed architectural approach was evaluated on an embedded critical case study.

  19. $R^4$ couplings, the fundamental membrane and exceptional theta correspondences

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, B; Plefka, J; Waldron, A


    This letter is an attempt to carry out a first-principle computation in M-theory using the point of view that the eleven-dimensional membrane gives the fundamental degrees of freedom of M-theory. Our aim is to derive the exact BPS $R^4$ couplings in M-theory compactified on a torus $T^{d+1}$ from the toroidal BPS membrane, by pursuing the analogy with the one-loop string theory computation. We exhibit an $Sl(3,\\Zint)$ modular invariance hidden in the light-cone gauge (but obvious in the Polyakov approach), and recover the correct classical spectrum and membrane instantons; the summation measure however is incorrect. It is argued that the correct membrane amplitude should be given by an exceptional theta correspondence lifting $Sl(3,\\Zint)$ modular forms to $\\exc(\\Zint)$ automorphic forms, generalizing the usual theta lift between $Sl(2,\\Zint)$ and $SO(d,d,\\Zint)$ in string theory. The exceptional correspondence $Sl(3)\\times E_{6(6)}\\subset E_{8(8)}$ offers the interesting prospect of solving the membrane smal...


    CERN Multimedia


    1. GeneralAs indicated in last year's guidelines, studies on CERN's career structures are continuing in the context of the work of the Tripartite Forum on Employment Conditions (TREF) and should be completed during this year's 5-Yearly Remuneration Review for the application of any changes in 2001. In the meantime, the 2000 annual advancement exercise will be conducted on similar basic lines to those of previous years, i.e. within the procedures of the Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 2), thus promoting the aspect of individual merit in advancement.The present guidelines continue to aim at the best possible degree of flexibility of application for each division within the present Staff Rules and Regulations in order to take full account of both the different levels of individual performance and also the different staff profiles.All advancement must be justified on the grounds of correctly judged merit: exceptional advancement (i.e. second step or entering the exceptional advancement grade) for par...

  1. Confrontation Between Judicial Activism and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pedro Moura D’Almeida


    Full Text Available The judiciary has excelled in the international and national scene, reaching role of great importance, thus creating opposition to the legislative and executive powers. The center of gravity of the sovereign power of the state moves toward the judiciary, that happens to have a more active role and controlling of the others powers, but also appears as a great defender of social and fundamental rights causes, seeking to make an effective constitution. Its great public notoriety has attracted great distrust of various sectors of society, especially by the two powers that have an increasing interference. Arises, therefore, a speech that the judiciary would be reversing into a big and uncontrollable power, increasing the suspicion that now it would be living in a real dictatorship of the judiciary through judicial activism. There is a growing concern with the expansion of activism and the role of the judiciary. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize and approach the judicial activism and the state of exception to search and reveal if there is any similarity, to then draw up a possible answer to the concern of forming a dictatorship of the judiciary. The state of exception is one of the rule of law paradoxes, while activism is a political manifestation of the judiciary. The similarity between the institutes appears as appalling in a dynamic expansion of political power of a state institution exercising judicial function, putting in check who would be the sovereign in a rule of law and democratic state.

  2. Exceptional Ground Accelerations and Velocities Caused by Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, John


    This project aims to understand the characteristics of the free-field strong-motion records that have yielded the 100 largest peak accelerations and the 100 largest peak velocities recorded to date. The peak is defined as the maximum magnitude of the acceleration or velocity vector during the strong shaking. This compilation includes 35 records with peak acceleration greater than gravity, and 41 records with peak velocities greater than 100 cm/s. The results represent an estimated 150,000 instrument-years of strong-motion recordings. The mean horizontal acceleration or velocity, as used for the NGA ground motion models, is typically 0.76 times the magnitude of this vector peak. Accelerations in the top 100 come from earthquakes as small as magnitude 5, while velocities in the top 100 all come from earthquakes with magnitude 6 or larger. Records are dominated by crustal earthquakes with thrust, oblique-thrust, or strike-slip mechanisms. Normal faulting mechanisms in crustal earthquakes constitute under 5% of the records in the databases searched, and an even smaller percentage of the exceptional records. All NEHRP site categories have contributed exceptional records, in proportions similar to the extent that they are represented in the larger database.

  3. Trends in child mortality in India. (United States)

    Behl, A S


    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined.

  4. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  5. Your child and the flu (United States)

    ... children 6 months or older should receive the vaccine. Children under 9 years will need a second flu ... severe or life-threatening flu infection. WILL THE VACCINE HARM MY CHILD? A small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) is ...

  6. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  7. Genetics of Stiff Child Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available A Chinese boy with a DYT1 gene mutation presented with muscle stiffness, painful muscle spasms, myoclonus, and dystonia, compatible with stiff child syndrome, and is reported from Queen Mary Hospital, the University of Hong Kong.

  8. Allergy Relief for Your Child (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... and run the air conditioner. back to top Allergy Medicines For most children, symptoms may be controlled ...

  9. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling


    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  10. FastStats: Child Health (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  11. Treatment of the Hyperactive Child (United States)

    Wunderlich, Ray C.


    Described individually are the following forms of medical treatment for the hyperactive child: stimulants, tranquilizers, megavitamins, corticosteroids, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, food elimination, air filtration, allergic desensitization, perceptual motor training, and behavioral counseling. (DB)

  12. Evaluation of the enuretic child. (United States)

    Rushton, H G


    Nocturnal enuresis is a symptom of environmental, physical, and psychosocial factors. In addition to a physical examination, the initial workup of the enuretic child should include a careful voiding, psychosocial, and family history. Studies have shown that the parents of enuretic children often have a history of enuresis. An increased incidence of enuresis has also been demonstrated in children from large families and lower socioeconomic groups. Daytime voiding symptoms (e.g., frequency, urgency, or enuresis) suggest the possibility of underlying voiding dysfunction. A complete urinalysis and urine culture also should be performed to exclude urinary infection and certain metabolic or nephrologic disorders. Finally, it is important that the treating physician understand the attitudes of both the child and the family concerning enuresis. Parents who feel that the child is at fault need to be educated and reassured. A careful, complete evaluation will allow the physician to tailor treatment to the individual child and family.

  13. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems (United States)

    ... page: // Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  14. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  15. Strength Training and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  16. Preparing Your Child for Surgery (United States)

    ... a teen might be afraid of losing control, missing out on events, being embarrassed or humiliated in ... in the future. Explaining What Will Happen Find books, appropriate to your child's level of understanding, about ...

  17. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  18. Strength Training and Your Child (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...

  19. Child poverty can be reduced. (United States)

    Plotnick, R D


    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  20. The Child Rights System in Romanian Legislation




    Child rights are a set of international conventions which define the conditions for the normal development of a child. In Romania, child rights are now the subject of a specific law, law nr. 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child, which is in accordance with the international conventions. All children have their own rights - whether at home with their natural parents, in foster families, child care institutions or at school. Parents and families, the professional ...

  1. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi


    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  2. Robotics in child neurosurgery. (United States)

    Giorgi, C; Sala, R; Riva, D; Cossu, A; Eisenberg, H


    We felt there was a need for a new device with "minimal invasive" tracking hardware, to be used in image-guided neurosurgery, and the system we designed to fill this need is now presented. It combines precision of movement, stability and self-positioning capabilities together with optically tracked registration and procedural control within the structure of a surgical microscope. The results are reduced setup time and minimal "distraction" from the procedure itself, factors of special relevance in child neurosurgery. The system is composed of a six-axis industrial robot suitable for use in the operating room, carrying a surgical microscope. Three progressive scan-synchronized infrared cameras mounted around the lenses of the scope are used to register the patient's position and track surgical instruments with reference to the registered space. Orientation of the microscope during surgery is obtained with a six-axis joystick used as a microscope handle. The system has been clinically used in 14 cases, and it has proven itself to be reliable, providing the expected performance advantages. The implementation of a tracked ultrasound or endoscope intraoperative imaging source is also described.

  3. Child custody evaluations. (United States)

    Bernet, William


    Because divorce is so common, it is important for our society to find ways to minimize the psychological trauma that is experienced by children of divorced parents. Ideally, divorcing parents would not fight so much over the children, in front of the children, and through the children. When disputes do arise regarding custody, visitation, and parenting plans, mental health professionals can assist the judges who make the final decisions by performing competent custody evaluations. These evaluations should be conducted in a systematic manner, should consider several critical factors in an unbiased manner, and should result in recommendations that promote the best interests of the children. In most cases, the goal is for each child to have strong, healthy relationships with both parents. After conducting an evaluation, it is usually possible to make recommendations regarding custody, parenting arrangements, and forms of counseling and therapy that should be helpful to the family members. It is important to communicate these recommendations in an articulate manner, whether verbally or in the written report.

  4. Sleep Duration and Child Wellbeing: A Nonlinear Association (United States)

    James, Sarah; Hale, Lauren


    Objective Although numerous studies among adults have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and health outcomes, fewer studies have investigated the theory that children also have an optimal sleep duration range, with both lower and upper limits. We evaluated whether children's sleep duration at ages 5 and 9 has a U-shaped association with both behavioral problems and physical health at age 9. Method We analyzed data from 1,965 participants in a longitudinal birth cohort, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. This sample of children was 52% male and approximately 22% non-Hispanic white, 52% non-Hispanic black, 23% Hispanic, and 3% some other race/ethnicity. The child's primary caregiver reported the predictor of interest: sleep duration at age 5 and age 9. Both children and primary caregivers reported on outcomes of the child's behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) and overall physical health. Results We found that the association between children's sleep duration and wellbeing was typically nonlinear and U-shaped. Adjusting for their sleep duration at age 5, children who sleep either too much or too little at age 9 had higher levels of behavior problems and scored lower on a global measure of physical health. These non-linear patterns were similar whether children or primary caregivers reported child outcomes, with the exception that there was a linear and increasing association of longer sleep duration and caregiver-rated child health. Conclusions This study highlights that both short and long sleep duration may be risk factors for adverse behavioral and health outcomes in school-aged children. PMID:27654036

  5. Quadratic differentials in low genus: exceptional and non-varying

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Dawei


    We give an algebraic way of distinguishing the components of the exceptional strata of quadratic differentials in genus three and four. The complete list of these strata is (9, -1), (6,3,-1), (3,3,3, -1) in genus three and (12), (9,3), (6,6), (6,3,3) and (3,3,3,3) in genus four. This result is part of a more general investigation of disjointness of Teichmueller curves with divisors of Brill-Noether type on the moduli space of curves. As a result we show that for many strata of quadratic differentials in low genus the sum of Lyapunov exponents for the Teichmueller geodesic flow is the same for all Teichmueller curves in that stratum.

  6. Biological and psychological correlates of exceptional performance in development. (United States)

    Oerter, Rolf


    The issue of exceptional performance is discussed from four perspectives: genetic distribution of high giftedness, gene-environment interaction, neurobiological findings, and the role of deliberate practice as well as environment in general. The genetic perspective is illustrated mainly by the emergenic and epigenetic model of Simonton, followed by the three types of gene-environment interaction (Scarr and McCartney). The neurological perspective focuses on the role of early practice for neurological representation and on hormonal changes during development. The perspective of deliberate practice summarizes the present state of affairs within this field of research. Finally, a distinction between different levels of excellent performance is proposed, arguing against the neglect of genius as a specific phenomenon among excellent performance.

  7. Exceptional Points and Asymmetric Mode Switching in Plasmonic Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Shaolin; Qin, Chengzhi; Long, Hua; Wang, Kai; Lu, Peixiang


    We investigate the exceptional points (EPs) in a non-Hermitian system composed of a pair of graphene sheets with different losses. There are two surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) modes in the graphene waveguide. By varying the distance between two graphene sheets and chemical potential of graphene, the EPs appear as the eigenvalues, that is, the wave vectors of the two modes coalesce. The cross conversion of eigenmodes and variation of geometric phase can be observed by encircling the EP in the parametric space formed by the geometric parameters and chemical potential of graphene. At the same time, a certain input SPP mode may lead to completely different output. The study paves a way to the development of nanoscale sensitive optical switches and sensors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Eleuch


    Full Text Available Exceptional points (EPs determine the dynamics of open quantum systems and cause also PT symmetry breaking in PT symmetric systems. From a mathematical point of view, this is caused by the fact that the phases of the wavefunctions (eigenfunctions of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian relative to one another are not rigid when an EP is approached. The system is therefore able to align with the environment to which it is coupled and, consequently, rigorous changes of the system properties may occur. We compare analytically as well as numerically the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a 2 × 2 matrix that is characteristic either of open quantum systems at high level density or of PT symmetric optical lattices. In both cases, the results show clearly the influence of the environment on the system in the neighborhood of EPs. Although the systems are very different from one another, the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions indicate the same characteristic features.

  9. Dynamically Encircling Exceptional Points: Exact Evolution and Polarization State Conversion (United States)

    Hassan, Absar U.; Zhen, Bo; Soljačić, Marin; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.


    We show that a two-level non-Hermitian Hamiltonian with constant off-diagonal exchange elements can be analyzed exactly when the underlying exceptional point is perfectly encircled in the complex plane. The state evolution of this system is explicitly obtained in terms of an ensuing transfer matrix, even for large encirclements, regardless of adiabatic conditions. Our results clearly explain the direction-dependent nature of this process and why in the adiabatic limit its outcome is dominated by a specific eigenstate—irrespective of initial conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations suggest that this mechanism can still persist in the presence of nonlinear effects. We further show that this robust process can be harnessed to realize an optical omnipolarizer: a configuration that generates a desired polarization output regardless of the input polarization state, while from the opposite direction it always produces the counterpart eigenstate.

  10. Exceptionally diverse morphotypes and genomes of crenarchaeal hyperthermophilic viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D; Garrett, R A


    The remarkable diversity of the morphologies of viruses found in terrestrial hydrothermal environments with temperatures >80 degrees C is unprecedented for aquatic ecosystems. The best-studied viruses from these habitats have been assigned to novel viral families: Fuselloviridae, Lipothrixviridae...... no significant matches to sequences in public databases. This suggests that these hyperthermophilic viruses have exceptional biochemical solutions for biological functions. Specific features of genome organization, as well as strategies for DNA replication, suggest that phylogenetic relationships exist between...... crenarchaeal rudiviruses and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: poxviruses, the African swine fever virus and Chlorella viruses. Sequence patterns at the ends of the linear genome of the lipothrixvirus AFV1 are reminiscent of the telomeric ends of linear eukaryal chromosomes and suggest that a primitive telomeric...

  11. Characterizing interactions in online social networks during exceptional events

    CERN Document Server

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex


    Nowadays, millions of people interact on a daily basis on online social media like Facebook and Twitter, where they share and discuss information about a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we focus on a specific online social network, Twitter, and we analyze multiple datasets each one consisting of individuals' online activity before, during and after an exceptional event in terms of volume of the communications registered. We consider important events that occurred in different arenas that range from policy to culture or science. For each dataset, the users' online activities are modeled by a multilayer network in which each layer conveys a different kind of interaction, specifically: retweeting, mentioning and replying. This representation allows us to unveil that these distinct types of interaction produce networks with different statistical properties, in particular concerning the degree distribution and the clustering structure. These results suggests that models of online activity cannot discard the...

  12. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail:, E-mail: [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Sun, Handong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)


    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  13. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye (United States)

    He, Tingchao; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Zhao, Yanli; Lin, Xiaodong; Sun, Handong


    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  14. A Short-Range Distance Sensor with Exceptional Linearity (United States)

    Simmons, Steven; Youngquist, Robert


    A sensor has been demonstrated that can measure distance over a total range of about 300 microns to an accuracy of about 0.1 nm (resolution of about 0.01 nm). This represents an exceptionally large dynamic range of operation - over 1,000,000. The sensor is optical in nature, and requires the attachment of a mirror to the object whose distance is being measured. This work resulted from actively developing a white light interferometric system to be used to measure the depths of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows. The concept was then applied to measuring distance. The concept later expanded to include spectrometer calibration. In summary, broadband (i.e., white) light is launched into a Michelson interferometer, one mirror of which is fixed and one of which is attached to the object whose distance is to be measured. The light emerging from the interferometer has traveled one of two distances: either the distance to the fixed mirror and back, or the distance to the moving mirror and back. These two light beams mix and produce an interference pattern where some wavelengths interfere constructively and some destructively. Sending this light into a spectrometer allows this interference pattern to be analyzed, yielding the net distance difference between the two paths. The unique feature of this distance sensor is its ability to measure accurately distance over a dynamic range of more than one million, the ratio of its range (about 300 microns) to its accuracy (about 0.1 nanometer). Such a large linear operating range is rare and arises here because both amplitude and phase-matching algorithms contribute to the performance. The sensor is limited by the need to attach a mirror of some kind to the object being tracked, and by the fairly small total range, but the exceptional dynamic range should make it of interest.

  15. Assessing the Exceptionality of Coloured Motifs in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Vincent


    Full Text Available Various methods have been recently employed to characterise the structure of biological networks. In particular, the concept of network motif and the related one of coloured motif have proven useful to model the notion of a functional/evolutionary building block. However, algorithms that enumerate all the motifs of a network may produce a very large output, and methods to decide which motifs should be selected for downstream analysis are needed. A widely used method is to assess if the motif is exceptional, that is, over- or under-represented with respect to a null hypothesis. Much effort has been put in the last thirty years to derive -values for the frequencies of topological motifs, that is, fixed subgraphs. They rely either on (compound Poisson and Gaussian approximations for the motif count distribution in Erdös-Rényi random graphs or on simulations in other models. We focus on a different definition of graph motifs that corresponds to coloured motifs. A coloured motif is a connected subgraph with fixed vertex colours but unspecified topology. Our work is the first analytical attempt to assess the exceptionality of coloured motifs in networks without any simulation. We first establish analytical formulae for the mean and the variance of the count of a coloured motif in an Erdös-Rényi random graph model. Using simulations under this model, we further show that a Pólya-Aeppli distribution better approximates the distribution of the motif count compared to Gaussian or Poisson distributions. The Pólya-Aeppli distribution, and more generally the compound Poisson distributions, are indeed well designed to model counts of clumping events. Altogether, these results enable to derive a -value for a coloured motif, without spending time on simulations.

  16. Phase diagrams of exceptional and supersymmetric lattice gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellegehausen, Bjoern-Hendrik


    In this work different strongly-coupled gauge theories with and without fundamental matter have been studied on the lattice with an emphasis on the confinement problem and the QCD phase diagram at nonvanishing net baryon density as well as on possible supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. In gauge theories with a non-trivial centre symmetry, as for instance SU(3)-Yang-Mills theory, confinement is intimately related to the centre of the gauge group, and the Polyakov loop serves as an order parameter for confinement. In QCD, this centre symmetry is explicitly broken by quarks in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. But still quarks and gluons are confined in mesons, baryons and glueballs at low temperatures and small densities, suggesting that centre symmetry is not responsible for the phenomenon of confinement. Therefore it is interesting to study pure gauge theories without centre symmetry. In this work this has been done by replacing the gauge group SU(3) of the strong interaction with the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}, that has a trivial centre. To investigate G{sub 2} gauge theory on the lattice, a new and highly efficient update algorithm has been developed, based on a local HMC algorithm. Employing this algorithm, the proposed and already investigated first order phase transition from a confined to a deconfined phase has been confirmed, showing that indeed a first order phase transition without symmetry breaking or an order parameter is possible. In this context, also the deconfinement phase transition of the exceptional Lie groups F4 and E6 in three spacetime dimensions has been studied. It has been shown that both theories also possess a first order phase transition.

  17. [Child abuse in the family]. (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes


    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  18. The child anxiety impact scale: examining parent- and child-reported impairment in child anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Falk, Avital; Peris, Tara; Wiley, Joshua F; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; March, John; Albano, Ann Marie; Piacentini, John


    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al., 2008 ). The CAIS child and parent versions measure anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17 (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver. Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview and then completed the CAIS along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit, with a comparative fit index of .88 and root mean square error of approximation of .05. Internal consistency was very good for total score and subscales of both versions of the scale (Cronbach's α = .70-.90). The CAIS total scores demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent functioning.

  19. [Extending preimplantation genetic diagnosis to HLA typing: the French exception]. (United States)

    Steffann, Julie; Frydman, Nelly; Burlet, Philippe; Gigarel, Nadine; Hesters, Laetitia; Kerbrat, Violaine; Lamazou, Frédéric; Munnich, Arnold; Frydman, René


    Umut-Talha, a "sibling savior", was born on 26 January 2011 at Beclère Hospital after embryo selection at the Paris preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) center. His birth revived the controversy over "double PGD". This procedure, authorized in France since 2006, allows couples who already have a child with a serious, incurable genetic disease, to opt for PGD in order to select a healthy embryo that is HLA-matched to the affected sibling and who may thus serve as an ombilical cord blood donor. The procedure is particularly complex and the baby take-home rate is still very low. Double PGD is strictly regulated in France, and candidate couples must first receive individual authorization from the Biomedicine Agency. In our experience, these couples have a strong desire to have children, as reflected by the large number of prior spontaneous pregnancies (25% of couples). Likewise, most of these couples request embryo transfer even when there is no HLA-matched embryo, which accounts for more than half of embryo transfers. The controversy surrounding this practice has flared up again in recent weeks, over the concepts of "designer babies" and "double savior siblings" (the baby is selected to be free of the hereditary disease, and may also serve as a stem cell donor for the affected sibling).

  20. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports. (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  1. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families



    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills ...

  2. Parental practice of child car safety in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu KI


    Full Text Available KI Ndu,1,* U Ekwochi,1,* DC Osuorah,2,* OC Ifediora,3 FO Amadi,1 IN Asinobi,1 OW Okenwa,1 JC Orjioke,1 FN Ogbuka,1 TO Ulasi4 1Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Engu, Nigeria; 2Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Fajara, Gambia; 3Griffiths University Medical School, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4Department of Paediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated (r=–0.121, P=0.310. Only respondent’s use of seat belt during driving (P=0.001 and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs (P=0.005 maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%; restraints not being important, 53 (26%, and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%. Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%, inadequate number of CCRs (22%, and the child being sick (18

  3. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave. (United States)

    Walker, J R


    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  4. Dark matter candidates in the constrained Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Athron, P; Underwood, S J; White, M J


    The Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model (E$_6$SSM) is a low energy alternative to the MSSM with an extra $U(1)$ gauge symmetry and three generations of matter filling complete 27-plet representations of $E_6$. This provides both new D and F term contributions that raise the Higgs mass at tree level, and a compelling solution to the $\\mu$-problem of the MSSM by forbidding such a term with the extra $U(1)$ symmetry. Instead, an effective $\\mu$-term is generated from the VEV of an SM singlet which breaks the extra $U(1)$ symmetry at low energies, giving rise to a massive $Z^\\prime$. We explore the phenomenology of the constrained version of this model (cE$_6$SSM) in substantially more detail than has been carried out previously, performing a ten dimensional scan that reveals a large volume of viable parameter space. We classify the different mechanisms for generating the measured relic density of dark matter found in the scan, including the identification of a new mechanism involving mixed bino/inert-Higgs...

  5. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments. (United States)

    Leach, John


    Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc.; or 'tortuous', when specific environmental stimuli are used deliberately against a person in an attempt to undermine his will or resistance. The main factors in an abnormal environment are: psychological (isolation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, temporal disorientation); psychophysiological (thermal, stress positions), and psychosocial (cultural humiliation, sexual degradation). Each single factor may not be considered tortuous, however, if deliberately structured into a systemic cluster may constitute torture under legal definition. The individual experience of extremis can be pathogenic or salutogenic and attempts are being made to capitalise on these positive experiences whilst ameliorating the more negative aspects of living in an abnormal environment.

  6. Greenland ice sheet motion insensitive to exceptional meltwater forcing. (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J; Nienow, Peter W; Sole, Andrew J; Mair, Douglas W F; Cowton, Thomas R; Bartholomew, Ian D; King, Matt A


    Changes to the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet can be forced by various mechanisms including surface-melt-induced ice acceleration and oceanic forcing of marine-terminating glaciers. We use observations of ice motion to examine the surface melt-induced dynamic response of a land-terminating outlet glacier in southwest Greenland to the exceptional melting observed in 2012. During summer, meltwater generated on the Greenland ice sheet surface accesses the ice sheet bed, lubricating basal motion and resulting in periods of faster ice flow. However, the net impact of varying meltwater volumes upon seasonal and annual ice flow, and thus sea level rise, remains unclear. We show that two extreme melt events (98.6% of the Greenland ice sheet surface experienced melting on July 12, the most significant melt event since 1889, and 79.2% on July 29) and summer ice sheet runoff ~3.9 σ above the 1958-2011 mean resulted in enhanced summer ice motion relative to the average melt year of 2009. However, despite record summer melting, subsequent reduced winter ice motion resulted in 6% less net annual ice motion in 2012 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that surface melt-induced acceleration of land-terminating regions of the ice sheet will remain insignificant even under extreme melting scenarios.

  7. Alternative protein-protein interfaces are frequent exceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hamp

    Full Text Available The intricate molecular details of protein-protein interactions (PPIs are crucial for function. Therefore, measuring the same interacting protein pair again, we expect the same result. This work measured the similarity in the molecular details of interaction for the same and for homologous protein pairs between different experiments. All scores analyzed suggested that different experiments often find exceptions in the interfaces of similar PPIs: up to 22% of all comparisons revealed some differences even for sequence-identical pairs of proteins. The corresponding number for pairs of close homologs reached 68%. Conversely, the interfaces differed entirely for 12-29% of all comparisons. All these estimates were calculated after redundancy reduction. The magnitude of interface differences ranged from subtle to the extreme, as illustrated by a few examples. An extreme case was a change of the interacting domains between two observations of the same biological interaction. One reason for different interfaces was the number of copies of an interaction in the same complex: the probability of observing alternative binding modes increases with the number of copies. Even after removing the special cases with alternative hetero-interfaces to the same homomer, a substantial variability remained. Our results strongly support the surprising notion that there are many alternative solutions to make the intricate molecular details of PPIs crucial for function.

  8. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability. (United States)

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn


    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins.

  9. Hektor - an exceptional D-type family among Jovian Trojans (United States)

    Rozehnal, J.; Brož, M.; Nesvorný, D.; Durda, D. D.; Walsh, K.; Richardson, D. C.; Asphaug, E.


    In this work, we analyse Jovian Trojans in the space of suitable resonant elements and we identify clusters of possible collisional origin by two independent methods: the hierarchical clustering and a so-called randombox. Compared to our previous work, we study a twice larger sample. Apart from Eurybates, Ennomos and 1996 RJ families, we have found three more clusters - namely families around asteroids (20961) Arkesilaos, (624) Hektor in the L4 libration zone and (247341) 2001 UV209 in L5. The families fulfill our stringent criteria, i.e. a high statistical significance, an albedo homogeneity and a steeper size-frequency distribution than that of background. In order to understand their nature, we simulate their long term collisional evolution with the Boulder code and dynamical evolution using a modified SWIFT integrator. Within the framework of our evolutionary model, we were able to constrain the age of the Hektor family to be either 1-4 Gyr or, less likely, 0.1-2.5 Gyr, depending on initial impact geometry. Since (624) Hektor itself seems to be a bilobed-shape body with a satellite, i.e. an exceptional object, we address its association with the D-type family and we demonstrate that the moon and family could be created during a single impact event. We simulated the cratering event using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This is also the first case of a family associated with a D-type parent body.

  10. Theory and Phenomenology of an Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    King, S F; Nevzorov, R


    We make a comprehensive study of the theory and phenomenology of a low energy supersymmetric standard model originating from a string-inspired $E_6$ grand unified gauge group. The Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model (ESSM) considered here is based on the low energy SM gauge group together with an extra $Z'$ corresponding to an extra $U(1)_{N}$ gauge symmetry under which right--handed neutrinos have zero charge. The low energy matter content of the ESSM corresponds to three 27 representations of the $E_6$ symmetry group, to ensure anomaly cancellation, plus an additional pair of Higgs--like doublets as required for high energy gauge coupling unification. The ESSM is therefore a low energy alternative to the MSSM or NMSSM. The ESSM involves extra matter beyond the MSSM contained in three $5+5^*$ representations of SU(5), plus three SU(5) singlets which carry $U(1)_{N}$ charges, one of which develops a VEV, providing the effective $\\mu$ term for the Higgs doublets, as well as the necessary exotic fermion m...

  11. An Exceptional Sector for F-theory GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Jonathan J


    D3-branes are often a necessary ingredient in global compactifications of F-theory. In minimal realizations of flavor hierarchies in F-theory GUT models, suitable fluxes are turned on, which in turn attract D3-branes to the Yukawa points. Of particular importance are ``E-type'' Yukawa points, as they are required to realize a large top quark mass. In this paper we study the worldvolume theory of a D3-brane probing such an E-point. D3-brane probes of isolated exceptional singularities lead to strongly coupled N = 2 CFTs of the type found by Minahan and Nemeschansky. We show that the local data of an E-point probe theory determines an N = 1 deformation of the original N = 2 theory which couples this strongly interacting CFT to a free hypermultiplet. Monodromy in the seven-brane configuration translates to a novel class of deformations of the CFT. We study how the probe theory couples to the Standard Model, determining the most relevant F-term couplings, the effect of the probe on the running of the Standard Mod...

  12. Increasing Social Responsiveness in a Child with Autism: A Comparison of Music and Non-Music Interventions (United States)

    Finnigan, Emily; Starr, Elizabeth


    This study sought to determine the effects of using music and non-music interventions on the social responsive and avoidant behaviours of a preschool child with autism. A single-subject alternating treatment design was used in which two interventions were presented in a similar fashion except for the addition of music during the music condition.…

  13. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents. (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D


    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  14. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A


    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  15. [Domestic accident or child abuse?]. (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf-Rüdiger; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Henke, Peter


    While playing, a 33/4-year-old girl was hiding in a tumble dryer, which had been running before and started the drying process with rotation of the drum again after the girl had climbed into the machine and shut the door. The child suffered multiple haematomas, especially on the back and the lower arms, as well as second-degree burns on body regions not covered by the clothing. The injury pattern was consistent with the properties of the appliance, and the initial suspicion that the child had been physically abused could not be maintained.

  16. Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach. (United States)

    Whitman, Laura


    For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.

  17. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data (United States)

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.


    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  18. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI). (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  19. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders. (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael


    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

  20. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie


    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  1. I Am Your Child. Quality Child Care: Making the Right Choice for You and Your Child. [Videotape]. (United States)

    I Am Your Child Foundation, Beverly Hills, CA.

    Finding the right child care is often challenging for parents, but it is one of the most important decisions a parent will ever make. This videotape is intended to help parents with the process of evaluating child care options. The 30-minute video is presented in seven parts. Part 1, "Choosing Child Care," discusses why quality child…

  2. Parents Who Have a Child with Cancer (United States)

    ... respond Sometimes people will stare, mistake your child's gender, or ask personal questions. Talk with your child ... what other parents said helped: Keep lines of communication open Talk about how you each deal best ...

  3. Planning for Your Child's Surgery (Osteogenesis Imperfecta) (United States)

    ... Blue Jeans for Better Bones Calendar Online Store Planning for Your Child's Surgery: What Parents Need to ... but the entire family as well. Before Surgery: Planning Become well informed. Taking care of your child ...

  4. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse. (United States)

    Cousins, Judy


    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  5. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child (United States)

    ... to your child, you may refer to your religious, spiritual, and cultural beliefs about death. You might ... The foremost — and perhaps trickiest — task for worried parents is to treat a sick child as normally ...

  7. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (United States)

    ... members of AACAP. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities More... ... More... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement ...

  8. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child (United States)

    ... this page: // Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  9. Choking - adult or child over 1 year (United States)

    Abdominal thrusts - adult or child over 1 year; Heimlich maneuver - adult or child over 1 year: Choking - back ... back blows, or both. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver): Stand behind the person and wrap your arms ...

  10. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives (United States)

    ... page: Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress may ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the next ...

  11. Grieving the Loss of a Child (United States)

    ... spent months or even years caring for a child with cancer. Differences in grieving can cause relationship difficulties at ... confidant, and a life-long friend. When your child developed cancer, you were likely completely focused on the needs ...

  12. When your child's treatment stops working (United States)

    ... OK when your child dies and will take care of the people and animals your child loves. Alternative Names End of life care - children; Palliative care - children; Advance care planning - children ...

  13. Helping Your Child Deal with Peer Pressure (United States)

    ... child know how you feel about stealing, cheating, bullying, and more. When a child knows something is ... However, excessive shedding can result in balding. This type of…April 2017September editorial staff AboutAdvertise ...

  14. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk? (United States)

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  15. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity. (United States)

    Benson, Taylor L; Park, Sohee


    Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC) on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test (PFT) and jigsaw puzzle task (JPT), respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection (LB) task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task (DRT) was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on JPT indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory (SWM) maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward LB bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition.

  17. AIDS Exceptionalism: On the Social Psychology of HIV Prevention Research. (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D


    The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed "AIDS Exceptionalism"- departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for "Prevention for Positives," supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven "prevention" that only served a particular political agenda.Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961).

  18. Exceptions to Hick's law: explorations with a response duration measure. (United States)

    Longstreth, L E; el-Zahhar, N; Alcorn, M B


    Five experiments used a new response-duration measure in explorations of the conditions necessary for confirmation of Hick's law. Hick's law states that reaction time increases logarithmically with number of choices. Exceptions to the law, venerable as it is, have been reported. They have always included the following conditions: a verbal response; a familiar stimulus with a single dominant name; and a large number of practice trials. These conditions have carried a heavy explanatory burden in accounting for the anamolous results. The present studies use none of these conditions and yet manage to replicate the anamolous result of a very shallow slope across set size, a slope less than one-tenth the usual value. This was accomplished by using a novel task in which the initial component of the response is the same for all stimuli (depression of a single response key) but the termination of the response is different (different durations for each stimulus). Using this task, a slope in the neighborhood of 15 ms per bit of stimulus uncertainty is found, as compared with the usual value of about 150 ms. A number of possible explanations are examined. Among the most important are the possibilities that response overlap is the critical factor (i.e., duration errors overlap); possible stimuli are simply ignored when more than one is involved; and the duration decision is made after the reaction-time interval rather than during it. All three possibilities, as well as some others, are found to be inconsistent with the various experimental outcomes. Instead, a new theory of choice reaction time is presented, which emphasizes the nature of the S-R code that is assumed to represent various reaction-time tasks. This theory leads to a new "law" that is put forward as a replacement for Hick's law. It is RT = a + b(1 - N-1).

  19. Surface chemical modification for exceptional wear life of MEMS materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arvind Singh


    Full Text Available Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS are built at micro/nano-scales. At these scales, the interfacial forces are extremely strong. These forces adversely affect the smooth operation and cause wear resulting in the drastic reduction in wear life (useful operating lifetime of actuator-based devices. In this paper, we present a surface chemical modification method that reduces friction and significantly extends the wear life of the two most popular MEMS structural materials namely, silicon and SU-8 polymer. The method includes surface chemical treatment using ethanolamine-sodium phosphate buffer, followed by coating of perfluoropolyether (PFPE nanolubricant on (i silicon coated with SU-8 thin films (500 nm and (ii MEMS process treated SU-8 thick films (50 μm. After the surface chemical modification, it was observed that the steady-state coefficient of friction of the materials reduced by 4 to 5 times and simultaneously their wear durability increased by more than three orders of magnitude (> 1000 times. The significant reduction in the friction coefficients is due to the lubrication effect of PFPE nanolubricant, while the exceptional increase in their wear life is attributed to the bonding between the -OH functional group of ethanolamine treated SU-8 thin/thick films and the -OH functional group of PFPE. The surface chemical modification method acts as a common route to enhance the performance of both silicon and SU-8 polymer. It is time-effective (process time ≤ 11 min, cost-effective and can be readily integrated into MEMS fabrication/assembly processes. It can also work for any kind of structural material from which the miniaturized devices are/can be made.

  20. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor eBenson


    Full Text Available Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ. We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test and Jigsaw Puzzle Task, respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on jigsaw puzzle task indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward line bisection bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition.

  1. The battered child syndrome; Die nicht unfallbedingte Verletzung (battered child)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderradiologie


    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [German] Die Aufdeckung einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt eine grosse Herausforderung fuer alle in der Kinderbetreuung taetigen Berufsgruppen dar. Der Radiologie kommt eine besondere Rolle zu, da sie einerseits durch die Erkennung typischer Verletzungsmuster einen Verdacht bestaetigen, als auch bei ''Zufallsbefunden'' die moeglicherweise fatalen Folgen fuer die betroffenen Kinder verhindern kann. Der typische Verletzungsmechanismus im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt das sog. ''shakin baby syndrome'' dar. Dabei wird der Thorax mit beiden Haenden umfasst und das Kind geschuettelt. Durch dieses repetitive Akzelerations-Dezelerationstrauma entstehen typische Verletzungen mit paravertebralen Rippenfrakturen, ZNS- sowie Retinablutungen. Anschliessend wird das Kind weggeworfen mit entsprechend weiteren Verletzungen. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Ueberblick ueber die Radiologie der wichtigsten Verletzungen und deren Abklaerung im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu geben sowie die Demonstration der Befunde

  2. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol


    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  3. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy


    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  4. Professional Knowledge of Child Support Staff: Evidence from the New Jersey Child Support Training Program (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Blake, Allison; Edwards, Richard L.; Liu, Chieh-Wen; Nolan, Robert B.; Rusen, Barbara; Thompson, Dina


    Child support enforcement (CSE) has experienced dramatic changes in the last decade; however, it is not clear whether child support staff is fully aware of the development. Using data from the New Jersey child support training program (n = 530), this article aims to evaluate the professional knowledge of child support staff. The results show that…

  5. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien


    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  6. 38 CFR 10.42 - Claim of child other than legitimate child. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of child other than legitimate child. 10.42 Section 10.42 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.42 Claim of child other than legitimate child....

  7. Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Child Well Being: Early Care Experiences in Australia (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Chen, Jen-Hao


    Nearly one quarter of Australian children under the age of 5 experience multiple non-parental child care arrangements. Research focused on the relationship between multiple child care arrangements and child socioemotional development is limited, particularly in Australia. Evidence from the United States and Europe has linked multiple child care…

  8. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.


    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  9. Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints


    Kathleen Beegle; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti


    This paper examines the relationship between household income shocks and child labor. In particular, we investigate the extent to which transitory income shocks lead to increases in child labor and whether household access to credit mitigates the effects of these shocks. Using panel data from a survey in Tanzania, we find that both relationships are significant. Our results suggest that credit constraints play a role in explaining child labor and consequently that child labor is inefficient, ...



    Suci Wulansari


    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  11. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet


    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  12. Talking with Your Child about Cancer. (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet was written to help parents decide what to tell their child who has cancer. It recommends that parents tell their child the truth about his disease to prevent him from feeling guilty and to increase his cooperation with treatment. A gentle, open, and honest approach is suggested. Sections discuss who should tell the child and when the…

  13. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy


    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata


    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  14. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency. (United States)

    Schor, Nina F


    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  15. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment. (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana


    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  16. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor? (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb


    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  17. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya (United States)

    Moyi, Peter


    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  18. Shared Heritage: An Intergenerational Child Care Program. (United States)

    Hawkeye Area Community Action Program, Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This report describes ways in which older persons may become involved in the field of home child care. It is intended to provide (1) detailed information on an intergenerational child care (IGCC) program; (2) general information relating to intergenerational contacts and home child care; and (3) "how-to" information for agencies planning…

  19. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri


    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  20. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics


    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter


    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  1. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006


    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  2. Article Omission across Child Languages (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia


    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  3. Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child": Readings (United States)

    Armstrong, Judith; Rudd, David


    Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child" was published in Australia by Penguin Books in 2000. Editions are available in the UK (Walker Books, 2002), the USA (Candlewick, 2002), as well as in Canada, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Denmark. In 2002, the book was awarded the "Guardian's" Children's Fiction Prize in the UK. Like Harper,…

  4. Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child": Readings (United States)

    Armstrong, Judith; Rudd, David


    Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child" was published in Australia by Penguin Books in 2000. Editions are available in the UK (Walker Books, 2002), the USA (Candlewick, 2002), as well as in Canada, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Denmark. In 2002, the book was awarded the "Guardian's" Children's Fiction Prize in the UK. Like Harper, the narrator of the…

  5. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp. (United States)

    Durall, John K.


    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  6. Maternal and Child Health Bureau (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  7. Selected Nanny Child Care Bibliography. (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn W., Comp.; Williams, Owen E., Comp.

    This bibliography on nanny child care contains approximately 180 references to material about nannies, mother's helpers, au pairs, and governesses. The bibliography is organized by the categories of newspaper articles, journal articles, newsletter articles, books, and audiovisual materials. The items are drawn primarily from U.S. sources, but some…

  8. Helping Your Child to Read. (United States)

    Foust, Betty Jean

    This booklet provides suggestions for parents in helping their children to learn how to read. The first section provides 34 suggestions and activities for parents to use with preschool children, such as reciting nursery rhymes, reading aloud, respecting the child's mood, and playing listening games. The second section offers 25 suggestions and…

  9. Definition of a Dependent Child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department


    The Department of Human Resources wishes to remind members of the personnel that, under the provisions of § 6 of Administrative Circular No. 5 “Dependent child”, in the case of a child over 18 years of age the status of dependent child comes to an end once a course of studies is completed. Consequently, the payment of the dependent child allowance and the child's membership of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme terminate with effect from the last day of the month in which the course of study concerned ends. In this connection, members of the personnel are reminded that children who are no longer dependent according to the Staff Rules and Regulations and who are less than 26 years of age can nevertheless opt for membership of the normal health insurance under the terms and conditions laid down in the CERN Health Insurance Rules. The Department of Human Resources also wishes to remind members of the personnel that, pursuant to Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, a member of the personnel is requ...

  10. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)


    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a

  11. Subcutaneous phycomycosis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad P


    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis on the chestwall in a one and a half year old child. Excision of the lesion was followed by a recurrence. Oral potassium iodide completely cured the disease.

  12. Talking to Your Child's Doctor (United States)

    ... a Better Relationship en español Cómo conversar con el médico de su hijo Your child's doctor can ... don't be afraid to give the doctor feedback about your office visit experience, such as whether ...

  13. Your Child's Development: 9 Months (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  14. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts). (United States)

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L


    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  15. Exceptional cardiac anoxia tolerance in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid). (United States)

    Lague, Sabine L; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Richards, Jeffrey G; Farrell, Anthony P


    Anoxic survival requires the matching of cardiac ATP supply (i.e. maximum glycolytic potential, MGP) and demand (i.e. cardiac power output, PO). We examined the idea that the previously observed in vivo downregulation of cardiac function during exposure to severe hypoxia in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid) represents a physiological strategy to reduce routine PO to within the heart's MGP. The MGP of the ectothermic vertebrate heart has previously been suggested to be ∼70 nmol ATP s(-1) g(-1), sustaining a PO of ∼0.7 mW g(-1) at 15°C. We developed an in situ perfused heart preparation for tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid) and characterized the routine and maximum cardiac performance under both normoxic (>20 kPa O(2)) and severely hypoxic perfusion conditions (tilapia heart maintained a routine normoxic cardiac output (Q) and PO under all hypoxic conditions, a result that contrasts with the hypoxic cardiac downregulation previously observed in vivo under less severe conditions. Thus, we conclude that the in vivo downregulation of routine cardiac performance in hypoxia is not needed in tilapia to balance cardiac energy supply and demand. Indeed, the MGP of the tilapia heart proved to be quite exceptional. Measurements of myocardial lactate efflux during severe hypoxia were used to calculate the MGP of the tilapia heart. The MGP was estimated to be 172 nmol ATP s(-1) g(-1) at 22°C, and allowed the heart to generate a PO(max) of at least ∼3.1 mW g(-1), which is only 30% lower than the PO(max) observed with normoxia. Even with this MGP, the additional challenge of acidosis during severe hypoxia decreased maximum ATP turnover rate and PO(max) by 30% compared with severe hypoxia alone, suggesting that there are probably direct effects of acidosis on cardiac contractility. We conclude that the high maximum glycolytic ATP turnover rate and levels of PO, which exceed those measured in other ectothermic vertebrate hearts, probably convey a previously unreported anoxia tolerance

  16. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C B Poore

    Full Text Available The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species

  17. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  18. [Child and family in China]. (United States)

    Witte, A


    In 1949, China's population numbered 540 million, which has doubled by 1994. Since the 1960s, the growth rate has been halved to 1.2% a year as a result of family planning and administrative measures. In 1981, the marriage law was released that abolished arranged marriage by the parents, and stressed the equality of the sexes, the legitimate rights of women and children, and monogamy. Family planning and the concept of the one-child family was also endorsed with strong controls on second births and the prohibition of third births. The means were late marriage (the combined age of the couple should reach 50 years), contractual birth allotments from the danwei, state quotas, and one-child certificates facilitating the acquisition of an apartment. Other measures were legal abortion and contraception (sterilization, oral contraceptives, and gossypol for men). In 1982, among the Chinese aged over 15, the majority were married with 0.59% divorced. An average of 20 million children are born in China annually. Children are cared for in day care centers or kindergartens as well as by grandparents. The former are located in factories, companies, and schools and are cost-free for employees. Other day care centers and kindergartens are run by committees in cities and villages supported by the state. The Confucian concept of raising children commands respect for the old and love of the children, who also fall under the attention of the danwei, a traditional community force. This principle subjects individualism to the group. The mother-child contact is reinforced by carrying the child on the back especially in rural areas. The one-child family promoted by the state has the drawbacks of overblown egotism and deficient socialization. In the cities 95% of first grade pupils are single children.

  19. Missed opportunities in child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jonker


    Full Text Available Background: Various policies in health, such as Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses, were introduced to enhance integrated service delivery in child healthcare. During clinical practice the researcher observed that integrated services may not be rendered.Objectives: This article describes the experiences of mothers that utilised comprehensive child health services in the Cape Metropolitan area of South Africa. Services included treatment for diseases; preventative interventions such as immunisation; and promotive interventions, such as improvement in nutrition and promotion of breastfeeding.Method: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences and perceptions of mothers and/or carers utilising child healthcare services. Thirty percent of the clinics were selected purposively from the total population. A convenience purposive non-probability sampling method was applied to select 17 mothers who met the criteria and gave written consent. Interviews were conducted and recorded digitally using an interview guide. The data analysis was done using Tesch’s eight step model.Results: Findings of the study indicated varied experiences. Not all mothers received information about the Road to Health book or card. According to the mothers, integrated child healthcare services were not practised. The consequences were missed opportunities in immunisation, provision of vitamin A, absence of growth monitoring, feeding assessment and provision of nutritional advice.Conclusion: There is a need for simple interventions such as oral rehydration, early recognition and treatment of diseases, immunisation, growth monitoring and appropriate nutrition advice. These services were not offered diligently. Such interventions could contribute to reducing the incidence of child morbidity and mortality.

  20. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status. (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C


    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed.

  1. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified... (United States)


    ... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and...-governance financial and administrative functions with non-self-determination or...

  2. 42 CFR 413.186 - Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in pediatric facilities. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in....186 Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in pediatric facilities. (a) Qualification. To qualify for an exception to the prospective payment rate based on self-dialysis training costs,...

  3. 46 CFR 150.160 - Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.160 Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. The Operator of a vessel having on board a cargo carried as an exception under §...

  4. 26 CFR 1.79-2 - Exceptions to the rule of inclusion. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions to the rule of inclusion. 1.79-2... Exceptions to the rule of inclusion. (a) In general. (1) Section 79(b) provides exceptions for the cost of... he continued in employment) to retire without disability and without the consent of his employer...

  5. 21 CFR 1316.07 - Requirement for administrative inspection warrant; exceptions. (United States)


    ...; exceptions. 1316.07 Section 1316.07 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... administrative inspection warrant; exceptions. In all cases where an inspection is contemplated, an administrative inspection warrant is required pursuant to section 510 of the Act (21 U.S.C. 880), except...

  6. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse...

  7. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system. (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi


    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations.

  8. Forensic odontology, part 5. Child abuse issues. (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J


    Child abuse, child maltreatment, non-accidental injury and child homicide: all terms that are hard to believe exist in the 21st civilised century, but non-accidental injury of children is a major problem, crossing all socioeconomic, ethnic and educational groups, and is happening all over the world. Available statistics on child abuse and deaths related to abuse are frightening, and as many cases are not reported, actual numbers are likely to be much higher. This paper aims to increase understanding of child abuse issues and encourage the dental team to be alert to the possibility of abuse, recognise the physical injuries and make referrals to the appropriate agency if necessary. In child abuse cases physical injuries to the head and facial area are common while other types of abuse are less visible but are damaging to a vulnerable child in other ways. Keeping children safe is a shared responsibility and a top priority for all of us.

  9. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families. (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola


    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  10. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony


    causes of morbidity and mortality among children in Uganda- diseases that were also emphasized in the MMCS campaign. Asthma and epilepsy were included as conditions that require long term care. Schistomiasis was included as a neglected tropical disease. Content analysis was used to assess evidence...... solid dosage formulations like dispersible tablets, pellets and granules- indicating limited adherence to MMCS recommendations. Some of the medicines recommended in the clinical guidelines as first line treatment for malaria and pneumonia among children were not evidence-based. Conclusion The Ugandan...... health policy documents reflected limited adherence to the MMCS recommendations. This and failure to use evidence based medicines may result into treatment failure and or death. A revision of the current policies and guidelines to better reflect ‘child size’, child appropriate and evidence based...

  11. Drugs used in child maltreatment. (United States)


    Between 2000 and 2008, the American Association of Poison Control Centers recorded 1439 cases in which drugs or alcohol were used to mistreat children under 7 years of age, representing an average of 160 reports per year. Median age was 2 years, and 57% of victims were boys. The substances included psychotropic drugs, analgesics, cold remedies, alcohol, and illicit drugs. 18 children died, while 32 children experienced life-threatening effects or residual disability. It is not clear whether these results can be extrapolated to the French population. In France, a yearly survey of the Centres for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) identified 162 cases of "chemical submission", 3 of which involved children. In practice, it is often difficult to recognise when a child is being maltreated, especially when medications, illicit drugs or alcohol are used. Taking into consideration the known adverse effect profile of a drug may provide a clue, help to limit harms to the child and allow appropriate management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Dave


    Full Text Available In today’s society, electronic media are thoroughly integrated into the fabric of life, with television, movies, videos, music, video games, and computers, central to both work and play. While these media outlets can provide education and entertainment to children, many researches are concerned with the negative impact electronic media is having on children. Media is used as a third parent or servant. Lot of aspects are important related to media exposure and child behavior. Media exposure affects the neurodevelopment, nutrition and health and academic achievements of the child. Parent education plays an important role in the behavior modification of the children. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 87-89

  13. False allegation of child abduction. (United States)

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E


    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  14. Substance abuse and child maltreatment. (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn


    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  15. The girl child and law. (United States)

    Jain, A


    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  16. What do child psychotherapists know?




    In the decades after the death of Freud in 1939, the psychoanalytic tradition in Britain was substantially shaped by child analysis. Melanie Klein’s discoveries emerged from psychoanalytic practice with children, which was based on ‘play technique’. Some of Donald Winnicott’s most important ideas were developed through work with children, and through study of the relationships between mothers and babies. In this book chapter Professor Rustin argues that the theoretical advances of the 1940s a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Amancio do Silva


    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to issues related to social representations of children through the lens of the adult world; we recommend that fosters the child's opportunity to be author and co-author (protagonist in the production of children's literature and is known to be beyond their textual production considering that all production of children in school (painting, scribbling, drawings, sketches of letters and various signs is recognized as children's literature. 

  18. Migration, transfers and child labor


    Dimova, Ralitza; Epstein, Gil S; Gang, Ira N.


    We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children's working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the...

  19. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement. (United States)

    Short, Kathleen S


    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs.

  20. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis


    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  1. Evolutionary perspective in child growth. (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev


    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  2. Community interaction and child maltreatment. (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn


    The way in which parents interact with their environment may have implications for their likelihood of abuse and neglect. This study examines the parent-environment relationship through community involvement and perception, using social disorganization theory. We hypothesize mothers who participate in their communities and have positive perceptions of them may be less likely to maltreat their children because of the potential protective capacity of neighborhood supports. Using information from the 5 year Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2991), the mother's self-reported acts of psychological and physical maltreatment and neglect are measured. A mother's community involvement index is the number of community activities a mother was involved in, and community perception is measured by two five-item Likert scales assessing perception of community collective efficacy. We analyze the relationship between community variables and each of mother's maltreatment behaviors as well as the interaction between community factors using a series of nested logistic regressions. Higher levels of community involvement are associated with lower levels of psychological aggression. More positive perception of community social control is associated with lower levels of physical assault. A moderation effect of community perception suggests that a mother's perception of her community changes the relationship between community involvement and psychological child abuse. The results provide important policy and empirical implications to build positive and supportive communities as a protective factor in child maltreatment. Getting parents involved in their communities can improve the environment in which children and families develop, and decrease the likelihood that maltreatment will occur.

  3. [Music therapy and child care]. (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan


    Music therapy was shown many years ago to have positive effects in various age groups of patients in the Western world. Music can produce physiological and psychological effects, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety, improvements in the immune system, decreases in cortisol levels, the reduction of stress and the promotion of well-being. Music therapy is an inexpensive and effective intervention for nurses to apply to patients. The application of such therapy to children, however, is different from that to adults due to their limited cognitive and language development. In Taiwan, nurses' knowledge of music therapy is limited, and it is rarely used in child care. This article introduces music therapy and its effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, handicapped children, and children receiving surgery. Music therapy is often used as an assisted intervention for patient care in clinical settings. Health care professionals can perform some of the music therapy activities for patients appropriately even if they have not been trained in music. This article aims to improve nurses' knowledge of music therapy and to provide a useful reference for those involved in child care.

  4. The Nutrition Transition and Indicators of Child Malnutrition


    Kimenju, Simon C.; Qaim, Matin


    We analyze how the nutrition transition affects child malnutrition in developing countries. It is often assumed that the nutrition transition affects child weight but not child growth, which could be one reason why child underweight decreases faster than child stunting. But these effects have hardly been analyzed empirically. Our cross-country panel regressions show that the nutrition transition reduces child underweight, while no consistent effect on child overweight is found. Against common...

  5. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi


    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  6. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation. (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.

  7. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity. (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E


    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  8. Adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS syndrome. (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Amjad, Nida; Ibrahim, Shahnaz H; Humayun, Khadija Nuzhat; Yakob, Yusnita


    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are established subgroups of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. m.3243A>G a common point mutation is detected in tRNA in majority of patients with MELAS phenotype whereas m.8344A>G point mutation in tRNA is observed, in MERRF phenotype. Adrenal insufficiency has not been reported in mitochondrial disease, except in Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS), which is a mitochondrial deletion syndrome. We report an unusual presentation in a five year old boy who presented with clinical phenotype of MELAS and was found to have m.8344A>G mutation in tRNA. Addison disease was identified due to hyperpigmentation of lips and gums present from early childhood. This is the first report describing adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS phenotype.

  9. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior. (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M


    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  10. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju


    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  11. Chromoblastomycosis Associated with Bone and Central Nervous Involvement System in an Immunocompetent Child Caused by Exophiala Spinifera (United States)

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Mahantesh, S; Mannapur, Rajeshwari; Shivappa, Sanjay K


    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved. PMID:27293256

  12. Chromoblastomycosis associated with bone and central nervous involvement system in an immunocompetent child caused by exophiala spinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas


    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved.

  13. Counting Child Domestic Servants in Latin America


    Levison, Deborah; Langer, Anna


    This paper summarizes trends in the use of child domestic servants in six Latin American countries using IPUMS-International census samples for 1960 to 2000. Child domestics are among the most vulnerable of child workers, and the most invisible. They may be treated kindly and allowed to attend school, or they may be secluded in their employers’ home, overworked, verbally abused, beaten, and unable to leave or report their difficulties to kin. Estimates and imputations are based on labor force...

  14. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  15. Poverty experience, race, and child health.


    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann


    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  16. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 725.219... of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning... month in which any one of the following events first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child...

  17. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families


    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria


    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...

  18. 75 FR 32145 - Safeguarding Child Support Information (United States)


    ... fiscal instability of several large private child support collection agencies; and (3) the Department's... rights (including, when authorized under the State plan, any official of a political subdivision);...

  19. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection. (United States)

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara


    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.

  20. Child Protection Centers and Forensic Medicine Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kafadar


    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO anyone under the age of 18 is determined as %u201Cchild%u201D. Child abuse is described by Henry Kempe in 1962. Nowadays, neglect definition and prevention for children are most important.Child maltreatment is defined as harmful behaviors on physical, emotional, mental, or sexual health of child. There are two ways of maltreatment; abuse and neglect according to the forensic medicine approach. The aim of this study is to discuss Child Protection Center, the center service delivery and forensic medicine approach.