Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors
Chairman R. Chidambaram (second from right) accompagnied by (left to right) Atul Gurtu and Vemuri Narasimham of Bombay's Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, and CMS co-spokesman Jim Virdee (right).
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyroid diseases are major global health problem but the incidence and prevalence of this varies from place to place. The government of India has started universal iodization of salt owing to the huge burd en of thyroid diseases in the country. In 2004, the coastal regions of Puducherry and Cuddalore wer e flooded by tsunami. AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid diseases in coastal regions of Puducherry and Cuddalore. We also studied the trends in prevale nce of thyroid diseases after tsunami. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the patients undergoing thyroidectomy in a terti ary care teaching hospital in South India were included in ou r study. Histopathological examination of thyroidectomy specimens was performed. RESULTS: A total of 342 thyroidectomy specimens were studied. Of the 342 cases, 30 were males and 3 12 were females with a ratio of 1: 10.4. Out of 342 cases, 169 (49.42 % were non neoplastic lesi ons, 173 (50.58% were neoplastic. Of the 342 cases, 118 (34.5% cases were simple goiter, 98 (28.66% were adenoma, 70 (20.47% were papillary carcinoma, 42 (12.28% were thyroiditi s, 9 (2.63% were toxic goiter and 5 (1.46% were follicular carcinoma. We observed an i ncreasing trend in the prevalence of papillary carcinoma and thyroiditis after tsunami in 2004. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to establish quality assurance system to monit or iodine content in the soil, food, water and salt in the tsunami affected coastal areas. It is a lso necessary to study the other possible causes for papillary carcinoma and take measures to prevent i t.
Full Text Available The present study deals about the availability of medicinal plants in Koradacheri Village, Kodavasal Taluk, Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. Evolution of resistance, strains is a major threatening problem. Identified folk medicines of this area may be used to treat the newly evolved microbes. Ailments are not well known to the people. Very few people only knew remedies for several diseases. The selected medicinal plants are expected to open a new window in a discovery of novel medicine. Keeping the above facts in mind the present investigation is justifiably planned to concentrate on medicinal plants of Koradacheri Village, Tamil Nadu, India.
Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.
Yeturu Sravan Kumar
Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD among industrial workers of Udupi taluk, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of industrial workers aged >18 years from randomly selected industries in Udupi Taluk. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants to assess sociodemographic factors and abusive habits (Tobacco, Alcohol, and Betel quid followed by clinical oral examination by single trained and calibrated examiner. Results: A total of 396 completed all steps of the survey and were included for analysis. A total of 14, 11.4, and 14.4% were tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid users, respectively. A total of 8.6% (n = 34 have at least one PMD. A significantly higher number of participants with single (11.4% or combined habits (60.4% had oral lesions while none of the participants without habits reported any oral lesions (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Prevalence of abusive habits and oral premalignant lesions or conditions was substantial among the workers. The cause and effect relationship and dose-response were also shown to be significantly associated. Prevention and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major cornerstones for the control of oral cancer.
India's cement industry is a vital part of its economy, providing employment to more than a million people. On the back of growing demands, due to increased construction and infrastructural activities cement market in India is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.96 percent during the period 2014-2019. In this study, GIS-based spatial Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is used to determine the optimum and alternative sites to setup a cement plant. This technique contains a set of evaluation criteria which are quantifiable indicators of the extent to which decision objectives are realized. In intersection with available GIS (Geographical Information System) and local ancillary data, the outputs of image analysis serves as input for the multi-criteria decision making system. Moreover, the following steps were performed so as to represent the criteria in GIS layers, which underwent the GIS analysis in order to get several potential sites. Satellite imagery from LANDSAT 8 and ASTER DEM were used for the analysis. Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu was selected as the study site as limestone mining is already being carried out in that region which meets the criteria of raw material for cement production. Several other criteria considered were land use land cover (LULC) classification (built-up area, river, forest cover, wet land, barren land, harvest land and agriculture land), slope, proximity to road, railway and drainage networks.
Full Text Available To assess the groundwater quality of the Paravanar river basin, groundwater data were collected by conventional methods. Hydrogeochemical facies of groundwater of study area reveals fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. Piper plot shows that most of the groundwater samples fall in the mixed field of Ca-Mg-Cl type. Using GIS mapping technique, major element concentration of groundwater has been interpolated and studied. Groundwater thematic maps on electrical conductivity (EC, hydrogen ion concentration, bicarbonates, chlorides and nitrates were prepared from the groundwater quality data. Different classes in thematic maps were categorized as i good, ii moderate and iii poor with respect to groundwater quality. Northeast and southeast parts of the study area represent the doubtful water class regarding the concentration of EC to represent connate nature of water adjacent to the coast. NNE (North-North-East and southern parts of the study area have pH ranging from 7 to 8 indicating acidic nature as they were from the weathered Cuddalore sandstone. As northern part of the study area is irrigated, fertilizer used for agriculture may be the source for increase in concentration of nitrates. Chloride clusters in the south central part of the study area from coast up to NLC mines and reveals the chloridization of aquifer in 48 years either due to upwelling of connate water from the deeper aquifer as a result of depressurization of Neyveli aquifer for the safe mining of lignite.
S. Syed Shaheed Ahamed
Full Text Available Introduction : The premature loss of primary teeth may reduce arch length required for the succeeding tooth and, hence, predisposes crowding, rotation and impaction of the permanent teeth. There are only limited studies carried out about the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth. Aim : The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in school children in Chidambaram town in Tamilnadu, India. Settings and Design : A total of 1121 school children (561 boys and 560 girls between 5 and 10 years of age were selected for the study. Materials and Methods : An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth was collected. Statistical Analysis Used : Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS for Windows (version 10.0. Descriptive statistics was applied and, from the results, chi-square tests were applied at a level of significance of 5% (P 0.05. The greatest prevalence was found among the 8-year olds (5.08%, and the most commonly missing teeth were the right lower primary first molars (16.82%. It can be concluded that the prevalence of early loss was high and that the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth in the present study
Murali, K; Kumar, R D Swasthik; Elangovan, R
The study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ground water for irrigation purpose at twenty seven locations in Coimbatore South Taluk, Coimbatore District. The analytical result shows that Na and Cl are the dominant cation and anions respectively in the groundwater. The values of TDS and EC exceed the permissible limits at some locations due to increase in ionic concentrations. Based on SAR, RSC, US Salinity diagram and Wilcox diagram it is observed that the water ranges from excellent to good quality in most of the places and can be used for irrigation without any hazard. Gibbs variation diagram indicates that lithology is main controlling factor for water chemistry. However, the high SAR and RSC values at few locations restrict suitability for irrigation purpose.
Sudharsanam M Balasubramaniam
Full Text Available Introduction: Tsunami struck the entire coastline of Tamil Nadu on 26 th December 2004. After tsunami an outbreak of measles was reported by media in Cuddalore district due to overcrowding of people in relief camps. We had to investigate and report within 12 hours upon this outbreak of measles and determine whether it was related to the tsunami. Materials and Methods: Investigation was done by interviewing health care workers, by visiting villages from where measles was reported and confirmed serologically among children, by looking for clustering of cases and probing for possible reasons for the outbreak. Results : By the day the investigation was carried out, 27 cases had been reported. Of these, 13 cases were from a village not affected by tsunami. There was clustering of cases in a single street in this village. Other reported cases were from villages affected by tsunami, but there was no clustering. No cases were reported from relief camps. All the affected children were above 3 years of age and were immunized previously against measles. No data were available on occurrence of measles in previous years, but it was ascertained that cases of measles occurred around the same season. No common source was identified. Interview with the health workers revealed that reconstituted vaccine was used more than 4 h after reconstitution. A faulty technique was used in route of administration in the immunization. Health workers also said that after the age of 1 year a non-immunized child was not given the vaccine. Conclusions: There was a localized outbreak of measles, but was not related to tsunami. Probable source could not be identified. Possible reasons for outbreak were the faulty use of vaccine and technique of administration. This investigation shows that though in some field situations it may not be possible, or even necessary, to carry out a full-fledged epidemiological investigation, following the epidemiological principles can lead to concrete
Uday Narayan Yadav
Full Text Available Self esteem is defined as the positive or negative attitude about self, the degree of liking or satisfaction within self, and owns feeling of perceived worth as compared with others. Healthy self-esteem is important to be successful and happy throughout one’s life. The aim of this study was to compare the self esteem among tribal and non-tribal student in Udupi Taluk. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in November 2012 in government school of Brahmavar, Udupi Taluk. Study participants were students of class eight, nine and ten. One school was randomly selected from the list of government schools in Brahmavar. The size of the sample was 76 which includes 38 from tribal category and 38 from general category and the sampling design was purposive sampling. Rosenberg’s scale was used to assess the self esteem of students. Questionnaires were self administered. Permission was taken from the principle of school. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results are reported as frequency and proportion. Independent t test was used to compare the self esteem of tribal and non tribal student. Study found that more than two third of the tribal student had low self esteem. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.001 in self esteem between tribal and non tribal students.
Full Text Available Context: Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA cause serious skin and soft tissue infections including necrotizing fasciitis and necrotizing pneumonia. Production of Panton Valentine Leucocidine (PVL toxin is implicated in its enhanced virulence. A variant of epidemic MRSA-15 (EMRSA-15 which produces PVL toxin has been isolated and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE method from the Indian population both in hospital and community settings. Aims: Identify the epidemiological type of MRSA colonizing the anterior nares of school children in Udupi taluk. Settings and Design: The study population included children of the age group of 5-16 years belonging to the Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India. A total of 1503 children were screened for MRSA colonization during July 2009 to December 2010. Materials and Methods: PVL assay, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome (SCC mec typing and PFGE typing were carried out with all the MRSA isolates. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency distribution of different variables was assessed by SPSS. Results: Among the 1.1% of MRSA, 58.8% (10/17 of isolates were positive for pvl and 41.7% (7/17 were identified as SCC mec type IV. PFGE patterns of all the strains were identical with Indian variant EMRSA-15; however they were different from classical EMRSA-15 in 3-4 bands. Conclusions: The Indian variant EMRSA-15 gains much epidemiological relevance owing to the acquisition of pvl gene. In spite of low prevalence of nasal colonization of MRSA, emergence of the virulent Indian variant EMRSA-15 in our community is a worrisome fact to be reckoned with.
Full Text Available Background Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Objectives: To explore the knowledge, practices and sources of information regarding menstruation and hygiene among adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, India. Methods: An epidemiologic study was undertaken using cross-sectional study method among 550 school-going adolescent girls aged13-16 years. A total of 270 were from urban and 280 from the rural area. Stratified cluster sampling was adopted to select the schools and simple random sampling technique to select the participants. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.Results Around 34% participants were aware about menstruation prior to menarche, and mothers were the main source of information among both groups. Overall, 70.4% of adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 25.6% were using both cloth and sanitary napkins. Almost half of the rural participants dried the absorbent inside their homes. Conclusions: There is a need to equip the adolescent girls with knowledge regarding safe, hygienic practices to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life.
Full Text Available Ground water quality in Hunagund taluk of Bagalkot district has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. The main purpose is to draw attention to the presence and the severity of dental fluorosis. Out of 3000 people aged 8-50 years 1275 (42.5% had dental fluorosis of some degree. The well being of humans depends on quality of drinking water. Consumption of water containing excess fluoride over over long period results in fluorosis. Currently, fifteen states of India are endemic for fluorosis. The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Many solutions to these problems were also suggested. Fluoride from water or waste water can be removed by an ion exchange/ adsorption process or by coagulation. Precipitation process. The paper presents the current information on defluoridation
Basit, A; Nair, S.; KB Chakraborthy; Darshan BB; Kamath, A
BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 1...
Full Text Available Abstract Medicinal plants are treating and preventing various diseases. There is urgency in recording such data. This is first ethno botanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by Informant Consensus Factor method in the study area. The aim of the present study is to identify plants collected for medicinal purposes by the traditional healers of Kudavasal taluk located in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu, India and to document prepare and use the traditional names of these plants. Field study was carried out for a period of one year in (tk, located in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu. The ethnoveterinary information's were collected through interviews among traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through RFC, UV, CI, FI, RI and ICF. A total of 54 species of plants distributed in 51 genera belonging to 33 families were identified as commonly used ethno medicinal plants by traditional healers in Kudavasal (tk for the treatment of 12 ailment categories based on the animal body systems treated. Leaves are the most frequently used plant parts and most of the medicines are prepared in the form of paste, administrated orally and inhalation. The most important species according to their use value are Oryza sativa (0.977. In these studies some of the plant species are first position in relative importance Datura metel (2.00 followed by Azadirachta indica (1.80. ICF values of the present study indicate that a urological ailment is the highest use report. In this study, documenting the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area and for validation of these plant preparations for veterinary treatment. The study has various socioeconomic dimensions associated with the local communities.
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence worldwide. Access to oral healthcare refers to patient's ability to obtain or utilize oral healthcare. Aim: To assess the dentition status and treatment needs among 6–12-year-old school children and to assess the factors affecting utilization of dental care among parents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 420 school children (6–12 years in Bangarpet taluk. Factors affecting utilization of dental care were assessed using a validated questionnaire and dentition status and treatment needs was recorded according to WHO 1997 proforma. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results: The proportion of children with dmft was 62 (30% and 54 (26% in urban and rural children, respectively whereas the proportion of children with DMFT was 48 (23% and 79 (38% in urban and rural children, respectively. Among urban children 99 (47% did not need any treatment when compared to 87 (41% rural children. Around 32 (15.2% needed one surface filling in urban children and 20 (9.52% in rural children. About 30 (14.28% urban and 40 (19.04 in rural children needed preventive care, respectively. Most of the parents were not aware of fluoride content in the toothpaste. Parents agreed that maintenance of oral health is their duty. There was a significant difference between urban and rural parents for the barriers "no time to visit" (P = 0.0002, "affects my work" (P = 0.048 and "scared of injection" (P = 0.0033. Dental visits were found to be low in both urban 37 (18% and rural 56 (27% children. Conclusion: The caries experience was similar among urban and rural children. Most of the children required restorative and preventive care. Fear of injection and lack of time to visit dentist were the major barriers to parents for utilization of dental care. Hence, integrated approach is suggested to strengthen preventive and
Full Text Available A school survey was conducted to study the epidemiol ogy of intestinal parasitic infestations. Among school children in Bagepalli Taluk, Chikkaball apur District, Karnataka, a total of 438 stool samples were collected from school childre n selected from 5 rural and 3 urban schools. The stool samples collected were examined f or presence of parasitic infections by direct microscopic examination. Prevalence of intest inal parasites was 19.8%. There was a significant difference in prevalence between urban (16.3% and rural (23.0% school samples. Giardia lamblia (12.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (4.3% and Entamoeba histolytica (1.8% were the commonest parasites isolated. The results indica te that intestinal parasitic infestations among school children are mainly water-borne. The b urden of parasitic infestations among the school children, and poor sanitary conditions in the schools, should be taken seriously by public health and school authorities. Our survey results s how the need for school periodic deworming, health education and improvement of school sanitati on under school health program.
Full Text Available BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 162 children were included in the study, of which 56 were cases. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview the caregivers of the children and the nutritional status was graded according to the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP grading of protein-energy malnutrition.ResultsUnder-nutrition was associated with illness in the last one month [OR- 4.78 (CI: 1.83 -12.45], feeding diluted milk [OR- 14.26 (CI: 4.65 – 43.68] and having more than two children with a birth interval < 2 years [OR- 4.93 (CI: 1.78 – 13.61]. Lack of exclusive breast feeding, level of education of the caregiver and environmental factors like source of water did not have an association.ConclusionChildhood illness, short birth interval and consumption of diluted milk were some of the significant contributory factors noted among this population. Information, Education, Communication (IEC campaigns alleviating food fads and promoting birth spacing is needed.
Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, K.M.; Rani, P.S.; Anuradha, A.; Adilakshmi, B.; Devi, T.S.
of such thrust - faulting 1,4,5 . The earthquake with a focal depth of 30 km has a f fected a length of nearly 1200 km along the inte r face 6 , with the rupture mainly propagating towards the north of the ep i centre within an average width of 200... km. Th e average displac e- ment of the fault plane 6 is 15 m. The rupture a p pears to have occurred in two stages; in the first stage it prop a- gated rapidly to about 400 km followed by a slow rupture for about 500 km. The total duration...
Marine microorganisms produce extracellular or membrane associated surface-active compounds (bio surfactants). Biosurfactant are organic compounds belonging to various classes including glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids that reduce the interfacial tension between immiscible liquids.This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. The efficiency of Bacillus spstrain isolated from a marine sediments soil sample from coastal region -Cud...
Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Das, V.K.; Nair, K.K.C.; Paimpillii, J.S.
97.23 2.75 0.02 °e Table 2 - Sediment Characteristics alon/? different transects(Ran/?es!~ndA vera/?esj ! Transect Sand % Clay % Silt % Organic carbon (mg/g) ! Tl 54.32-98.73 0.30- 8.00 0.02-37.68 188.8.131.52 (89.24) (3.85) (6.90) (5.44) T2 16...
Full Text Available The study aims to find out the consumer behavior towards showroom service of two wheelers. A samples of 200 users selected randomly were studied. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect the data. The results reveal that users differ in consumer behaviour towards showroom services of two wheelers on the basis of satisfied random sampling. This study is made to describe the consumer satisfaction of two wheelers with respect to socio-economic characteristics as age, gender, occupation, family income, educational level and so on which is called descriptive study. The data were treated statistically using t-test, F-test and correlation. The result shows that students and employees are more satisfied about show room services. Demographic variables such as marital status, size of the family give significant effect related to show room services.
Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative histological alteration was taken to analyze in fish Oreochromis mossambicus collected from Kedilam River at three stations, which receive mostly industrial effluent and municipal runoff. Histoarchitecture of tissue alteration and percentage of prevalence was used as protocol for analysis. Results showed that number of histological alteration observed in gill like structural alteration of epithelium, epithelial lifting, fusion of secondary lamellae and hyperplasia. In liver blood congestion, regressive changes like degeneration of hepatocytes, vacuolation, and necrosis observed where as in kidney it shows glomerular congestion, tubular degeneration, progressive changes like hypertrophied epithelial cells, haemorrhage in bowman’s space. Among the three stations severe histological alteration and percentage prevalence was observed in order of station 1> station 2 >station 3. Highest histological alteration and percentage of prevalence in three organs of fish o. mossambicus are kidney >gill >liver. The major reason for this histological alteration and contamination of fish is mostly due to industrial effluent. Repeated and continuous monitoring is must needed to protect the aquatic organism.
Bagyaraj, Murugesan; Ramkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Gurugnanam, Balasubramanian
Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and charnockite dominated over others. The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope, drainage density, geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1:50000 and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area. Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters. For the various geomorphic units, weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water. This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified. The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good, good, moderate, low, and poor. This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.
Murugesan BAGYARAJ; Thirunavukkarasu RAMKUMAR; Senapathi VENKATRAMANAN; Balasubramanian GURUGNANAM
Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques.The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and chamockite dominated over others.The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope,drainage density,geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1∶50000and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area.Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters.For the various geomorphic units,weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water.This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified.The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good,good,moderate,low,and poor.This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.
Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C
This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.
D. N. Veerendra
Full Text Available Studies on relationship between zooplankton abundance and water quality parameter in Mani reservoir were made between January 2008 and December 2008. In the current investigation, impact of different physico-chemical parameters on zooplankton population was found. Ten genera of zooplankton were identified. The relationship between zooplankton and water quality parameters was varied from place to place depending upon the condition of the reservoir water.
K Srinivasamoorthy; S Chidambaram; M V Prasanna; John Peter; P Anandhan
The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca +Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca +Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na − Cl to Ca +Mg − HCO3 − SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.
? >2750.00 9885 August 2000 Kakinada ? ? ? ~776.75 131 December 2004 Pondicherry 6.5 0.24 ? 512.00 107 (tsunami) Karaikal 2.6 0.20 (Sea wall uprooted; 484 bridge column br o ken) Cuddalore 3.9 0.37 ? 2730.00 606...
Brahmanandhan, G M; Selvasekarapandian, S; Malathi, J; Khanna, D; Jose, M T; Meenakshisundaram, V
To assess the population dose due to the natural background radiation around the upcoming Kudankulam nuclear power plant, a systematic investigation has been carried out by measuring the indoor gamma dose. In total, 159 dwellings have been selected around the Kudankulam nuclear power plant area i.e. in Radhapuram and Nanguneri taluk (sub-districts) for the measurement. The geometric mean value of indoor gamma dose rate is 305 +/- 48 nGy h(-1) and 273 +/- 50 nGy h(-1) in Radhapuram and Nanguneri taluks (sub-districts), respectively. The annual effective dose due to indoor gamma radiation to the population has been found to be 1.5 mSv and 1.36 mSv in Radhapuram and Nanguneri taluks, respectively.
Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.
Full Text Available Context: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health. The primary requisite before actively dealing with such problems is to describe the extent, distribution, and associated variables with the specific condition. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of traumatic dental injuries (TDI to anterior teeth among 3 to 13 years old Chidambaram school children. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was collected through a survey form and clinical examination. Materials and Methods: A total of 3200 school children in the age group of 3-13 years were selected from 10 schools of Chidambaram, Tamilnadu. Information concerning sex, age, cause of trauma, number of injured teeth, type of the teeth, lip competence, terminal plane relationship and the molar relationship were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical software EPIINFO (Version 6.0 was used for statistical analysis. In the present study, P≤0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The trauma prevalence in the present study was 10.13%. Children with class I type 2 and mesial step molar relationship exhibited more number of dental injuries. Enamel fracture was the most common injury recorded. Only 3.37% of the children had undergone treatment. Conclusion: The high level of dental trauma and low percentage of children with trauma seeking treatment stresses the need for increased awareness in Chidambaram population.
Hallen, D.; Sangeetha, N.
The aim of the study is to find out the effectiveness of mind mapping technique over conventional method in teaching English at high school level (VIII), in terms of Control and Experimental group. The sample of the study comprised, 60 VIII Standard students in Tiruchendur Taluk. Mind Maps and Achievement Test (Pretest & Posttest) were…
Anafi, Ron C.; Yool Lee; Sato, Trey K.; Anand Venkataraman; Chidambaram Ramanathan; Ibrahim H Kavakli; Hughes, Michael E.; Baggs, Julie E.; Jacqueline Growe; Liu, Andrew C.; Junhyong Kim; Hogenesch, John B.
Machine Learning Helps Identify CHRONO as a Circadian Clock Component Ron C. Anafi1,2.*, Yool Lee3., Trey K. Sato3., Anand Venkataraman3, Chidambaram Ramanathan4, Ibrahim H. Kavakli5, Michael E. Hughes6, Julie E. Baggs7, Jacqueline Growe1,2, Andrew C. Liu4, Junhyong Kim8, John B. Hogenesch2,3* 1 Division of Sleep Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 2 Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Univer...
Iyappan, L.; Pandian, P.K. [Tagore Engineering College. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Tamil Nadu (India)
Wind Energy is spatial in nature and the degree of potential wind farm locations are fuzzy i.e., the boundaries among highly, moderate and least suitable is not clear cut. The study area of this research covers entire taluk of Tirumangalam, Madurai District (India). In this study, to help wind energy companies, policy-makers and investors in evaluating potential wind farm locations in the Tirumangalam Taluk (Tamil Nadu, India), an adaptation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making(FMDM) approach is attended. The entire processes were completed by using open source GIS software (Quantum GIS and GRASS GIS) with help of freely available data. The software tool takes inputs such as wind power density, Slope, Transmission lines, environmental factors, and economic factors to provide an in-depth analysis for suitable location options. (Author)
Manikandan, P N Arul
The present paper represents the results of an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mundakunnu village of Gudalur taluk, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu, India. It has been observed that the plant species are used to various ailments of analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, piles, antidiabetic, gynecological problems, vermifuge, antidandruff, venereal diseases, bone fracture and as vegetables. A total of 52 plants species belonging to 51 genera (33 dicot & 6 monocot) have been discussed.
Shenoy, Rekha P.; Shenoy-Panchmal, Ganesh
Background The objectives of this investigation were to assess prevalence and severity of dentofacial abnormalities and orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Mangalore taluk. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1340 children from randomly selected high schools. A proforma was used to record demographic data and components of the Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] for each subject. The Chi squared test was used for analysis with p-value of < 0.05 considered sta...
broadcasting to some extent, "the impact may not be too serious as the loading of the satellite is to be done in a phased manner," said Prof. Rao...time," he said. Under the RRCSS project the village telephones will be controlled by a mini-exchange at the taluk, block or mandal headquarters...networking of all collaborative R&D activities in Europe and for creating market oppor- tunities for the information technology industry. Partic- ipants
Mukherjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Fernando, V.; Amol, P.; Aparna, S. G.; Fernandes, R.; Michael, G. S.; Khalap, S. T.; Satelkar, N. P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Gaonkar, M. G.; Tari, A. P.; Kankonkar, A.; Vernekar, S.
We present data from three acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) moored off Cuddalore (12∘N), Kakinada (16.5∘N), and Gopalpur (19∘N) on the continental slope of the western Bay of Bengal and one mooring on the slope of the northern bay (89∘E, 19∘N; referred to as being located at Paradip). The data were collected during May 2009 to March 2013 and the observations show that the seasonal cycle, which includes the annual cycle, the semi-annual cycle, and a peak around 120 days, dominates the observed variability of the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Spectral analysis suggests that the 120-day peak dominates the seasonal variability at Paradip and is strong at Gopalpur and Kakinada. The annual cycle is coherent along the western boundary of the bay, i.e., the east coast of India, but with significant phase differences between moorings. At the semi-annual and 120-day periods, the alongshore coherence is weaker. Intraseasonal variability is weaker than the seasonal cycle, particularly at Cuddalore and Paradip, and it exhibits seasonality: the strongest intraseasonal variation is during spring (February-April). Peaks around 12 and 20-22 days are also seen at Gopalpur, Kakinada, and Cuddalore. A striking feature of the currents is the upward phase propagation, but there are also instances when phase propagates downward. The much lower vertical phase speed in the top ˜100 m at Cuddalore leads to a distinct undercurrent at this location; at other locations, the undercurrent, though it exists often, is not as striking. During spring, however, the EICC tends to flow poleward (eastward) at Cuddalore, Kakinada, and Gopalpur (Paradip) over the top ˜300 m, which is the maximum depth to which observations were made. The cross-shore component of the EICC is much weaker than the alongshore component at Cuddalore and, except for a few bursts during spring, at Kakinada and Gopalpur. It is only at Paradip, on the slope of the northern boundary, that significant
A Mukherjee; D Shankar; V Fernando; P Amol; S G Aparna; R Fernandes; G S Michael; S T Khalap; N P Satelkar; Y Agarvadekar; M G Gaonkar; A P Tari; A Kankonkar; S Vernekar
We present data from three acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) moored off Cuddalore (12°N), Kakinada (16.5°N), and Gopalpur (19°N) on the continental slope of the western Bay of Bengal and one mooring on the slope of the northern bay (89°E, 19°N; referred to as being located at Paradip). The data were collected during May 2009 to March 2013 and the observations show that the seasonal cycle, which includes the annual cycle, the semi-annual cycle, and a peak around 120 days, dominates the observed variability of the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Spectral analysis suggests that the 120-day peak dominates the seasonal variability at Paradip and is strong at Gopalpur and Kakinada. The annual cycle is coherent along the western boundary of the bay, i.e., the east coast of India, but with significant phase differences between moorings. At the semi-annual and 120-day periods, the alongshore coherence is weaker. Intraseasonal variability is weaker than the seasonal cycle, particularly at Cuddalore and Paradip, and it exhibits seasonality: the strongest intraseasonal variation is during spring (February–April). Peaks around 12 and 20–22 days are also seen at Gopalpur, Kakinada, and Cuddalore. A striking feature of the currents is the upward phase propagation, but there are also instances when phase propagates downward. The much lower vertical phase speed in the top ∼100 m at Cuddalore leads to a distinct undercurrent at this location; at other locations, the undercurrent, though it exists often, is not as striking. During spring, however, the EICC tends to flow poleward (eastward) at Cuddalore, Kakinada, and Gopalpur (Paradip) over the top ∼300 m, which is the maximum depth to which observations were made. The cross-shore component of the EICC is much weaker than the alongshore component at Cuddalore and, except for a few bursts during spring, at Kakinada and Gopalpur. It is only at Paradip, on the slope of the northern boundary, that significant
Subramanian Kumaran; Balaraman Deivasigamani; Kumarappan Alagappan; Mannikam Sakthivel; Rajamani Karthikeyan
Objective: To determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli (E.coli) , in seafood obtained from Cuddalore and Parangipettai fish landing centres. Also, to identify the susceptibility of E. coli against predominant seaweeds red alga Kappaphycusalvarezii (K. alvarezii) and brown alga Padina boergessenii (P. boergessenii) extracts as sulfated polysaccharides and polyphenols respectively. Methods: A total of 48 samples (Two stations Cuddalore and Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India). Sampling area are fish landing centre where fishes caught from sea and estuary, seafood processing plants (packing and ice packed fishes) and local fish markets (fish samples). After isolation totally 80 strains were analyzed for its antimicrobial resistance and sensitivity against commercially 10 antibiotics. The ampicillin resistant E. coli CE21 was identified through molecular techniques as 16S rDNA sequencing. Two seaweeds K. alvarezii and P. boergessenii were screened for antibacterial activity against 12 antibiotic resistant E. coli strains. Results: Totally 48 swabbed samples from two different fish handling area were characterized for total bacterial and E. coli count. Mostly, the E. coli strains were isolated from fish local market and seafood processing plants before and after packaging process. In that maximum 56.25% strains were resistant to ampicillin and the minimum 2.5% strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. Therefore, the E. coli CE21 was identified through molecular techniques E. coli (GenBank accession number GU065251), The MIC value for polyphenol extract was slightly less than sulfated polysaccharides. E. coli strain isolated from Parangipettai was considerably increased MIC value that Cuddalore. Conclusions:The polyphenol and sulfated polysaccharides showed promising inhibitory response against all antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and in particular the inhibitory response of ampicillin resistant E. coli.
Prem K Mony
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. METHODS & FINDINGS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC = 5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC = 4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC = 1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities. Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the 'non-headquarter' taluks and 'backward' taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require
S Chidambaram; M.V Prasanna; U Karmegam; C Singaraja; S Pethaperumal; R Manivannan; P Anandhan; K Tirumalesh
The partial pressure of Carbon-Dioxide plays a significant role in the water chemistry.It reflects the geochemical process and relates to the saturation index (SI) of the Carbonate minerals.A total number of 98 samples were collected from layered sequential aquifers like Alluvium,Upper Cuddalore sandstone,Lower Cuddalore Sandstone and Cretaceous formations,during Pre-Monsoon and Post-Monsoon seasons.Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH,EC,TDS,Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,Cl-,HCO-3,SO2-4,pO3-4 and H4SiO4 were determined.The study shows that an increase in the log pCO2 values during water-rock interaction which influences the process of mineral dissolution.Saturation index of the carbonate minerals like Calcite,Aragonite,Dolomite and Magnesite were derived and compared with the log pCO2 values.In both the seasons the decreasing log pCO2 increases the saturation index of most of the carbonate minerals studied.The saturation index of almost all carbonate minerals during both the seasons showed negative correlation irrespective of the formation.Log pCO2 also develops a negative correlation with pH in groundwater of the study area.
Vijayakumar, R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Sinduja, K
We examined the occurrence of odontoma in the marine fish Sphyraena jello sourced from 3 different landing centers (Cuddalore, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam) in Tamil Nadu (southeast India). A total of 19783 fishes were examined for odontoma presence, of which 2393 were affected with odontoma. The overall prevalence was 12.1% among the 3 stations. Fish landed at Parangipettai showed the highest peak prevalence of odontoma (16.8%) during the pre-monsoon, followed by Nagapatinam (9.1%) during summer 2011. The tumour lengths in premaxilla, supermaxilla and dentary bone were 1.1-3.6, 1.4-5.9 and 1.2-4.1 cm, respectively, and tumour widths were 0.3-1.9, 0.7-3.1 and 0.5-1.9 cm. Higher prevalence (0.206%) of tongue tumour along with odontoma was observed at Nagapattinam whereas it was lower (0.162%) at Cuddalore. Odontoma histopathology showed dense fibrous tissue with fine teeth roots. TEM analysis showed virus-like particles associated with odontoma. Radiography of the odontoma showed that the tumour masses were bony in nature and tissues were merged with upper and lower jaw.
Syeda Nikhat Mohammadi
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a major public health issue and schools remain an important setting for an efficient and effective way to reach over billion children worldwide and through them, families, and community members. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 6–14-year-old-school going children of rural areas of Channagiri taluk. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among government schools at Thyavanige, Nallur, Pandomatti, Tavarakere, Daginakatte, and Ajjihalli in Channagiri taluk of Davangere district. The study population comprised school children from 6 to 14 years. A total of 1140 children of both genders were surveyed for dental caries prevalence. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, and one-way ANOVA test. Results: The prevalence of caries in the present study was higher in boys (45.08% than girls (28.42% (P > 0.5. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT was 0.47 ± 0.95 for boys and 0.44 ± 0.91 for girls and the mean dmft for boys was 0.50 ± 1.04 and 0.66 ± 1.12 for girls. Conclusions: Caries prevalence was higher in boys and also a large amount of untreated carious lesions among the children. These results suggest that emphasis should be given to scientific monitoring, effective implementation and evaluation of school based oral health promotion and preventive programs to increase the dental awareness and oral hygiene practices, in the rural areas of Channagiri taluk of Davangere district.
Raju, K.; Rakkappan, C.
The chemical compositions of the kidney stones of both the sexes of patients, aged from 40 to 70, living in and around Chidambaram town are determined by using FT-IR and X-RD technique. The kidney stone samples used in the present study were procured from the Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University. The FT-IR spectra of different kidney stone samples were recorded in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. By identifying the characteristic frequency, the chemical compositions of the samples are determined. The results analyzed by FTIR technique were confirmed by X-RD method, in which the recorded X-ray diffractogram are compared with JCPDS files using search match method. Further analysis of XRD pattern also reveals the same.
Full Text Available To identify anaemia as an individual risk factor in CVA patients , in rural population , Chidambaram. In our study a total of 50 patients were identified in a 3 month non - invasive prospective observational study. The risk factors such as anaemia , diabetes , hypertension , smoking and alcohol consumption , were compared. In our study out of 41 males and 9 females the incidence rate of anaemia was found to be more in males than females. Microcytic Hypochromic anaemia and Dimorphic anaemia are the common types of anaemia identified. The stroke incidence rate was found to be more in hypertensive patients , secondary to anaemia and equal in both alcoholic and non - alcoholic patients. Anaemia was found to be the most common risk factor for stroke followed by hypertension in rural population.
K. Parthasarathi, M. Balamurugan, L. S. Ranganathan
Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during 2002-2003 on clay loam, sandy loam and red loam soil at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils and on the yield and nutrient content of blackgram - Vigna mungo, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium. Vermicompost had increased the pore space, reduced particle and bulk density, increased water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, reduced pH and electrical conductivity, increased organic carbon content, available nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and microbial population and activity in all the soil types, particularly clay loam. The yield and quality (protein and sugar content in seed of blackgram was enhanced in soils, particularly clay loam soil. On the contrary, the application of inorganic fertilizers has resulted in reduced porosity, compaction of soil, reduced carbon and reduced microbial activity.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12 years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5, 0.03 (0.17, 0.04 (0.27, and 2.13 (2.54, respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27. Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India.
Gupta, Ritu; Acharya, Arun Kumar
Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India.
K. Abdul Muthalif
Full Text Available The sea water samples from five different coastal cities (Chennai S1, Cuddalore S2, Nagappattinam S3, Tuticorin S4 and Kanyakumari S5 in Tamil Nadu were collected during premonsoon 2015 for physiochemical, microbiological and trace metal studies. The high bacterial load in the study sites indicated that which received enormous waste materials from different sources like land materials, municipal discharges, agricultural and industrial discharges, and more visits. The higher pollution index (PI ratio (>1 were observed in all sampling sites which indicated the human fecal matters were responsible for sea water pollution. The statistical approach (correlation explained that the physiochemical and trace metal parameters are not supporting the microbial growth in large extend. Based on the report, this study was suggesting that throughout impoundment is needed to protect fresh water sources.
Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan
Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.
Prasanna, Mohan Viswanathan; Chidambaram, S; Shahul Hameed, A; Srinivasamoorthy, K
Gadilam river basin has gained its importance due to the presence of Neyveli Lignite open cast mines and other industrial complexes. It is also due to extensive depressurization of Cuddalore aquifer, and bore wells for New Veeranam Scheme are constructed downstream of the basin. Geochemical indicators of groundwater were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrogeochemistry. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(+)), magnesium (Mg(+)), bicarbonate (HCO(-)(3)), sulfate (SO(-)(4)), phosphate (PO(-)(4)), and silica (H(4)SiO(4)) were determined. Interpretation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that leaching of ions followed by weathering and anthropogenic impact controls the chemistry of the groundwater. Isotopic study reveals that recharge from meteoric source in sedimentary terrain and rock-water interaction with significant evaporation prevails in hard rock region.
Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Chandra, Subash; Ahmed, Shakeel; Rangarajan, R
There is a growing concern of seawater intrusion to freshwater aquifers due to groundwater overexploitation in the eastern coastal belt of Southern India. The problem becomes complex in the regions where industrial effluents are also contaminating the freshwater aquifers. In order to understand the hydrochemical complexity of the system, topographic elevation, static water level measurements, major ion chemistry, ionic cross plots, water type contours and factor analysis were applied for 144 groundwater samples of shallow and deep sources from Quaternary and Tertiary coastal aquifers, located within the industrial zone of 25 km(2) area near Cuddalore, Southern India. The ionic cross plots indicates dissolution of halite minerals from marine sources and seawater mixing into inland aquifers up to the level of 9.3%. The factor analysis explains three significant factors totaling 86.3% of cumulative sample variance which includes varying contribution from marine, industrial effluent and freshwater sources.
Vignesh, Sivanandham; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Muthukumar, Krishnan; Vignesh, Gopalaswamy; James, Rathinam Arthur
We assessed the spatial and temporal variations of pollution indicators and geochemical and trace metal parameters (23 in total) from water and sediment (144 samples) of three different eco-niches (beach, fishing harbor, and estuary) in larger coastal cities of southern India (Cuddalore and Pondicherry) for one year. A total of 120 marine Pseudomonas isolates were challenged against different concentrations of copper solutions and 10 different antibiotics in heavy metal and antibiotic resistance approaches, respectively. The study shows that 4.16% of the isolates could survive in 250 mM of copper; 70% were resistant to minimum concentrations. Strains were resistant (98.4%) to at least one antibiotic in Cuddalore compared to the Pondicherry (78.4%) region. Pollution index (PI) (0–14.55) and antibiotic resistance index (ARI) (0.05–0.10) ratio indicated that high bacterial and antibiotic loads were released into the coastal environment. The degree of trace metal contamination in sediments were calculated by enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Statistical parameters like two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, factor analysis and scatter matrix tools were employed between the 23 parameters in order to find sources, pathways, disparities and interactions of environmental pollutants. It indicates that geochemical and biological parameters were not strongly associated with each other (except a few) and were affected by different sources. Factor analysis elucidated, ‘microbe–metal’ interaction (Factor 1–48.86%), ‘anthropogenic’ factor (Factor 2–13.23%) and ‘Pseudomonas–Cadmium’ factor (Factor 3–11.74%), respectively. PMID:27941969
Saravu, Kavitha; Kumar, Rishikesh; Ashok, Herikudru; Kundapura, Premananda; Kamath, Veena; Kamath, Asha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay
Background Several reports of chloroquine treatment failure and resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria from Southeast Asian countries have been published. Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ) combined regimen for the treatment of P. vivax malaria patients who were catered by the selected primary health centres (PHCs) of Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Method Five PHCs were selected within Udupi taluk based on probability proportional to size. In-vivo therapeutic efficacy assessment of CQ (1500 mg over three days) plus PQ (210 mg over 14 days) regimen was carried out in accordance with the World Health Organization’s protocol of 28 days follow-up among microscopically diagnosed monoinfection P. vivax cohort. Results In total, 161 participants were recruited in the study of which, 155 (96.3%) participants completed till day 28 follow-up, fully complied with the treatment regimen and showed adequate clinical and parasitological response. Loss to follow up was noted with 5 (3.1%) participants and non-compliance with treatment regimen occurred with one participant (0.6%). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd, <30% of normal mean activity) was noted among 5 (3.1%) participants and one of them did develop PQ induced dark-brown urination which subsided after PQ discontinuation. G6PDd patients were treated with PQ 45 mg/week for eight weeks while PQ was discontinued in one case with G6PD 1.4 U/g Hb due to complaint of reddish-brown coloured urine by 48 hours of PQ initiation. Nested polymerase chain reaction test revealed 45 (28%) cases as mixed (vivax and falciparum) malaria. Conclusions The CQ-PQ combined regimen remains outstandingly effective to treat uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Udupi taluk and thus it should continue as first line regimen. For all P. vivax cases, G6PD screening before PQ administration must be mandatory and made available in all PHCs. PMID:27315280
Full Text Available Several reports of chloroquine treatment failure and resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria from Southeast Asian countries have been published. Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ combined regimen for the treatment of P. vivax malaria patients who were catered by the selected primary health centres (PHCs of Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka, India.Five PHCs were selected within Udupi taluk based on probability proportional to size. In-vivo therapeutic efficacy assessment of CQ (1500 mg over three days plus PQ (210 mg over 14 days regimen was carried out in accordance with the World Health Organization's protocol of 28 days follow-up among microscopically diagnosed monoinfection P. vivax cohort.In total, 161 participants were recruited in the study of which, 155 (96.3% participants completed till day 28 follow-up, fully complied with the treatment regimen and showed adequate clinical and parasitological response. Loss to follow up was noted with 5 (3.1% participants and non-compliance with treatment regimen occurred with one participant (0.6%. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd, <30% of normal mean activity was noted among 5 (3.1% participants and one of them did develop PQ induced dark-brown urination which subsided after PQ discontinuation. G6PDd patients were treated with PQ 45 mg/week for eight weeks while PQ was discontinued in one case with G6PD 1.4 U/g Hb due to complaint of reddish-brown coloured urine by 48 hours of PQ initiation. Nested polymerase chain reaction test revealed 45 (28% cases as mixed (vivax and falciparum malaria.The CQ-PQ combined regimen remains outstandingly effective to treat uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Udupi taluk and thus it should continue as first line regimen. For all P. vivax cases, G6PD screening before PQ administration must be mandatory and made available in all PHCs.
Jennens, Henry R; Ramasamy, Rajkumar; Tenni, Brigitte
Chronic illnesses are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in rural India. Many patients default from treatment, and exploring their reasons for the same may suggest strategies to improve service accessibility and acceptability. A qualitative study was conducted of 22 patient interviews, six key informant interviews, and two patient focus group discussions for investigating the reasons for default at the KC Patty Primary Health Centre and surrounding villages in Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu. The reasons included money or transport difficulties, frequent travel, feeling healthy, focus on work, fear of scolding from clinic staff, medication side effects, preference for alternative therapy, and depression. Some reasons were only divulged after an extended discussion. Support from families and village-level health workers (VLHWs) were also identified as important. Recommendations include more open and patient communication between health workers and defaulting patients, in addition to recruitment of more VLHWs.
Henry R Jennens
Full Text Available Chronic illnesses are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in rural India. Many patients default from treatment, and exploring their reasons for the same may suggest strategies to improve service accessibility and acceptability. A qualitative study was conducted of 22 patient interviews, six key informant interviews, and two patient focus group discussions for investigating the reasons for default at the KC Patty Primary Health Centre and surrounding villages in Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu. The reasons included money or transport difficulties, frequent travel, feeling healthy, focus on work, fear of scolding from clinic staff, medication side effects, preference for alternative therapy, and depression. Some reasons were only divulged after an extended discussion. Support from families and village-level health workers (VLHWs were also identified as important. Recommendations include more open and patient communication between health workers and defaulting patients, in addition to recruitment of more VLHWs.
Durgga Rani V. And Subhadra M.R.
Full Text Available A study was conducted in Thrissur taluk of Thrissur district to assess the training needs of farm women engaged in dairy farming. It was found that out of the five major farm operations studied, the farm women needed training the most in housing. The minor operations preferred the most for knowledge need were proper design of cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, vaccination and banking and insurance. As for skill need, construction of scientific low cost cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, symptoms of common diseases and banking and insurance were preferred the most. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 221-223
Full Text Available We have documented various levels of fluoride in groundwater, running water (i.e streams, canals, river and lake water in 130 samples collected from various sources in Mysore District. Mysore is one of the most popular tourist places in India. Fluoride is one of the parameter of water analysis, which is non-degradable and persists in the environment. Fluoride was assessed by Zirconyl- SPADNS method. Fluoride level varied from 0.2 mg/L to 3.0 mg/L with the highest level at Dalvoy Lake (3.0 ppm followed by Lingambudi Borewell water (2.9 ppm giving a cautious alarm for an awareness to the Mysoreans.Water samples from north-eastern part of Piriyapatna, a small pocket of southern part of H.D.Kote and an extreme southern part of Mysore taluk (urban were having fluoride concentration above acceptable range of WHO and BIS standard.
Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.
Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359
Full Text Available Ground waters are the major resources to meet out the entire requirements. Pollution of air, water and land has an effect on the quality of the ground waters. The chemical characteristics of groundwater in Salem taluk of Salem district have been studied using Geostatistical modeling to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation and domestic uses. The 32 water samples from PWD wells taken during the years 1999 to 2009 for post monsson and pre monsoon were tested for various chemical parameters like pH and TDS .The Geostatistical analyst of mean, mode, standard deviation, cluster & simple to study the spatial pattern of contamination movement for the years 1999 to 2009. Trend analysis was performed to identify trends in the input dataset. The concentrations of physical and chemical constituents in the water samples were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO standard to know the suitability of water for drinking.
S N Rai; S Thiagarajan; Y Ratna Kumari; V Anand Rao; A Manglik
The region under investigation for groundwater exploration is a part of the eastern fringe of Deccan traps in Kalmeshwar Taluk of Nagpur district. In this region, groundwater is the main source of water supply for drinking and irrigation purposes. Presently, the known source of groundwater is the upper weathered mantle in the depth range of 8–15 m. This source of groundwater has been overexploited because of increasing demand of water supply and is unable to meet the present requirement. The present work deals with the delineation of new sources of groundwater at deeper levels concealed within and below the traps by using vertical electrical sounding surveys in order to meet the increasing demand of water supply.
Patel, Ronak; Walker, Garrett; Bhatt, Mihir; Pathak, Vishal
Background: Small informal businesses make up the core markets for many poor urban communities, providing essential goods, services, and livelihoods. Many of these communities and businesses exist in hazardous locations. In most cases, these business owners do not have access to proper coping mechanisms including risk transfer and lack resilience to shocks. Access to risk-transfer in the form of insurance for these small businesses is extremely limited. This demand survey is the first phase of an intervention to test disaster microinsurance for these businesses. Previous research has examined the demand for and value of microinsurance to protect poor households but not micro- and medium-sized informal urban businesses. Objective: This study investigates knowledge about and demand for microinsurance among small informal business owners in three different cities of India. Methods: Survey of all informal business owners (n=4919) identified through purposive sampling of the most vulnerable in three proposed study sites: Guwahati in Assam (n=1622), Puri in Odisha (n=1551) and Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu (n=1746). Results: Our findings reflect that while small business owners largely did not know about disaster microinsurance, after describing it, a vast majority wanted to subscribe to such a program. Without it, they often rely on personal savings, forgo basic necessities, or take out costly loans that trap them in debt to cope with disasters. Discussion: This research supports the need for more experiments on actual adoption patterns, feasibility studies, and innovative trial programs by governments, non-governmental organizations, and insurance providers. PMID:28357153
Kandasamy Kathiresan; Kandasamy Saravanakumar; Pandiyan Mullai
Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer). Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B>Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions:The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.
Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Varadharajan, Mohan
Soil is a complex and dynamic biological system. Agroforestry systems are considered to be an alternative land use option to help and prevent soil degradation, improve soil fertility, microbial diversity, and organic matter status. An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The present study deals with the status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu. Eight soil samples were collected from different fields in agroforestry systems in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tiruvanamalai, and Erode districts, Tamil Nadu. The number of microorganisms and physico-chemical parameters of soils were quantified. Among different microbial population, the bacterial population was recorded maximum (64%), followed by actinomycetes (23%) and fungi (13%) in different samples screened. It is interesting to note that the microbial population was positively correlated with the physico-chemical properties of different soil samples screened. Total bacterial count had positive correlation with soil organic carbon (C), moisture content, pH, nitrogen (N), and micronutrients such as Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Similarly, the total actinomycete count also showed positive correlations with bulk density, moisture content, pH, C, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). It was also noticed that the soil organic matter, vegetation, and soil nutrients altered the microbial community under agroforestry systems.
Ravisankar, R.; Sivakumar, S.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Prince Prakash Jebakumar, J.; Vijayalakshmi, I.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.
Natural and artificial radionuclide pollutants of the marine environment have been recognized as a serious environmental concern. The natural radioactivity levels in beach sediment samples collected from Thazhankuda (Cuddalore) to Kodiyakkarai along East Coast of Tamilnadu have been determined. Sediment sample were collected by a Peterson grab sampler from 10 m water depths parallel to the shore line. The grab sampler collects 10 cm thick bottom sediment layer from the seabed along the 20 stations. The radioactivities of 20 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The average specific activities for 238U, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 3.67, 37.23 and 387.17 Bq kg-1 respectively. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different countries. It shows that the average activity of 238U and 40K is lower whereas 232Th is slightly greater than the compared worldwide average value. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the study area was estimated by different approaches such as the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed dose rate (DR), hazard indices, the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) are compared with the international recommended values. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from the radioactivity to know the existing relations and to study the spatial distribution of radionuclide.
GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar
The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.
G .SUMALATHA AND T. GEETHA JEBARATHNAM
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Two sets of field experiments were conducted during June-August months of 2012-2013 at Annamalai University of Cuddalore district under irrigated conditions to formulate site –specific nutrient management and to assess the yield performance of sunflower +apiary farming system.The experiment consists of two main treatments; i.e, sunflower alone (M1 ,sunflower with apiary (M2 and nine sub treatments i.e, control (S1, 100%RDF (S2, 100%RDF + Azospirillum (S3,100% RDF+phosphobacteria (S4,100%RDF+vermicompost (S5, 100%RDF+ Azospirillum+ phosphobacteria (S6, 100% RDF + Vermicompost +Azospirillum (S7, 100%RDF+ vermicompost+phosphobacteria (S8,100%RDF + Vermicompost + Azospirillum+phosphobacteria(S9 and it was laid out in split plot design with three replications .Highest values for seed yield and NPK uptake were observed for the combined application of all three nutrient sources in the plots of the experiment where beehive was installed. Perhaps to ensure better outcome. The apiary should be provided with better feeding for a longer period of time, beside the natural feeding resources .feed consists of 500ml sugar syrup two times a week. Infact the bee foraging activites, improved seed yield, apart from the income through honey production, thus sustaining the crop + apiary system.
Full Text Available According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7 guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal.To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages, Udupi District, Karnataka state, India.Community based cross sectional study.6 (out of total 14 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR and adjusted (adj OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05, white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85 and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42, students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95, using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99, salty food
Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha
Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil
Malini M Bhattathiry
Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.
The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.
Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.
Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.
Full Text Available The Cauvery basin of Karnataka State encompasses a range of land cover types, from dense forest areas and plantations in the Western Ghats hills, to fertile agricultural lands in the river valley. Recent demographic changes, rapid economic development and urbanization have led to the conversion of vast stretches of forested land into plantations and permanent agriculture. We examine the human drivers of forest cover change between 2001 and 2006, using MODIS 250 m data at multiple spatial scales of nested administrative units i.e., districts and taluks. Population density does not emerge as a major driver of forest distribution or deforestation. Protected areas and landscape accessibility play a major role in driving the distribution of stable forest cover at different spatial scales. The availability of forested land for further clearing emerges as a major factor impacting the distribution of deforestation, with new deforestation taking place in regions with challenging topography. This research highlights the importance of using a regional approach to study land cover change, and indicates that the drivers of forest change may be very different in long settled landscapes, for which little is known in comparison to frontier forests.
Chandra, Ankit; Sarkar, Sonali; Adinarayanan, S; Balajee, Karthik Laksham
Background and Objective: The only way to provide palliative care to a huge number of people in need in India is through community participation, which can be achieved by improving the awareness of the people about palliative care. We conducted a study to assess the impact of health awareness campaign in improving the awareness of people about palliative care. Materials and Methods: This was a pre- and post-intervention study conducted in Kadaperikuppam village of Vanur Taluk in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu. One respondent each from 145 households in the village was interviewed regarding the knowledge and attitude on palliative care before and after the health awareness campaign using a pretested questionnaire. Health awareness campaign consisted of skit, pamphlet distribution, poster presentation, giving door-to-door information, and general interaction with palliative team in the village. Results: The awareness regarding palliative care during the preintervention was nil. After the intervention, it increased to 62.8%. However, there was a decline in the attitude and the interest of the people toward palliative care. Interpretation and Conclusions: Health awareness campaigns can increase the awareness of people in the rural parts of the country about palliative care. However, to improve the attitude of the community about delivery of palliative care services, more sustained efforts are required to make them believe that palliative care can be provided by community volunteers also and not necessarily only by professionals. PMID:27803570
Full Text Available Varahi River basin is in the midst of Udupi district in the western part of Karnataka state, covering parts of Kundapura and Udupi taluks in Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Spatial distributions for twenty physical and chemical properties were examined in the soil samples of selected agricultural fields in 28 different locations in Varahi River basin. The present study revealed that there is not much variation in soil fertility status of soils developed on various landforms in the area as the soils were having low to medium in organic carbon (0.06 to 1.20 % and available nitrogen (6.27 to 25.09 Kg/ha content; low to medium in available P (2.24 to 94.08 Kg/ha and deficient to doubtful in available K (20.10 - 412.3 Kg/ha contents. The soils of Varahi River basin were characterized as low-medium-low (LML category based on the nutrient index calculated w.r.t. available organic carbon, available P and available K. Further, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP indicated that the soils were excellent for irrigation.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most c ommon infections in the world and are responsible for cons iderable morbidity and mortality. "There is increased prevalence of these infections in rural ar eas of developing countries." AIM : The present study was done to determine the intest inal parasitic infection among patients attending to the hospital, who are residents of Sull ia taluk only. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Faecal samples from 500 randomly selected patients we re collected and screened using conventional saline and iodine wet mount and examin ed by direct microscopy. Samples were further concentrated by formal-ether sedimentation technique. RESULTS : In the present study the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infection was found to be 14.60%. The common parasite detected was A. lumbricoides (47.94% followed by hookworm (30.13%. However E. histolytica and G. lamblia were only 1.36%, 5.74% respectively. Multiple infec tion was detected only in 0.80% of infected cases. CONCLUSION : Soil transmitted helminthic infections are more c ommon than protozoal infections. Hence there is a need for health programmes to be held regularly that will involve health education regarding personal hyg iene, hand washing, importance of sanitary procedures and periodic deworming
Savitha, B; K B, Kiran
Risk coping strategies adopted by the households in the event of illness depends on the accessibility to healthcare financing mechanisms including health insurance. The empirical evidence on the effect of microhealth insurance (MHI) on the risk coping strategies of the households is scarce. This paper evaluates the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Program, a nongovernmental organization-initiated MHI scheme and the risk coping strategies of households faced with medical illness in Karnataka state, India. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we collected data from 416 insured households, 366 newly insured households and 364 uninsured households in randomly selected 10 taluks in three districts of Karnataka state, India. We hypothesized that insured individuals rely less on ex post risk coping strategies (borrowing, use of savings and sale of assets) compared with uninsured and newly insured individuals. Our hypothesis was tested using logistic and linear regression analysis. A significant difference among insured, uninsured and newly insured individuals was found for borrowing but not in the use of savings or sale of assets. A positive impact of MHI on illness-induced borrowing (both incidence and amount) was evident. The evidence from this study reinforces the role of MHI as a pivotal financing alternative to out-of-pocket expenditure in India.
Full Text Available Water is one of the essential natural resources for the existence and development of life on the earth. The demand for water has increased over the years, and has led to a water scarcity. Ground waters are themajor resources to meet out the entire requirements. Pollution of air, water and land has an effect on the quality of the ground waters. The chemical characteristics of groundwater in Salem taluk of Salem district have been studied using Geostatistical modeling to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation and domestic uses. The 32 water samples from PWD wells taken during the years 1999 to 2009 for post monsson and pre monsoon were tested for various chemical parameters like pH and TDS .The Geostatistical analyst of ArcGIS was used to generate voronoi maps like mean, mode, standard deviation, cluster & simple to study the spatial pattern of contamination movement for the years 1999 to 2009. Trend analysis was performed to identify trends in the input dataset. The concentrations of physical and chemical constituents in the water samples were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO standard to know the suitability of water for drinking.
Padmavathy Amma Jayalekshmi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From among a cohort of 65,553 men aged 30-84 in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India, 52 hypopharyngeal cancer cases and 85 laryngeal cancer cases were identified by the Karunagappally Cancer Registry during the period between 1990 and 2009. METHODS: We conduct Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, taking into account age and education. RESULTS: This study showed that the incidence rates of cancers of the hypopharynx and the larynx were strongly related to the number of bidis smoked a day (P<0.001 for both hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers and duration of bidi smoking (P=0.009; P<0.001. Laryngeal cancer risk was significantly increased by bidi smoking (P<0.001, cigarette smoking (P=0.013 and regular alcohol use (P=0.005. CONCLUSION: The present study, the first cohort study to examine the association of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer incidence rates with bidi smoking in South Asia, clearly showed dose-response relationships between those cancer risks and bidi smoking; larger amounts of bidi smoked a day and longer durations of bidi smoking increased the incidence rates of those cancers. Tobacco chewing was found not related to the risk of hypopharynx or larynx cancer.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pregnancy is usually a serene time of unparalleled joy and expectation in a women's life. However , sometimes it can be complicated by illnesses or medical conditions. Although only 10 - 30% of the mothers seen in antenatal period can be classified as high ri sk they account for 70 - 80% of perinatal mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES : To determine casual blood pressure recordings among primi and multigravida women in a rural block of Karnataka state. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present cross - sectional study was carried out in all the sub - centers under Primary Health Centre (PHC , the rural field practice area of Bangarpet taluk of Kolar district during April 2013 to September 2013. Blood pressure was recorded with sphygmoman ometer by auscultatory method in 200 registered pregnant women attending the particular sub - center at that point of time. Data was analyzed for statistical significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following conclusions were drawn after statistical analysi s . 1. There was statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure as age advanced among the pregnant women . 2. There was statistically significant increase in diastolic blood pressure among primigravida as compared to multigravida . But nonethel ess no cases of pregnancy induced hypertension was detected in our study group .
Yogendra V, Shuaib Ahmed, Sana Jaweriya, Sagorika Mullick
Full Text Available Background: Contraception is as old as mankind.In view of increasing population there’s need for awareness regarding the use of various contraceptive methods. Aims and Objectives: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude & Practice regarding the various contraceptive methods in a rural setup of Hoskote. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at MVJ, UHC & PHC of Hoskote Taluk on OPD basis. Data was collected by a pre-designed questionnaire at the OPD. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. People were simultaneously educated regarding the various contraceptive methods. Results: Total sample size was 150 of which 75 were males and 75 females. Knowledge about contraceptives was seen more in males (93.3% when compared to females (72%. 95.2% of gradates had knowledge regarding the methods of contraception. This suggests that the knowledge about contraception is better perceived and understood among the literate group. Most common method of contraceptive practiced was barrier methods (40%, followed by sterilization procedure (20%, IUCD (18.67%, OCP (12%, coitus interruptus (8.67% and emergency contraception (0.67%. Conclusion: There has been a considerable improvement among the people even in rural setup regarding the contraceptive use, but there still exists lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the use of contraceptive methods in some small groups of people. IEC activities have to be increased especially for females of this rural setup.
Gouramanis, C.; Karthikeyan, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Switzer, A.; Pham, D. T.
Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally. However, as storm and tsunami deposits are both the result of inundation by ocean waves, they can have similar sedimentological and geomorphological signatures. To demarcate storm and tsunami deposits in the geological record, a number of criteria have been proposed to distinguish the two types of deposits. However, these criteria have been assembled from storm and tsunami deposits from coastlines of markedly different onshore and offshore geomorphologies, sedimentary characteristics and sediment sources. Thus, a primary goal for coastal hazard scientists is to define a suite of characteristics that can be used to discern storm from tsunami deposits. This can only be accomplished by identifying recent, known tsunami and storm deposits from the same coastline to directly compare the sedimentary characteristics deposited by these types of events. Here we compare the sedimentology, microfauna and sedimentary structures of two recent events, the 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 31st December 2011 Cyclone Thane, from three sites along the Tamil Nadu coastline, south-east India and categorise the similarities and differences between the two deposits. Three sites were investigated, two (SB-1 and SB-2) at Silver Beach, Cuddalore and a third (Pit DPM-3a) at the now blocked Pennai River Mouth north of Cuddalore. At all sites the sedimentary deposits of Cyclone Thane overlie aeolian sands which in turn overly the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami deposits. In SB-1 the tsunami deposits have been partially reworked by mangroves that fringed the blocked river. The tsunami deposit found in pit SB-2 overlays a marine intertidal - beach sequence. Pit DPM-3a contains the upper part of the2004 tsunami. In each pit, heavy mineral-rich layers characterise the tsunami and the cyclone deposit, whereas the intervening aeolian sands have only a minor heavy mineral content. Also
Manivannan, S; Balamurugan, M; Parthasarathi, K; Gunasekaran, G; Ranganathan, L S
Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with
Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient files and then assessed for its appropriateness against the criteria developed in view of the Medication Appropriateness Index and Guidelines of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 303 patients were studied during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 0.6 years. The majority of children were admitted mainly due to chief complaint of fever (63% and cough and cold (56.4%. The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was higher in bloody and watery diarrhea (83.3% and 82.6%; P< 0.05. Cephalosporins (46.2% and penicillins (39.9% were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, though the generic prescriptions of these drugs were the lowest (13.5% and 10%, respectively. The seniority of prescriber was significantly associated with the appropriateness of prescriptions (P < 0.05. Antibiotics prescription was higher in cold/cough and diarrhea (93.5% in comparison to cough/cold (85% or diarrhea (75% alone. Conclusions: The study observed high rates of antibiotic utilization in Chidambaram during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. The findings highlight the need for combined interventions using education and expert counseling
Full Text Available Background: The discourse on the ASHA's role centres around three typologies - ASHA as an activist, ASHA as a link worker or facilitator, and ASHA as a community level health care provider. She will counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infection (RTIs/STIs and care of the young child. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of antenatal and postnatal care of ASHA workers. Methods: A cross sectional study was done on 132 ASHA workers selected from 5 random PHCs in Bijapur taluk. Data was collected in a prestructured proforma using interview technique from June to October, 2012. Results: Most of the ASHA (68.1% considered minimum of 3 postnatal visits after the normal vaginal delivery. Around 73.4% were aware that the new born child is to be wrapped up in the cloth soon after birth to prevent hypothermia. Majority (735.% were aware about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding to be practiced by the lactating mother. 69.7% of the respondents said the duration of breastfeeding should be between 18-24 months. Conclusions: Self-explanatory, specific financial guidelines should be made available within time to the programme managers. Under the cascade model of training to the ASHA, trainings should provide complete knowledge and skills to the trainees within the stipulated time. Quality of training should be enhanced and refresher trainings should be planned regularly. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2299-2302
Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.
The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.
Fathima, Farah N; Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S R; Mony, Prem K
About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean ± SD age of ASHAs was 30.3 ± 5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. METHODS: A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban, Ambattur (semi-urban and Sriperumbudur (rural taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7% compared to semi-urban (20.9% and urban (19.4% areas (P value <0.001 Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1 those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2 those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3 those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.
P. Shahul Hameed
Full Text Available Phosphate fertilizers are enriched with 238U during its production from phosphate rocks. Since, application of phosphate fertilizers in modern agriculture is ever on the increase, the present study investigated the impact of phosphate fertilizers on the radioactivity profile of cultivated (fertilized soils as against virgin soils. Thirty soil samples each from cultivated fields and virgin fields were collected from Srirangam taluk and analyzed for the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K employing gamma ray spectrometry. Similar analysis was also undertaken in commonly used phosphate fertilizers. Among the phosphate fertilizers analyzed single super phosphate (396.3 Bq/kg and triple super phosphate (284.2 Bq/kg registered higher level of 238U. The mean activity level of 238U in cultivated soil (8.4 Bq/kg was 25% higher than that of virgin soil (6.8 Bq/kg, while the mean 232Th and 40K activities in cultivated soil (98.4 Bq/kg & 436 Bq/kg were elevated by 12.4% and 4% respectively as compared to virgin soil (87.5 Bq/kg & 419 Bq/kg. The mean radium equivalent (Raeq value for virgin and cultivated soil samples was found to be 164.5 Bq/kg and 181.7 Bq/kg respectively. It is evident that the application of phosphate fertilizers elevated 238U level of the soil. However, the mean Raeq value for soil samples is well below the permissible limit of 370 Bq/kg and hence cultivated soils do not pose any radiological risk.
Full Text Available Background: Areca nut is the fourth main psychoactive substance in the world. In India, tobacco is added to the quid, and the commercially manufactured nonperishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or gutkha are on the rise in the market. Objective : To find out the prevalence of areca nut among the rural residents of Sriperambudur Taluk . Settings and Design: A community-based survey using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Materials and Methods :0 The survey was conducted in 2 villages and their colonies, which were randomly selected out of 168 villages. Data was collected from 500 residents of the study population. The survey was conducted for a period of 2 months. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 10.0. Results :The study participants were more likely to initiate areca nut use by 22 years of age. As many as 19.8% (n = 99 of the study participants chewed areca nut products, out of whom 11.2% (n = 56 indulged in chewing habit alone (areca nut products. Areca nut use was higher among male study subjects compared to females. The commercial forms of areca nut products (gutkha were the most prevalent ones [47.5% (n = 47 of those who used areca nut] observed in the community. Compared to female participants, male participants were more likely to perceive areca nut use as the most harmful habit draining the community health and wealth. Conclusion :There seems to be an increase in the prevalence of areca nut use. The community also perceives it to be a harmful habit. Therefore, effective interventions should be targeted towards the high-risk subpopulation of the community to decrease the prevalence of areca nut use in rural Tamil Nadu.
Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio
Girish, N; Ramachandra, Kamath; Arun G, Maiya; Asha, Kamath
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are impairments of the bodily structures, such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, or the localized blood circulation system, which are caused or aggravated primarily by the performance of work and by the effects of the immediate environment in which work is carried out. Types of work in the cashew factory include cutting, peeling, grading, packing, and boiling. All these activities have risk factors for the musculoskeletal disorders, which include repetition, contact stress, forceful contraction, awkward postures, as well as sustained positions. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to find out the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among cashew factory workers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 246 cashew factory workers, working in a randomly selected factory of a selected locality in Karkala taluk of Udupi district, Karnataka. Participants' name, age, gender, literacy level, income, type of work, duration of employment, hours of work per day, hand dominance, pain and discomfort status were obtained by structured interview. A total of 246 cashew factory workers participated in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. Around 28.5% (n = 70) reported pain, whereas 71.5% (n = 176) of workers did not report pain. The largest number of workers (n = 22; 32.4%) complained of pain in the knee, followed by back (n = 21; 30.9%) and then shoulder (n = 8; 11.8%). Seventy percent of the workers who reported pain were having more than 5 years of work experience. A 68.6% (n = 48) of the workers who reported pain were in the cutting category, followed by the grading (17%; n = 12), boiling (8.6%; n = 6), and peeling (5.7%; n = 4) categories. Prevalence of pain and discomfort among workers was 28.5%, which is a not ignorable and has to be addressed. Self-reported pain and discomfort were more prevalent in knee, followed by
Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management
Mohamed, G. S.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Ramamurthhy, M.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Ramillah, M.
Thiruvallur town is about 44 km from Chennai in Tamil nadu state of India with a population of 130000 , covering 10.75 sq km area. It is about 2km from Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering and Technology. It was Taluk (Sub Division'.s) head quarters and from 1991 it was upgraded as District head quarters after the formation of Thiruvallur District. With rapid growth of town the Population density of Thiruvallur has increased in the past three decades from 300 persons/sq.km in 1951, to 6000 persons/sq.km in 1981 and now it is 12925 persons/sq.km in 2011. The creation of District administrative collector office, headquarters offices for police, judicial courts and Tamil Nadu and Federal Government development department's offices, establishment of multinationals major industries like Caterpillar, Kingfishers,Hindustan Motors, Mahendra Automobiles, Coco cola, Japanese Glass industry, Korean LOTO etc apart from mushrooming growth of about 41 Engineering, Nursing, Education, Medical, Naval, Arts and Science colleges, International Public schools,Governmentt, Private schools and Polytechnics added to the population of this Town. It is well connected by National Highways and Railways and upgraded as District Municipality. This resulted in urban drainage problem and conversion of Agriculture land and lakes for housing, establishment of major Govt and Private Hospitals including special units for Eye care, Cardiology, and Health Clinics, pharmacies etc. The effect of urbanization on environment of this once silent rural temple town which was supporting intensive agriculture activities , green with paddy fields is studied with high resolution satellite data is know the impact on health and environment changes from 2008 to 2011, using 2.5m resolution PAN stereo data of Cartosat 1 merged with 5.8 m resolution Multi Spectral data of LISS 4 of Resourcesat 1 of Indian Remote sensing satellites and Geo Eye satellite image of 2011 from Google Earth web site for the western part
Datta, T. S.; Sharma, R. G.; Kar, S.
International Conference ICEC 26 - ICMC 2016 was organized at New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016. Previous conference ICEC25-ICMC 2014 was held at the University of Twente, The Netherlands in July 2014. Next Conference ICEC 27- ICMC 2018 will be held at Oxford, UK during September 3-7, 2018 1. Introduction This is a biennial international conference on cryogenic engineering and cryogenics materials organized by the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee and the International Cryogenic Material Committee. For some years, the host country has been alternating between Europe and Asia. The present conference was held at the Manekshaw Convention Centre, New Delhi, India during March 7-11, 2016 and hosted jointly by the Indian Cryogenics Council (ICC) and the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Put all together as many as 547 persons participated in the conference. Out of these 218 were foreign delegates coming from 25 countries and the rest from India. 2. Inaugural Session & Course Lectures The pre conference short course lectures on “Cryocoolers” and “Superconducting Materials for Power Applications” were organized on 7th March. Cryocooler course was given jointly by Dr. Chao Wang from M/s. Cryomech, USA and Prof. Milind Atrey from IIT Bombay, India. The Course on Superconducting Materials was given by Prof. Venkat Selvamanickam from the University of Houston, USA. The conference was inaugurated in the morning of March 8th in a typical Indian tradition and in the presence of the Chief Guest, Dr. R Chidambaram (Principle Scientific Adviser to Govt. of India), Guest of Honour, Prof. H Devaraj (Vice Chairman University Grant Commission), Prof Marcel ter Brake ( Chair, ICEC Board), Prof. Wilfried Goldacker (Chair, ICMC board), Dr. D Kanjilal (Director IUAC), Dr R K Bhandari, (President, Indian Cryogenic Council ). Dr. T S Datta, Chair Local Organizing Committee coordinated the proceedings of the inaugural function. 3. Technical