Full Text Available Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neurocysticercosis at two hospitals in Chiclayo, Peru. Materials and methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed at the Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo Hospital and Lambayeque Regional Hospital. Ninety-six (96 medical records of patients attended in 2014 with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis were reviewed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.8 ± 18.8 years old, 52.1% were female, 26% came from Chiclayo and 54.2% received care for the first time. The most common symptom leading to medical consultation was headache. All patients underwent a diagnostic imaging method. The location of the parasite was mostly in the brain and the calcified stage was the most common one. The most widely used treatments were anticonvulsants and pain relievers. Conclusions: Neurocysticercosis mainly affects the economically active population, is more common in women and the most common clinical manifestation is headache
Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Paulini, Javier; de Romaã, Daniel López
There is little information on the cost parameters of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs. To assess the cost parameters and cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in an urban population of Peru. Data from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]), which distributed capsules and foodlets to women and adolescent girls and to children under five, were extrapolated to a population of 100,000 inhabitants. The annual cost per community member was US$1.51. The cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.12 per 1% of prevented anemia per community member. These costs are in the upper margin of iron supplementation alone. They will decrease notably when weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are integrated into health packages and participation by women increases. Focusing on micronutrient deficiencies would prevent these problems, and food-distribution programs would be effectively targeted to food-deficient populations.
Gross, Rainer; Lechtig, Aarón; López de Romaña, Daniel
Because of the rapid growth of the urban population in Peru, food and nutrition insecurity will occur increasingly in this population. For appropriate policy setting and programming, the food and nutrition situation of the urban poor requires better understanding. To gain information about the nature, magnitude, severity, and causes of the nutritional problems of the population in low-income areas of the city of Chiclayo, Peru. A cross-sectional nutrition survey was conducted in 1,604 households, covering children under 5 years of age and their parents. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, overweight. and anemia in children were 15.4%, 1.3%, 4.6%, and 65.7%, respectively; one third of adults were overweight, and one tenth were obese; 2.1% of the mothers were underweight; and 34.3% of mothers and 12.2% of fathers had anemia. Governmental feeding programs did not address these problems adequately. Interventions must have adequate targeting; address appropriate responses at the household, community, and national levels; and reduce stunting, obesity, and iron-deficiency anemia.
Schoff, Stuart L.; Sayan, M. Juan Luis
Ground water in the Lambayeque Valley has been developed mainly for irrigation of sugarcane and rice. The locality is on the coastal plain of northern Peru, about 650 km (kilometers) northwest of Lima, the national capital. The area considered in this study is about 1,670 sq km (square kilometers) and is mainly on the alluvial fan of Rio Chancay and entirely in the Department of Lambayeque. Chiclayo, the departmental capital and largest city, has a population, of about 46,000. The climate is hot and virtually rainless. Agriculture is dependent on irrigation. The available water, whether in stream s or underground, is introduced from the Andean highlands by Rio Chancay. Rocks in the area range in age from Cretaceous, or possibly Jurassic, to Quaternary and in lithology from dense and hard igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks to unconsolidated sediments. The bedrock contains and yields water only in small quantities, if at all. The principal water-bearing strata are in the alluvium comprising the fan of Rio Chancay. Where ground water in the alluvium has been most intensively developed, the productive zone is within 20 m (meters) of the land surface and is composed approximately as follows: (1) relatively impermeable soil, clay, and clayey sand, 5 to 10 m thick, (2) permeable sand and gravel, 6 to 10 m thick, at places including one or more layers of clay, so that several water-bearing beds are distinguishable, and (3) relatively impermeable mixtures of clay, sand, and gravel extending below the bottom of wells. Unit 3 in the deepest test continued to 102 m. Unit 2 is the principal source of water tapped by irrigation wells. In the northern part of the area wells locally yield water rather freely from strata as deep as 73 m, but elsewhere in the area the strata deeper than 20 m are not very productive. Wells at and near Chiclayo yield only small amounts, and the deepest well disclosed, in 100 m of material, only 5.5 m of material that can be considered as
William E. Duellman
Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.
García Herrera, Ricardo; Díaz, H. F.; García, R. R.; Prieto, M. R.; Barriopedro Cepero, David; Moyano, R.; Hernández Martín, Emiliano
The authors present a chronology of El Niño (EN) events based on documentary records from northern Peru. The chronology, which covers the period 1550-1900, is constructed mainly from primary sources from the city of Trujillo (Peru), the Archivo General de Indias in Seville (Spain), and the Archivo General de la Nacion in Lima (Peru), supplemented by a reassessment of documentary evidence included in previously published literature. The archive in Trujillo has never been systematically evaluat...
Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.
Jiang, Ju; Blair, Patrick J; Felices, Vidal; Moron, Cecilia; Cespedes, Manuel; Anaya, Elizabeth; Schoeler, George B; Sumner, John W; Olson, James G; Richards, Allen L
...) collected from two domestic horses living in two separate locations in northern Peru (Coletas and Naranjo) was conducted to more clearly characterize this recently reported novel spotted fever group...
Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.
The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly
Clusia magnoliiflora M. H. G. Gust. is described as new for the Clusiaceae. It grows in dry scrub in the river valleys of the Marañón and its tributaries in northern Peru, a kind of habitat that harbors very few Clusia species. The species is distinct on account of its extremely thick, obovate le...
Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru
Noguchi, H; Kligler, I J
Fourteen typical cases of yellow fever were studied in northern Peru during an epidemic occurring in 1920, nine in Payta in March and April, and five in Morropon and Piura in April and May. The method of investigation was similar to that previously employed, but as the laboratory facilities were very meager certain changes were required. Although in Payta the work was handicapped by the lack of electric light, the scarcity of water and animal food, the unsuitability of the guinea pigs for inoculation, and the changes in culture media due to age, the results obtained under these adverse conditions were by no means negative. While in no instance was there a typical infection produced in animals, either by direct inoculation of blood or with culture materials, yet certain guinea pigs in each series showed temporary febrile reactions or definite hemorrhagic lesions of the lungs indicative of a mild leptospira infection. Direct search for Leptospira icteroides in the blood of patients or in culture materials was not made because the dark-field microscope could not be used. Subsequently, at Piura, the laboratory facilities were vastly, improved, the use of the dark-field microscope was made possible by means of a storage battery, and a fresh stock of young healthy guinea pigs was received from New York, and fresh rabbit serum obtained in Piura. In the study of the materials obtained from five cases of yellow fever in Morropon all these added facilities were taken advantage of, with the result that the outcome was positive and convincing. Cultures from the five cases were examined after 11, 12, and 13 days, and in those from three cases living leptospiras were found. By inoculation into suitable guinea pigs of culture material from these five cases, irrespective of whether or not leptospiras were detected under the dark-field microscope, a typical Leptospira icteroides infection was produced from four of the five cases. In one of these no leptospira had been detected in
Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea
Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than
This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations.
about health in six Latin American countries, 1973- 1992. Rev Panam Salud Publica 1: 23–34. 3. Cowan G, 2000. Rickettsial diseases: the typhus group of...Leonardo Mendoza Instituto Nacional de Salud , Capac Yupanqui No. 1400, Jesús Maria, Lima 11, Peru, Telephone: 51-1-471-9920. Allen L. Richards, Viral and...Colli C, 1997. Leptospira interrogans in a canine population of greater Bue- nos Aires: variables associated with seropositivity. Rev Panam Salud
Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico
A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.
Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; O'Neal, Seth E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Romero, Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre; Hightower, Allen; Craig, Philip S; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Gauci, Charles G; Leontsini, Elli; Gilman, Robert H
Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all the villages in which mass
Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303
Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.
Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.
Stanish, Charles; Levine, Abigail
Excavations at the site of Taraco in the northern Titicaca Basin of southern Peru indicate a 2,600-y sequence of human occupation beginning ca. 1100 B.C.E. Previous research has identified several political centers in the region in the latter part of the first millennium B.C.E. The two largest centers were Taraco, located near the northern lake edge, and Pukara, located 50 km to the northwest in the grassland pampas. Our data reveal that a high-status residential section of Taraco was burned in the first century A.D., after which economic activity in the area dramatically declined. Coincident with this massive fire at Taraco, Pukara adopted many of the characteristics of state societies and emerged as an expanding regional polity. We conclude that organized conflict, beginning approximately 500 B.C.E., is a significant factor in the evolution of the archaic state in the northern Titicaca Basin.
Full Text Available The smooth hammerhead shark Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the elasmobranch species most used for human consumption in Peru. However, the level of mercury in hammerhead muscle tissue is unknown. This study assessed the level of mercury found in the muscle of hammerhead sharks and its relation with human health. Moreover, we evaluated the relationship between shark body size and mercury levels. We analyzed 27 muscle samples of neonates and juveniles captured in northern Peru. Mercury concentrations varied between 0.13 and 0.86 mg kg-1 wet weight. Moreover, we found a negative and significant relationship between shark body size and mercury levels. This study represents the first evaluation of mercury levels of sharks in Peru. Although the values found do not exceed levels recommended by the World Health Organization (< 1 mg kg-1, we recommend expanding this study to include other size classes of sharks as well as other marine resources used for human consumption.
Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc
Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation.
Bussmann, R W; Malca-García, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Chait, G; Díaz, D; Pourmand, K; Jonat, B; Somogy, S; Guardado, G; Aguirre, C; Chan, R; Meyer, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A; Effio-Carbajal, J; Frías-Fernandez, F; Benito, M
The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as "inflammation". The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against Escherichia coli and 38 extracts against Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256 mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bussmann, Rainer W.
Northern Peru represents the center of the Andean “health axis,” with roots going back to traditional practices of Cupisnique culture (1000 BC). For more than a decade of research, semistructured interviews were conducted with healers, collectors, and sellers of medicinal plants. In addition, bioassays were carried out to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of plants found. Most of the 510 species encountered were native to Peru (83%). Fifty percent of the plants used in colonial times have disappeared from the pharmacopoeia. Market vendors specialized either on common and exotic plants, plants for common ailments, and plants only used by healers or on plants with magical purposes. Over 974 preparations with up to 29 different ingredients were used to treat 164 health conditions. Almost 65% of the medicinal plants were applied in these mixtures. Antibacterial activity was confirmed in most plants used for infections. Twenty-four percent of the aqueous extracts and 76% of the ethanolic extracts showed toxicity. Traditional preparation methods take this into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. The increasing demand for medicinal species did not increase the cultivation of medicinal plants. Most species are wild collected, causing doubts about the sustainability of trade. PMID:24454490
Bussmann, R W; Malca, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Nilsen, B; Parris, B; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D; Saleda, J; Martinez, M; Carillo, L; Walker, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A
The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a brine-shrimp assay. Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shimada, I.; Haeusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.
We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sican pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Moessbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.
Brooks, W.E.; Galvez, Mora C.; Jackson, J.C.; McGeehin, J.P.; Hood, D.G.
Analyses of a 20-30 cm thick, completely combusted ash at the 25 ?? 70 m Tschudi burn at Chan Chan, northern Peru??, contain 52-55 wt% SiO2, 180-210 ppm zirconium and are consistent with coal ash. Soil geochemistry across the burn showed elevated calcium and phosphorus content, possible evidence for reported human cremation. A calcined, 5 g, 4.5 cm skull fragment recovered from the burn was confirmed as human by protein radioimmunoassay (pRIA). X-ray diffraction showed that the bone had been heated to 520??C. The burn took place c. ad 1312-1438 based on interpretation of a 14C date on carbonized plant tinder. ?? 2008 University of Oxford.
Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don
This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities,…
Rebaza-Iparraguirre, Henry; Vela-López, Miguel; Villegas-Ortega, José; Lozada-Urbano, Michelle; Munares-García, Oscar
In Peru, health protection rights and the National Health Authority (SUSALUD) coexist with the aim to ensure that every Peruvian may exercise his/her rights. According to the L.D. (Spanish: Decreto legislativo) N° 1158, strategies must be deployed to ensure effective decentralization and ensure compliance with user rights. As a result, the Northern Macro-regional Intendance (IMRN) was created, with headquarters in the city of Chiclayo, and a coverage area including Lambayeque, Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, La Libertad, and Amazonas. The northern macro-region promotes information dissemination, coordination, and local participation in health activities, with an emphasis on handling complaints and claims as well as implementation and operation support of user boards (JUS). After 6 months, implementation of the IMRN experience is undergoing consolidation.
Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.
We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batán Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sicán ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.
Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.
We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Moessbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batan Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sican ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.
Shimada, I.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.
We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sicán pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.
Alroy, Karen A; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Marks, Morgan A; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M W; Cama, Vitaliano A; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z
Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611) and domestic animals [dogs (n=106) and guinea pigs (n=206)] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208) was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG) were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls). The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2-18.0%), 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7-28.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4-6.9%) respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6-24.7%) among participants Peru.
Alroy, Karen A.; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Marks, Morgan A.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M. W.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.
Background Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611) and domestic animals [dogs (n=106) and guinea pigs (n=206)] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208) was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG) were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls). The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2 – 18.0%), 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7- 28.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4 – 6.9%) respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6 - 24.7%) among participants Peru. PMID:26000770
Jones, Charles E.
The characteristics of a new type of rock varnish from the hyperarid coastal deserts of northern Peru, combined with laboratory experiments on associated soil materials, provide new insights into the formation of rock varnish. The Peruvian varnish consists of an Fe-rich, Mn-poor component covering up to 95% of a varnished surface and a Fe-rich, Mn-rich component found only in pits and along cracks and ridges. The alkaline soils plus the catalytic Fe oxyhydroxides that coat much of the varnish surfaces make the Peruvian situation ideal for physicochemical precipitation of Mn. However, the low Mn content of the dominant Fe-rich, Mn-poor component suggests that such precipitation is minor. This, plus the presence of abundant bacteria in the Mn-rich varnish and the recorded presence of Mn-precipitating bacteria in varnish elsewhere, suggests that bacteria are almost solely responsible for Mn-precipitation in rock varnish. A set of experiments involving Peruvian soil samples in contact with water-CO 2 solutions indicates that natural fogs or dews release Mn but not Fe when they come in contact with eolian materials on rock surfaces. This mechanism may efficiently provide Mn to bacteria on varnishing surfaces. The lack of Fe in solution suggests that a large but unknown proportion of Fe in varnish may be in the form of insoluble Fe oxyhydroxides sorbed onto the clay minerals that form the bulk of rock varnish. The results of this study do not substantively change R. I. Dorn's paleoenvironmental interpretations of varnish Mn:Fe ratios, but they do suggest areas for further inquiry.
Wells, Lisa E.
Overbank flood deposits of northern coastal Peru provide the potential for the development of a late Quaternary chronology of El Niño events. Alluvial deposits from the 1982-1983 El Niño event are the basis for establishing a type El Niño deposit. Sedimentary structures suggesting depositional processes range from sheet flows to debris flows, with sheet flood deposits being the most common. The 1982-1983 deposits are characterized by a 50- to 100-cm- thick basal gravel, overlain by a 10- to 100-cm-thick sand bed, grading into a 1- to 10-cm-thick silty sand bed and capped by a very thin layer of silt or clay. The surface of the deposit commonly displays the original shear flow lines crosscut by postdepositional mud cracks and footprints (human and animal). Stacked sequences of flood deposits are present in Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial fill, suggesting that El Niño type events likely occurred throughout the late Quaternary. A relative chronology of the deposits is developed based on terrace and soil stratigraphy and on the degree of preservation of surficial features. A minimum of 15 El Niño events occurred during the Holocene; a minimum of 21 events occurred during the late Pleistocene. Timing of the Holocene events is bracketed by isochrons derived from the archaeologic stratigraphy. Corrected radiocarbon ages from included detrital wood provide the following absolute dates for El Niño events: 1720 ± 60 A.D., 1460 ± 20 A.D., 1380 ± 140 A.D. (error overlaps with the A.D. 1460 event; these may represent a single event), and 1230 ± 60 B.C.
Méndez-López, María R; Attoui, Houssam; Florin, David; Calisher, Charles H; Florian-Carrillo, J Christian; Montero, Stephanie
Since 1983, cases of diseased donkeys and horses with symptoms similar to those produced by alphaviruses were identified in two departments in northern Peru; however serological testing ruled out the presence of those viruses and attempts to isolate an agent were also unproductive. In 1997, also in northern Peru, two new orbiviruses were discovered, each recognized as a causative agent of neurological diseases in livestock and domestic animals and, at the same time, mosquitoes were found to be infected with these viruses. Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) was isolated from pools of culicid mosquitoes, Aedes serratus and Psorophora ferox, and Yunnan virus (YUOV) was isolated from Aedes scapularis in the subtropical jungle (upper jungle) located on the slope between the east side of the Andes and the Amazonian basin in the Department of San Martín. Both viruses later were recovered from mosquitoes collected above the slope between the west side of the Andes and the coast (Department of Piura) in humid subtropical areas associated with the Piura River basin. In this region, PHSV was isolated from Anopheles albimanus and YUOV was isolated from Ae. scapularis. We discuss the ecology of vector mosquitoes during the outbreaks in the areas where these mosquitoes were found. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Cuba Cuba César A
Full Text Available Information on the distribution and synanthropic behaviour of triatomines is essential for Chagas disease vector control. This work summarises such information from northern Peru, and presents new data on Rhodnius ecuadoriensis - an important local vector infesting 10-35% of dwellings in some zones. Three species are strongly synanthropic and may be suitable targets for chemical control of domestic/peridomestic bug populations. Panstrongylus herreri, the main domestic vector in the area, is probably present in sylvatic ecotopes in the Marañón river system. R. ecuadoriensis and Triatoma dimidiata seem exclusively domestic; biogeographical and ecological data suggest they might have spread in association with humans in northern Peru. Confirmation of this hypothesis would result in a local eradication strategy being recommended. Presence of trypanosome natural infection was assessed in 257 R. ecuadoriensis; Trypanosoma rangeli was detected in 4% of bugs. Six further triatomine species are potential disease vectors in the region (T. carrioni, P. chinai, P. rufotuberculatus, P. geniculatus, R. pictipes, and R. robustus, whilst Eratyrus mucronatus, E. cuspidatus, Cavernicola pilosa, Hermanlentia matsunoi, and Belminus peruvianus have little or no epidemiological significance. A strong community-based entomological surveillance system and collaboration with Ecuadorian public health authorities and researchers are recommended.
Karen A Alroy
Full Text Available Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru.A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611 and domestic animals [dogs (n=106 and guinea pigs (n=206] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208 was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2-18.0%, 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7-28.7% and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4-6.9% respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6-24.7% among participants < 15 years, suggesting recent transmission. Increasing age, positive triatomines in a participant's house, and ownership of a T. cruzi positive guinea pig were independent correlates of T. cruzi infection. Only one species of triatomine was found, Panstrongylus lignarius, formerly P. herreri. Approximately forty percent (39.9%, 95% CI: 33.2-46.9% of surveyed households were infested with this vector and 14.9% (95% CI: 10.4-20.5% had at least one triatomine positive for T. cruzi. The cardiac abnormality of right bundle branch block was rare, but only identified in seropositive individuals.Our research documents a substantial prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Cutervo and highlights a need for greater attention and vector control efforts in northern Peru.
Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna
Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…
Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to C. mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to C. viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from C. mirabilis by its wider leaves, ...
Pesantes, M. Amalia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernab?-Ortiz, Antonio; Ponce-Lucero, Vilarmina; Miranda, J. Jaime
Interventions to promote behaviors to reduce sodium intake require messages tailored to local understandings of the relationship between what we eat and our health. We studied local explanations about hypertension, the relationship between local diet, salt intake, and health status, and participants? opinions about changing food habits. This study provided inputs for a social marketing campaign in Peru promoting the use of a salt substitute containing less sodium than regular salt. Qualitativ...
Leiva, Segundo; Meerow, Alan W
Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow, sp. nov. is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to Clinanthus mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to Clinanthus viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from Clinanthus mirabilis by its wider leaves, the much more brightly colored and wide spreading limb, and the much lighter colored perigone tube (yellowish green vs. dark green in Clinanthus mirabilis). A conspicuous bulge just proximal to the midpoint of the tube is a unique character of the new species.
Pesantes, M Amalia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Ponce-Lucero, Vilarmina; Miranda, J Jaime
Interventions to promote behaviors to reduce sodium intake require messages tailored to local understandings of the relationship between what we eat and our health. We studied local explanations about hypertension, the relationship between local diet, salt intake, and health status, and participants' opinions about changing food habits. This study provided inputs for a social marketing campaign in Peru promoting the use of a salt substitute containing less sodium than regular salt. Qualitative methods (focus groups and in-depth interviews) were utilized with local populations, people with hypertension, and health personnel in six rural villages. Participants were 18-65 years old, 41% men. Participants established a direct relationship between emotions and hypertension, regardless of age, gender, and hypertension status. Those without hypertension established a connection between eating too much/eating fried food and health status but not between salt consumption and hypertension. Participants rejected dietary changes. Economic barriers and high appreciation of local culinary traditions were the main reasons for this. It is the conclusion of this paper that introducing and promoting salt substitutes require creative strategies that need to acknowledge local explanatory disease models such as the strong association between emotional wellbeing and hypertension, give a positive spin to changing food habits, and resist the "common sense" strategy of information provision around the causal connection between salt consumption and hypertension.
César M Jayashi
Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.
Shimada, I.; Haeusler, W.; Jakob, M.; Montenegro, J.; Riederer, J.; Wagner, U.
We report on an interdisciplinary study of ceramic material excavated in 1999 and 2001 at a 1000-year old ceramic and metal production site, located at Huaca Sialupe in the La Leche valley on the north coast of Peru and dating to the Middle Sican period (AD 900-1100). Sherds of Sican red- and blackware, numerous moulds, several kilns and other evidence of pottery making were found. The pottery, in particular, is famous for its fine texture and perfect black surface finish. In addition, some clay lumps and sherds of unfired Sican pottery were excavated. Within the same workshop several large inverted ceramic urns used as furnaces were found together with Middle Sican metal working tools and debris. Various physical methods were applied to investigate this material. The ancient firing procedures could be elucidated by comparing the spectra observed for the ancient sherds with model spectra of laboratory and field fired clay samples. This shows that the fine ware made at Huaca Sialupe was intentionally fired under strongly reducing conditions at temperatures up to 900 o C. Reoxidation at the end of the reducing firing took place only occasionally. Less care was taken in firing moulds used for pottery making.
Carlos F. Jiménez
Full Text Available Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca, based on 2002 (dry season and 1264 (wet season camera traps-days (CTD. Two localities were surveyed in wet and dry season: The Pagaibamba Protection Forest and the San Lorenzo Forest. The wet season study was carried out in October and November, and the dry season in July to September of 2008. Eight mammalian species were recorded in both seasons. Some 66 (91.7% independent records were obtained in the dry season, but only six (8.3% in the wet one, suggesting a seasonality effect. The Mountain Paca Cunicu- lus taczanowskii was the most commonly photographed species, with 17.0 and 1.6 capture frequencies (dry and wet season respectively, whereas the Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata (0.5 capture frequency in the dry season was the most rare species. Activity patterns suggest that Mountain Paca C. taczanowskii and the Andean Skunk C. chinga are nocturnal, while Spectacled Bear T. ornatus and Tayra E. barbara are diurnal in the study area. Our records of the Ocelot Leopardus pardalis and the Tayra E. barbara are among the highest altitudinal records known for each species. In addition, the Anta Tapirus pinchaque was also identified by its tracks, representing one of the first record known south of the Huancabamba Depression.
Clausen, B. L.; Martínez Ardila, A. M.; Morton, D. M.
An extensive geochemical data set from the northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) in southern California is compared and contrasted with the Arequipa segment of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith, including new granitoid samples recently collected near Ica (14°S, 76°W). The data include major and trace elements and Sr isotope ratios. This is part of an on-going study of subduction-related magmatism to refine a petrogenetic model of crust formation at plate boundaries, with a particular interest in the role of magma mixing. Research in the northern PRB suggests that continental crust is formed in several cycles: (1) mantle melting to give mafic volcanics and gabbroic intrusives, (2) basalt/gabbro melting to give felsic granitoids uncontaminated by continental crust and having low initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri) values less than 0.704, and (3) crustal melting to give high Sri values greater than 0.704. Geochemical evidence was used to determine the extent of mixing between mafic and felsic magma that produced rocks of intermediate SiO2 composition. These differentiation cycles formed a west to east chronologic sequence and yielded granitoids of gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite composition. Using principal component analysis on the northern PRB granitoids, the four factors affecting geochemical composition were categorized as differentiation, crustal contamination, depth of magma source, and conditions that yield a range from calcic to more alkaline granitoids. A similar major and trace element analysis is being done for a classic result of subduction in the Peruvian Coastal Batholith. The Peruvian samples recently collected include granitoids of the upper Cretaceous Coastal Batholith, as well as the associated volcanics of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. The Coastal Batholith samples include a range of granitoids from the early gabbros and from the four batholithic super-units (from west to east: Linga, Pampahuasi, Tiabaya, and Incahuasi) containing a combination of diorite
Nocquet, J.; Mothes, P. A.; Villegas Lanza, J.; Chlieh, M.; Jarrin, P.; Vallée, M.; Tavera, H.; Ruiz, G.; Regnier, M.; Rolandone, F.
Rapid subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the northen Andes margin (~6 cm/yr) results in two different processes: (1) elastic stress is accumulating along the Nazca/South American plate interface which is responsible for one of the largest megathrust earthquake sequences during the last century. The 500-km-long rupture zone of the 1906 (Mw= 8.8) event was partially reactivated by three events from the 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7), to the 1979 (Mw = 8.2). However, south of latitude 1°S, no M>8 earthquake has been reported in the last three centuries, suggesting that this area is slipping aseismically (2) permanent deformation causes opening of the Gulf of Guayaquil, with northeastwards motion of the Northern Andean Block (NAB). We present a new GPS velocity field covering the northern Andes from south of the Gulf of Guayaquil to the Caribbean plate. Our velocity field includes new continuously-recording GPS stations installed along the Ecuadorian coast, together with campaign sites observed since 1994 in the CASA project (Kellogg et al., 1989). We first estimate the long-term kinematics of the NAB in a joint inversion including GPS data, earthquake slip vectors, and quaternary slip rates on major faults. The inversion provides an Euler pole located at long. -107.8°E, lat. 36.2°N, 0.091°/Ma and indicates little internal deformation of the NAB (wrms=1.2 mm/yr). As a consequence, 30% of the obliquity of the Nazca/South America motion is accommodated by transcurrent to transpressive motion along the eastern boundary of the NAB. Residual velocities with respect to the NAB are then modeled in terms Models indicate a patchwork of highly coupled asperities encompassed by aseismic patches over the area of rupture of the M~8.8 1906 earthquake. Very low coupling is found along the southern Ecuadorian and northern Peru subduction.
Moreno, F.; George, S. W. M.; Williams, L. A.; Horton, B. K.; Garzione, C. N.
The Andes Mountains exert critical controls on the climate, hydrology, and biodiversity of South America. The Bagua Basin, a low elevation (400-600 m) intermontane basin in northern Peru, offers a unique opportunity to study the ecological, climatic, and structural evolution of the western topographic boundary of the Amazonian foreland. Situated between the Marañon fold-thrust belt of the Western Cordillera and basement block uplifts of the Eastern Cordillera, the Bagua region contains a protracted, semi-continuous record of Triassic through Pleistocene sedimentation. Whereas Triassic-Cretaceous marine deposits were potentially related to extension and regional thermal subsidence, a Paleocene-Eocene shift to shallow marine and fluvial systems marks the onset of foreland basin conditions. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation corresponds to a braided-meandering fluvial system with exceptional development of paleosols. In this study, we use new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and oxygen stable isotopic datasets to establish a chronology of pre-Andean and Andean processes within the Bagua Basin. Detrital zircon geochronology provides constraints on when the Western and Eastern cordilleras shed sediments into the basin. Syndepositional zircons within Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene strata provide key age control for a previously poorly constrained depositional chronology. Preliminary results suggest a dramatic provenance shift in which Paleocene deposits contain almost exclusively cratonic populations (500-1600 Ma) whereas Eocene deposits show a mix of syndepositional zircons from the magmatic arc, recycled Mesozoic zircons, and cratonic zircon populations. Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O) of carbonate nodules from Neogene paleosols will help elucidate when the Eastern Cordillera became an orographic barrier intercepting moisture from the Amazon basin to the east. Together, these records will help uncover the history of tectonics and climate interaction in tropical South
Mondillo, Nicola; Arfè, Giuseppe; Herrington, Richard; Boni, Maria; Wilkinson, Clara; Mormone, Angela
Supergene nonsulfide ores form from the weathering of sulfide mineralization. Given the geochemical affinity of Ge to Si4+ and Fe3+, weathering of Ge-bearing sulfides could potentially lead to Ge enrichments in silicate and Fe-oxy-hydroxide minerals, although bulk rock Ge concentrations in supergene nonsulfide deposits are rarely reported. Here, we present the results of an investigation into Ge concentrations and deportment in the Cristal supergene Zn nonsulfide prospect (Bongará, northern Peru), which formed from the weathering of a preexisting Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) sulfide deposit. Material examined in this study originates from drillcore recovered from oxidized Zn-rich bodies 15-20 m thick, containing 5-45 wt% Zn and Ge concentrations 100 ppm. Microanalysis and laser ablation-ICP-MS show that precursor sphalerite is rich in both Fe (mean Fe = 8.19 wt%) and Ge (mean Ge = 142 ppm). Using the mineral geothermometer GGIMFis—geothermometer for Ga, Ge, In, Mn, and Fe in sphalerite—proposed by Frenzel et al. (Ore Geol Rev 76:52-78, 2016), sphalerite trace element data from the Cristal prospect suggest a possible formation temperature ( T GGIMFis) of 225 ± 50 °C, anomalously high for a MVT deposit. Germanium concentrations measured in both goethite (mean values 100 to 229 ppm, max 511 ppm) and hemimorphite (mean values 39 to 137 ppm, max 258 ppm) are similar to concentrations measured in hypogene sphalerite. Additionally, the Ge concentrations recorded in bulk rock analyses of sphalerite-bearing and oxidized samples are also similar. A persistent warm-humid climate is interpreted for the region, resulting in the development of an oxidation zone favoring the formation of abundant Zn hydrosilicates and Fe hydroxides, both able to incorporate Ge in their crystal structure. In this scenario, Ge has been prevented from dispersion during the weathering of the Ge-bearing sulfide bodies and remains in the resultant nonsulfide ore.
González-Carrasco, J. F.; Gonzalez, G.; Aránguiz, R.; Yanez, G. A.; Melgar, D.; Salazar, P.; Shrivastava, M. N.; Das, R.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.
Plausible worst-case tsunamigenic scenarios definition plays a relevant role in tsunami hazard assessment focused in emergency preparedness and evacuation planning for coastal communities. During the last decade, the occurrence of major and moderate tsunamigenic earthquakes along worldwide subduction zones has given clues about critical parameters involved in near-field tsunami inundation processes, i.e. slip spatial distribution, shelf resonance of edge waves and local geomorphology effects. To analyze the effects of these seismic and hydrodynamic variables over the epistemic uncertainty of coastal inundation, we implement a combined methodology using deterministic and probabilistic approaches to construct 420 tsunamigenic scenarios in a mature seismic gap of southern Peru and northern Chile, extended from 17ºS to 24ºS. The deterministic scenarios are calculated using a regional distribution of trench-parallel gravity anomaly (TPGA) and trench-parallel topography anomaly (TPTA), three-dimensional Slab 1.0 worldwide subduction zones geometry model and published interseismic coupling (ISC) distributions. As result, we find four higher slip deficit zones interpreted as major seismic asperities of the gap, used in a hierarchical tree scheme to generate ten tsunamigenic scenarios with seismic magnitudes fluctuates between Mw 8.4 to Mw 8.9. Additionally, we construct ten homogeneous slip scenarios as inundation baseline. For the probabilistic approach, we implement a Karhunen - Loève expansion to generate 400 stochastic tsunamigenic scenarios over the maximum extension of the gap, with the same magnitude range of the deterministic sources. All the scenarios are simulated through a non-hydrostatic tsunami model Neowave 2D, using a classical nesting scheme, for five coastal major cities in northern Chile (Arica, Iquique, Tocopilla, Mejillones and Antofagasta) obtaining high resolution data of inundation depth, runup, coastal currents and sea level elevation. The
Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.; Jones, Kevin B.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Uceda-Castillo, Sandiago; Quilter, Jeffrey
For at least 6 m.y., El Niño events have posed the greatest environmental risk on the Peruvian coast. A better understanding of El Niño is essential for predicting future risk and growth in this tropical desert. To achieve this we analyzed archaeological and modern pre-bomb shells from the surf clam Donax for the radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) to characterize late Holocene coastal upwelling conditions in northern Peru (8°14′S). Mean ΔR values from these shells suggest that modern upwelling conditions in this region were likely established between A.D. 539 and A.D. 1578. Our radiocarbon data suggest that upwelling conditions ca. A.D. 539 were less intense than those in modern times. The observed coastal water enrichment in 14C may be consequence of frequent strong El Niño events or extended El Niño–like conditions. These ΔR-inferred marine conditions are in agreement with proposed extended El Niño activity in proxy and archaeological records of ca. A.D. 475–530. Extended El Niño conditions have been linked to political destabilization, societal transformation, and collapse of the Moche civilization in northern Peru. A return to such conditions would have significant impacts on the dense population of this region today and in the near future.
Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Casabona-Oré, Veronica; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Veronica; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Pons, Maria J; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernan; Ruiz, Joaquin
Bordetella pertussis is an important human pathogen that causes whooping cough (pertussis), an endemic illness responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and children. Worldwide, there are an estimated of 16 million cases of pertussis, resulting in about 195,000 child deaths per year. In Peru, pertussis is a major health problem that has been on the increase despite immunization efforts. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. pertussis among children under five years of age suspected to have whopping cough in Cajamarca, Peru. Children diagnosed with whooping cough admitted to the Hospital Regional de Cajamarca from August 2010 to July 2013 were included. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained for B. pertussis culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection. In 133 children, the pertussis toxin and IS481 gene were detected in 38.35% (51/133) of the cases by PCR, while only 9.02% (12/133) of the Bordetella cultures were positive. The most frequent symptoms in patients with positive B. pertussis were paroxysm of coughing 68.63% (35/51), cyanosis 56.86% (29/51), respiratory distress 43.14% (22/51), and fever 39.22% (20/51). Pneumonia and acute bronchial obstructive syndrome were present in 17.65% (9/51) and 13.72% (7/51) of the cases, respectively. B. pertussis is responsible for an important proportion of whooping cough in hospitalized children in Cajamarca. Epidemiologic surveillance programs for B. pertussis are essential in Peru, especially in children who could most benefit from the vaccine.
Guerra, Humberto; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Falconí, Eduardo; Bravo, Francisco; Donaires, Ninoska; Van Marck, Eric; Portaels, Françoise
Eight adult patients (ages 18-58, 5 women) with Buruli ulcer (BU) confirmed by at least 2 diagnostic methods were seen in a 10-year period. Attempts to culture Mycobacterium ulcerans failed. Five patients came from jungle areas, and 3 from the swampy northern coast of Peru. The patients had 1-5 lesions, most of which were on the lower extremities. One patient had 5 clustered gluteal lesions; another patient had 2 lesions on a finger. Three patients were lost to follow-up. All 5 remaining patients had moderate disease. Diverse treatments (antituberculous drugs, World Health Organization [WHO] recommended antimicrobial drug treatment for BU, and for 3 patients, excision surgery) were successful. Only 1 patient (patient 7) received the specific drug treatment recommended by WHO. BU is endemic in Peru, although apparently infrequent. Education of populations and training of health workers are first needed to evaluate and understand the full extent of BU in Peru.
Anastasio Vallejos, Carla Arleen; Universidad César Vallejos- Chiclayo
La investigación lleva como título “Estrategias de marketing mix para aumentar las ventas de servicios educativos en la especialidad de secretariado ejecutivo en el Instituto Superior Tecnológico ISA-chiclayo-2014”, donde se tuvo como principal objetivo proponer estrategias de marketing mix para aumentar las ventas de servicios educativos en la especialidad de secretariado ejecutivo en el Instituto Superior Tecnológico ISA-Chiclayo. Para ello se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo – propos...
Objetivos: Precisar los factores asociados al no uso del condón en adolescentes y jóvenes en el distrito de Chiclayo y describir algunas características de su conducta sexual. Diseño: Transversal, mediante muestreo polietápico. Lugar: Distrito de Chiclayo, Perú. Pacientes: Trescientos noventa y tres adolescentes y jóvenes, 196 de ellos mujeres y 197 varones. Intervenciones: Se encuestó a adolescentes y jóvenes, usando cuestionario autoaplicado. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizó chi cua...
Vilchez Barreto, Percy M; Gamboa, Ricardo; Santivañez, Saul; O'Neal, Seth E; Muro, Claudio; Lescano, Andrés G; Moyano, Luz-Maria; Gonzálvez, Guillermo; García, Hector H
Hymenolepis nana , the dwarf tapeworm, is a common intestinal infection of children worldwide. We evaluated infection and risk factor data that were previously collected from 14,761 children aged 2-15 years during a large-scale program in northern Peru. We found that 1,124 of 14,761 children (7.61%) had H. nana infection, a likely underestimate given that only a single stool sample was examined by microscopy for diagnosis. The strongest association with infection was lack of adequate water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-2.48) and sanitation infrastructure in the house (aPR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64-2.29). One quarter of those tested did not have a bathroom or latrine at home, which doubled their likelihood of infection. Similarly, one quarter did not have piped public water to the house, which also increased the likelihood of infection. Continued efforts to improve access to basic water and sanitation services will likely reduce the burden of infection in children for this and other intestinal infections.
Full Text Available Zn-bearing phyllosilicates are common minerals in nonsulfide Zn deposits, but they seldom represent the prevailing economic species. However, even though the presence of Zn-bearing clays is considered as a disadvantage in mineral processing, their characteristics can give crucial information on the genesis of the oxidized mineralization. This research has been carried out on the Mina Grande and Cristal Zn-sulfide/nonsulfide deposits, which occur in the Bongará district (Northern Peru. In both of the deposits, Zn-bearing micas and clays occur as an accessory to the ore minerals. The XRD analyses and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS investigations revealed that the Zn-bearing micas that are occurring in both deposits mostly consist of I/S mixed layers of detrital origin, which have been partly altered or overprinted by sauconite during the supergene alteration of sulfides. Sporadic hendricksite was also identified in the Cristal nonsulfide mineral assemblage, whereas at Mina Grande, the fraipontite-zaccagnaite (3R-polytype association was detected. The identified zaccagnaite polytype suggests that both fraipontite and zaccagnaite are genetically related to weathering processes. The hendricksite detected at Cristal is a product of hydrothermal alteration, which is formed during the emplacement of sulfides. The complex nature of the identified phyllosilicates may be considered as evidence of the multiple processes (hydrothermal and supergene that occurred in the Bongará district.
George, S. W. M.; Jackson, L. J.; Horton, B. K.
Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions from modern rivers and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill in the northern Andes provide insights into pre-Andean, Andean, and active uplift and exhumation of distinctive sediment source regions. Diagnostic age signatures enable straightforward discrimination of competing sediment sources within the Andean magmatic arc (Western Cordillera-Central Cordillera), retroarc fold-thrust belt (Eastern Cordillera-Subandean Zone), and Amazonian craton (composed of several basement provinces). More complex, however, are the mid/late Cenozoic provenance records generated by recycling of basin fill originally deposited during early/mid Mesozoic extension, late Mesozoic thermal subsidence, and early Cenozoic shortening. Although subject to time-transgressive trends, regionally significant provenance patterns in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia reveal: (1) Triassic-Jurassic growth of extensional subbasins fed by local block uplifts (with commonly unimodal 300-150 Ma age peaks); (2) Cretaceous deposition in an extensive postrift setting fed by principally cratonic sources (with common 1800-900 Ma ages); and (3) Cenozoic growth of a broad flexural basin fed initially fed by magmatic-arc rocks (100-0 Ma), then later dominance by thrust-belt sedimentary rocks with progressively greater degrees of basin recycling (yielding diverse and variable age populations from the aforementioned source regions). U-Pb results from modern rivers and smaller subbasins prove useful in evaluating source-to-sink relationships, downstream mixing relationships, hinterland-foreland basin connectivity, paleodrainage integration, and tectonic/paleotopographic reconstructions. Most but not all of the elevated intermontane basins in the modern hinterland of the northern Andes contain provenance records consistent with genesis in a broader foreland basin developed at low elevation. Downstream variations within modern axial rivers and Cenozoic axial basins inform predictive models of
Bayer, Angela M.; Danysh, Heather E.; Garvich, Mijail; Gonzálvez, Guillermo; Checkley, William; Alvarez, María; Gilman, Robert H.
During the 1997–98 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Tumbes, Peru received 16 times the annual average rainfall. We explored how Tumbes residents perceived the ENSO’s impact on basic necessities, transport, healthcare, jobs and migration. Forty-five individuals from five rural communities, including those that were isolated and not isolated from the rest of Tumbes during this ENSO, participated in five focus groups and six individuals constructed nutrition diaries. When asked about events in the past twenty years, participants considered the El Niño as a major negative event. Negative effects that were ameliorated quickly were decreased access to transport and healthcare and increased infectious diseases. Residents needed more time to rebuild housing, recover agriculture, livestock and income stability, and return to eating sufficient animal protein. Although large-scale assistance minimized the ENSO’s effects, residents needed more timely support. Residents’ perspectives on their risks to flooding should be considered to generate effective assistance. PMID:24601921
Shimada, I.; Häusler, W.; Jakob, M.; Montenegro, J.; Riederer, J.; Wagner, U.
We report on an interdisciplinary study of ceramic material excavated in 1999 and 2001 at a 1000-year old ceramic and metal production site, located at Huaca Sialupe in the La Leche valley on the north coast of Peru and dating to the Middle Sicán period (AD 900-1100). Sherds of Sicán red- and blackware, numerous moulds, several kilns and other evidence of pottery making were found. The pottery, in particular, is famous for its fine texture and perfect black surface finish. In addition, some clay lumps and sherds of unfired Sicán pottery were excavated. Within the same workshop several large inverted ceramic urns used as furnaces were found together with Middle Sicán metal working tools and debris. Various physical methods were applied to investigate this material. The ancient firing procedures could be elucidated by comparing the spectra observed for the ancient sherds with model spectra of laboratory and field fired clay samples. This shows that the fine ware made at Huaca Sialupe was intentionally fired under strongly reducing conditions at temperatures up to 900°C. Reoxidation at the end of the reducing firing took place only occasionally. Less care was taken in firing moulds used for pottery making.
Núñez Manayay, Tania Mercedes; Universidad Señor de Sipán; Vera Ñañez, Huendy Jame; Universidad Señor de Sipán
La presente investigación cualitativa titulada Experiencias psicosexuales de pacientes histerectomizadas del servicio de Ginecología del Hospital Regional Docente las Mercedes – Chiclayo 2013 tuvo como objetivo describir las experiencias psicosexuales de pacientes histerectomizadas. Con diseño estudio de caso; la muestra conformada por siete pacientes post histerectomizadas de seis meses a un año; en la recolección de datos se utilizó la observación y la entrevista semiestructurada, las que ...
Serruto Perea, Elvis; Universidad San Martín de Porres – Filial Norte, Chiclayo; Cabrera Cabrera, Xiomara; Universidad Señor de Sipán, Lambayeque
El turismo de reuniones adquiere gran importancia en el desarrollo turístico de una ciudad por sus beneficios económicos y sociales. El objetivo de la investigación fue diseñar un plan de gestión del turismo de reuniones identificando los recursos turísticos necesarios que logren la satisfacción del visitante en la ciudad de Chiclayo. Mediante entrevistas a expertos y encuestas realizadas, se logró realizar un análisis de la demanda y oferta para definir las fortalezas, oportunidades, debilid...
Serruto Perea, Elvis
El turismo de reuniones adquiere gran importancia en el desarrollo turístico de una ciudad por sus beneficios económicos y sociales. La presente tesis tiene como objetivo diseñar un plan de gestión del turismo de reuniones identificando los recursos turísticos necesarios para lograr la satisfacción del visitante en la ciudad de Chiclayo. Mediante entrevistas a expertos y encuestas realizadas, se logró realizar un análisis de la demanda y oferta para el segmento de turismo de reuniones. La in...
Brooks, William E.; Willett, Jason C.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Vasquez, Victor; Rosales, Teresa
Debris flows caused by El Niño events, earthquakes, and glacial releases have affected northern Perú for centuries. The Muralla Pircada, a northeast-trending, 2.5 km long stone wall east of the Santa Rita B archaeological site (Moche-Chimú) in the Chao Valley, is field evidence that ancient Andeans recognized and, more importantly, attempted to mitigate the effects of debris flows. The Muralla is upstream from the site and is perpendicular to local drainages. It is 1–2 m high, up to 5 m wide, and is comprised of intentionally-placed, well-sorted, well-rounded, 20–30 cm cobbles and boulders from nearby streams. Long axes of the stones are gently inclined and parallel local drainage. Case-and-fill construction was used with smaller cobbles and pebbles used as fill. Pre-Muralla debris flows are indicated by meter-sized, angular boulders that were incorporated in-place into construction of the dam and are now exposed in breeches in the dam. Post-Muralla debris flows in the Chao Valley are indicated by meter-sized, angular boulders that now abut the retention dam.
Horton, B. K.; Perez, N. D.; Saylor, J. E.
Although age constraints on crustal deformation and sediment accumulation prove critical to testing hypotheses of orogenic plateau construction, a common lack of marine facies, volcanic tuffs, and suitable fossils hinders many attempts at chronological reconstructions. A series of elevated retroarc basins along the axis of the Andean orogenic belt provide opportunities to define the timing of deformation and transformation from foreland to hinterland basin configurations. In this study, we present new U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in the Ayaviri intermontane basin of southern Peru (~4 km elevation) in the northern part of the central Andean (Altiplano) plateau. Nearly all sandstone samples show strong unimodal U-Pb age peaks (generally defined by > 5-50 zircons), suggesting these age peaks represent syndepositional volcanism and can be regarded as accurate estimates of true depositional (stratigraphic) age. Integration of these ages with structural and stratigraphic relationships demonstrate the utility of zircon U-Pb geochronology in defining both (1) the timing of basin partitioning and (2) the pace of sediment accumulation. (1) U-Pb ages for several sandstone samples from growth-strata packages associated with two basin-bounding faults reveal structural partitioning of the Ayaviri basin from late Oligocene to Miocene time. In the north, displacement along the southwest-directed Ayaviri thrust fault commenced in late Oligocene time (~28-24 Ma), inducing initial structural partitioning of an upper Eocene-Oligocene, > 5 km thick succession potentially representing an early Andean retroarc foreland basin. In the south, the Ayaviri basin was further disrupted by initial displacement along the northeast-directed Pasani thrust fault in early to middle Miocene time (~18-15 Ma). (2) Additional U-Pb analyses from the Ayaviri basin fill help delimit the long-term rates of sedimentation, suggesting relatively short-lived (< 5 Myr) pulses of accelerated accumulation. Rapid
This article highlights population statistics from Peru, the 3rd largest country in Latin America. The population in 1985 has been estimated at 19.7 million. In 1982, the birth rate was 35/1000 and the mortality rate was 10/1000. Infant mortality stood at 99/1000 live births and life expectancy at birth was 59 years. 41% of Peru's population is under 15 years of age, and only 4% is 65 years of age or older. The country's total fertility rate is 5.2 births/woman. Only 0.4% of the population is foreign born. Peru is highly urbanized, and 65% of the country's total population growth in 1981 occurred in its cities. 1 in 3 Peruvians resides in the capital city of Lima. The 2 largest racial groups are mestizos and whites (53%) and Indians (46%). 21% of the population is illiterate. 40.7% of the labor force is employed in agriculture; however, only 15% of the national income is derived from agriculture. The GNP per capita was US$1040 in 1983. The country's economy is in serious trouble at present, with an annual inflation rate of 250% and a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion.
Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.
Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W.; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A.
A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367–371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix’s black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells’ black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarin species are of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them. PMID:20878203
Rylands, Anthony B; Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A
A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367-371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix's black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells' black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarins are [corrected] of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them.
íos de la costa norte del Perú (Santa, Chira, Piura podrían reflejar los mayores eventos El Niño de la segunda mitad del Holoceno. Con el objetivo de averiguar esta interpretación, se reexamina aquí las principales características de las dos secuencias de cordones observadas en ambos lados de la desembocadura del río Chira, y en particular el conjunto de datos radiocronológicos obtenidos sobre estos cordones. Se confirma que los cordones de las dos secuencias difieren entre sí tanto por el tipo de sedimento como por su morfología, pero que en los dos casos su formación implicó condiciones meteorológicas y procesos oceanográficos que caracterizan eventos El Niño muy fuertes. Los fechamientos por radiocarbono de conchas marinas y carbón muestreados dentro y sobre los cordones sugieren que las dos series se fueron formando paralelamente en los últimos 4500 años. Los cordones se habrían formado a intervalos de tiempo de 100-600 años. La comparación geomorfológica de las dos series de cordones, su disposición geométrica y el conjunto de datos geocronológicos llevan a establecer una correlación cronológica entre las dos secuencias. Esta correlación tiende a confirmar que la formación de estas construcciones litorales fue ligada a los más violentos trastornos océano climáticos de tipo El Niño que ocurrieron en los últimos milenios. It has previously been hypothesized that the sequences of beach ridges observed at the mouth of the major rivers of the northern coast of Peru (Santa, Chira and Piura Rivers might record the most intense events of the El Niño phenomenon that occurred in the second half of the Holocene. The purpose of this paper is to reexamine this interpretation through a comparative study of the two sequences preserved north and south of the Chira River mouth. The beach ridges of the two sequences are different sedimentologically and geomorphologically but in both cases required, for their formation, particular meteorologic and
Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Morera, Sergio; Crave, Alain; Rau, Pedro; Vauchel, Philippe; Lagane, Christelle; Sondag, Francis; Lavado, Casimiro Waldo; Pombosa, Rodrigo; Martinez, Jean-Michel
In Ecuador and Peru, geochemical information from Pacific coastal rivers is limited and scarce. Here, we present an unedited database of major element concentrations from five HYBAM observatory stations monitored monthly between 4 and 10 years, and the discrete sampling of 23 Andean rivers distributed along the climate gradient of the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Pacific coasts. Concentration (C) vs. discharge (Q) relationships of the five monitored basins exhibit a clear dilution behavior for evaporites and/or pyrite solutes, while the solute concentrations delivered by other endmembers are less variable. Spatially, the annual specific fluxes for total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca2+, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, and SiO2 are controlled on the first order by runoff variability, while Cl-, Na+ and SO42- are controlled by the occurrence of evaporites and/or pyrite. The entire Pacific basin in Ecuador and Peru exported 30 Mt TDS·yr-1, according to a specific flux of ∼70 t·km-2·yr-1. This show that, even under low rainfall conditions, this orogenic context is more active, in terms of solute production, than the global average.
Mundaca Monja, Jorge Max
La investigación asumida como Rediseño del Componente lnvestigativo en la formación profesional del Tecnólogo Médico - Universidad de Chiclayo - Lambayeque, da cuenta de la asistematicidad y desproporcionalidad que existe en la organización curricular de los especialistas en Laboratorio Clínico y Anatomía Patológica- Terapia física y Rehabilitación- Radiología. Se utilizó el Método Cualitativo y Cuantitativo; que se aplicó para demostrar científicamente el problema, se const...
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos y cumplimiento de las medidas de bioseguridad del personal profesional y técnico de enfermería que labora en áreas de alto riesgo. Material y Métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, siendo la población el personal profesional y técnico de enfermería que laboraba en Emergencia, Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI, Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios (UCEMIN, Cirugía General, Centro Quirúrgico, Neonatología y Hemodiálisis del Hospital Nacional Almanzor Aguinaga EsSalud de Chiclayo; se tomó una muestra de 117 trabajadores, evaluándose el nivel de conocimientos mediante cuestionario y el cumplimiento mediante una guía de observación. Resultados: UCI y Centro Quirúrgico tuvieron un nivel de conocimientos alto, tanto en profesionales como técnicos de enfermería. Sobre cumplimiento de normas de bioseguridad, los resultados fueron variados, siendo el mayor en centro quirúrgico y el menor en cirugía y UCEMIN. Existen errores comunes: mal uso de guantes no realizando cambio oportuno, menor frecuencia de lavado de manos, consumo de alimentos en áreas no adecuadas, reencapuchado de las agujas, etc. Conclusiones: Existe un alto grado de conocimiento de las normas de bioseguridad por el personal profesional y técnico de enfermería; sin embargo, el cumplimiento de las normas de bioseguridad es en promedio de nivel 2 (30 a 60%.
López de Romaña, Daniel; Verona, Sara; Vivanco, Oscar Aquino; Gross, Rainer
The Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]) implemented a campaign to promote weekly multimicronutrient supplementation among women and adolescent girls of childbearing age and children under 5 years of age. To assess the impact of the campaign on the growth of children and on anemia among children and among women and adolescent girls of childbearing age. Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation was provided for 8 weeks. Weights, heights, and hemoglobin concentrations were assessed at the beginning and end of the campaign. Although supplementation did not significantly increase the hemoglobin concentrations of children (p = .80) or women and adolescent girls (p = .65) in the intervention group, the hemoglobin concentrations of the comparison groups were significantly lower after 8 weeks (p = .001 for children and p = .03 for women and adolescent girls). Furthermore, the percentage of anemic children in the comparison group increased significantly (p <.001), and the final value was significantly higher than that for the intervention group (p = .004). There were no significant effects of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation on the growth of children, but the study was too short to reliably determine any effects on growth.
Full Text Available Objetivos: Precisar los factores asociados al no uso del condón en adolescentes y jóvenes en el distrito de Chiclayo y describir algunas características de su conducta sexual. Diseño: Transversal, mediante muestreo polietápico. Lugar: Distrito de Chiclayo, Perú. Pacientes: Trescientos noventa y tres adolescentes y jóvenes, 196 de ellos mujeres y 197 varones. Intervenciones: Se encuestó a adolescentes y jóvenes, usando cuestionario autoaplicado. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizó chi cuadrado, odds ratio y regresión logística. Principales medidas de resultados: Uso del condón. Resultados: La conducta sexual presenta diferencia en cuanto a la primera relación coital, siendo más precoces los varones. El uso adecuado del condón en los últimos seis meses fue mínimo en ambos sexos; la proporción de mujeres que refirieron que nunca lo habían usado fue muy alta. Conclusiones: El análisis multivariado mostró que los factores asociados al no uso de condón en varones fueron la falta de disponibilidad, disminución del placer y relación amorosa. En las mujeres, pérdida de romanticismo, interferencia con la relación sexual y uso de otro método anticonceptivo.
Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…
Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo
Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life
Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Franco Jordán, Régulo; Sánchez, Segundo Vásquez
Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol) and bone structural carbonate (δ13Cbone and δ18Obone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel and δ18Oenamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ18Obone and δ18Oenamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life of the Mochicas is also
Full Text Available Llama (Lama glama and alpaca (Vicugna pacos are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl, while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13C col and δ(15N col and bone structural carbonate (δ(13C bone and δ(18O bone and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13C enamel and δ(18O enamel. Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18O bone and δ(18O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic
Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.
Moro, Pedro L; Shah, Jyotsna; Li, Olga; Gilman, Robert H; Harris, Nick; Moro, Manuel H
A serosurvey for human ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was performed in different regions of Peru by using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). Regions included an urban community in a shantytown in Lima (Pampas) and three rural communities located on the northern coast of Peru (Cura Mori), in the southern Peruvian Andes (Cochapata), and in the Peruvian jungle region (Santo Tomas). An overall E. chaffeensis seroprevalence of 13% (21 of 160) was found by IFA. Seroprevalences in females and males was 15% (16 of 106) and 9% (5 of 53), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori, Cochapata, Pampas, and Santo Tomas were 25% (10 of 40), 23% (9 of 40), 3% (1 of 40), and 3% (1 of 40), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori and Cochapata were significantly higher than in Santo Tomas or Pampas (P Peru. Further studies are needed to characterize Ehrlichia species in Peru, their vectors and their clinical significance.
Komabayashi, Takashi; Sato, Manuel; Rodiguez, Lyly; Sato, Doris; Bird, William F
This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000.
Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L
Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.
John F. Merkel
Full Text Available Between AD 900 and 1100 in northern Peru, high-status members of the Middle Siccin culture were buried in large tombs accompanied by elaborate grave goods that included gold, silver and copper objects, and also pieces of sheet metal known as naipes. Metallurgical study of naipes at the Institute supports the view that they were a form of "primitive money".
Garcia Schreck, M.
This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)
Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad del llenado de los certificados de defunción que se extienden en el Hospital Nacional "Almanzor Aguinaga Ausejo" de Chiclayo. Se revisó la totalidad de los certificados emitidos entre julio y septiembre 2006 (n=287, calificándolos como buenos, regulares, malos y pésimos. Sólo 33,8% tuvieron un buen llenado y 44,6% fueron pésimos (99 o malos (29. Los servicios de cuidados intensivos (61,2% y medicina interna (41,4% tuvieron mayor porcentaje de certificados buenos, mientras que los de pésima calidad fueron emitidos con mayor frecuencia en los servicios de pediatría y neonatología (88,9%, cirugía y afines (55,6%, especialidades médicas (50,0% y emergencia (42,5%. Es necesario implementar estrategias de capacitación en el llenado de los certificados de defunción para los médicos.
This book deals with the Nuclear Energy in Peru. It consists of ten chapters. In the first chapter is presented a rapid overview on nuclear science history. The second chapter describes the nuclear proliferation and the nuclear competition in South America. The nuclear organization in Peru, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, and the main centers are described in the third chapter. The following chapters deals with peruvian advances in nuclear medicine, agriculture and food, nuclear application to industry, hydrology, earth sciences and environmental considerations. In the last chapter, the perspectives for nuclear science and technology in Peru are described from the inter institutional cooperation point of view. This book also includes appendix and bibliography. (author)
Castillo Hidalgo, Efren Gabriel
Determina la relación entre dependencia emocional, estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés y depresión. La muestra de tipo no paramétrica estuvo conformada por 126 mujeres víctimas de violencia de pareja que acudieron a una entidad forense de la ciudad de Chiclayo. Se utilizó la ficha de datos sociodemográficos y detección de violencia, el inventario de dependencia emocional, el inventario de respuestas de afrontamiento para adultos, y el inventario de depresión de Beck-II. El análisis de los ...
Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia
We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.
Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.
Campbell, Leon G.
Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…
financial services for the poor. For more information visit the. Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) website: www.idrc.ca/lacro. Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin and our regional bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin. PERU. ○. BRAZIL. COLOMBIA. ECUADOR. BOLIVIA. Pacific Ocean. 150 km. Lima. Callao.
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
The role and status of English in Peru are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system; (2) teachers of English; (3) educational administration of English teaching, (4) materials support, development, and planning, (5) English outside the education system; (6) British and American support for the teaching of…
This inquiry deals with religion and politics in Peru from the beginning of agrarisation, c. 8000 B.C. up until AD 1991. Of central importance for the analysis are state formation and development, the relations between church and state, the internal and external relations within and among the
Funding: $3,412,926. Donor: Canadian International Food Secu- rity Research Fund (IDRC and the Canadian. International Development Agency). Duration: 2011–2014. Grantees: Universidad Nacional Agraria La. Molina and Sociedad Peruana de Derecho. Ambiental, Peru and University of British. Columbia, Canada.
Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…
The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...
Lima's population grew from 1 million to 7 million during 1969-89, almost entirely due to rural-urban immigration. Other urban areas such as Iquitos experienced similar growth over the period. National, regional, and municipal governments have been working to restore civil order in the country and to bring basic health, sanitation, and education programs to the population. However, language, attitudinal, and cultural differences impede progress in this diverse and changing country. Peru's young population of median age 21 years presents a challenge to the development and implementation of effective reproductive health care programs for the country. Pathfinder's work in Peru is helped by current President Alberto Fujimori's strong and active support for family planning. In the face of strong opposition from the Roman Catholic Church, President Fujimori has held onto his conviction and commitment to reduce levels of maternal morbidity and mortality in Peru by increasing the accessibility of family planning programs. Pathfinder's work in Peru with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) includes the 5-year program Project 2000 designed to improve maternal and child health in 12 priority regions of the country. Pathfinder is also working with USAID to link family planning to postpartum services in 30 public hospitals throughout the country. New programs will be launched with contributions from individuals and foundations.
Villena, Jaime E
Peru is an upper medium-income developing country with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including diabetes. To review and describe the epidemiology, drivers, and diabetes care plan in Peru. The medical literature was reviewed based on systematic searching of PubMed, Scielo, and various gray literature from the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, and local Peruvian agencies. In Peru, diabetes affects 7% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 96.8% of outpatients visits with this condition. Type 1 diabetes has an incidence of 0.4/100,000 per year, and gestational diabetes affects 16% of pregnancies. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is 8.11% and that of impaired fasting glucose 22.4%. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in adults is 34.7%, 17.5%, and 25%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is greater in women and the elderly and at urban and low-altitude locations. Diabetes is the eighth cause of death, the sixth cause of blindness, and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and nontraumatic lower limb amputation. In Peru, diabetes accounts for 31.5% of acute myocardial infarctions and 25% of strokes. Infections, diabetic emergencies, and cardiovascular disorders are the main causes for admissions, with a mortality rate Diabetes is a major health care issue in Peru that exposes difficult challenges and shortcomings. The national strategy for tackling diabetes includes promotion of healthy lifestyles; training primary care physicians and providing them with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, safe and effective medications, and tools for monitoring treatment; and, finally, construction of a comprehensive health care network for early referral in order to prevent, detect, and treat diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la frecuencia de Ansiedad y Depresión, así como su asociación con el control glicémico en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 atendidos en un hospital de Chiclayo. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se incluyeron 270 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 entre 19 a 60 años que acudieron al consultorio externo de Endocrinología del Hospital Nacional Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo. Se utilizaron los inventarios de Depresión y Ansiedad de Beck y una ficha de recolección de datos. Se determinaron frecuencias absolutas y relativas y un análisis inferencial exploratorio mediante el cálculo de razones de prevalencia e intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Hubieron 172 mujeres (64% y 98 hombres (36%. La edad promedio fue 52 ± 6,5 años. Se hallaron 156 (57,78% pacientes con depresión y 176 (65,19% con ansiedad. No hubo asociación entre el control glicémico y depresión (RP = 0,94, IC95% 0,83-1,07, p >0,05 y ansiedad (RP = 0,95, IC95% 0,77-1,16, p >0,05. Conclusiones: La frecuencia de depresión y ansiedad en los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 fue elevada. No se encontró asociación entre depresión y ansiedad con el control glicémico.
Zorrilla, Victor; Vásquez, Gissella; Espada, Liz; Ramírez, Pablo
Among approximately 190 species of Lutzomyia in Peru, only a small number have been identified as vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Western and inter-Andean valleys. These include L. peruensis, L. verrucarum, L. tejadai, L. ayacuchensis, and L. pescei. In the Amazon region, L. yuilli yuilli, L. chagasi, L. davisi, and L. auraensis are naturally infected, among the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. L. auraensis is newly reported as a potential vector of leishmaniasis in neotropical regions. Among the primary and most widely distributed vectors of human bartonellosis or Carrión's disease, L. verrucarum and L. peruensis are predominant in the Andean regions of northern, central, and southern Peru. Other potential vectors of Carrion's disease are L. serrana in the Monzon Valley, Huamalies, and Huanuco; L. pescei in Apurímac and Cusco; and L. robusta and L. maranonensis in Jaén, San Ignacio, and Utcubamba provinces, and the high forests of Peru. Because of the high prevalence of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis outside of known endemic areas in Peru, it is necessary to update data and distribution maps of these disease vectors. This may improve both prevention and control measures. Existing information about sandfly vectors in Peru is also provided in this article.
Luis Pongo Águila
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de ceguera y de ceguera por catarata en personas de 50 años o más en Piura y Tumbes, Perú, y caracterizar la cobertura y la calidad de los servicios de cirugía de catarata y las barreras que impiden acceder a estos servicios. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 80 conglomerados de 60 personas de 50 años o más cada uno, mediante muestreo sistemático en los departamentos de Piura y Tumbes, Perú, entre agosto de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Del total de 4 800 personas seleccionadas se examinaron 4 782 personas mediante una encuesta que recogía la información general de la persona, los resultados de los exámenes de agudeza visual (AV, del examen del cristalino y los antecedentes quirúrgicos por catarata o la razón por la que no se la había operado. La AV se evaluó mediante un optotipo de Snellen con la letra "E" con tamaños de 20/60 y de 20/200 a una distancia de 6 m y 3 m, respectivamente, con la corrección disponible (lentes. Cuando la AV resultó menor de 20/60 en alguno de los ojos, se evaluó la visión con agujero estenopeico. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de ceguera bilateral (AV OBJETIVE: To determine the prevalence of blindness and of cataract blindness in persons 50 years of age or older in Piura and Tumbes, which are two departments in northern Peru, and to describe the coverage and quality of cataract surgery services in that area, and the barriers that prevent access to those services. METHODS: Systematic sampling of persons 50 years old or older was done in Piura and Tumbes between August 2002 and March 2003, with 80 clusters of 60 people each being selected. Of the 4 800 persons chosen, 4 782 of them were examined, using a survey instrument that gathered general information on each person, the results of the visual acuity test and the lens examination, and information on cataract surgery or why that surgery had not been done. Visual acuity (VA testing was done with a Snellen optotype with the letter
Schenk C.; Staib E.
We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.
Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)
Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nemeth, Edward J.
An overview of the basic system of education in Peru is presented. Despite various achievements in education, Peruvian authorities in recent years generally have not considered educational progress sufficient to meet the social and economic needs of their society. As a result, two educational structures are presently operating in Peru. The…
Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan
Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…
Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma
Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).
Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E
Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society
Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.
The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).
The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)
Hyams, K C; Phillips, I A; Moran, A Y; Tejada, A; Wignall, F S; Escamilla, J
The prevalence in Peru of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) was determined in a survey of populations living in the northern jungle region and in groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. All sera were initially screened for anti-HCV using commercial first and second generation ELISAs; repeatedly reactive sera were further verified with a second generation immunoblot assay. Serum samples were also tested by ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc. None of 2,111 sera obtained in the survey of jungle residents was positive for anti-HCV by immunoblot assay. Twelve of 16 HIV-1 antibody positive hemophiliacs, one of 103 HIV-1 antibody positive homosexuals, and three of 602 HIV-1 negative registered female prostitutes were positive for anti-HCV. A high prevalence of total markers of hepatitis B infection was found in all subjects, especially in older subjects and groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. The findings of this study indicate that seropositivity for hepatitis C virus antibody is uncommon in Peru except in high risk groups and suggest that the epidemiology of hepatitis C differs substantially from hepatitis B.
Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...
Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts
MAPEO FOTOGRAMÉTRICO EN ARQUEOLOGÍA: EXPERIENCIAS DESDE EL PROYECTO RAMIS, CUENCA NORTE DEL TITICACA, PERÚ (Photogrammetric Mapping in Archaeology: Experiences from the Ramis Project, Northern Titicaca Basin, Peru
Luis A. Flores
Full Text Available El registro arqueológico en tiempo real, desde el propio campo, se ha vuelto una práctica casi común para muchos arqueólogos. Aunque reemplazar el papel por la pantalla táctil aún sigue trayendo dudas y controversias. En este breve reporte queremos compartir una experiencia de registro usando un mapeo digital fotogramétrico en un sistema SIG, que fue practicado en la cuenca del Titicaca, una región altiplánica al sur del Perú, donde demostramos que este método de recolección de datos puede traer no solo rapidez sino también precisión en las mediciones. ENGLISH: The recording of archaeology in real-time, from the field itself, has become common practice for many archaeologists. Still, replacing paper with touch screens continues to raise doubts and cause controversies within the discipline. In this brief report, we want to share an experience recording in the field using digital photogrammetric mapping in GIS. This project was carried out in the Lake Titicaca Basin, a highland region in southern Peru, where we demonstrated that this method of recording data can not only bring faster, but more accurate measurements than older methods.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...
Lerner, R; Ferrando, D
In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon
Parental body mass index and blood pressure are associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in their adult offspring: a cross-sectional study in a resource-limited setting in northern Peru.
Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Sal Y Rosas, Víctor G; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María K; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime
High body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) are major contributors to the high burden of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Individual high-risk and population approaches for prevention require newer strategies to target these risk factors and focusing on the family to introduce prevention initiatives appears as a promising scenario. Characterisation of the relationship between BMI and BP among the adult members of a given family merits evaluation. We conducted a secondary analysis of an implementation study in Tumbes, Peru, benefiting from data derived from families with at least one adult offspring. The exposures of interest were the BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of the mother and father. The outcomes were the BMI, SBP and DBP of the offspring. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. The mean age of the offspring, mothers and fathers was 29 (SD: 9.5), 54 (SD: 11.8) and 59 (SD: 11.6) years, respectively. Father's BMI was associated with a quarter-point increase in offspring BMI, regardless of the sex of the offspring. Mother's BMI had a similar effect on the BMI of her sons, but had no significant effect on her daughters'. Mother's SBP was associated with almost one-tenth of mmHg increase in the SBP of the adult offspring. There was no evidence of an association for DBP. In families with adult members, the higher the parents' BMI and SBP, the higher their adult offspring's levels will be. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Distribución, abundancia y estructura poblacional del langostino rojo de profundidad Haliporoides diomedeae (Crustácea: Decapoda: Solenoceridae frente a la zona norte de Perú (2007-2008 Distribution, abundance, and population structure of deep red shrimp Haliporoides diomedeae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Solenoceridae off northern Peru (2007-2008
Full Text Available Se determinó la distribución, abundancia relativa y estructura poblacional de Haliporoides diomedeae frente a la zona norte de Perú (3°30'S-10°00'S, con los resultados de dos cruceros desarrollados en 2007 y 2008 a bordo del B/O Miguel Oliver, que realizó investigaciones de la fauna bentodemersal entre 200 y 1.500 m de profundidad, mediante un muestreo al azar estratificado de arrastre de fondo. En 122 lances realizados en cuatro sectores y tres estratos se capturó un total de 48.056 kg, compuestos por ~347 especies de peces e invertebrados. H. diomedeae fue la especie de langostino más importante en las capturas (411 kg, con los mayores niveles de abundancia entre 600 y 1.600 m al norte de los 7°S, con valores medios de captura por unidad de área (CPUA entre 83,4 y 211 kg km-2 y una biomasa total estimada de 1.139,74 ton (± 245,6 ton. Las hembras presentaron una longitud cefalotorácica media de 40,6 mm, rango de 14,5 y 74,5 mm y grupo modal dominante de 30 mm, mientras que en los machos la media fue de 30,6 mm, rango 16 a 33 mm y grupo modal principal de 27 mm; para ambos sexos se identificaron seis grupos modales, dimorfismo sexual y gradiente batimétrica. La relación talla-peso fue de tipo alométrico. En general, las características de distribución, abundancia y estructura poblacional de H. diomedeae permiten considerarla como una especie potencialmente explotable en el norte del mar peruano.The distribution, relative abundance, and population structure of Haliporoides diomedeae was determined off northern Peru (3°30'S-10°00'S by analyzing data from two cruises carried out in 2007 and 2008 on board the B/O Miguel Oliver to assess the bentho-demersal fauna between 200 and 1,500 m depth, us-ing a stratified random bottom trawl design. The total catch from the 122 hauls (covering four sectors and three strata was 48,056 kg, with ~347 fish and invertebrate species. H. diomedeae was the most important shrimp in the catches (411
Ruiz, G.M.H.; Carlotto, V.; van Heiningen, P.S.; Andriessen, P.A.M.
The Western Cordillera of SE Peru is part of the Central Andes and is situated to the west of the Eastern Andes from which it is separated by the northern termination of the Altiplano - the Inter-Andean Valley. It is a volcanic-volcano-detrital chain that developed in the Palaeogene, and is
Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sýkora, K.V.
The phytosociology and ecology of puna vegetation in twelve localities at an altitude of 3750-4500 m in northern Moquegua (south Peru) have been studied. The study area has a pluviseasonal climate with summer rainfall. Using TWINSPAN, Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Farthest Neighbor
Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, Antoine; Sykora, K.V.
The phytosociology and ecology of puna vegetation in twelve localities at an altitude of 3750–4500 m in northern Moquegua (south Peru) have been studied. The study area has a pluviseasonal climate with summer rainfall. Using TWINSPAN, Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Farthest Neighbor
Fairley Jr., Jerry P.
Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.
Peru has vast and largely untapped reserves of crude and natural gas, but it wants foreign help to increase oil production to 500,000 barrels per day in 4 years from the current level of 140,000 barrels per day. Perupetro is a state company in Peru responsible for promoting investment in the petroleum sector. Peru hopes to lure nearly $2 billion in oil investment to its northern Amazon region through 2013. Companies operating in South America have been attracted to Peru in recent years by its exploration potential and one of the best fiscal regimes in the world, at a 5 percent minimum royalty and a 20 percent maximum royalty. However, the government has changed the rules for the blocks offered in the 2010 bid process, increasing the minimum royalty to 15 percent and the maximum to 35 percent. The intent was to bring the higher royalties more in line with Colombia's. However, some analysts claim that Peru lacks the critical mass to justify the increase in royalties. Other challenges facing resource development in Peru include lack of infrastructure and a slow regulatory system. Twenty-five blocks of land are up for bid in 2010, mostly early stage properties. The bidding process will indicate how companies will respond to the new economics of these blocks. 1 tab.
One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…
The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Sobrevilla, L A
Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.
Zuloaga, R L
Bioethics has still not acquired an identity of its own in Peru. The Ethics Committee of the Peruvian Medical School and the National AIDS Commission are review committees that deal with ethical problems arising in practice. Doubts regarding quality control of the drugs being tested have been raised in research on human subjects. Questions related to reproduction are very important. There is a high incidence of adolescent pregnancies, and illegal abortions result in many deaths and hospitalizations of women in serious condition. Birth control methods, such as vasectomy, conflict with attitudes about manhood in Peruvian society. Euthanasia is prohibited by the Ethical Code of the Peruvian Medical School, and legislation penalizes assisted suicide. Organ transplantation is hindered by concerns over early declaration of death. Handicapped children are often rejected by society owing to an absurd belief in the possibility that disorders such as Down's syndrome are contagious. The Ministry of Health requires state hospitals to accept AIDS patients, but instances of rejection are still reported.
Falgueres, C.; Fontugne, M.
The discovery in northern Peru of fossil deposits belonging to large mammals allows the dating of the extinction of this fauna. The method based on disequilibrium within the uranium family ( 230 Th/ 234 U) was used. The extinction occurred at the end of the Pleistocene and is contemporaneous with the beginning of the deglaciation. Moreover, this dating, compared with results of excavations of palaeo-indian ''Paijan'' sites, indicates that human groups in Peru did not play a significant role in extinction of this large fauna. (authors). 26 refs., 1 tab
Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.
We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.
Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)
In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)
Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra
Intended for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Peru's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics included are the people, geographic regions, festivals and celebrations, the economy, natural resources, Lake Titicaca,…
Cardenas Acosta, Liliana
San Martin and Cashiriari fields, located to 500 kilometers to the southeast of Lima, conform the Camisea field that possesses the reserves more important of gas in Latin America. Camisea has gas and proven liquids of 13 quintillion cubic feet of natural gas and 600 million liquid barrels respectively. The paper includes projections, markets and benefits for the Peru
Martin, R.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.
In a previous note on “Americanites” (Martin, 1934) from Colombia and Peru, the writer came to the conclusion, on the basis solely of published data, that it was very likely that these so-called tectites are in reality obsidian of terrestrial origin. He stated, however, that “before it is possible
Zawaski, Mike J.; Malville, J.
During June-July 2005, sets of 14 horizon photographs were obtained at 10 major monumental sites of the Inca as identified in Hemming and Ranney (1982) . The photographs were combined to yield complete 360o panoramas at each of the sites. To calibrate the panoramas a Wild T-2 theodolite was used to obtain 5 pairs of altitude/azimuth measurements of the Sun at each site. The standard deviation of multiple determinations of true north was typically 0.25'to 0.5'. As a check on the sun sights, a line-of-sight azimuth was also established with GPS measurements at each site. Agreement between these baselines and the sun sights are satisfactory. We find evidence of June solstice and/or Pleiades orientations at Llactapata, Sayhuite, and Ollantaytambo; cardinal orientation at Vilcashuman; June solstice established by horizon towers above Urubamba; and both zenith and anti-zenith solar alignments at the tower of Muyuc Marca of Sacsayhuman. Terracing, walls, and water features at Ollantaytambo suggest interest in both June and December solstices. The statistical significance of these orientations is evaluated. A permit was issued by the office of the Institute Cultura National in Cusco for field work at all of these sites. This work was undertook as partial fulfillment of the requirement for a MA degree in Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado. Funding was provided by Sigma Xi and The University of Northern Colorado. Hemming, J. and E. Ranney. 1982. Monuments of the Inca, Boston: Little, Brown
Estrada Coronel, Cristian Percy
La presente tesis de investigación tiene como objetivo general determinar si las estrategias educativas de motivación a través de una aplicación móvil evocan en mayor proporción los saberes previos del tema de la sesión a desarrollar en estudiantes del segundo ciclo matriculados en el curso de Ofimática de Zegel IPAE Chiclayo, 2017. La población utilizada en el estudio son los estudiantes de las 2 aulas del segundo ciclo de Zegel IPAE matriculados en el curso de Ofimática 2017; para obten...
Mimbela Sánchez, Rosa Yessenia
La presente investigación titulada: “Estrategias Didácticas con Cuadernia para elevar el rendimiento escolar en el área de matemática del Primer Grado “B” de secundaria. Institución educativa “San Carlos”- Monsefú.Chiclayo.2016.” surge porque que los estudiantes de la institución educativa “San Carlos” presentan dificultades para resolver problemas en el área de matemática lo que origina un bajo rendimiento escolar, además se ha evidenciado que los docentes no incorporan las Te...
This paper reports that foreign oil companies are weathering Peru's political crisis, and the outlook for increased foreign participation in Peru's petroleum sector remains promising. There has been improvement in the political turmoil and soured international relations that followed President Alberto Fujimori's Apr. 5 suspension of Peru's Congress, charging political corruption and attempts to block his fiscal reforms. But there are fresh concerns over an increase in terrorism aimed at oil industry facilities by antigovernment guerrilla groups in Peru. Meanwhile, state-owned oil company Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) continues efforts to sell assets as part of Fujimori's mandated privatization program. And foreign companies continue to grapple with uncertainty and bureaucratic red tape in chasing investment opportunities in Peru's beleaguered but opening petroleum sector
During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peru...
del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar
Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.
mi) border), on the south by Chile (160 km (99 mi) border), and in the west by the Pacific Ocean (2,414 km (1,497 mi) coast). Peru consists of three...1993), Brazil (1993), Paraguay (1996) and Chile (1997). Two isolates of hantavirus were reported in late 1996 from the rice rat, Oligoryzomys...Simuliidae. Fauna de Agua Dulce de la Republica Argentina. 38. (Insecta, Diptera, Simuliidae), Fascicle 2, 304 pp. +78 pp. of unnumbered figures
Hall, M. Francoise
It was carried out a case study of pregnancies and contraceptive methods used by a random sample of 500 women in Lima, Peru . During the five years preceding the interview, the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortions was 19 , 20 and 15 % in the socio- economic middle and lower respectively upper levels . Although the percentage of induced abortions was admitted as low , the rate of abortions was considered relatively high , and it was thought that probably included many whose provocatio...
Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963
Koons, Michele Lorraine
This dissertation examines Moche (A.D. 300-900) sociopolitical organization in northern Peru at the previously unexplored site of Licapa II, a mid-sized ceremonial center in the Chicama Valley. Moche’s distinct archaeological signatures, chiefly, ceramics and architecture, have long been seen as emblematic of an ethnic and political reality and defined as evidence for the first South American state although recent scholarship has begun to view Moche as a more complex mosaic of interacting set...
addition, partial citrate synthase (gltA) and outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequences were amplified and analyzed, using previously described...views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the...rickettsial and leptospira infections in Andean northern Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 357-363. 21. Schoeler GB, Moron C, Richards A, Blair PJ, Olson JG, 2005
Bourque, Susan C.
This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…
A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…
The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…
Full Text Available Objetivo: Diseñar y validar un instrumento para evaluar el nivel de conocimientos sobre Depresión mayor en médicos de atención primaria en Chiclayo. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, trasversal, tipo validación de un instrumento. El primer constructo se desarrolló en el 2010 en base al marco teórico y sometido a juicio de expertos. En el 2011 nuevamente se sometió el cuestionario a 12 expertos según la metodología Delphi, obteniéndose un constructo de 14 preguntas: 7 de diagnóstico y 7 de tratamiento; se realizó un estudio piloto para evaluar la inteligibilidad y pertinencia del instrumento. Se evaluó la confiabilidad con el coeficiente de Kuder-Richardson y el Alfa de Cronbach. La validez de constructo se realizó mediante análisis factorial. Se utilizó SPSS v. 15. Resultados: Se entrevistaron 34 médicos generales (90% y 6 alumnos (10% que habían terminado el curso de Salud mental: 36 (90% fueron varones; la media de edad fue de 37,5 ± 15 años. Los percentiles 25, 50 y 75 de la puntuación total del instrumento fueron: 4, 6 y 9, respectivamente. El Coeficiente de Kuder-Richardson fue 0,62; el Alfa de Cronbach de cada una de las preguntas fue mayor de 0,55. Las pruebas de Kaiser Meyer Olkin y de esfericidad de Bartlett mostraron que el instrumento era unidimensional. Conclusiones: Se obtuvo un instrumento válido, confiable y unidimensional para determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre depresión mayor en médicos de atención primaria.
... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action would allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection...
Ing. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka
Full Text Available The results of an investigation whose primary target is to analyze the panorama of media on the Internet in Peru in the last quarter of the 2004 are presented. The birth and the consolidation of the Peruvian media on the Internet have been influenced by the economic, political and social problems that this country has lived through throughout its history. In spite of the few users which the media still have on the Internet, however, Peruvian journalism is making an effort to experiment with new formats and is conscious that in the future these means of communication will become essential elements for publication on the Web.
Lynch, T F; Gillespie, R; Gowlett, J A; Hedges, R E
Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Re-evaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago.
This paper reports on strong measures that are being taken to resuscitate Peru's hydrocarbon sector. The first step last August was the cutting of fuel subsidies in half. Then the administration issued tax vouchers to state utilities for the money they still owed national oil company Petroperu. A precursor to what are expected to be widespread changes to the existing petroleum legislation occurred last fall. As part of a package of fiscal reforms, the official base rate that the government paid Occidental Petroleum to produce crude for Petroperu was dropped. A new, free market rate was adopted, which was six times the old base rate
Guerrero, P.; Má, C.; Venegas, D.; Bustamante, R.
Peru is the fastest growing economy in Latin America (sustained increase in GDP, low inflation and poverty reduction). The health system is fragmented and until 2012, almost half of the population had no health insurance. The current government poses: Improved access to health and education, employment and social security, reducing extreme poverty, within a context of social inclusion. The Plan for Prevention and Control of Cancer (“Plan Esperanza”) was established in 2012 in order to reduce cancer mortality and morbidity, with greater access to oncology services (promotion, prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and palliative care). With an area of 1 285 216 square kilometers and almost 30 million inhabitants, cancer treatment resources are scarce. Regarding Radiation Therapy, until 2007, it existed only in Lima, the capital city (over 9 million inhabitants). Later, another services were established in two more regions. At present, there is 23 radiotherapy machines in whole country. In this regard, Plan Esperanza is working on strengthening Radiation Therapy Services nationwide. Considering the population demand and availability of other cancer services (chemotherapy, oncologic surgery), the regions where need create new radiotherapy services were identified: 3 Hospitals in Lima (in peripheral areas: Cayetano Heredia at the North, Hipólito Unanue at East and Maria Auxiliadora at South). Also, other Regions of the country: Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad at North; Junín in the Central Highland, Cusco in the Southern Highland, and Loreto in the Northern Forest. Each with 2 linear accelerators, except Loreto, where they will consider two 60 Cobalt bomb instead, due to the geographical conditions. Moreover, one linear accelerator in Arequipa Region will be acquired. In Lima, the Hospitals are projected to become operational in 2016, while in the Regions, the Ministry of Health is providing them technical assistance in needs identification, planning and
Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.
The recent charges in Peru's energy sector are reported as the privatisation campaign draws to a close. Sectors covered include the splitting of the petroleum company into its components of production, refining, transport and marketing. (UK)
Full Text Available During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peruvians and bring them together into the wellknown “melting pot”, becomes the resemantization of the old colonial discourse longing for a republic without natives. Therefore, in the Peru Brand advertising discourse, the “primitive natives” are white people brought from Nebraska and speak English.
Moock, Peter; Bellew, Rosemary
The relative costs of and returns to VTE (Vocational and Technical Education) and general education in Peru are investigated here. The paper is composed as follows. Following a brief introduction, section 2 describes the system of education in Peru and changes that have occurred in this system over time. Section 3 surveys the (relatively sparse) literature on comparative rates of return to VTE and general education. Sections 4 and 5 describe, respectively, the data used for this study and the...
This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...
single or of multiple organ systems. Interestingly, the histological features of BA lesions and verruga peruana are virtually identical (Cockerell et al... Biblioteca Nacional del Peru. lima, Peru, 115 pp. Hertig, M., 1937-38. Studies on Phlebotomus as the Possible Vector. Proc Soc Exp Bioi Med. 37: 598-.600...Vectors of Bartonellosis and Leishmaniasis as Early as 1764. Science. 190: 154-155. Herrer. A.. 1990. Epidemiologia de la Verruga Peruana. Biblioteca
Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associated risk factors in a low-income marginalized urban population in coastal Peru Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de la costa peruana
Segundo R. León
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection prevalence and associated risk factors among a low-income marginalized urban population in Peru. METHODS: Between April 2003 and April 2005, men and women at high-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were recruited from low-income urban areas in three coastal cities in Peru (Chiclayo, Lima, and Trujillo. Consenting participants were studied using a sero-epidemiologic survey. Urine and vaginal swabs collected from men and women were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR (COBAS® AMPLICOR (CT/NG Test, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ, USA for CT. RESULTS: Among the 2 440 participants recruited for the study (2 145 men and 295 women, overall prevalence of CT infection was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.6-7.6%: 5.5% (95% CI, 4.5-6.5% in men and 14.9% (95% CI, 11.7-27.1% in women. Chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with HIV infection and dysuria in men. Among women, chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with number of sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: CT infection was common among high-risk men and women in urban coastal Peru. Because chlamydial infection is associated with complications related to female reproduction, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, interventions to prevent and treat infection and studies to determine the feasibility of population-based screening for CT should be conducted among the high-risk female population.OBJETIVOS: Estimar la prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y los factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de Perú. MÉTODOS: Entre abril de 2003 y abril de 2005 se captaron hombres y mujeres con alto riesgo de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual, en áreas urbanas de bajos ingresos de tres ciudades costeras de Perú (Chiclayo, Lima y Trujillo. Los participantes que aceptaron colaborar
An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)
Belknap, Daniel F.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.
When Francisco Pizarro and his small band of Spanish conquistadores landed in northern Peru in A.D. 1532 to begin their conquest of the vast Inca Empire, they initiated profound changes in the culture, language, technology, economics, and demography of western South America. They also altered anthropogenically modulated processes of shoreline change that had functioned for millennia. Beginning with the extirpation of local cultures as a result of the Spanish Conquest, and continuing through today, the intersection of demography, economy, and El Niño-driven beach-ridge formation on the Chira beach-ridge plain of Northwestern Peru has changed the nature of coastal evolution in this region. A similar event may have occurred at about 2800 calibrated y B.P. in association with increased El Niño frequency.
.... APHIS-2008-0126] RIN 0579-AC93 Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... to allow the importation of Hass avocados from Peru into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, Hass avocados from Peru will have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued in...
After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.
After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru's incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report's presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru's petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu's budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described
Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul
Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori
This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation
Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.
Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the
Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639
Villarreal, M. A
.... A free trade agreement with Peru is one of several bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) negotiated or being considered by the United States with Latin American countries in its effort to advance free trade throughout the region...
Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities
This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...
Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus
Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.
Oberste, M S; Weaver, S C; Watts, D M; Smith, J F
Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated in 1993, 1994, and 1995 from human cases of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Two virus isolates were recovered in 1994 from Peruvian soldiers at a jungle outpost near Pantoja in northern Peru, and 10 isolates were obtained from military personnel and civilians in 1993-1995 in Iquitos, an urban center in northeastern Peru. The genetic relationship of these isolates to other VEE virus strains was determined by sequencing 856-867 nucleotide reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from the PE2 glycoprotein gene. The sequences were compared with those of other VEE virus strains, including representatives of the IAB, IC, ID, IE, II, and IIIC subtypes. The two Pantoja isolates were most closely related to subtype IC and ID viruses previously isolated in Colombia and Venezuela, and to the ID viruses isolated during the 1970s in Iquitos. All of the recent Iquitos isolates were similar to one another, but they were more closely related to Panamanian ID strains than to isolates previously obtained in Iquitos, Peru, or in Colombia and Venezuela. The recent Iquitos VEE viral isolates were the first Panama-genotype VEE ID virus strains identified outside of the Republic of Panama.
The Western Peruvian trough is composed of an eastern miogeoclinical facies of carbonate and clastic strata, and a western eugeoclinal facies consisting of a succession of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. In norther and central Peru, the miogeocline is located between a tectonic hinge adjacent to platformal facies of the Maranon geanticline on the east, and an outer marginal high bounded by the Cordillera Blanca fault and Tapacocha axis on the west. Miogeoclinal and platformal strata in southern Peru occur in a broad belt between Arequipa and Lago Titicaca. A marginal basin setting has been proposed for the Western Peruvian trough and the several kilometers of subsidence in the basin has been attributed to back-arc extension and crustal thinning. As a test of this model, quantitative tectonic subsidence curves were constructed from representative sections within miogeoclinar strata from four localities. Preliminary results indicate that the calculated curves have the same overall form as the age-depth curve for ocean floor, suggesting that subsidence was controlled by cooling and thermal contraction of heated lithosphere. The slopes of the curves are less than those for subsidence of oceanic lithosphere. However, they are in agreement with geologic evidence that the miogeocline accumulated on continental crust. Significant variations in the timing of onset, duration, and magnitude of subsidence are observed between sections from northern and southern Peru.
The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.
Moro, Pedro L; Budke, Christine M; Schantz, Peter M; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J; Villavicencio, Jaime
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.
Pedro L Moro
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost. FINDINGS: The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722 per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629 if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383 if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489 DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.
Bellew, Rosemary; Moock, Peter
This cost-benefit analysis of Peruvian vocational and technical education (VTE) partly substantiates previous research suggesting that VTE in developing countries fails to offer a return commensurate with its cost. The costs of academic and VTE streams in Peru are similar, and graduates' monetary returns and occupational profiles are almost…
Dols, Mary Ann
A high school friendship inspired a love of other cultures and a desire to pursue missionary nursing in South America. As a parish nurse in a remote village in Peru, the author trained village health workers in the basics of hygiene, first aid, and disease prevention.
Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...
Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.
Madalengoitia, J; Ishida, N; Umenay, T; Miyamoto, T; Mejía, J; Flores, W; Sánchez, S; Méndez, R
Single radial immune diffusion and counterelectrophoresis tests were used to examine 2,593 serum speciments from apparently healthy men, women, and children of Peru for the presence of hepatitis B antigen (Australia antigen). The object was to estimate the prevalence of the antigen in two contrasting geographic regions and to investigate the relationship between presence of the antigen and jungle hepatitis in eastern Peru. In connection with the latter goal, both single and serial serum samples collected from hepatitis cases during an epidemic in the northeast were also examined. Of the 2,593 apparently healthy subjects, the tests showed 1.4 per cent were carrying the antigen. However, when the data were broken down by geographic region it was found that 1.8 per cent of the subjects from eastern Peru were carriers, as compared to only 0.5 per cent of those from the northern coast. Moreover, incidences as high as 5 and 6.4 per cent were found in selected eastern areas, and a peak figure of 14.3 per cent was found in sera from children living in some of these areas. Comparison of the proportions of male and female sera positive for the antigen indicated that the proportion of males with HB Ag was nearly twice as high. However, sera collected from Indians of 20 different eastern tribes and from mestizos in the eastern region showed roughly the same proportion of samples positive for HB Ag in each ethnic group. The study also showed a close correlation between presence of the antigen and hepatitis infection during a 1972-1973 epidemic in eastern Peru. Testing of sera taken from hepatitis patients at that time showed many patients to be carrying HB Ag, specially in cases where serial blood samples were available. In all, positive test results were obtained for 81.2 per cent of the patients from whom two or more samples had been obtained.
Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Chenet, Stella M.; Arrospide, Nancy; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas, Cesar; Matta, Jose Antonio; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam
In November 2013, a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak of 11 cases occurred in Cusco, southern Peru, where falciparum malaria had not been reported since 1946. Although initial microscopic diagnosis reported only Plasmodium vivax infection in each of the specimens, subsequent examination by the national reference laboratory confirmed P. falciparum infection in all samples. Molecular typing of four available isolates revealed identity as the B-variant (BV1) strain that was responsible for a malaria outbreak in Tumbes, northern Peru, between 2010 and 2012. The P. falciparum BV1 strain is multidrug resistant, can escape detection by PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests, and has contributed to two malaria outbreaks in Peru. This investigation highlights the importance of accurate species diagnosis given the potential for P. falciparum to be reintroduced to regions where it may have been absent. Similar molecular epidemiological investigations can track the probable source(s) of outbreak parasite strains for malaria surveillance and control purposes. PMID:26483121
Venegas, Pablo J; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; García-Burneo, Karla; Koch, Claudia
We describe a new species of Stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the Marañón river in the northern portion of the Central Andes in northern Peru (Amazonas and La Libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. Stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other Stenocercus species, with the exception of S. amydrorhytus, S. chrysopygus, S. cupreus, S. johaberfellneri, S. latebrosus, S. melanopygus, S. modestus, S. ornatissimus, S. orientalis, and S. stigmosus, by having granular scales on the posterior surfaces of thighs, a conspicuous antehumeral fold and by lacking a vertebral crest. However, Stenocercus omari sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the aforementioned species, except S. orientalis, by the presence of prominently keeled dorsal head scales. The new species differs from S. orientalis by lacking a prominent oblique neck fold and by having a distinct deep postfemoral mite pocket.
Condori, Cristobal; França, George S.; Tavera, Hernando J.; Albuquerque, Diogo F.; Bishop, Brandon T.; Beck, Susan L.
In this study, we present results from teleseismic receiver functions, in order to investigate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath northern Peru. A total number of 981 receiver functions were analyzed, from data recorded by 28 broadband seismic stations from the Peruvian permanent seismic network, the regional temporary SisNort network and one CTBTO station. The Moho depth and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio were determined at each station using the H-k stacking technique to identify the arrival times of primary P to S conversion and crustal reverberations (PpPms, PpSs + PsPms). The results show that the Moho depth correlates well with the surface topography and varies significantly from west to east, showing a shallow depth of around 25 km near the coast, a maximum depth of 55-60 km beneath the Andean Cordillera, and a depth of 35-40 km further to the east in the Amazonian Basin. The bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges between 1.60 and 1.88 with the mean of 1.75. Higher values between 1.75 and 1.88 are found beneath the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, consistent with a mafic composition in the lower crust. In contrast values vary from 1.60 to 1.75 in the extreme flanks of the Eastern and Western Cordillera indicating a felsic composition. We find a positive relationship between crustal thickness, Vp/Vs ratio, the Bouguer anomaly, and topography. These results are consistent with previous studies in other parts of Peru (central and southern regions) and provide the first crustal thickness estimates for the high cordillera in northern Peru.
Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Knoll, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan Francisco; Rivera, Esteban; Vinetz, Joseph M.
Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru. Most specimens were either Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi B or An. (Nys.) rangeli, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2) and, for selected individuals, ITS2 sequences. A few specimens from Lupuna, Loreto Department, northern Amazonian Peru, were also identified as An. benarrochi B. A statistical parsimony network using ITS2 sequences confirmed that all Peruvian An. benarrochi B analyzed were identical to those in GenBank from Putumayo, southern Colombia. Sequences of the mtDNA COI BOLD region of specimens from all three Peruvian localities were connected using a statistical parsimony network, although there were multiple mutation steps between northern and southern Peruvian sequences. A Bayesian inference of concatenated Peruvian sequences of ITS2+COI detected a single clade with very high support for all An. benarrochi B except one individual from Lupuna that was excluded. No samples were positive for Plasmodium by CytB-PCR. PMID:23243107
Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.
This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.
Full Text Available A collection mission of three Andean tuber crops, oca (Oxalis tuberosa, Oxalidaceae, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus, Basellaceae and añu (Tropaeolum tuberosum, Tropaeolaceae, was carried out in southern Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. This article deals with the observations made during this mission. 55 ulluco fields were visited. In general, the fields are small, 240m2 on average, and they are mostly situated on mountain slopes. The fields are fertilized with animal dung; chemical fertilizers are quite rare. In the fields, people work with hoes ang ploughs as they did hundreds of years ago. Mechanization of agriculture would prevent full utilization of the mountainous area of the Andes. Ulluco is usually interplanted with other crops, usually, many forms of ulluco in one field. Because of crop rotation description of the fields is partly valid for the cultivation of other crops, too. Due to drastic climatic variation, cultivation of mixed varieties maybe the best way to guarantee some yield. When results of the investigations are wished to benefit developing countries, knowledge of social, agricultural and environmental factors is of great value.
Holmgren, C.A.; Betancourt, J.L.; Rylander, K.A.; Roque, J.; Tovar, O.; Zeballos, H.; Linares, E.; Quade, Jay
Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16??S), provide an ???9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central AndesAtacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Nin??o Southern Oscillation modes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.
Curioso, Walter H; Espinoza-Portilla, Elizabeth
In this article we present the essential components and policies that are most relevant regarding the conceptual framework to strengthen the health information systems in Peru. The article also presents the main policies, actions and strategies made in the field of electronic health in Peru that are most significant. The health information systems in Peru play a key role and are expected to achieve an integrated and interoperable information system. This will allow health information to be complete, efficient, of good quality and available in a timely manner to achieve better quality of life for people and allow meaningful modernization of public health in the context of health reform in Peru.
Czechowicz, Josephine; Huaman, Jose Luis; Forshey, Brett M; Morrison, Amy C; Castillo, Roger; Huaman, Alfredo; Caceda, Roxana; Eza, Dominique; Rocha, Claudio; Blair, Patrick J; Olson, James G; Kochel, Tadeusz J
Although encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection has been commonly documented among domestic animals, less is known about EMCV transmission among humans. Recently, we described the isolation of EMCV from two febrile patients in Peru. To further investigate EMCV transmission in Peru, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Peru for serological evidence of recent EMCV infection. We also conducted a serological survey for EMCV-neutralizing antibodies in the city of Iquitos, located in the Amazon basin department of Loreto, Peru. Additionally, we screened serum from rodents collected from 10 departments in Peru for evidence of EMCV exposure. EMCV infection was found to be only rarely associated with acute febrile disease in Peru, accounting for 17% in cities in the tropical rainforest of northeastern Peru (Iquitos and Yurimaguas). On the basis of the serological survey conducted in Iquitos, risk factors for past infection include increased age, socioeconomic indicators such as residence construction materials and neighborhood, and swine ownership. Evidence from the rodent survey indicates that EMCV exposure is common among Murinae subfamily rodents in Peru (9.4% EMCV IgG positive), but less common among Sigmodontinae rodents (1.0% positive). Further studies are necessary to more precisely delineate the mode of EMCV transmission to humans, other potential disease manifestations, and the economic impact of EMCV transmission among swine in Peru.
In 1975, a group of professionals in Peru who were experts on national health systems began a process that led the country to be the first in South America to initiate a modern organization of the health system. This pioneering development meant that the creation of the National Health Services System [in Peru] in 1978 occurred before the health system reforms in Chile (1980), Brazil (1990), Colombia (1993), and Ecuador (2008). This encouraging start has had permanent reformist fluctuations since then, with negative development because of the lack of a State policy. Current features of the Peruvian system are inefficient performance, discontinuity, and lack of assessment, which creates a major setback in comparison with other health systems in America. In the 21st century, significant technical efforts have been missed to modernize the system and its functions. The future is worrying and the role of new generations will be decisive.
Eugenics was defined by Galton as 'the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race'. In Peru, eugenics was related to social medicine and mental hygiene, in accordance with the neo-Lamarckian orientation, that predominated in Latin America. Peruvian eugenists assumed the mission of fighting hereditary and infectious diseases, malnutrition, alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, criminality and everything that threatened the future of the 'Peruvian race'. There were some enthusiastic advocates of 'hard' eugenic measures, such as forced sterilization and eugenic abortion, but these were never officially implemented in Peru (except for the compulsory sterilization campaign during the 1995-2000 period). Eugenics dominated scientific discourse during the first half of the twentieth century, but eugenic discourse did not disappear completely until the 1970s.
Olivia Hernández Pozas, Ph.D
Full Text Available Organizations need well trained employees in order to maintain a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to describe current training practices in Peru and to provide recommendations for improving organizational performance. This paper also aims to set priorities for future research work. Human capital theory and contributions on need assessment, and training planning, implementation and evaluation served as theoretical framework. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory study that used information from surveys conducted in 24 Peru-vian companies. The findings reveal a strong interest in training, particularly with regard to the improvement of competencies, preference for face-to-face training, and the use of reaction evaluation methods. The recommendations include, among others, improving the provisions for internal support, policies, technology, behavioral evaluation, and resources.
Zoila Olga de los Milagros Romero Albino
Full Text Available Family medicine in Peru had its origins in 1989, when the first family medicine residency was created; thereafter has had stages of improving and decline, there are currently more than 250 family physician graduated, between 70 and 90 seats of residency in annually, not having even insert family medicine in undergraduate medical schools. The inclusion of family physicians in the health system has been torpid, Peru has a mixed health system with multiple insurers and providers and 30% of the population without coverage, no real compliance characteristics of systems based on attention primary and first contact and access, longitudinality, comprehensiveness and coordination. It is expected to strengthen the specialty improve future training scenarios and developing a united health system.
Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. FINDINGS: The to...
The anchovy harvest off the coast of Peru has decreased from a maximum of about 12 million tons in 1970 to about 1 million tons/year between 1977 and 1979. This rise and collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery between the 1950s and the 1970s was accompanied by marked changes in the fluxes of a carbon budget for the upwelling ecosystem. These carbon budget changes are discussed in relation to anchovy production. (JMT)
In 2003, a national multi-sectorial Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was created in Peru to increase handwashing with soap among mothers and children. The early years of the HWI focused on laying groundwork, including a formative research study in 2004; the creation of a consultative committee by the Ministry of Health (MoH); and a national decree formalizing the HWI. The Water and Sanitation ...
Wang Mingcai; Xu Yunming
@@ Sino-American Oil Development Corporation (hereinafter referred to as"SODC") has taken part in the international operation activities in petroleum exploration and development in Latin-American area since 1992 and some progress has been made. At present, SODC is carrying out the operations within the Sixth and Seventh Blocks of Tarara oil field of the Republic of Peru and gains a good prestige.
Ramirez Quijada, R.
The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)
Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible. Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 9/25/2008.
OLIVIA HERNÁNDEZ POZAS; KETY LOURDES JAUREGUI
Organizations need well trained employees in order to maintain a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to describe current training practices in Peru and to provide recommendations for improving organizational performance. This paper also aims to set priorities for future research work. Human capital theory and contributions on need assessment, and training planning, implementation and evaluation served as theoretical framework. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory study that ...
Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....
Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert
The effect of macroeconomic crises on child health is a topic of great policy importance. This article analyzes the impact of a profound crisis in Peru on infant mortality. It finds an increase of about 2.5 percentage points in the infant mortality rate for children born during the crisis of the late 1980s, which implies that about 17,000 more children died than would have in the absence o...
Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario
Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntingtons Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field.
Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.
On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.
Klaren, Peter F.
Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.
La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.
Delgado-Villanueva, Kiko Alexi; Romero Gil, Inmaculada
[EN] Environmental conflict analysis (henceforth ECA) has become a key factor for the viability of projects and welfare of affected populations. In this study, we propose an approach for ECA using an integrated grey clustering and entropy-weight method (The IGCEW method). The case study considered a mining project in northern Peru. Three stakeholder groups and seven criteria were identified. The data were gathered by conducting field interviews. The results revealed that for the groups urban ...
Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.
Describes Peru 2021, an organization of business-related individuals with a vision for Peruvian society. Outlines aspects of their vision in the areas of leadership, education, economy, environment, government, business, technology, and society. Discusses Peru 2021's efforts to develop a strategic plan for implementing the vision, to involve…
... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...
Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime
In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru.
Jul 20, 2016 ... Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru. Having little or no savings can be devastating for poor families, especially in times of crisis. View moreMini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru ...
Klee, Carol A.
Presents an overview of language policy in Peru from colonial times to the present and analyzes the impact of this policy, together with the underlying social conditions, on Spanish-Quechua language contact and Spanish language change in present-day Peru. (Author/VWL)
Smits, Henk L.; Espinosa, Benjamin; Castillo, Rosa; Hall, Eric; Guillen, Alfredo; Zevaleta, Milagros; Gilman, Robert H.; Melendez, Paolo; Guerra, Carlos; Draeger, Angelika; Broglia, Alessandro; Nöckler, Karsten
Recent human Brucella melitensis isolates from Peru were genotyped by multiple locus variable number repeat analysis. All 24 isolates originated from hospitalized patients living in the central part of Peru and consisted of six genomic groups comprising two to four isolates and nine unique
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Global Health (CGH) had the pleasure of welcoming a delegation of health officials from the Government of Peru for the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the U.S. and Peru.
Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.
Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…
Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M
We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.
Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah
We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.
Journal of Chemical Education, 2007
The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.
Carré, Matthieu; Jackson, Donald; Maldonado, Antonio; Chase, Brian M.; Sachs, Julian P.
The variability of radiocarbon marine reservoir age through time and space limits the accuracy of chronologies in marine paleo-environmental archives. We report here new radiocarbon reservoir ages (ΔR) from the central coast of Chile ( 32°S) for the Holocene period and compare these values to existing reservoir age reconstructions from southern Peru and northern Chile. Late Holocene ΔR values show little variability from central Chile to Peru. Prior to 6000 cal yr BP, however, ΔR values were markedly increased in southern Peru and northern Chile, while similar or slightly lower-than-modern ΔR values were observed in central Chile. This extended dataset suggests that the early Holocene was characterized by a substantial increase in the latitudinal gradient of marine reservoir age between central and northern Chile. This change in the marine reservoir ages indicates that the early Holocene air-sea flux of CO2 could have been up to five times more intense than in the late Holocene in the Peruvian upwelling, while slightly reduced in central Chile. Our results show that oceanic circulation changes in the Humboldt system during the Holocene have substantially modified the air-sea carbon flux in this region.
Castillo N, Leonardo; Ortega M, Arturo; Luyo, Jaime E.
Northern Peru is threatened by the consequences of a natural phenomenon called “El Niño”, mainly during the months of December to April. In the summer of 2017, this event reported strong climatic variations with intense rains, increasing the water levels of the Chira and Piura rivers, filling the Poechos reservoir, together with flooding and mudding. However, from an energetic perspective, these climatic alterations have a strong potential to increase the availability of the wind and hydro renewable energies in northern Peru. This work performs an evaluation of the hydro-eolic complementarity as part of the sustainability of energy systems. The study includes evaluation of historical records of wind velocity and water flow rates. It then evaluates correlation, analysis, and estimates the hydro and wind energy potentials generated by this phenomenon. The implications of the "El Niño" phenomenon are mostly negative. Nonetheless, it is possible to take advantage of higher wind and water flow rates with a hybrid energy system. The results obtained show a high degree of complementarity both normal and "El Niño" phenomenon condition in northern Peru.
Van Albada, M.
The experiences of the author during his stay in Peru at UNSA are described. The purpose of the author's stay was to set up a system to evaluate study results and explore the market for openings for graduated physicists. His task is the result of a cooperation project between the Delft University of Technology and UNSA
... in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru... Memorandum of May 1, 2009 Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement...
Julia S Ampuero
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.
Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto
Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.
Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto
Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519
Cynthia E. Milton.
Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.
Vizcardo L, C.; Espinoza Z, M.
A brief history of twenty four events of real and suspected overexposure to ionizing radiation's reported to IPEN during 1977-1988 period are presented. Thirty-seven persons were involved being twelve really overexposed. Nine of them showed clinically detectable injuries (deterministic effects). The events occurred in different kinds of irradiation facilities or laboratories in Peru, mainly related with the use of radiodiagnostics and gamma radiography equipment. Patients were derived to the radiosanitary medicine service of IPEN were medical examinations and laboratory prescriptions were made. It was possible to perform cytogenetical analysis in eighteen patients. Additional data and comments on six cases of prenatal irradiation reported to this service are presented. (authors)
Manrique, Javier E.; Dirección de Promoción de la Salud, Prevención y Control Nacional del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. Lima, Perú. Cirujano oncólogo.; Sullcahuamán-Allende, Yasser; Unidad de Genética y Biología Molecular, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. Lima, Perú. médico genetista.; Limache-García, Abel; Dirección de Promoción de la Salud, Prevención y Control Nacional del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. Lima, Perú. enfermero.
Cancer is a genetic disease caused by changes in the DNA sequence or expression. Based on the origin of these changes, cancer can be classified as sporadic, and hereditary or familial. Based on the cancer records in Peru, it is expected that 5 to 30% of all patients with cancer, i.e. about 2,000 to 12,000 people, have hereditary cancer, meaning that a similar number of families have a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Therefore, the purpose of genetic co...
Del Carpio Gallegos, Javier
This article shows how some principles, uses, and practices of risk management are applied in information technology projects in Peru; in the last four years, in representative sectors like manufacturing, banking, information and communications, academics institutions, construction, government, consulting, services, and others. El presente artículo muestra algunos principios, usos y prácticas de cómo la gestión de riesgos de proyectos de tecnología se ha llevado a cabo en los últimos cuatr...
Llanos-Cuentas, A.; Campos, P.; Clendenes, M.; Canfield, C. J.; Hutchinson, D. B. A.
The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM) were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15) or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base) over a 3 day period (n=14) (phase 1). The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were sub...
This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.
Full Text Available In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1.
Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E
In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1).
Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Espinoza-Huertas, Keren; Velit-Salazar, Mario R; Veliz-Otani, Diego; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Marca, Victoria; Ortega, Olimpio; Mazzetti, Pilar
Neurogenetics, the science that studies the genetic basis of the development and function of the nervous system, is a discipline of recent development in Peru, an emerging Latin American country. Herein, we review the clinical, scientific and ethical aspects regarding the development of this discipline, starting with the first molecular diagnosis of neurogenetic diseases, to family and population-based genetic association studies. Neurogenetics in Peru aims to better explain the epidemiology of monogenic and complex neurodegenerative disorders that will help in implementing public health policies for these disorders. The characterization of Peru and its health system, legal issues regarding rare diseases and the historical milestones in neurogenetics are also discussed.
Llanos-Chea, Fiorella; Martínez, Dalila; Rosas, Angel; Samalvides, Frine; Vinetz, Joseph M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is uncommon in South America. Lima, Peru, while not endemic for malaria, is home to specialized centers for infectious diseases that admit and manage patients with severe malaria (SM), all of whom contracted infection during travel. This retrospective study describes severe travel-related malaria in individuals admitted to one tertiary care referral hospital in Lima, Peru; severity was classified based on criteria published by the World Health Organization in 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records of patients with SM admitted to Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 2006 to 2011. Of 33 SM cases with complete clinical data, the mean age was 39 years and the male/female ratio was 2.8. Most cases were contracted in known endemic regions within Peru: Amazonia (47%), the central jungle (18%), and the northern coast (12%); cases were also found in five (15%) travelers returning from Africa. Plasmodium vivax was most commonly identified (71%) among the severe infections, followed by P. falciparum (18%); mixed infections composed 11% of the group. Among the criteria of severity, jaundice was most common (58%), followed by severe thrombocytopenia (47%), hyperpyrexia (32%), and shock (15%). Plasmodium vivax mono-infection predominated as the etiology of SM in cases acquired in Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Arrospide, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rommell V.; Sánchez, Juan F.; Macedo, Silvia; Conde, Silvia; Tapia, L. Lorena; Salas, Carola; Gamboa, Dionicia; Herrera, Yeni; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lescano, Andrés G.
During 2010–2012, an outbreak of 210 cases of malaria occurred in Tumbes, in the northern coast of Peru, where no Plasmodium falciparum malaria case had been reported since 2006. To identify the source of the parasite causing this outbreak, we conducted a molecular epidemiology investigation. Microsatellite typing showed an identical genotype in all 54 available isolates. This genotype was also identical to that of parasites isolated in 2010 in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon and closely related to clonet B, a parasite lineage previously reported in the Amazon during 1998–2000. These findings are consistent with travel history of index case-patients. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in the Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 loci, which are strongly associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and deletion of the Pfhrp2 gene. These results highlight the need for timely molecular epidemiology investigations to trace the parasite source during malaria reintroduction events. PMID:25897626
Baldeviano, G Christian; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Arrospide, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rommell V; Sánchez, Juan F; Macedo, Silvia; Conde, Silvia; Tapia, L Lorena; Salas, Carola; Gamboa, Dionicia; Herrera, Yeni; Edgel, Kimberly A; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lescano, Andrés G
During 2010-2012, an outbreak of 210 cases of malaria occurred in Tumbes, in the northern coast of Peru, where no Plasmodium falciparum malaria case had been reported since 2006. To identify the source of the parasite causing this outbreak, we conducted a molecular epidemiology investigation. Microsatellite typing showed an identical genotype in all 54 available isolates. This genotype was also identical to that of parasites isolated in 2010 in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon and closely related to clonet B, a parasite lineage previously reported in the Amazon during 1998-2000. These findings are consistent with travel history of index case-patients. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in the Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 loci, which are strongly associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and deletion of the Pfhrp2 gene. These results highlight the need for timely molecular epidemiology investigations to trace the parasite source during malaria reintroduction events.
Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.
Ice masses on the Western range of the Central Andes are a main source of water resources and act as a geoindicator of variations in the climate of the tropics (Mark, 2008). The study of their evolution is of particular interest since they are situated in the transition zone between the tropical and mid-latitude circulation areas of the atmosphere (Zech et al., 2007). The function of this transition area is currently under debate, and understanding it is essential for the development of global climate models (Kull et al, 2008; Mark, 2008). However our understanding of the evolution of glaciers and their paleoclimatic factors for this sector of the Central Andes is still at a very basic level. This paper presents initial results of a study on the glacial evolution of the Ampato volcanic complex (15°24´- 15° 51´ S, 71° 51´ - 73° W; 6288 m a.s.l.) located in the Western Range of the Central Andes in Southern Peru, 70 km NW of the city of Arequipa. The main objectives are to identify the number of glacial phases the complex has undergone using geomorphological criteria to define a time frame for each phase, based on cosmogenic 36Cl dating of a sequence of moraine deposits; and to estimate the glacier Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) of each phase. The Ampato volcanic complex is formed by 3 great andesitic stratovolcanoes, the Nevados HualcaHualca-Sabancaya-Ampato, which started forming between the late Miocene and early Quaternary (Bulmer et al., 1999), aligned N-S and with summits covered with glaciers. The Sabancaya volcano is fully active, with its latest eruption occurring in 2001. Glacial landforms were identified and mapped using photointerpretation of vertical aerial photographs from 1955 (1:35,000 scale, National Geographic Institute of Peru), oblique photographs from 1943 (Aerophotographical Service of Peru), and a geo-referenced high-resolution Mrsid satellite image from 2000 (NASA). This cartography was corrected and improved through fieldwork. It was
Raising taxes in Latin America presents a unique opportunity to improve ... interactions between and among institutions can affect developing countries' ... limited support granted to science, technology and innovation (STI) activities in Peru.
More Decent Jobs in Peru: Strengthening Research and Policymaking Capacities. Despite ... In turn, such understanding requires appropriate data. Currently ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.
Wise, Mary Ruth
In the Amazonian jungle of Peru 240 Indian leaders representing 20 different South American Indian language groups are successfully teaching their own people to read and write, first in their mother tongue and then in Spanish. (Author/EB)
US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...
Project. IDRC's Think Tank Initiative is a multi-donor program dedicated to ... Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, North and Central America.
Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: ... Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America. Project ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, North and Central America. Program: ...
All projects related to peru. Keyword ... Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. ... Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs.
Apr 27, 2016 ... ... job (most of them are self-employed or work in small enterprises). ... Image. Peru Photo. There is an urgent need for solid research and policy ... on Labour Ministry's website (in Spanish); Media articles (in Spanish).
Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka
Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005, had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions in the Global Network have not had temporary clear definition. The media progressed at their own pace, depending among other factors –at the time of entry into the network, the staff assigned to the publication, and especially on the strength of the journalistic company and its policy regarding digital editing. With regard to the presence on the Internet, digital newspapers have shown a steady and numerous growth, over the first decade (1995-2005.
Guillén-Mendoza, Daniel; Quiroga de Michelena, María
Alkaptonuria is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) which produces an excess of homogentisic acid (HGA). A case is presented of a 57 year old woman whose urine has turned black since birth. For 9 years she presented a greenish pigmentation in her nail beds that did not improve with antifungal treatments, and in the last 9 months she showed worsening large joint osteoarthritis. This situation forced her to use a wheelchair due to the intense pain caused by osteoarthritis in her hips and lumbar spine. From the description of symptoms, her urinary HGA was measured which confirmed the diagnosis of alkaptonuria. Analgesics and a diet without tyrosine-containing products were suggested. The patient was also referred for hip replacement surgery. This is the first reported case of alkaptonuria in Peru.
Marcel Fortuna Biato
Full Text Available Abstract The 1998 Brasilia Peace Agreement ended a territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru that, due to the size and location of the contested area, had remained a source of regional instability and continental tensions for decades. This paper examines the circumstances that finally allowed negotiations, beginning in 1995, to overcome an almost two-centuries-old conflict, long after almost all territorial disputes in South America had been laid to rest. It will focus in particular on the diplomatic endeavours by the guarantor countries of the 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which involved a unique set of negotiations, and the setting up of the first effective multilateral peace operation in South America. It also suggests that the peace agreement benefited from the dynamics of economic integration underway since the 1980s. Finally, it considers the implications for regional security arrangements, as well as Brazil’s leadership credentials in South America.
Revoredo Iparraguirre, José Francisco; Cavalcanti Oscátegui, Jessica
Analyze the process for implementation of health provider information systems in Peru. A qualitative study was conducted on implementation of a health provider information system in coastal, mountain, and jungle regions of Peru. Factors were identified that hinder and that facilitate the implementation process. Critical success factors included planning of implementation, executive commitment, commitment of the implementation leader, organizational culture, and human resources capacity. Implementation processes for provider information systems demonstrate various difficulties associated primarily with human barriers.
Tueros-Cuadros, E.; Otiniano, L.; Chirinos, J.; Soncco, C.; Guevara-Day, W.
The Large Aperture GRBs Observatory is a continental-wide observatory devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) at high mountain sites of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru. Details of the instalation and operation of the detectors in Marcapomacocha in Peru at 4550 m.a.s.l. are given. The detector calibration method will also be shown.
Moore, Stephanie Carol
This study analyzes the integration of the Japanese into the politics of race and nation in Peru during the period from 1899 to 1942. The first generation of Japanese immigrants arrived in Peru at the apex of debates on national racial identity and popular challenges to the white oligarchy's exclusive hold on national political and economic power. This dissertation examines how not only elites, but also working- and middle-class movements advocated the exclusion of the Japanese as a way of st...
2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Antin1icrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru 9 Ryan C. Maves,1...48 human Brucella melitensis biotype 1 strains from Peru between 2000 and 2006. MICs of isolates to doxycycline, azithromycin, gentamicin, rifampin...of testing. Relapses did nut appear to be related tu drug resistance. Infection by Brucella species is a major cause of zoonotic disease
Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol
Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…
This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind” as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to episodes ...
Seclén-Palacín, Juan A; Jacoby, Enrique R
To determine the frequency of sports physical activity in the urban population of Peru and to identify the sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors associated with that activity. This study utilized information collected by the country's National Household Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Hogares) in the second quarter of 1997. That Survey is overseen by Peru's National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática). The Survey was based on a probabilistic, multistage sample that was stratified for all the urban areas of the country, which was divided into eight geographic regions: metropolitan Lima, northern coast, central coast, southern coast, northern mountains, central mountains, southern mountains, and jungle. In total, 14 913 homes were visited and 45 319 people at least 15 years of age were interviewed. The frequency of engaging in sports physical activity was classified as daily, every other day, weekly, or occasional. "Regular sports activity" (RSA) was defined as engaging in sports either every day or every other day. The preferences for and obstacles to sports practice were also examined. A descriptive analysis of the levels of RSA was carried out for gender, using the chi-square test. The factors associated with RSA were analyzed through conditional multiple logistic regression and analysis of residuals, multicollinearity, and interactions. The level of significance was set at P jungle (15.3%), central mountains (12.8%), and central coast (12.1%). RSA was least common in two regions: southern mountains (9.7%) and metropolitan Lima (10.6%). The income bracket was not associated with RSA. However, other variables associated indirectly with the socioeconomic level - such as having more formal education, being employed, and having access to the Internet or cable television - and consumption of sports information were significantly and directly associated with RSA. The most frequent barriers to
Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H. [BPZ and Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States)
This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.
This thesis examines counternarcotics strategies of interdiction, eradication, and alternative development used in Peru during the 199Os to determine if Peru's success can provide the recipe for success in Colombia...
Full Text Available The 1600 AD Huaynaputina eruption in Peru was one of the largest volcanic eruptions in history over the past 2000 years. This study operated on the hypothesis that this event dramatically affected the weather and environment in China and the Korean Peninsula. Over the course of this research the Chinese and Korean historical literatures as well as dendrochronology records were examined. The historical evidence points to the conclusion that the eruption was followed by an abrupt cooling period and epidemic outbreaks in 1601 AD within both China and the Korean Peninsula. These records manifested themselves in unseasonably cold weather resulting in severe killing frosts in northern China in the summer and autumn of 1601 AD. In southern China (Zhejiang and Anhui Provinces and Shanghai Municipality, July was abnormally cold with snow, with an autumn that saw anomalously hot weather. In addition, there was unseasonable snowfall that autumn within Yunnan Province. Widespread disease outbreaks occurred in August, September, and October in northern and southern China. In Korea, the spring and early summer of 1601 AD were unusually cold, and conditions led to further widespread epidemics occurring in August.
Laboratorio Gastrolab, Lima, Peru 9 Hospital Apoyo de Iquitos, Iquitos, Peru 10 Hospital Regional, Iquitos, Peru 11 Facultad de Medicina ...index.html: [cited 2012 May 10]. 40. El Peruano – Normas Legales . Decreto Supremo Nº 015-98-AG: Reglamento de Registro, Control y Comercialización
...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7417] Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the third meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 6889] Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and request for...) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the first meeting of the...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8339] Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fourth meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru balsam...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7873] Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs... of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fifth meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest Sector...
... and Ethnological Materials From Peru AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... archaeological and ethnological material from Peru. The restrictions, which were originally imposed by Treasury... with the Republic of Peru on June 9, 1997, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on pre...
Rajkotia, Yogesh; Lescano, Andres G; Gilman, Robert H; Cornejo, Christian; Garcia, Hector H
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the developing world. This study aimed to assess the treatment costs and productivity losses associated with NCC in Peru. NCC patients were identified through retrospective chart analysis. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were interviewed in order to obtain data on symptom history, treatment costs, productivity losses and health service utilisation patterns. These data were modelled to determine average treatment costs and productivity losses over 2 years. Our findings show that treatment costs and productivity losses consume 54% of an annual minimum wage salary during the first year of treatment and 16% during the second year. Diagnosis (36%) and drug therapy (27%) represent the most expensive healthcare-related costs. These costs are prohibitive for some-8% of our study sample had no diagnostic tests during their first 6 months of disease, and two-thirds of those who delayed treatment reportedly did so due to their inability to pay. Two-thirds of wage-earners lost their jobs owing to NCC and only 61% were able to re-engage in wage-earning activities. This study highlights the need to expand financial coverage to ensure the poor have access to health services and do not become further impoverished.
The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Peru, in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply an Institutional policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of disused sealed sources in Peru. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment, conditioning and storage of conditioned sealed sources are presented in this paper. The waste management system in Peru comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislation. The Nuclear Research Center RACSO has a radioactive waste management department which is in charge of the management of disused sealed sources produced in the country. It is considered as a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF). (author)
This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there
Thomas J. DeVries
Full Text Available Discoveries of new fossil Cenozoic crassatellines in Peru provide a new phylogenetic perspective on “large” Neogene genera, in which four lineages are considered to have arisen independently from different Paleogene Crassatella ancestors. Latest Oligocene and early Miocene species of the new genus Tilicrassatella gen. nov.―T. ponderosa, T. torrens sp. nov., and T. sanmartini sp. nov. from the East Pisco Basin―probably evolved from the late Eocene species, Crassatella rafaeli sp. nov., which itself differed in significant respects from slightly older species of the East Pisco Basin, C. neorhynchus and C. pedroi sp. nov. The paciphilic genus, Hybolophus, is raised to full generic status. Added to its ranks are the East Pisco Miocene species H. maleficae sp. nov., H. terrestris sp. nov., and the oldest species of the genus, the late Eocene or Oligocene H. disenum sp. nov. from the Talara Basin of northern Peru. Kalolophus gen. nov., encompassing circum-Caribbean fossil species, the extant species, K. speciosus, and the trans-isthmus species, K. antillarum, appears to have evolved from the early Oligocene Floridian species, Crassatella portelli sp. nov. The genus Marvacrassatella is a western Atlantic Miocene lineage most likely descended from Kalolophus. The genus Eucrassatella is restricted to Australian and New Zealand taxa. The Eocene New Zealand species, Spissatella media, is transferred to Eucrassatella and deemed a candidate for the most recent common ancestor of younger Eucrassatella and all Spissatella species. In the southern Pacific Ocean, the circum-Caribbean region, and tropical western America, crassatelline lineages developed one or more of the following characters: large resilifers, smooth ventral margins, and an extended left anterior cardinal tooth. Some of these late Paleogene convergent character changes might have countered increased shear forces exerted on the crassatelline valves while burrowing into finer-grained and
Boekhout, Flora; Sempere, Thierry; Spikings, Richard; Schaltegger, Urs
The Ilo batholith (17°00 - 18°30 S) crops out in an area of about 20 by 100 km, along the coast of southern Peru. This batholith is emplaced into the ‘Chocolate‘ Formation of late Permian to middle Jurassic age, which consists of more than 1000 m of basaltic and andesitic lavas, with interbedded volcanic agglomerates and breccias. The Ilo Batholith is considered to be a rarely exposed fragment of the Jurassic arc in Peru. Our aim is to reconstruct the magmatic evolution of this batholith, and place it within the context of long-lasting magma genesis along the active Andean margin since the Paleozoic. Sampling for dating and geochemical analyses was carried out along several cross sections through the batholith that were exposed by post-intrusion eastward tilting of 20-30°. Sparse previous work postulates early to middle Jurassic and partially early Cretaceous emplacement, on the basis of conventional K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating methods in the Ilo area. Twenty new U-Pb zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS and CA-ID-TIMS) accompanied by geochemical data suggests the Ilo batholith formed via the amalgamation of middle Jurassic and early Cretaceous, subduction-related plutons. Preliminary Hf isotope studies reveal a primitive mantle source for middle Jurassic intrusions. Additional Sr, Nd and Hf isotope analyses are planned to further resolve the source regions of different pulses of plutonic activity. We strongly suggest that batholith emplacement was at least partly coeval with the emplacement of the late Permian to middle Jurassic Chocolate Formation, which was deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Our age results and geochemical signature fit into the scheme of episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related magmatism that is observed throughout the whole Andean event, particularly during the middle Jurassic onset of the first Andean cycle (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). Although the exact geodynamic setting remains to be precisely
Wilfredo KAPSOLI ESCUDERO
Full Text Available In response to the dictatorship of Colonel Luis M. Sánchez Cerro in 1932 the people from Trujillo (located on the northern coast of the country storm the military barracks of O’Donovan motivating a military repression that ended with the slaughter and imprisonment of most of the insurgents. The drawings recorded by a militant of APRA illustrates the image of the actors and the most significant moments of that historic event.
Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo,” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. 329 Chile/Peru: Tensions Flare on Maritime Border Change.” 330 “FF...Relaciones Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo.” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. “Relations Falter for Peru, Chile.” Chicago Tribune...América Latina y el Mediterráneo (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Militares: Santiago, 2000), 82. 129 “A. P. Bureau Chief in Peru is Ordered out of
Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602
Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario
The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.
Calvelo Rios, J M
Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course.
Arning, E T; Birgel, D; Brunner, B; Peckmann, J
Authigenic phosphatic laminites enclosed in phosphorite crusts from the shelf off Peru (10 degrees 01' S and 10 degrees 24' S) consist of carbonate fluorapatite layers, which contain abundant sulfide minerals including pyrite (FeS(2)) and sphalerite (ZnS). Low delta(34)S(pyrite) values (average -28.8 per thousand) agree with bacterial sulfate reduction and subsequent pyrite formation. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate bound in carbonate fluorapatite are lower than that of sulfate from ambient sea water, suggesting bacterial reoxidation of sulfide by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The release of phosphorus and subsequent formation of the autochthonous phosphatic laminites are apparently caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and associated sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Following an extraction-phosphorite dissolution-extraction procedure, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria (mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, di-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, as well as the short-chain branched fatty acids i/ai-C(15:0), i/ai-C(17:0) and 10MeC(16:0)) are found to be among the most abundant compounds. The fact that these molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are distinctly more abundant after dissolution of the phosphatic laminite reveals that the lipids are tightly bound to the mineral lattice of carbonate fluorapatite. Moreover, compared with the autochthonous laminite, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are: (1) significantly less abundant and (2) not as tightly bound to the mineral lattice in the other, allochthonous facies of the Peruvian crusts consisting of phosphatic coated grains. These observations confirm the importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation of the phosphatic laminite. Model calculations highlight that organic matter degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria has the potential to liberate sufficient phosphorus for phosphogenesis.
Watts, Nathaniel S; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I; Verastegui, Manuela R; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H
Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6-2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1-5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0-2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9-4.1%) by community was observed. This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru.
Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.
Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506
Brooks, William E.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Willett, Jason C.
The Santa Rita B archaeological site is in the Chao Valley, approximately 65 km southeast of Trujillo, northern Peru. Location of Santa Rita B at the emergence of several drainages from the Andean cordillera is an important factor in the almost continuous occupation of the site over the past 3,000 years. Mineral resources are abundant throughout the Andes; however, the north coast of Peru was an important center for pre-Columbian mining, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. Success of the Chavin, Moche, Chimu, and other north coast cultures is directly related to the availability and exploitation of mineral and energy resources that include: gold (?silver), as electrum, mainly from placers, and copper from local oxide and carbonate occurrences and from sulfides related to copper porphyry occurrences in the cordillera. An alloy of these three metals is referred to as tumbaga, which is the primary material for Andean metalcraft. Anthracite was used for mirrors by north coast cultures and is available near Rio Chicama, Rio Santa, and east of Santa Rita B. These outcrops are a part of the Alto Chicama, Peru's largest coalfield, which extends from Rio Chicama, in the north, for 200 km southward to Rio Santa. Charcoal from the algorrobo tree and llama dung are considered to be the common pre-Columbian energy sources for cooking and metalwork; however, availability and the higher heat content of anthracite indicate that it was used in metallurgical applications. Bitumen is available from petroleum seeps near Talara, north of the study area, and may have been used as glue or as cement. Hematite, goethite, limonite, and manganese oxides from clay-altered volcanic rock may have provided color and material for ceramics. Guano from the Islas Gua?apes, Chinchas, and Ballestas was used as fertilizer for cotton and other crops.
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Levinson, Kimberly L; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L
Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Although technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community-based participatory research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of community-based participatory research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling and cryotherapy were used for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was used for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by (1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, (2) the successful use of research forms provided, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) satisfaction of the participants. (1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; (2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were used correctly with minimal error; (3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV-positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the first vaccine, 97% of those received the second vaccine, and 93% the third; (4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Community-based participatory research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen/treat and vaccinate
Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P
Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.
In Lima, Peru, solid waste management is an informal activity involving poor communities working under difficult conditions. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work. Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.
Le Bienvenu, Elena; Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of bilingual education programs in Peru. The first part of the paper consists of a general discussion of Peruvian history and the problem of native language suppression under Spanish colonialism and, later, a Spanish dominant independent government. Educational policies and the…
Region: Argentina, South America, Mexico, North and Central America, Peru ... to be a significant obstacle to equitable, human development in Latin America. ... SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, EMPLOYMENT POLICY, ... and institutions that allow them to adapt and evolve in their natural environment.
Jan 20, 2017 ... ... technology to improve the health-care system's efficiency could one day ... Women in Ventanilla, Peru, connect with life-saving information on their ... was recognized for its efforts to improve health service provision and the ...
Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie
In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…
McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill
The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the…
27 avr. 2016 ... There is an urgent need for solid research and policy guidance to tackle youth employment challenges in Latin America. In the region almost 9 million youth are unemployed. Regionally, for every three young workers, two are employed in precarious jobs. Peru surpasses the regional average: almost 4 out ...
Helpdesk for Spanish Speaking Telecentre Communities in Peru and Latin America. IDRC's telecentre.org supports various efforts to strengthen the capacity of people working in telecentres across the world through knowledge-sharing, collaboration and networking. Through these efforts, strong telecentre networks in Africa ...
Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an HIV epidemic that disproportionately affects women. Start Date: June 30, 2009. End Date: July 1, 2014. Topic: Gender. Region: Ghana, Peru, Canada. Program: ...
Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.
Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…
The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci
Alva-Urcia, Carlos; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Weilg, Pablo; Manrique, Carlos; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Del Valle, Luis J; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana
Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) and a significant health problem in South America. In Peru, laboratory etiologic identification of these infections occurs in less than 50% of cases, leading to underdiagnoses of important emerging arboviruses. To assess the prevalence of the Dengue (DENV), Oropouche (OROV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in patients with acute febrile illness from Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Serum samples were obtained from patients with AFI during January 2016 to March 2016. A total of 139 specimens were analyzed for the presence of DENV, OROV, CHIKV, MAYV, and ZIKV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CHIKV in 9.4% and OROV in 8.6% were the most prevalent arboviruses, followed by DENV and ZIKV, with a prevalence of 6.5% and 5%, respectively. Among all patients, the most common symptoms accompanying fever were headaches 79.9%, muscle pain 65.5% and joint pain 63.3%. During this short 3-month period, 4 arboviruses were detected by PCR, CHIKV and OROV being the most common arboviruses in Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Thus, it is crucial to include OROV detection in the national health surveillance. Furthermore, the etiologic clinical diagnosis of arboviral infections is not possible due to the low specificity of symptoms; therefore an increase of cases confirmed by molecular diagnostic methods will enhance arboviral surveillance in Peru.
Manley, Marilyn S.
This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…
In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…
Angelo B. M. Machado
Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.
Olivos Rossini, L.M.
This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines intercultural competence as an outcome of both intervening variables of ICT and the training methods used by experts.
Olivos Rossini, L.M.
This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines
Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.
A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes
Magilligan, F. J.; Manners, R.; Goldstein, P.
The catastrophic effects of large floods have been well documented, on both contemporary and paleo-timecales, especially for the conterminous U.S. Less is known, however, about extreme events in hyper-arid sub-tropical climates where synoptic scale meteorological causes, such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation events, are the driving atmospheric mechanism. This research documents the geomorphic effects of extreme floods in the Moquegua River valley of southern Peru, in the core of the Atacama Desert. Using a combination of geomorphic mapping, hydrolologic modeling, aerial photography, ASTER satellite imagery, and GIS, we document the geomorphic signature of large contemporary floods within the mid-valley section (1500 masl) of the Rio Moquegua. Stratigraphic evidence and paleostage indicators of paleofloods, such as slackwater deposits and preserved high level flood gravels, are used to evidence late Holocene paleoflood magnitude-frequency relationships. On contemporary timescales, channel belt expansion by lateral erosion during large floods, such as the recent '97 and '98 floods, correspond to as much as 30-40 hectares of floodplain loss along the 20 km study reach. Sixty years of repeat aerial photography indicates that channel belt expansion and floodplain erosion commonly occurs along the Rio Moquegua. The frequent resetting of floodplain alluvium conditioned by these large floods is supported by radiocarbon dating of floodplain exposures. These dates indicate that most of the contemporary floodplain alluvium is younger that 560 14C yrs BP. The highest terrace remnants date to 3250 14C yrs BP and record a series of overbank flood gravels. Evidence for the regionally extensive Miraflores ENSO flood, ca. 1300 AD, exists in tributary and along mainstem sections. This flood has been documented along the coasts of Northern Chile to northern Peru, and has been evoked to explain significant social collapse. Our field evidence indicates that it catastrophically affected
This contribution surveys the emergence and character of the Middle Horizon in Peru’s north highlands. It centers on Ancash department, a region with a rich and unique archaeological record for contextualizing interaction during the period. My discussion begins by detailing the sequence and variability of interregional interaction in Ancash Department during the latter half of the 1st millennium AD. Then I will examine the general implications of the available data – especially architecture, ...
Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, V.
Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 309-320 ISSN 1612-510X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : landslide * precipitation * evapotranspiration Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/911l1026vr358424/
Jiang, Ju; Blair, Patrick J; Felices, Vidal; Moron, Cecilia; Cespedes, Manuel; Anaya, Elizabeth; Schoeler, George B; Sumner, John W; Olson, James G; Richards, Allen L
... (SFG) rickettsia. Following nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 17-kDa gene, gltA, ompB, ompA, and sca4, amplicons were purified, sequenced, and compared to those downloaded from GenBank...
Blair, Patrick J; Jiang, Ju; Schoeler, George B; Moron, Cecilia; Anaya, Elizabeth; Cespedes, Manuel; Cruz, Christopher; Felices, Vidal; Guevara, Carolina; Mendoza, Leonardo; Villaseca, Pablo; Sumner, John W; Richards, Allen L; Olson, James G
... the focus of an outbreak of febrile disease in humans attributed, in part, to SFG rickettsia infections. Molecular identification of the etiologic agents from these samples was determined after partial sequencing of the 17-kDa common antigen gene...
boliviensis 3 (18.7) 1 (6.2) Ixodes pararicinus 2 (12.5) 0 Flea speciesb Adoratopsilla intermedia 2 (3.4) 0 Ctenocephalides felis 33 (55.9) 2 (3.4...analysis of a genus-common rickettsial antigen gene. J. Bacteriol. 171:5199–5201. 3. Azad, A. F., S. Radulovic, J. A. Higgins , B. H. Noden, and J. M...Y. Acad. Sci. 990:57–61. 21. Hackstadt, T. 1996. The biology of rickettsiae. Infect. Agents Dis. 5:127–143. 22. Higgins , J. A., S. Radulovic, M. E
This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented
Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.; Sýkora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, V.; Cleef, A.M.
We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for
was born out of wedlock in 1934 in Arequipa . His father was a middle- class merchant who ensured that Guzmán received a complete education, sending...43Tina Rosenberg, “Guerrilla Tourism ,” New Republic 202, no. 25 (18 June 1990): 24. 44Dietz, 128. 45McCormick, The Shining Path, 4. 46Woy-Hazleton...and Callao 1,641 3,394 4,836 6,414 290 Arequipa 158 304 447 634 301 Trujillo 103 241 355 531 415 Chiclayo 95 189 280 426 348 Cusco 79 120 182 275
A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (TUREP) Mission to Peru. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Peru estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 6 000 to 11 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in Late Tertiary ignimbrites and associated sediments in the high Andes of southern Peru. Other favourable geological environments include calcretes, developed from Tertiary volcanogenic sources over the Precambrian in the Pacific Coastal desert in southern Peru, and Hercynian subvolcanic granites in the eastern Cordillera of southern Peru. The Mission recommends that over a period of five years approximately U.S. $10 million be spent on exploration in Peru. The majority of this would be spent on drilling ($5 million) and tunnelling ($2 million) with an additional $3 million on surface and airborne radiometric surveys. (author)
Cindy M. Hurtado
Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection. Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.
Reyss, J.L.; Lemaitre, N.; Marchig, V.; Southon, J.R.; Nelson, D.E.; Vogel, J.S.
Attempts have been made to study the entire growth history of a manganese nodule from the northern part of Peru Basin in the Pacific using radiochemical profiles of 230 Th/ 232 Th, 227 Th/ 230 Th and 10 Be/ 9 Be. Combined with the observations on Fe-Mn contents and textural variation, the radiochemical data indicate that the nodule grew more or less concentrically throughout most of its existence since it formed 1.5 my ago, receiving Mn from both bottom water and pore water. This condition appeared to have changed about 180 ky ago when the growth became asymmetric in that the top and bottom sides became fixed in their relative positions on the sea floor. Since then, the bottom side accreted with a fast rate of close to 200 mm/my, apparently fueled by the supply of diagenetically remobilized Mn in pore water from the sediment substrate. In the meantime, the topside accumulated at about 6 mm/my, a value which is in the normal range for deep-sea nodules having their Mn supplied from the hydrogenous source. (author)
Full Text Available Climatic processes in northern Peru are evaluated on surface observation independent of modelling studies. The region is characterized by regular oscillations, but episodic El Niño-events introduce strong disturbances. Conceptual models based on observations, remote sensing data, and output of regional climate models are compared with data from a new station network. The results show regular oscillations of all climate variables on the annual and daily time scale. The daily cycle is probably associated with thermotidal forcings, causing gravity waves to emanate from the Andes Cordillera. Main factors are the interaction of large scale pressure systems like the Southeast Pacific High and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ. Also, there are regional factors: an extended sea-breeze system, the barrier-effect of the Andes, additional energy input by elevated radiation absorption at the mountain slopes, local wind systems, and the variations of the sea surface temperature. At the coast, a low-level jet works as a thermodynamic energy sink, suppressing deep convection and supporting the aridity. Those patterns are found in most of the station data and the processes of this climate can generally be confirmed. The overturning of this stable system with the onset of El Niño-conditions is possibly caused by disruptions of the regional circulation.
Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B
Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.
Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Marín, Clotilde; Vargas, Franklin; Córdova, Ofelia; Barrera, Mario; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Alunda, Jose María; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel
Eight Leishmania promastigotes were isolated from different geographical areas: three (LP1, LP2, and LP3) from the provincial department La Libertad and the fourth (LP4) from the department of Cajamarca (northern Peru); another three (LM1, LM2, and LM3) in the province of Campeche (Mexico); and the last (LS1) from a clinical case of a dog in Madrid (Spain). The isolates were characterized by carbohydrate cell-surface residues using agglutinations with four purified lectins, by isoenzyme analysis using different isoenzymes, by analysis of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism using four different restriction endonucleases and by the final metabolite patterns after in vitro culture. These isolates were compared with four reference strains and typified as: Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, two strains of L. (L.) infantum, and one species of L. (Viania) peruviana. According to our results and the statistical study, the Peruvian isolates represent three different strains: one would be L. (V.) peruviana, another the strain isolated in Cajamarca (LP4) and the third would include the three strains from the department of La Libertad (LP1, LP2, and LP3), these latter three isolates being phylogenetically closer to the reference strain L. (L.) donovani. Meanwhile, the three isolates from Mexico form a group with close phylogenetic relationships to each other. The isolate from Spain belongs to the species L. (L.) infantum. Thus, a close correlation was drawn between the identity of each strain and its geographical origin.
Fisher, A A
Hjorth in his classic monogram "Eczematous Allergy to Balsams" emphasized that sensitization to balsam of Peru is most important since secondary allergens such as "fragrances" are ubiquitous. The application of a topical medication containing balsam of Peru to the skin of an infant, particularly in the occluded diaper area, seems a great way to sensitize the infant not only to balsam of Peru but also to our fragrant environment.
Oliveros Donohue, A A
Plans are described for the implementation of 40 small plants to be used for cheese production. As a start, a demonstration plant has been built in San Juan de Chuquibambilla-Puno, Peru. Design and testing of a flat plate solar collector, to be used for water heating purposes, are described. The cheese making process is discussed. Essentially two pots are required, one at 32/sup 0/C and one at 80/sup 0/. Two flat plate collectors (1.12 m/sup 2/ each) are connected to a 150 l storage tank. Instrumentation and results are discussed. Total efficiency of the process is given as 40%. It is concluded that future installations should consider using biogas digesters and wind driven water pumps in addition to the solar collectors. A brief discussion of the climate, population distribution, and economy of Peru is given. (MJJ)
Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam
Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.
Fritz, Hermann M.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Borrero, Jose C.; Broncano, Pablo; Ortega, Erick
On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. Three tsunami fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest tsunami runup heights were measured. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts to ensure successful self-evacuation.
Miñán, Erick; Lavalle, Carlos; Díaz-Puente, José M.
In a context of mass higher education, it is necessary to ensure not only quality but also the relevance of engineering master's programs, namely the appropriateness of the objectives and outcomes to the needs and interests of the program beneficiaries. After a literature review we analyzed the evaluation models of three organizations in Peru: the Board of Evaluation, Accreditation and Certification of the University Education Quality CONEAU, the Institute of Quality and Accreditation of Comp...
Peru is the one of the most important exporters of asparagus in the world. Its export volume of fresh asparagus is ranked number one, and its export volume of preserved asparagus number two, globally. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent trends in asparagus production and exports around the world and to analyze factors in the development of the Peruvian asparagus industry. The production of asparagus has spread geographically. The center of its production used t...
Beuermann, Diether W.; McKelvey, Christopher; Vakis, Renos
We estimate the effects of mobile phone coverage on different measures of economic development. We exploit the timing of mobile coverage at the village level merging it with a village-level panel dataset for rural Peru. The main findings suggest that mobile phone expansion has increased household real consumption by 11 per cent, reduced poverty incidence by 8 percentage points and decreased extreme poverty by 5.4 percentage points. Moreover, those benefits appear to be shared by all covered h...
Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M
Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These
Burrai, Elisa.; Mostafanezhad, Mary.; Hannam, Kevin.
In this paper, we develop a conceptual approach from which to examine the moral landscape of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru. Drawing from recent work on assemblage theory in geography and tourism studies, we explore how assemblage thinking can facilitate new understandings of volunteer tourism development. Using assemblage as an analytical framework allows us to understand volunteer tourism as a series of relational, processual, unequal and mobile practices. These practices, we ...
Les régimes à teneur élevée en sel sont une cause majeure de l'hypertension artérielle et un facteur prédominant des décès, et comptent pour près des deux tiers des accidents vasculaires cérébraux et de la moitié des incidents de maladie cardiaque dans le monde. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru.
The main task of this bachelor's thesis is to approach and describe the draft of microfinance and microfinancial institutions including its composition. The first part introduce microfinance theory, general principles and history. The next part is focused on specific application microfinance in Peru and description of concrete organizations that work here. Conclusion will be valorization efficiency existence of microfinancial institutions and they have influence to improvement life situation ...
Abundio Sagástegui Alva
Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.
Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María
To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997-2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. A retrospective review of drug alerts. A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Drug alerts related to counterfeit medicines. A total of 669 DIGEMID alerts were issued during the study period, 354 (52.91%) of which cover 1738 cases of counterfeit medicines (many alerts deal with several cases at a time). 1010 cases (58.11%) involved pharmaceutical establishments and 349 (20.08%) involved non-pharmaceutical commercial outlets. In 126 cases (7.25%), counterfeit medicines were seized in an unauthorised trade (without any marketing authorisation); in 253 cases (14.56%) the type of establishment or business associated with the seized product was not identified. Counterfeit medicines are a serious public health problem in Peru. A review of the data cannot determine whether counterfeit medicines in Peru increased during the study period, or if monitoring by different government health agencies highlighted the magnitude of the problem by providing more evidence. The problem is clearly structural, since the majority of cases (58.11% of the total) were detected in legitimate supply chains. Most counterfeit medicines involve staple pharmaceutical products and common dosage forms. Considerable work remains to be done to control the serious problem of counterfeit medicines in Peru. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Joel Vásquez Bardales
Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.
WU, S.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.; Mortensen, E.; Block, P. J.; Montgomery, R. J.; De Pierola, J. N.; Sanchez, C.
The central Andes receive over 50% of annual climatological rainfall during the short period of January-March. This summertime rainfall exhibits strong interannual and decadal variability, including severe drought events that incur devastating societal impacts and cause agricultural communities and mining facilities to compete for limited water resources. An improved seasonal prediction skill of summertime rainfall would aid in water resource planning and allocation across the water-limited southern Peru. While various underlying mechanisms have been proposed by past studies for the drivers of interannual variability in summertime rainfall across southern Peru, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), and extratropical forcings, operational forecasts continue to be largely based on rudimentary ENSO-based indices, such as NINO3.4, justifying further exploration of predictive skill. In order to bridge this gap between the understanding of driving mechanisms and the operational forecast, we performed systematic studies on the predictability and prediction skill of southern Peru summertime rainfall by constructing statistical forecast models using best available weather station and reanalysis datasets. At first, by assuming the first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of summertime rainfall are predictable, the potential predictability skill was evaluated for southern Peru. Then, we constructed a simple regression model, based on the time series of tropical Pacific sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and a more advanced Linear Inverse Model (LIM), based on the EOFs of tropical ocean SSTs and large-scale atmosphere variables from reanalysis. Our results show that the LIM model consistently outperforms the more rudimentary regression models on the forecast skill of domain averaged precipitation index and individual station indices. The improvement of forecast correlation skill ranges from 10% to over 200% for different
Yves M. Zinngrebe
In a second step, a comparative analysis of the dominant and diverging political perspectives is made. I argue that by deconstructing underlying premises and ideologies, common ground and possible opportunities for collaboration can be identified. Moreover, although the presented results can serve as a discussion scaffold to organize conservation debates in Peru, this example demonstrates how the terms biodiversity and sustainability are operationalized in conservation narratives.
Llamoza, Javier; Químico Farmacéutico, Acción Internacional para la Salud, Lima, Perú.
Through Free Trade Agreements, the economies of the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) have been achieving a higher standard of protection of the intellectual property rights. This increases unduly the monopolist rights of the industry, restricting competition and limiting the access of new generic drugs. Peru has not been the exception to this process, subscribing a free trade agreement with the USA called Agreement of Commercial Promotion (APC) that involved the ...
Gomero Gonzáles, Nicko Alberto
It is important that a country develop strong competitive to gaing solid macroeconomic result and keep constant growing. In Peru has been achieving these past years, and that have been showing in the principals indicator of economic management. The public policies implemented have created favorable scenarios to bring in investments in all productive sectors, At the same time the national companies have been develop capabilities to achieve with successes of the market globalization. The divers...
This paper reports the results of behavioral economic experiments conducted in Peru to examine the relationship amongst risk preferences, loan take-up, and insurance purchase decisions. This area-based yield insurance can help reduce people's vulnerability to large scale covariate shocks, and can also lower the loan default probability under extreme negative covariate shocks. In a context of collateralized formal credit markets, we provide suggestive evidence that insurance may help reduce th...
Cerrate V, A.; Manrique Chavez, A.; Camarena, F.M.; Nakaodo Nakaodo, J.; Del Carpio R, G.
Mutagenesis of Lupinus mutabilis was started at the UNA LM (Peru) to obtain mutants with low alkaloid content and early germination. Varieties SCG 25 and Lib 020 were irradiated with gamma radiation. The optimum dose for the SCG 25 variety was 15 Krad and for Lib 020 15 to 20 Krad. The relation between the plant height and radiation dose fits the quadratic polynomial model
Edmonston, B; Andes, N
Data from the national Peru Fertility Survey are used to estimate infant and childhood mortality ratios, 1968--77, for 124 Peruvian communities, ranging from small Indian hamlets in the Andes to larger cities on the Pacific coast. Significant mortality variations are found: mortality is inversely related to community population size and is higher in the mountains than in the jungle or coast. Multivariate analysis is then used to assess the influence of community population size, average femal...
Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan
Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess how raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru might impact cigarette consumption, and to determine if higher taxes would be regressive. Methods Total demand price elasticity was estimated by income groups using two datasets: quarterly time-series data from 1993 – 2012 and data from a cross-sectional survey of income and expenses conducted in 2008 – 2009 . A functional form of the cigarette demand in Peru was specified using the quarterly data set, and the demand price elasticity was estimated for the short and long run. Using the second data set and Deaton methodology, the implementation of elasticity estimation and by groups’ elasticity was done in a two-step procedure. Results Demand price elasticity was −0.7, implying that a 10% price increase via a new tax would reduce consumption by 7%. Demand price elasticity estimations by income group suggested that poorer families are not more price sensitive than richer ones, which implies that increasing cigarette taxes could be regressive. Conclusions Increasing cigarette taxes is the most efficient policy for inducing a reduction in smoking. However, in the case of Peru, an increase in cigarette taxes could be regressive.
Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.
Cabrera, Rufino; Del Pilar, María; Altamirano, Trillo
The purpose of this review is to show the experimental studies carried out on the biological cycle, culture, pathogenicity of the anisakidae nematode larvae and to disseminate the information regarding current epidemy and the probable emergence of anisakidosis in Peru, and in addition, to propose measures of prevention and control, as well as the perspective and need for investigation. The studies of experimental pathogenicity in cats, dos, and hamsters are incomplete. Eight cases of acute human anisakidosis have been reported (5 confirmed and 3 unconfirmed). It is probable that it emerges during the "El Niño" Weather Phenomenon; however, during normal conditions it is probably due to the increase of raw fish consumption and other factors. In the coast of Peru, five and four fishes of direct human consumption are parasited by the Anisakis simplex and Anisakis physeteris larva, respectively, and two fishes are parasited by the Pseudoterranova decipiens. The main host for the Anisakis simplex is the dolphin (Delphinus delphia), but the Contracaecum osculatum is hosted by the sea lion: Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis, P. decipiens parasita a O. byronia. Eviscerating the fish would be most adequate prevention method to lessen the risk of human infection. There is evidence that anisakidosis is an underestimated zoonosis in Peru, and that it is probably and emerging disease. Therefore, its presence is to be suspected in patients with the prototype clinical syndrome.
Verano, John W
Several forms of mummified human trophy heads were produced by prehistoric and historic native groups in South America. This paper describes the diagnostic features of trophy heads produced by the Nasca culture of ancient Peru. A growing interest in these mummified heads among collectors of Pre-Columbian art and antiquities has led to their illegal exportation from Peru, in violation of national and international antiquities laws. Requests from the Peruvian government to protect its cultural patrimony led the United States in 1997 to declare these heads as items subject to U.S. import restriction, along with six other categories of human remains. Despite such restrictions, Nasca trophy heads continue to reach private collectors outside of Peru and thus may be encountered by local, state, or federal law enforcement officials unfamiliar with their characteristic features and origin. The objective of this paper is to describe the features that allow Nasca trophy heads to be identified and distinguished from other archaeological and forensic specimens that may be submitted to a forensic anthropologist for identification.
Parks, Elizabeth; Parks, Jason
A sociolinguistic survey of the sign language used by the deaf communities of Peru was conducted in November and December of 2007. For eight weeks, our survey team visited six deaf communities in the cities of Lima, Arequipa, Cusco, Trujillo, Chiclayo, and Iquitos. Using sociolinguistic questionnaires and recorded text testing (RTT) tools, we…
In Peru, the incidence of gastric cancer is reported to be around 15.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is the second most common oncological disease in men and the third one in women. Additionally, a high mortality index was reported, especially among poor people. To address this issue, in 2008, Peru initiated several insurance treatment plans of oncological diseases with promising results. In Mexico, there is a high predominance of gastric cancer in male gender compared to female gender, even reaching a 2/1 ratio, and the detection rate of early gastric cancer is low (10% to 20%) which results in a mainly palliative treatment with an overall survival rate in 5 years about 10% to 15% only. In Peru, the average age at diagnosis is around 62.96±14.75 years old and the most frequent symptoms includes abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding, while in Mexico, some studies reported an average age at diagnosis around 60.3±4.1 years old (range, 23-78 years old) and the most frequent symptoms were postprandial fullness (74.4%), abdominal pain (37.2%), weight loss (18.6%), and melena (4.6%). The anemia rate was 65.1% with a mean Hb level of 6.14 g/dL. In Peru, the most common gastric cancer type is the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (around 34%), followed by the diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (18.7%), whilst among Mexicans, the diffuse-type was reported in 55.2% of cases, the intestinal-type was reported in 28.2% and the undifferentiated-type corresponded to 6%. In both, Peru and Mexico, 90% of the associated factors includes tabaquismo, diets rich in salt, smoked foods, and a sedentary lifestyle. Family inheritance and advanced age and pharmacological-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection are also important. Poverty has been heavily associated with a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The management of gastric cancer patients in Peru is carried out by general surgeons or general surgical oncologists. In recent years, efforts
... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout... Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY...)-- all native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia. This...
Salas, A.R.; Spooner, D.M.; Huamán, Z.; Torres Maita, R.V.; Hoekstra, R.; Schüler, K.; Hijmans, R.J.
Peru contains about half of the described wild potato taxa, and many of these are not yet preserved in genebanks. This paper reports results of the second of a series of five planned collecting expeditions to Peru. Collections were made in the central Peruvian departments of Ancash, Huancavelica, La
Loyola, Steev; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Torre, Armando; Kocher, Claudine; Melendrez, Melanie; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Maina, Alice N; Richards, Allen L; Leguia, Mariana
While studying rickettsial infections in Peru, we detected Rickettsia asembonensis in fleas from domestic animals. We characterized 5 complete genomic regions (17kDa, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4) and conducted multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses. The molecular isolate from Peru is distinct from the original R. asembonensis strain from Kenya.
Sujet: URBAN COMMUNITIES, NUTRITION, COMMUNITY SERVICES, PERU, LOW INCOME GROUPS, Disease control. Région: Peru, South America, North and Central America. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 302,700.00. Examen des liens entre la télévision et les mauvaises ...
Long, N.; Roberts, B.
This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material
Why is the urban-rural gap in child malnutrition increasing in Peru despite government efforts to improve the provision of public services? To answer this question, the impact of regional public expenditure in Peru on young children's nutritional outcomes is examined. To account for policy endogeneity, public expenditures are instrumented using unanticipated regional mining revenues. Even ...
Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.
Examines the status of Quechua in Peru and how it has affected language maintenance efforts; discusses the functional domains served by Quechua, relating them to Peruvian language policies; notes the lack of grassroots efforts by indigenous people in Peru; and suggests possible measures to improve its status, noting predictions of the future of…
Gaps persist despite growth Poverty has declined substantially in Peru, but continues to affect 20% of the population. ... Economic growth has failed to reduce gaps in opportunities for the country's ... This project will support collaboration among researchers, central and regional governments, and the private sector in Peru.
First chapter contains geographical and political characteristics of Peru and its history. Second part of the thesis includes economic characteristics of Peru and structure of foreign trade. Next chapter focuses on future development of Peru. Last chapter contains key characteristics of role of Peru within the latinamerican region.
Klaus, Haagen D; Tam, Manuel E
This work explores the effects of European contact on Andean foodways in the Lambayeque Valley Complex, north coast Peru. We test the hypothesis that Spanish colonization negatively impacted indigenous diet. Diachronic relationships of oral health were examined from the dentitions of 203 late-pre-Hispanic and 175 colonial-period Mochica individuals from Mórrope, Lambayeque, to include observations of dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, alveolar inflammation, dental calculus, periodontitis, and dental wear. G-tests and odds ratio analyses across six age classes indicate a range of statistically significant postcontact increases in dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, and dental calculus prevalence. These findings are associated with ethnohistoric contexts that point to colonial-era economic reorganization which restricted access to multiple traditional food sources. We infer that oral health changes reflect creative Mochica cultural adjustments to dietary shortfalls through the consumption of a greater proportion of dietary carbohydrates. Simultaneously, independent skeletal indicators of biological stress suggest that these adjustments bore a cost in increased nutritional stress. Oral health appears to have been systematically worse among colonial women. We rule out an underlying biological cause (female fertility variation) and suggest that the establishment of European gender ideologies and divisions of labor possibly exposed colonial Mochica women to a more cariogenic diet. Overall, dietary change in Mórrope appears shaped by local responses to a convergence of colonial Spanish economic agendas, landscape transformation, and social changes during the postcontact transition in northern Peru. These findings also further the understandings of dietary and biocultural histories of the Western Hemisphere. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Marshall, Bruce G; Veiga, Marcello M; Kaplan, Robert J; Adler Miserendino, Rebecca; Schudel, Gary; Bergquist, Bridget A; Guimarães, Jean R D; Sobral, Luis G S; Gonzalez-Mueller, Carolina
In Portovelo in southern Ecuador, 87 gold processing centers along the Puyango-Tumbes River produce an estimated 6 tonnes of gold per annum using a combination of mercury amalgamation and/or cyanidation and processing poly-metallic ores. We analysed total Hg, Hg isotopes, total arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in water and sediment along the Puyango in 2012-2014. The highest total mercury (THg) concentrations in sediments were found within a 40 km stretch downriver from the processing plants, with levels varying between 0.78-30.8 mg kg-1 during the dry season and 1.80-70.7 mg kg-1 during the wet season, with most concentrations above the CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) Probable Effect Level (PEL) of 0.5 mg kg-1. Data from mercury isotopic analyses support the conclusion that mercury use during gold processing in Portovelo is the source of Hg pollution found downstream in the Tumbes Delta in Peru, 160 km away. The majority of the water and sediment samples collected from the Puyango-Tumbes River had elevated concentrations of, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc exceeding the CCME thresholds for the Protection of Aquatic Life. At monitoring points immediately below the processing plants, total dissolved concentrations of these metals exceeded the thresholds by 156-3567 times in surface waters and by 19-740 times in sediment. The results illustrate a significant transboundary pollution problem involving Hg and other toxic metals, amplified by the fact that the Puyango-Tumbes River is the only available water source in the semi-arid region of northern Peru.
Full Text Available Among odontocetes, members of the family Kogiidae (pygmy and dwarf sperm whales are known as small-sized and in many respects enigmatic relatives of the great sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus. Most of the still scanty fossil record of Kogiidae is represented by isolated skulls and ear bones from Neogene deposits of the Northern Hemisphere, with the significant exception of Scaphokogia, a highly autapomorphic genus from late Miocene deposits of the Pisco Formation exposed along the southern coast of Peru. Here we report on a new fossil kogiid from Aguada de Lomas, a site where the late Miocene beds of the Pisco Formation are exposed. This specimen consists of an almost complete cranium representing a new taxon of Kogiidae: Koristocetus pescei gen. et sp. nov. Koristocetus mainly differs from extant Kogia spp. by displaying a larger temporal fossa and well-individualized dental alveoli on the upper jaws. Coupled with a relatively elongated rostrum, these characters suggest that Koristocetus retained some degree of raptorial feeding abilities, contrasting with the strong suction feeding specialization seen in Recent kogiids. Our phylogenetic analysis recognizes Koristocetus as the earliest branching member of the subfamily Kogiinae. Interestingly, Koristocetus shared the southern coast of present-day Peru with members of the genus Scaphokogia, whose unique convex rostrum and unusual neurocranial morphology seemingly indicate a peculiar foraging specialization that has still to be understood. In conclusion, Koristocetus evokes a long history of high diversity, morphological disparity, and sympatric habits in fossil kogiids, thus suggesting that our comprehension of the evolutionary history of pygmy and dwarf sperm whales is still far from being exhaustive.
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.
Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.
Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Azañedo, Diego; Antiporta, Daniel A; Cortés, Sandra
To establish regional prevalences of anemia in pregnant women receiving care at public clinics in Peru in 2015 and identify high-prevalence district conglomerates. An ecological study was carried out on data from pregnant women with anemia registered on the Nutritional Status Information System (SIEN) who received care in 7703 public clinics in 2015. Regional and district prevalences of gestational anemia were calculated. District conglomerates with a high prevalence of gestational anemia were identified using the Moran Index. Information was gathered from 311,521 pregnant women distributed in 1638 districts in Peru. The national prevalence of anemia was 24.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 24.0-24.3%), the rural prevalence was 30.5%, and the urban prevalence was 22.0%. The regions of Huancavelica (45.5%; 95% CI: 44.2-46.7%), Puno (42.8%; 95% CI: 41.9-43.7%), Pasco (38.5%; 95% CI: 36.9-40.0%), Cusco (36.0%; 95% CI: 35.3-36.8%), and Apurímac (32.0%; 95% CI: 30.8-33.1%) had the highest prevalences of anemia. The local Moran Index identified 202 high-priority districts (hot spots) (12.3% of total; 44 urban and 158 rural) located in Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Junín, La Libertad, Lima, Pasco, and Puno containing high-prevalence district conglomerates. Gestational anemia in Peru has its highest prevalence rates in rural and southern mountainous areas. The district conglomerates with high prevalence rates of gestational anemia coincide with the areas of high regional prevalence.
Full Text Available Peru has historically been among the Latin-American countries with a low rural electrification rate. Aiming to improve this situation, the country conducted several electrification efforts in the last few decades that included off-grid photovoltaic (PV solutions for remote areas (where the grid expansion was unviable. More recently, the government has also sponsored a ‘massive program’ that aims to deploy a minimum of 150,000 off-grid PV solutions in the upcoming years. In this paper, we assess the sustainability of rural electrification programs in Peru, paying special attention to the ongoing “massive program”. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural and is based on an exhaustive qualitative document analysis complemented by semi-structured expert interviews. We found that the lack of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure seriously compromises the sustainability of rural electrification efforts in Peru. Staff rotation and overlapping competences have caused disturbing changes and inhibited following a strategic line, while widespread outsourcing combined with weak controls have often affected the reliability of the deployed systems. Although cross subsidies have made off-grid PV systems affordable for users, systems often fell short of energy demand. Notably, we found that Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation, and there is a significant mistrust between the government and the rural population (especially in areas where mining is extensive. As a consequence, most of the projects are still designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has frequently led to project failures, payment defaults, and inhibited seizing opportunities regarding productive uses of off-grid PV systems. We expect that our findings may help Peruvian institutions to address the most
Julian Cristia; Alejo Czerwonko; Pablo Garofalo
In policy circles a lively debate exists regarding the effects on educational outcomes of introducing computers in schools. A number of empirical studies have measured its effect on test scores. There is a lack of empirical evidence, however, on the effects of this type of intervention on drop-out and repetition rates, variables that have a direct impact on years of education. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature. To this end, we analyze rich longitudinal censal data from Peru a...
Full Text Available Khipu, cord objects used for recordinginformation, are associated with the Incas; however, in two known cases, khipu survive in Peru as communal patrimony, still in ritual use. This article describes the khipu of San Cristóbal de Rapaz and a project of in situ conservation, conducted in collaboration with the local community. It was necessary to develop a strategy to protect the khipu, while allowing their continued use in sacred rituals. This challenged the basic principles of preventive conservation, but through the collaborative process compromises were achieved, acceptable both to conservators and to the community, which has now resumed responsibility for preservation of the patrimony.
Vogl, Tom S
Advocates of land-titling programs in developing countries posit that these programs lead to a multitude of benefits, including health improvements. This paper presents the results of a child health survey of several Lima communities after various time exposures to Peru's urban land-titling program. The results provide suggestive evidence that improved property rights increase children's weight but not their height, which is consistent with previous work on the topic. However, titles also appear to raise children's risk of being overweight or obese, implying that the observed weight gain is not necessarily an improvement in nutritional status.
Full Text Available While studying respiratory infections of unknown etiology we detected Saffold virus in an oropharyngeal swab collected from a two-year-old female suffering from diarrhea and respiratory illness. The full viral genome recovered by deep sequencing showed 98% identity to a previously described Saffold strain isolated in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Peruvian Saffold strain belongs to genotype 3 and is most closely related to strains that have circulated in Asia. This is the first documented case report of Saffold virus in Peru and the only complete genomic characterization of a Saffold-3 isolate from the Americas.
Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.
Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.
Peruvian oil industry are described. The government of Peru has been applying a strict economic stabilization plan that includes deregulation of prices, wages, exchange and interest rates, elimination of subsides, simplification of tariffs, and the elimination of all restrictions on the flow of capital and foreign trade. The plan has been applied with the approval of all social sectors and thanks to the consensus concerning its program. The government has been able to control the hyperinflation it inherited, to reduce the fiscal defect, and to increase foreign currency reserves
At the request of the Government of Peru an IAEA staff member undertook an expert assignment to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) within the framework of a technical assistance project. The purpose of the expert's travel was to evaluate a request for equipment for and consultant's advice on the establishment of library and information services and to advise IPEN staff on the establishment of the services. The report presents the findings on the present level and future need for library and information services and presents a proposal for the further development of these. (author)
Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott
Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception
Romero Loli, M.; Pozo Cardenas, M.; Gomez Pando, L.
Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru
Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.
Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.
Attanasio, Orazio; Meghir, Costas; Nix, Emily; Salvati, Francesca
In this paper we use high quality data from two developing countries, Ethiopia and Peru, to estimate the production functions of human capital from age 1 to age 15. We characterize the nature of persistence and dynamic complementarities between two components of human capital: health and cognition. We also explore the implications of different functional form assumptions for the production functions. We find that more able and higher income parents invest more, particularly at younger ages when investments have the greatest impacts. These differences in investments by parental income lead to large gaps in inequality by age 8 that persist through age 15.
Edmonston, B; Andes, N
Data from the national Peru Fertility Survey are used to estimate infant and childhood mortality ratios, 1968--77, for 124 Peruvian communities, ranging from small Indian hamlets in the Andes to larger cities on the Pacific coast. Significant mortality variations are found: mortality is inversely related to community population size and is higher in the mountains than in the jungle or coast. Multivariate analysis is then used to assess the influence of community population size, average female education, medical facilities, and altitude on community mortality. Finally, this study concludes that large-scale sample surveys, which include maternal birth history, add useful data for epidemiological studies of childhood mortality.
Hector H. Garcia
Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrollado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación.Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a series of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.
Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Rigsby, C. A.; Li, L.; Capriles, J. M.
We examine for the first time the economic, social and political consequences of an extreme drought on the Altiplano that persisted from 1935 to 1945, a period of substantial regional social upheaval. We also examine drought in relation to a pre-historic period of great conflict on the Altiplano during the Late Intermediate Period (ca. AD 1000-1450) (Arkush and Tung, 2013). The level of Lake Titicaca has been measured continuously since 1915. The period from 1935 to 1945 was the longest continuously dry period, with falling lake levels, in this record. Prior to 1960 there were few weather stations in the region. Compositing data from three of these stations from the western margin of Lake Titicaca provides a nearly complete precipitation record with values below the long-term annual average observed every year between 1936 and 1947. Here, 1940 was the driest year, far drier than the consequential 1982/3 El Nino drought, with precipitation only 36% of the mean. Farther north at Cuzco, Peru, every year between 1935 and 1944 was at or below the mean. 1938 was the driest year with 38% of the long-term average value of precipitation. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Quelccaya ice cap (Thompson et al., 1984), situated at the northern limit of the Lake Titicaca watershed, is a reliable indicator of regional precipitation amount. Here, d18O values of ice were continuously at or above the mean value (indicating dry conditions) between 1934 and 1944. Taken together, these four records indicate below-average precipitation at all sites in the region for ten consecutive years, 1935-1944. This extreme drought of the last century was just one manifestation of the highly significant (at the 99.8% confidence level) climate variability that has persisted for at least the past 500 years (Melice and Roucou, 1998). This variability is coherent during the instrumental period with tropical North Atlantic SST.
Charette, Margot; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Llanos-Cuentas, Elmer Alejandro; Cárcamo, César; Kulkarni, Manisha
Dengue is highly endemic in Peru, with increases in transmission particularly since vector re-infestation of the country in the 1980s. Pucallpa, the second largest city in the Peruvian Amazon, experienced a large outbreak in 2012 that caused more than 10,000 cases and 13 deaths. To date, there has been limited research on dengue in the Peruvian Amazon outside of Iquitos, and no published review or critical analysis of the 2012 Pucallpa dengue outbreak. This study describes the incidence, surveillance, and control of dengue in Ucayali to understand the factors that contributed to the 2012 Pucallpa outbreak. We employed a socio-ecological autopsy approach to consider distal and proximal contributing factors, drawing on existing literature and interviews with key personnel involved in dengue control, surveillance and treatment in Ucayali. Spatio-temporal analysis showed that relative risk of dengue was higher in the northern districts of Calleria (RR = 2.18), Manantay (RR = 1.49) and Yarinacocha (RR = 1.25) compared to all other districts between 2004 and 2014. The seasonal occurrence of the 2012 outbreak is consistent with typical seasonal patterns for dengue incidence in the region. Our assessment suggests that the outbreak was proximally triggered by the introduction of a new virus serotype (DENV-2 Asian/America) to the region. Increased travel, rapid urbanization, and inadequate water management facilitated the potential for virus spread and transmission, both within Pucallpa and regionally. These triggers occurred within the context of failures in surveillance and control programming, including underfunded and ad hoc vector control. These findings have implications for future prevention and control of dengue in Ucayali as new diseases such as chikungunya and Zika threaten the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hofer, M.; Kaser, G.; Mölg, T.; Juen, I.; Wagnon, P.
Glaciers in the outer tropical Cordillera Blanca (Peru, South America) are of major socio-economic importance, since glacier runoff represents the primary water source during the dry season, when little or no rainfall occurs. Due to their location at high elevations, the glaciers moreover provide important information about climate change in the tropical troposphere, where measurements are sparse. This study targets the local reconstruction of air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed above the surface of an outer tropical glacier from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data as large scale predictors. Since a farther scope is to provide input data for process based glacier mass balance modelling, the reconstruction pursues a high temporal resolution. Hence an empirical downscaling scheme is developed, based on a few years' time series of hourly observations from automatic weather stations, located at the glacier Artesonraju and nearby moraines (Northern Cordillera Blanca). Principal component and multiple regression analyses are applied to define the appropriate spatial downscaling domain, suitable predictor variables, and the statistical transfer functions. The model performance is verified using an independent data set. The best predictors are lower tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity, at reanalysis model grid points that represent the Bolivian Altiplano, located in the South of the Cordillera Blanca. The developed downscaling model explaines a considerable portion (more than 60%) of the diurnal variance of air temperature and specific humidity at the moraine stations, and air temperature above the glacier surface. Specific humidity above the glacier surface, however, can be reconstructed well in the seasonal, but not in the required diurnal time resolution. Wind speed can only be poorly determined by the large scale predictors (r² lower than 0.3) at both sites. We assume a complex local interaction between valley and glacier wind system to be the main
Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G
In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.
In the ancient Peru, particularly in the Inca Empire, the review of alcohol use and abuse must be made according to the ethnohistorical and cultural context with special emphasis on ideological and customary aspects. The outstanding research sources of alcohol consume types and characteristics are: a) The examination of chronicles of the Spanish Conquest and related papers on a textual criticism; b) The study of language from its semantic scope; and c) The archaeological and ethnological testimony. The only alcoholic beverage existing in the Inca's times was "chicha", mainly that of corn fermentation which was used under the ceremonial, ritual and convivial modalities. The pathological drinking types are clearly defined in the lexicon of the Pre-Columbian Peru prevailing languages, mainly Quechua. The social control of drinking overindulgence was evident and the repressive and punitive measures were similar to those of the great ancient civilizations. The image conveyed by most of the chroniclers as to alcohol excessive drinking among Inca people belongs to the trauma of Conquest which suppressed the psychopolitical and sociocultural control that supported their universe of values generating all sort of misbehaviors and selfdestructive types of toxic consume.
Ishitsuka, M.; Montes, H.; Kuroda, T.; Morimoto, M.; Ishitsuka, J.
The Cosmos Coronagraphic Observatory was completely destroyed by terrorists in 1988. In 1995, in coordination with the Minister of Education of Peru, a project to construct a new Educational Astronomical Observatory has been executed. The main purpose of the observatory is to promote an interest in basic space sciences in young students from school to university levels, through basic astronomical studies and observations. The planned observatory will be able to lodge 25 visitors; furthermore an auditorium, a library and a computer room will be constructed to improve the interest of people in astronomy. Two 15-cm refractor telescopes, equipped with a CCD camera and a photometer, will be available for observations. Also a 6-m dome will house a 60-cm class reflector telescope, which will be donated soon, thanks to a fund collected and organized by the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory in Japan. In addition a new modern planetarium donated by the Government of Japan will be installed in Lima, the capital of Peru. These installations will be widely open to serve the requirements of people interested in science.
Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.
We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800-100 b.c.) using Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Moessbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe 2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe 3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Moessbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.
Ávila, Jeannette; Tavera, Mario; Carrasco, Marco
Describe the epidemiological characteristics of neonatal deaths in Peru. Descriptive study based on notifications to the Perinatal and Neonatal National Epidemiological Surveillance Subsystem (PNNESS) made in 2011-2012. The capture-recapture method was used to calculate the registration of the notification and estimate the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) nationally and by regions. Responses were made to the questions: where, when, who and why the newborns died. 6,748 neonatal deaths were reported to PNNESS, underreport 52.9%. A national NMR of 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births was estimated. 16% of deaths occurred at home and 74.2% of these were in the highlands region, predominantly in rural areas and poor districts. 30% died in the first 24 hours and 42% between 1 and 7 days of life. 60.6% were preterm infants and 39.4% were term infants. 37% had normal weight, 29.4% low weight, and 33.6% very low weight. Preventable neonatal mortality was 33%, being higher in urban and highland areas. 25.1% died of causes related with prematurity-immaturity; 23.5% by infections; 14.1% by asphyxiation and causes related to care during childbirth and 11% by lethal congenital malformation. Neonatal mortality in Peru is differentiated by setting; harms related to prematurity-immaturity dominated on the coast, while the highlands and jungle recorded more preventable neonatal mortality with a predominance of asphyxia and infections.
Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R. C.
In the Precordillera and Western Cordillera of southern Peru (14°-18°S), vast pediment surfaces have been abandoned through drainage diversion and river incision, with the major drainages carving deep canyons. Within this region, we have identified range-sub-parallel contractile structures that accommodate significant distributed crustal deformation. Young geomorphic features document both the presence and youthfulness of these contractile structures. Here, we determine exposure ages on geomorphic features such as pediment surfaces and fluvial terraces using in situ produced cosmogenic radionuclides, in conjunction with field and remote mapping. This chronologic data reveals that ancient surfaces have been preserved as a result of very low erosion rates. We measure this rate to be chronology and geomorphic mapping, we calculate a Pleistocene river incision rate of ~0.3mm/yr determined from data collected along exoreic rivers. This rate is consistent with longer-term incision rates measured in other localities along this margin. We suggest that, in this region of southern Peru, the steep western wedge of the Andean margin supports the high topography of the Altiplano through a combination of uplift along steeply dipping contractile west-vergent structures and isostatic responses to the focused removal of large amounts of crustal material through canyon incision. Further, that these range sub-parallel structures are related at depth to a thrust system that plays a role in not only the maintenance of the Andean margin, but potentially in its formation as well.
Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.
We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800 100 b.c.) using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Mössbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Mössbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.
Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi
The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bayona, Andrés; Fajardo, Natalia
The development of innovative drugs allows coming up with new medicines to prevent and better treat illnesses. This improves people's quality of life and makes it more productive. Therefore, the mission of pharmaceutical research is to develop safe and effective drugs. Clinical trials allow the evaluation of the safety and efficacy profiles of new medicines, medical devices and diagnostic tests. Research and development (R&D) of new drugs is a long and costly process, where out of every 5000 to 10000 new components that enter preclinical testing, only one is approved. Compared to 2011, drug development has increased by 7.6%. According to ClinicalTrials.gov, 5% of the trials take place in Latin America, and Peru is in the fifth position. On the other hand, according to the Global Competitiveness Report issued by the World Economic Forum, Peru ranks 61st, its biggest challenges being the functioning of its public institutions, investment in R&D and technological capacity. The complexity of drug R&D results in a search for competitive places to develop clinical trials. Clinical Research is a humanized industry due to its ethical platform, stated in the guidelines of good clinical practices. This industry demands our country to develop a differentiating value that contributes to the development of knowledge and its competitiveness.
Soon after the launching of the Camisea Gas Project, in 2000, Peru became a medium-range Latin American gas exporting country. Our central argument is that energy governance in this country has been shifting from a 'hierarchical' to a 'co-governance' mode. Accordingly, interactions among the State, the society and economic actors are now regulated in a horizontal and decentralized way, rather than a vertical and centralized one. This shift contributed to the success of the Camisea gas project and had a positive effect on foreign direct investments inflow in the energy sector (1). In addition, it has helped Peru reach energetic self-sufficiency, while improving its energy balance (2). Meanwhile, energy policy has welcomed a major participation of social actors, contributing to institutionalized arrangements between the State, the companies and indigenous communities and their NGO partners (3). Two theoretical conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, the State's role remains central in energy governance, thus invalidating the 'hollowing of the State' thesis. Second, the co-governance mode helps to overcome the 'resource curse' thesis.
Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John
This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.
Roberto F. Kometter
Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.
Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G
Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.
Roberto E. Reis
Full Text Available A new, uniquely colored species of the loricariid catfish genus Otocinclus, O. cocama is described from a tributary to the lower río Ucayali in northern Peru. The new species is distinguished from other Otocinclus species by two putatively autapomorphic features, the distinct color pattern, consisting of vertically elongated blotches spanning from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by a complete lateral line. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is apparently more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani, O. bororo, O. mariae, and O. mura. Comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions for the discovery and description of previously undetected biodiversity are also presented.
Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik
Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...
A comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is presented. Topics discussed cover current biofuel utilization practices; evaluation of Peruvian biomass productivity; identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources; assessment of resource development and management concerns; identification of market considerations; description of biofuel technological options; and regional identification of biofuel technology applications. The discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches now being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity is evaluated in the context of the terrain, soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. A quantitative description of the energy potential that could be realized from agricultural and forestry resources of Peru follows. A regional picture is given for the production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could potentially supply energy. The assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and the environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Ten biofuel technology options for Peru were identified: small- to medium-scale gasification, a wood waste inventory, stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, wood distillation, forest resource development and management, electrical cogeneration, anaerobic digestion technology, development of ethanol production capabilities, and agricultural strategies for fuel production.Based upon these biofuel options, nine applications were identified for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.
Mirelman, Andrew J; Ballard, Sarah Blythe; Saito, Mayuko; Kosek, Margaret N; Gilman, Robert H
With candidate norovirus (NV) vaccines in a rapid phase of development, assessment of the potential economic value of vaccine implementation will be necessary to aid health officials in vaccine implementation decisions. To date, no evaluations have been performed to evaluate the benefit of adopting NV vaccines for use in the childhood immunization programs of low- and middle-income countries. We used a Markov decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding a two-dose NV vaccine to Peru's routine childhood immunization schedule using two recent estimates of NV incidence, one for a peri-urban region and one for a jungle region of the country. Using the peri-urban NV incidence estimate, the annual cost of vaccination would be $13.0 million, offset by $2.6 million in treatment savings. Overall, this would result in 473 total DALYs averted; 526,245 diarrhea cases averted;153,735 outpatient visits averted; and 414 hospitalizations averted between birth and the fifth year of life. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio would be $21,415 per DALY averted; $19.86 per diarrhea case; $68.23 per outpatient visit; and $26,298 per hospitalization. Using the higher jungle NV incidence rates provided a lower cost per DALY of $10,135. The incremental cost per DALY with per-urban NV incidence is greater than three times the 2012 GDP per capita of Peru but the estimate drops below this threshold using the incidence from the jungle setting. In addition to the impact of incidence, sensitivity analysis showed that vaccine price and efficacy play a strong role in determining the level of cost-effectiveness. The introduction of a NV vaccine would prevent many healthcare outcomes in the Peru and potentially be cost-effective in scenarios with high NV incidence. The vaccine cost-effectiveness model could also be applied to the evaluation of NV vaccine cost-effectiveness in other countries. In resource-poor settings, where NV incidence rates are expected to be higher. Published
María Isabel Quevedo Alejos
Full Text Available Nowadays, the world faces a scenario of growing competition between companies and territories. The challenges of globalization requires cities and regions to propose strategies that stimulate the processes of capital accumulation by the diffusion of innovation and knowledge, the adoption of more flexible forms of production organization and the development of economies of urbanization, between others. Therefore, in this paper three experiences of endogenous development represented by the Spanish Development Agency Iraurgi Lantzen (Spain, Finca Peru (Peruvian civil non-profit organization and the Rural Community of Cullpe (Peru will be analysed, in order to identify and compare the various aspects related to the autonomous development of communities. The dynamics of development in each region or city is directly related to investment decisions and the attractions of the dependent territories. For Iraurgi Lantzen improvement is reported in the region 1, medium 2 Urola with the construction of a new road, which encourages municipalities in the area to look for a consensus to help generate employment and wealth in line with the interests for development and promotion of the valley. On the other hand, the case of Finca Peru shows a joint initiative to foster progress and development in the hardest hit by poverty and subversion regions, as the provinces of Huancavelica and Ayacucho were, in the Peruvian Andes. This organization ensures the socio-economic improvement of the population, particularly women, through the creation of community bank, acting on the basis of three pillars: human development, credit and savings. Finally, the case of the Rural Community of Cullpe shows an example of social leadership, innovation, ability to call and ethical-moral principles resuscitating a community stricken by poverty and limited resources, creating comparative advantages and opportunities for development rural. In conclusion, the case studies
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of drug abuse before prison admission and to identify associated sociodemographic and family history risk factors, according to gender, in prisons of Peru. Materials and methods: A secondary analysis was carried out with data from the First National Prisoner Census 2016, using a questionnaire of 173 items that was applied to the whole prison population of Peru. The types of drugs used before admission were analyzed according to characteristics of the penitentiary population, and generalized linear models were used to calculate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals to identify possible factors associated with drug use. Results: Out of a population of 76,180 prisoners, 71,184 (93.4% answered the survey (men 67,071, 94.2%. The overall prevalence of drug consumption before admission was 24.4% (25.3 % in men and 9.1% in women, the highest prevalence in the 18-29 age group (36.3% in men and 14.9% in women. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana (58.2%, coca paste/cocaine or crack (40.3% and inhalants (1%. The factors most strongly associated with consumption were having a family member who consumed drugs (59.8%, history of previous imprisonment (59.1%, unemployment (48.4%, relationships at school with classmates who had problems with the law (46.9%, background of a family member who attended a penitentiary (38.4%, and history of running away from home before age 15 (35.9%. Conclusions: In Peru, drug use is higher in the prison population than in the general population, and there are differences according to sex in the prevalence of drug use and associated factors prior to admission to a prison. The study demonstrated that childhood events, such as child abuse, having a family member imprisoned, having a family member who used drugs, or who previously abused alcohol, are factors associated with drug use in the penitentiary population. Some of these risk factors are modifiable, so it is
Chowell, G.; Viboud, C.; Simonsen, L.; Miller, M.A.; Hurtado, J.; Soto, G.; Vargas, R.; Guzman, M.A.; Ulloa, M.; Munayco, C.V.
Background Increasing our knowledge of past influenza pandemic patterns in different regions of the world is crucial to guide preparedness plans against future influenza pandemics. Here, we undertook extensive archival collection efforts from 3 representative cities of Peru (Lima in the central coast, Iquitos in the northeastern Amazon region, Ica in the southern coast) to characterize the age and geographic patterns of the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in this country. Materials and Methods We analyzed historical documents describing the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Peru and retrieved individual mortality records from local provincial archives for quantitative analysis. We applied seasonal excess mortality models to daily and monthly respiratory mortality rates for 1917–1920 and quantified transmissibility estimates based on the daily growth rate in respiratory deaths. Results A total of 52,739 individual mortality records were inspected from local provincial archives. We found evidence for an initial mild pandemic wave during July-September 1918 in Lima, identified a synchronized severe pandemic wave of respiratory mortality in all three locations in Peru during November 1918-February 1919, and a severe pandemic wave during January 1920- March 1920 in Lima and July-October 1920 in Ica. There was no recrudescent pandemic wave in 1920 in Iquitos. Remarkably, Lima experienced the brunt of the 1918–20 excess mortality impact during the 1920 recrudescent wave, with all age groups experiencing an increase in all cause excess mortality from 1918–19 to 1920. Middle age groups experienced the highest excess mortality impact, relative to baseline levels, in the 1918–19 and 1920 pandemic waves. Cumulative excess mortality rates for the 1918–20 pandemic period were higher in Iquitos (2.9%) than Lima (1.6%). The mean reproduction number for Lima was estimated in the range 1.3–1.5. Conclusions We identified synchronized pandemic waves of intense excess
Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik
is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...
International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.
Jul 3, 2014 ... In Peru, many sources of water are contaminated with harmful pathogens, heavy ... His research on water contamination in Lima was supported by an IDRC graduate research award. ... Wastewater shores up food security.
Cabrera, R; Tantaleán, M; Rojas, R
In this communication is presented the finding of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum, parasite of sea lions, in Canis familiaris (dog) in Chincha city, Peru. This is the first canine infection with D. pacificum in the South Peruvian coast.
Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...
Jhonson K. Vizcarra
The presence of Red Knot (Calidris canutus, Linnaeus 1758) in Ite Wetlands, Tacna, Peru is documented. Two individuals were observed in October 2011. This species had only one occurrence without details in this area.
Eliana Linares Perea
Full Text Available In this work, two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza for the flora of Southern Peru are reported, including taxonomical, biogeographical and phytosociological data on this species.
Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...
Medina Gironzini, E.
In Peru, the Regulation for Ionizing Radiation Sources is applied, which establishes the norms and procedures to follow in the nuclear and radioactive installations of the country in order to assure their correct operation as concerns to the nuclear safety and radiological protection, allowing the emission of the respective licenses. As for the nuclear facilities, this authorization includes the Previous License, the Construction License and the Operation License (provisional and definitive) and for radioactive facilities and equipment generating ionizing radiations: the Construction License and the Operation License. The personnel also require a license that can be an operator license (as for nuclear reactors) or a supervisor license (for nuclear and radioactive facilities). In spite of the above mentioned regulation and its long enforcement period, less than 10% of radioactive facilities in this country are licensed, due to different problems which will be solved in the medium term. (Author)
Full Text Available The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women’s unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.
Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward
Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.
Zoppi, U; Jacobsen, G; Laurencich-Minelli, L; Lawson, E M; Sarkisian, G; Tuniz, C
The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.
Many gay men in the popular sectors of Lima, Peru participate in vóley callejero, or street volleyball. The ethnographic data presented in this article describes verbal and corporal mechanisms through which gay identity emerges within the particular context of the street volleyball game, ultimately highlighting the contextual nature of identity. The volleyball players are not just hitting a ball back and forth, they are engaging in a meaningful activity that illuminates intersections of language, sexuality, and identity. Through the manipulation of the street into a volleyball court, the volleyball players create a space conducive to the articulation of particular verbal and embodied practices that index gay identity. The challenge to the regulations of "proper" volleyball through the practice of ritual insulting and the cultivation of gay volleyball technique are playful reconfigurations of gendered practices prominent in the sites where fieldwork was carried out.
The present report is the result of five years' experimental work at the Costa Regional Development Institute (IRD-Costa), based in Canete, Lima, Peru, on the reclamation of land affected by salts and hence of seriously limited agricultural value (production lower than 50%). A reclamation method combining surface and at depth washing with artificial drainage of excess water has been tried out and a method of nutrition has been developed which is based on tonification of the seeds before sowing. The results obtained are rather encouraging, so the method looks very promising, especially as it also makes for considerable savings in fertilizers (some 20% less) and for better yields per unit area. Once the ionic behaviour of this method has been studied by means of radioisotopes a large contribution will have been made towards alleviating the problem of saline soils. (author)
Bartolini, Rosario M; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Díaz-Otoya, Margarita M; Mosqueira-Lovón, Nelly Rocío; Penny, Mary E; Winkler, Jennifer L; LaMontagne, D Scott; Bingham, Allison
To understand the sociocultural environment, health systems' capacities, and policy processes related to cervical cancer and HPV vaccines in order to inform HPV vaccine introduction. Mixed-method formative research using qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. Participants included girls, parents, community leaders, health and education officials, and policymakers. Respondents, including policymakers, generally supported HPV vaccine introduction, due partly to appreciation for the benefits of vaccination and the desire to prevent cancer. Community-level concerns regarding safety and quality of services will need to be addressed. The immunization system in Peru is strong and has capacity for including the HPV vaccine. Formative research provides key insights to help shape an effective program for HPV vaccine introduction.
Hijar, Gisely; Padilla, Carlos; Marquiño, Wilmer; Falconi, Eduardo; Montoya, Ysabel
Eight genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum were detected after analysing blood samples obtained from 30 Peruvian jungle-dwelling patients in Loreto, a high transmission area for P. falciparum, using amplification of the polymorphic marker gene GLURP (glutamate-rich protein). Genotypes I (GLURP450) and VIII (GLURP800) were the most common (15/30 and 13/30, respectively). This single copy gene showed 15 patients to be infected with a single genotype of P. falciparum; the other 15 were infected with mixed genotypes, one of them with 4 genotypes. These findings are compatible with a high genetic complexity of P. falciparum. Further investigations are needed, using this and other markers, in order to design malaria control measures in Peru.
Álvarez Carrasco, Ricardo Iván
The Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Peru, is one of the subspecialties of Pediatrics that has experienced one of the most significant growth in recent decades, however, to achieve this seat it should have passed a long way built through the efforts and talent hundreds of doctors for several generations. Its modern history began in 1981 with the creation of the first unit of the specialty in the National Institute of Child Health (INSN), followed by the establishment of the second specialization that contributed to its spread and progress of several hospitals in the country, and many of them now have a doctor of this specialty. Our purpose is to plant the foundations of that story, whose extension go beyond the space that allows us an article.
Espinoza, Elba Custodio; Rivera-Holguín, Miryam; Pacheco, Manuel Seminario; Sotelo, Eric Arenas; Béjar, Paola Urruchi
The impact of the internal armed conflict in Peru (1980-2000) was felt in many regions in this South American country, and especially in rural regions such as the Southern Andean province of Cotabambas in the Apurímac department. This article describes and analyzes the actions and results of a community mental health project in this area that aimed to address the conflict's aftermath. The intervention used participatory strategies to identify the communities' prioritized problems, established actions appropriate to the cultural characteristics of the population, and implemented creative and recreational initiatives that responded to communities' needs. Based on democratic dialogue, horizontal relations, and reciprocity, the targeted communities became protagonists in the process of psychosocial transformation that fostered individual and collective exercise of rights, individual human development, and democratic community building.
Svec, Joseph; Andic, Tanja
Using the continuous Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2012) for Peru, we employ multinomial logistic regression estimates to assess risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using empowerment and gender frameworks for IPV, we find that women making more household decisions jointly are less likely to experience physical violence. We also find that education is negatively associated with IPV, unless a woman's attainment exceeds her partner's. Although women earning more than their partners are more likely to experience violence, joint decision-makers have a lower risk of moderate physical violence even when their status exceeds that of a male partner. By adding measures for relationship dynamics, we highlight the ways decision-making within the household contributes to violence risk for women. While deviating from male-breadwinning norms can result in violence, risk factors are conditioned on the nature of cooperation within a partnership. Our findings suggest that shared power within the household reduces IPV risk.
Zoppi, U.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Sarkissian, G.; Lawson, E.M.; Tuniz, C.; Laurencich Minelli, L.
The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s
Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.
Gomez Pando, L.; Torres Aranda, M.; Romero Loli, M.
The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented
Navarro, Carlos E
The author presents a 20-year experience leading cleft lip and palate surgical volunteer missions in Peru for CIRPLAST, a nonprofit volunteer plastic surgery goodwill program that has provided free surgery for patients with cleft lip and palate deformities in remote areas of Peru. Surgical procedures were performed by the author, together with a group of experienced plastic surgeons, under the auspices of the Peruvian Plastic Surgery Society, and local health authorities. CIRPLAST missions are scheduled annually in different locations around Peru. Selected patients for surgery after adequate screening are photographed, and their cleft deformity is recorded. Scheduled patients or their parents, when they are minors, sign an informed consent form. Patients operated on in any given day are examined and photographed 1 day after surgery, before discharge. Between 30 and 35 patients are operated on at each mission site. About 2 weeks after the mission, patients are checked and photographed, and the outcome of surgery is recorded. Complications that may occur are recorded and treated by the CIRPLAST team as soon as possible. Almost all operations are performed under general endotracheal anesthesia coupled by local anesthesia containing a vasoconstrictor, to reduce bleeding and facilitate tissue dissection. All wounds of the lip and palate are closed with absorbable sutures, to avoid the need for suture removal. After cleft lip surgery, patients go to the recovery room for monitoring by nurses until they recover completely. A total of 6108 cleft lip and palate repairs, primary and secondary, were performed by CIRPLAST in 141 missions, between May 12, 1994, and October 15, 2014. The medical records of the 5162 patients (84.5%) who returned for follow-up (ranging from 12 days to 9 years) were reviewed retrospectively. Between 45% and 70% of the patients operated on a mission have returned for early follow-up and some the following year. There were 3176 males (51.9%) and 2932
Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres
During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.
We propose to analyze the Lurgio Galván Sánchez’s Memories of an unknown soldier. Autobiography of violence (2012, which is the story of a Quechua speaking peasant who attended or participated in the country’s dominant institutions, such as, the guerrilla, the army, the church, and the university, during the outburst of violence occurred in Peru in the course of the ‘80s and ‘90s. We will examine, using discourse, how these institutions struggled to impose a hegemonic account on past events and also to identify the mechanisms these institutions devised in order to prolong the violence from the time of the colonial conquest. Since then, many subjectivities and stereotypes have been created, giving rise to exclusions and aggressions, which have been cyclically imprinting indelible tattoos on the national body right up to the present day.
Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M
In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.
"This analysis examines the institutional context of infant mortality in Peru using economic, social, health care, and public health measures as indicators of development and equity. Using linked data from population and economic censuses, government agencies, and health surveys on twenty-four Peruvian provinces, I explore how economic development and institutional contexts influence health outcomes. Regional inequities based on rural population, subsistence activity, women's illiteracy, monthly income, Gross Domestic Product, medical care, and health facilities are compared. Then a cluster analysis identifies institutional contexts that have internal similarities.... My conclusion is that understanding regional inequities--defined in terms of economic development, social institutions, and health services--leads to enhanced explanations of disparities in health outcomes."
Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Aramburu, Adolfo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Munares-García, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. obstetra, magíster en Salud Pública.; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano. especialista en epidemiología de campo.; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano. especialista en Gestión de Salud.; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo.; Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.
Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this a...
Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián
Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions.
Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; S??ksj?rvi, Ilari E.
In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential...
Full Text Available Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.
Gaudry Maria M. Cárdenas; Gutknecht Dieter; Parajka Juraj; Perdigão Rui A.P.; Blöschl Günter
The aim of this study is to understand the seasonalities of runoff and precipitation and their controls along two transects in Peru and one transect in Austria. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data at 111 and 61 stations in Peru and Austria, respectively, and daily discharge data at 51 and 110 stations. The maximum Pardé coefficient is used to quantify the strength of the seasonalities of monthly precipitation and runoff. Circular statistics are used to quantify the seasonalities...
Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio
Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.
To date, the subgenus Rhomboconnus Franz of Euconnus Thomson was represented by ten species known to occur in Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador. For the first time Rhomboconnus is reported to occur in Peru and Bolivia, and two new species are described: Euconnus wari sp. n. (Peru) and E. inkachakanus sp. n. (Bolivia). The latter species is the largest representative of Rhomboconnus, with body length exceeding 3 mm.
IPS), URL: <htttp://web.maxwell.syr.edu.nativew...aphy/latinam/ ecuador /borderl6.html>, accessed 10 November 1996, pp. 1-2. 蔵 "Evacuees in Loja Number...OBSERVER MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) DOING A LOT WITH A LITTLE BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL KEVIN M. HIGGINS United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) Doing A Lot With a Little by Lieutenant Colonel Kevin M. Higgins United States Army Naval Postgraduate School Special
Vom Hau, Matthias
This article examines trajectories of nationalism in twentieth-century Argentina, Mexico, and Peru through the analytical lens of schooling. I argue that textbooks reveal state-sponsored conceptions of nationhood. In turn, the outlooks and practices of teachers provide a window for understanding how state ideologies were received, translated, and reworked within society. During the late nineteenth century, textbooks in Mexico, Argentina, and Peru conceived of the nation as a political communi...
Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...
Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.
The education system in Peru and many other developing countries faces several challenges, including improving education achievement and increasing education enrollment in high school. It is clear from several indicators that rural students have lower education outcomes than do urban students. In this study we used cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to determine the relationship between height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), body-mass index (BMI), and education outcomes. The sample was composed of students from 20 elementary public schools in two rural zones in Peru. The descriptive results show that there was no association between any of the anthropometric variables and achievement (mathematics and reading comprehension) or advancing to high school without repeating a grade. However, BMI was associated with dropping out of school: children with higher BMI in 1998 were more likely to be out of school by 2001. The hierarchical multivariate analysis also showed no relationship between anthropometry and achievement at the individual level, but students with relatively higher HAZ in 1998 were more likely to be drop-outs by 2001. These results contradict prior findings that showed a positive association between anthropometric variables (especially HAZ) and education achievement. The results might be explained by the fact that the study was carried out at very poor sites, at altitudes between 3000 and 3500 meters above sea level. The scarce studies about development in high altitudes suggest that the patterns for height and weight for children and adolescents are different than at sea level. Another possible explanation has to do with the fact that in the contexts studied, children who are perceived as relatively heavier (BMI) or taller (HAZ) might be expected to be out of school and start working (in fact, this was the primary reason given by children for dropping out of school).
Nam, Eun Woo; Sharma, Bimala; Kim, Ha Yun; Paja, Doris Jackeline Vasquez; Yoon, Young Min; Lee, Sun Ha; Kim, Eun Hwan; Oh, Chung Hyeon; Kim, Yun Seop; Song, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jong Koo
Adolescent obesity and hypertension are global public health issues. The burden of adolescent obesity and hypertension in Peru is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and their relationship among school-attending adolescents and to assess the need for health-promoting school programs in the study area. A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted in a randomly selected sample of 952 secondary school adolescents from 11 schools in Lima or Callao, Peru, in 2014. Weight, height, and blood pressure (BP) were measured and categorized. Obesity was defined as ≥ 95(th) percentile in body mass index (BMI) for age and sex. Hypertension was defined as average systolic blood pressure and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥95(th) percentile in BP for sex, age, and height. Chi-square test and univariate logistic regressions were used at a 5% significance level to determine the relationship between BMI and BP category. The mean age of subjects was 14.6 years; 46.4% were boys and 53.6% were girls. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 20.2% and 9.5% overall, 17.4% and 11.1% for boys, and 22.5% and 8.0% for girls, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 26.7% overall, 34.8% for boys, and 19.6% for girls. In both sexes, BMI was strongly associated with BP (p Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with BP status among adolescents. Health-promoting school programs may reduce the burdens of obesity and hypertension among school-going adolescents.
Cabada, Miguel M; Goodrich, Mary R; Graham, Brittany; Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Deichsel, Emily L; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; Clinton White, A
To evaluate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia, and malnutrition among children in the Paucartambo province of Cusco region, Peru, in light of demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiologic contextual factors. Children from three to twelve years old from six communities in Huancarani district in the highlands of Peru were evaluated for helminth infections, anemia, and nutritional status. Data collected included demographic variables, socioeconomic status, exposures, complete blood counts, and direct and sedimentation stool tests. Of 240 children analyzed, 113 (47%) were infected with one or more parasites. Giardia (27.5%) and Fasciola (9.6%) were the most commonly identified organisms. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of the children. Anemia (48.8%) was associated with age (3-4 vs 5-12 years old; odds ratio (OR): 5.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.81-12.21). Underweight (10%) was associated with male sex (OR: 5.97; CI: 1.12-31.72), higher eosinophil count (OR: 4.67; CI: 1.31-16.68) and education of the mother (OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4-0.9). Stunting (31.3%) was associated with education of the mother (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.72-0.95); wasting (2.7%) was associated with higher eosinophil count (OR: 2.75; CI: 1.04-7.25). Anemia and malnutrition remain significant problems in the Peruvian highlands. These findings suggest that demographic factors, socio-economic status, and possibly parasitic infections intertwine to cause these health problems.
Miguel M. Cabada
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia, and malnutrition among children in the Paucartambo province of Cusco region, Peru, in light of demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiologic contextual factors. Methods. Children from three to twelve years old from six communities in Huancarani district in the highlands of Peru were evaluated for helminth infections, anemia, and nutritional status. Data collected included demographic variables, socioeconomic status, exposures, complete blood counts, and direct and sedimentation stool tests. Results. Of 240 children analyzed, 113 (47% were infected with one or more parasites. Giardia (27.5% and Fasciola (9.6% were the most commonly identified organisms. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of the children. Anemia (48.8% was associated with age (3-4 vs 5-12 years old; odds ratio (OR: 5.86; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.81-12.21. Underweight (10% was associated with male sex (OR: 5.97; CI: 1.12-31.72, higher eosinophil count (OR: 4.67; CI: 1.31-16.68 and education of the mother (OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4-0.9. Stunting (31.3% was associated with education of the mother (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.72-0.95; wasting (2.7% was associated with higher eosinophil count (OR: 2.75; CI: 1.04-7.25. Conclusions. Anemia and malnutrition remain significant problems in the Peruvian highlands. These findings suggest that demographic factors, socio-economic status, and possibly parasitic infections intertwine to cause these health problems.
Salinas, Jorge L; Alave, Jorge L; Westfall, Andrew O; Paz, Jorge; Moran, Fiorella; Carbajal-Gonzalez, Danny; Callacondo, David; Avalos, Odalie; Rodriguez, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; Willig, James H
In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99). The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.
May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.
Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.
Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Lange, C. B.; Pantoja, S.; De Lange, G. J.; Gutiérrez, D.; Muñoz, P.; Salamanca, M.
We study fish scales as a proxy of fish abundance and preservation biases together with phosphorus from fish remains (P fish) in a sediment core retrieved off Callao, Peru (12°1'S, 77°42'W; water depth=179 m; core length=52 cm). We interpret our results as a function of changing redox conditions based on ratios of redox-sensitive trace elements (Cu/Al, Mo/Al, Ni/Al, Zn/Al, V/Al), terrigenous indicators (Fe in clays, Ti, Al), and biogenic proxies (CaCO 3, biogenic opal, total nitrogen, organic carbon, barite Ba). The core covers roughly 700 years of deposition, based on 210Pb activities extrapolated downcore and 14C dating at selected intervals. Our fish-scale record is dominated by anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) scales followed by hake ( Merluccius gayii) scales. The core presented an abrupt lithological change at 17 cm (corresponding to the early 19th century). Above that depth, it was laminated and was more organic-rich (10-15% organic carbon) than below, where the core was partly laminated and less organic-rich (Peru beginning in the early 19th century. Higher fish-scale contents and higher P fish/P total ratios were also observed within the upper 17 cm of the core. The behavior of biogenic proxies and redox-sensitive trace elements was similar; more reduced conditions corresponded to higher contents of CaCO 3, C org, total nitrogen and fish scales, suggesting that these proxies might convey an important preservation signal.
Jesse L Clark
Full Text Available Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs, but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru.We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003-05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies.Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men.In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries.
Clark, Jesse L.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.
Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies. Findings Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men. Conclusions In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries. PMID:19779620
Full Text Available There are between 8 and 11 million cases of America Human Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, in Latin America. Chagas is endemic in southern Peru, especially the Arequipa region, where it has expanded from poor, rural areas to periurban communities. This paper summarizes the findings of four studies in periurban Arequipa: on determinants of disease-vector infestation; on prevalence, spatial patterns, and risk factors of Chagas; on links between migration, settlement patterns, and disease-vector infestation; and on the relationship between discordant test results and spatially clustered transmission hotspots. These studies identified two risk factors associated with the disease: population dynamics and the urbanization of poverty. Understanding the disease within this new urban context will allow for improved public health prevention efforts and policy initiatives. Discovered in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, American Human Trypanosomiasis is a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness found throughout Latin America (Moncayo, 2003. Indeed, it is estimated that there are between 8 and 11 million cases in Mexico and Central and South America (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009. Chagas disease, as it is most commonly known, is endemic in southern Peru, especially in the region of Arequipa. Once thought to be limited to poor, rural areas, the disease is now appearing in the periurban communities that surround Arequipa City, the capital of the region (Cornejo del Carpio, 2003. Understanding the urbanization of Chagas disease will allow public health and medical professionals to better combat the further transmission of the disease. After providing an overview of Chagas and introducing the scope of the disease in Latin America, this paper will summarize the findings of four recent studies conducted in periurban districts in Arequipa. Ultimately, this paper seeks to identify the risk factors associated with Chagas
In 1978, the US and Peru conducted a comprehensive assessment of Peru's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies that utilize the available resources to meet their energy requirements. This Volume I reports the findings of the assessment and contains the executive summary, the main report, and five appendices of information that support the integrated energy supply and demand analysis. The following chapters are included: The Energy Situation in Peru (economic context and background, energy resources and production, energy consumption patterns); Reference Supply and Demand Projection (approach, procedures, and assumptions; economic projections; energy demand and supply projections; supply/demand integration; uncertainties); and The Development of Strategies and Options (the analysis of options; strategies; increased use of renewables, hydropower, coal; increased energy efficiency; and financial analysis of strategies).
Kimball, Ann Marie; Curioso, Walter H; Arima, Yuzo; Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Segovia-Juarez, Jose; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Holmes, King K
The public sectors of developing countries require strengthened capacity in health informatics. In Peru, where formal university graduate degrees in biomedical and health informatics were lacking until recently, the AMAUTA Global Informatics Research and Training Program has provided research and training for health professionals in the region since 1999. The Fogarty International Center supports the program as a collaborative partnership between Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Peru and the University of Washington in the United States of America. The program aims to train core professionals in health informatics and to strengthen the health information resource capabilities and accessibility in Peru. The program has achieved considerable success in the development and institutionalization of informatics research and training programs in Peru. Projects supported by this program are leading to the development of sustainable training opportunities for informatics and eight of ten Peruvian fellows trained at the University of Washington are now developing informatics programs and an information infrastructure in Peru. In 2007, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia started offering the first graduate diploma program in biomedical informatics in Peru.
This chapter presents excavation data from two archaeological sites, El Palacio and Paredones, located in the Department of Cajamarca in the northern sierra of Peru, a geographic area of social dynamism during the Middle Horizon. The presence of the large-scale site of El Palacio — a Wari administrative center — would suggest that the valley came under direct Wari imperial control in a manner similar to that known under the Inca during the Late Horizon. Yet at the same time, there are chullpa...
Schultze, Carol A; Stanish, Charles; Scott, David A; Rehren, Thilo; Kuehner, Scott; Feathers, James K
Archaeological excavations at a U-shaped pyramid in the northern Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru have documented a continuous 5-m-deep stratigraphic sequence of metalworking remains. The sequence begins in the first millennium AD and ends in the Spanish Colonial period ca. AD 1600. The earliest dates associated with silver production are 1960 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. 40 BC to AD 120) and 1870 + or - 40 BP (2-sigma cal. AD 60 to 240) representing the oldest known silver smelting in South America. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of production debris indicate a complex, multistage, high temperature technology for producing silver throughout the archaeological sequence. These data hold significant theoretical implications including the following: (i) silver production occurred before the development of the first southern Andean state of Tiwanaku, (ii) the location and process of silverworking remained consistent for 1,500 years even though political control of the area cycled between expansionist states and smaller chiefly polities, and (iii) that U-shaped structures were the location of ceremonial, residential, and industrial activities.
Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15 or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base over a 3 day period (n=14 (phase 1. The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9 or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5 (phase 2. In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] versus 8% [1/13], P<0.0001. In phase 2, atovaquone/proguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.
Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15 or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base over a 3 day period (n=14 (phase 1. The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9 or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5 (phase 2. In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] versus 8% [1/13], P<0.0001. In phase 2, atovaquone/proguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.
Llanos-Cuentas, A; Campos, P; Clendenes, M; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B
The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone) were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15) or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base) over a 3 day period (n=14) (phase 1). The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9) or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5) (phase 2). In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] vs. 8% [1/13], Pproguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.
Dillehay, Tom D; Goodbred, Steve; Pino, Mario; Vásquez Sánchez, Víctor F; Tham, Teresa Rosales; Adovasio, James; Collins, Michael B; Netherly, Patricia J; Hastorf, Christine A; Chiou, Katherine L; Piperno, Dolores; Rey, Isabel; Velchoff, Nancy
Simple pebble tools, ephemeral cultural features, and the remains of maritime and terrestrial foods are present in undisturbed Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits underneath a large human-made mound at Huaca Prieta and nearby sites on the Pacific coast of northern Peru. Radiocarbon ages indicate an intermittent human presence dated between ~15,000 and 8000 calendar years ago before the mound was built. The absence of fishhooks, harpoons, and bifacial stone tools suggests that technologies of gathering, trapping, clubbing, and exchange were used primarily to procure food resources along the shoreline and in estuarine wetlands and distant mountains. The stone artifacts are minimally worked unifacial stone tools characteristic of several areas of South America. Remains of avocado, bean, and possibly cultivated squash and chile pepper are also present, suggesting human transport and consumption. Our new findings emphasize an early coastal lifeway of diverse food procurement strategies that suggest detailed observation of resource availability in multiple environments and a knowledgeable economic organization, although technologies were simple and campsites were seemingly ephemeral and discontinuous. These findings raise questions about the pace of early human movement along some areas of the Pacific coast and the level of knowledge and technology required to exploit maritime and inland resources.
Diego de Santana Souza
Full Text Available Alphus marinonii sp. nov., new species from Peru and Brazil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. A new species of Alphus, A. marinonii sp. nov., from Peru and Brazil (Rondônia is described. Key to identification and pictures for the four species of the genus are provided. Notes on distribution of A. tuberosus are included, with a new record for Peru and Brazil (Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul.
Peru's importance to the United States in the nineteenth century has been underappreciated because there were few instances of sharp conflict between the two nations. But, beginning with U.S. export of coarse cloth from new cotton mills just after Peruvian independence, continuing during the influence of Peruvian guano on U.S. "scientific agriculture," and then in the period of Peru's extraordinary effort to build trans-Andean railways, Peru exercised important influence on U.S. economy and ...
This report presents the results of a brief study of industral, mining, and agricultural sector energy demands in Peru. The study establishes current energy demands and sectoral activities, and projects future energy needs through the year 2000. With respect to energy demands, the subsectors covered are: mining and non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, cement, oil refining, petrochemicals, fertilizers, and agriculture (major crops). Total energy demands for these subsectors are developed for 1976, 1985, and 2000, assuming full-capacity operation for the majority of the plants. Potential options developed for reducing energy use in these sectors are: increased coal use, improved energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector, use of agricultural wastes as fuel, possible displacement of oil by hydroelectricity, use of geothermal energy, increased use of water materials for the cement and construction industries, and possible promotion of cogeneration systems (electricity/steam). (MCW)
Cárdenas, Martha; Grajales, Alejandro; Sierra, Roberto; Rojas, Alejandro; González-Almario, Adriana; Vargas, Angela; Marín, Mauricio; Fermín, Gustavo; Lagos, Luz E; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Bernal, Adriana; Salazar, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a) and one mitochondrial (Cox1) region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.
Grünwald Niklaus J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.
Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs
exclusivamente andino presentando formas de tamaño pequeño, cuadrupedos y con tendencia a pastar perteneciente al subgénero M. (Pseudomegatherium e incluye a M. (P. tarijensis, M. (P. elenense, M. (P. urbinai y una nueva especie de la zona norandina. Las grandes especies de perezosos como M. (Megatherium americanum, Lestodon sp., y Scelidotherium leptocephalum descubiertos en las Pampas Argentinas no han sido reportados en el Perú. Un nuevo megaloníquido muy peculiar fue descubierto en la costa norte (desierto de Cupisnique y en los Andes, cerca al lago Titicaca (cueva casa del diablo. Dataciones relizadas con 14C, así como la asociación faunística indican que la mayoría de los mamíferos fósiles del Perú pertenecen al Lujanense. A lo largo de la costa y probablemente en la Amazonía, los Xenarthra han sido descubiertos en localidades abiertas, en contraste con la región andina donde la mayor parte de los especímenes se conservaron en cuevas. En el Perú y en toda Sudamérica los grandes Xenartros se extinguen al comienzo del Holoceno. A revision of Peruvian Xenarthra and the discovery of new specimens have increased our knowledge of the Order in this country. About thirty sites from three geographic regions, Amazonian Forest, the Andes, and the coast have yielded Xenarthra in Peru. The only well known Pre-Pleistocene Xenarthra is Thalassocnus from the Mio-Pliocene of the Pisco Formation. Pleistocene Phyllophaga (Megatheriidae, Nothrotheriidae, Mylodontidae, and Megalonychidae and Cingulata (Pampatheriidae and Glyptodontidae are rare in the Amazonian forest region, abundant in the coastal region and are particularly frequent in the Andes (between 2 500 and 4 500 meters. Cingulata are not as diverse and are represented only by Holmesina cf. paulacoutoi along the coast and Glyptodon clavipes in the Andes. The mylodontid Glossotherium sp. is recognized in the entire Peruvian coast and the scelidothere Scelidodon chiliensis is abundant in both the Andes and northern
Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F
As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a "Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen." A policy dialogue between key stakeholders - Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies - created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change.
The tsunami generated by the June 23, 2001 Peru earthquake caused significant damage to a 20-km long stretch of coastline in the Municipality of Camana, southern Peru. Over 3000 structures were damaged or destroyed and 2000 hectares of farmland flooded and covered with sand. 22 people were killed in the Municipality and 62 were reported missing. All of the casualties were attributed to the tsunami; in Camana the earthquake produced Modified Mercalli Intensities only of VI or VII. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) were in Peru July 5 - 15 and measured inundation, spoke with City, Red Cross, and Health Department officials, and interviewed survivors. The preliminary ITST findings: All eyewitnesses described an initial draw-down that lasted a substantial amount of time (15 minutes or more). The initial positive wave was small, followed by two destructive waves of near similar impact. Observing the water recede was the key to self-evacuation. No one responded to the ground shaking even though all felt the earthquake strongly. Damage was concentrated along a flat coastal beach no higher than 5 m above sea level. The largest waves (5 to 8 meters) produced by this tsunami coincided with the most developed beach area along the southern Peruvian coast. Tsunami waves penetrated 1.2-km inland and damaged or destroyed nearly all of the structures in this zone. Poorly built adobe and infilled wall structures performed very poorly in the tsunami impacted area. The few structures that survived appeared to have deeper foundations and more reinforcing. The most tsunami-vulnerable populations were newcomers to the coast. Most victims were farm workers and domestic summerhouse sitters who had not grown up along the coast and were unaware of tsunami hazards. Economic impacts are likely to last a long time. The main industries in Camana are tourism and agriculture and the tsunami damaged both. While the extent of inundation and the number of structures damaged or destroyed
Wood, E. J., Ed.
Summarizes the activities at the International Union of Biochemistry workshops held in Cali, Colombia, and Lima, Peru, during July 1990. Includes background about the education systems at the college level in these two countries, current teaching practices, and recommendations drafted by the workshop participants. (JJK)
Angela M Bayer
Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission.This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community.The pattern of human migration is therefore an important underlying determinant of Chagas disease risk in and around Arequipa. Frequent
Schweinsberg, A. D.; Licciardi, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Tapia, P. M.
Sediments contained in glacier-fed lakes and bogs provide continuous high-resolution records of glacial activity, and preserve multiproxy evidence of Holocene climate change. Tropical glacier fluctuations offer critical insight on regional paleoclimatic trends and controls, however, continuous sediment records of past tropical climates are limited. Recent cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages of moraine sequences in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (13°20'S latitude) reveal a glacial culmination during the early Holocene and a less extensive glaciation coincident with the Little Ice Age of the Northern Hemisphere. Here we supplement the existing 10Be moraine chronology with the first continuous records of multiproxy climate data in this mountain range from sediment cores recovered from bogs in direct stratigraphic contact with 10Be-dated moraines. Radiocarbon-dated sedimentological changes in a 2-meter long bog core reveal that the Holocene is characterized by alternating inorganic and organic-rich laminae, suggesting high-frequency climatic variability. Carbon measurements, bulk density, and bulk sedimentation rates are used to derive a record of clastic sediment flux that serves as a proxy indicator of former glacier activity. Preliminary analyses of the bog core reveal approximately 70 diatom taxa that indicate both rheophilic and lentic environments. Initial results show a general decrease in magnetic susceptibility and clastic flux throughout the early to mid-Holocene, which suggests an interval of deglaciation. An episode of high clastic flux from 3.8 to 2.0 ka may reflect a late Holocene glacial readvance. Volcanic glass fragments and an anomalous peak in magnetic susceptibility may correspond to the historical 1600 AD eruption of Huaynaputina. Ten new bog and lake sediment cores were collected during the 2012 field expedition and analytical measurements are underway. Ongoing efforts are focused on analyzing diatom assemblage data, developing
Gutiérrez, D.; Sifeddine, A.; Reyss, J. L.; Vargas, G.; Velazco, F.; Salvatteci, R.; Ferreira, V.; Ortlieb, L.; Field, D.; Baumgartner, T.; Boussafir, M.; Boucher, H.; Valdés, J.; Marinovic, L.; Soler, P.; Tapia, P.
High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project) that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century). A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and illite) in
Full Text Available High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century. A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and
Samaniego, Pablo; Rivera, Marco; Mariño, Jersy; Guillou, Hervé; Liorzou, Céline; Zerathe, Swann; Delgado, Rosmery; Valderrama, Patricio; Scao, Vincent
We have reconstructed the eruptive chronology of the Ampato-Sabancaya volcanic complex (Southern Peru) on the basis of extensive fieldwork, and a large dataset of geochronological (40K-40Ar, 14C and 3He) and geochemical (major and trace element) data. This volcanic complex is composed of two successive edifices that have experienced discontinuous volcanic activity from Middle Pleistocene to Holocene times. The Ampato compound volcano consists of a basal edifice constructed over at least two cone-building stages dated at 450-400 ka and 230-200 ka. After a period of quiescence, the Ampato Upper edifice was constructed firstly during an effusive stage (80-70 ka), and then by the formation of three successive peaks: the Northern, Southern (40-20 ka) and Central cones (20-10 ka). The Southern peak, which is the biggest, experienced large explosive phases, resulting in deposits such as the Corinta plinian fallout. During the Holocene, eruptive activity migrated to the NE and constructed the mostly effusive Sabancaya edifice. This cone comprised many andesitic and dacitic blocky lava flows and a young terminal cone, mostly composed of pyroclastic material. Most samples from the Ampato-Sabancaya define a broad high-K magmatic trend composed of andesites and dacites with a mineral assemblage of plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, ortho- and clino-pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides. A secondary trend also exists, corresponding to rare dacitic explosive eruptions (i.e. Corinta fallout and flow deposits). Both magmatic trends are derived by fractional crystallisation involving an amphibole-rich cumulate with variable amounts of upper crustal assimilation. A marked change in the overall eruptive rate has been identified between Ampato ( 0.1 km3/ka) and Sabancaya (0.6-1.7 km3/ka). This abrupt change demonstrates that eruptive rates have not been homogeneous throughout the volcano's history. Based on tephrochronologic studies, the Late Holocene Sabancaya activity is characterised by strong
Licciardi, J. M.; Taggart, J. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Lund, D. C.
Past fluctuations in climatically sensitive tropical glaciers provide important insight into regional paleoclimatic trends and forcings, but well-dated chronologies are scarce, particularly during the Holocene. We have established precise cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages of moraine sequences in the Cordillera Vilcabamba (13°20’S latitude), located in the outer tropics of southern Peru. Results indicate the dominance of two major glacial culminations and associated climatic shifts in the Vilcabamba, including an early Holocene glacial interval and a somewhat less extensive glaciation late in the ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) period. Lichenometric measurements on the youngest moraines support the 10Be ages, but uncertainties in the lichen ages arise from the lack of a local lichen growth curve. The Peruvian glacier chronologies differ from a recently-developed New Zealand record but are broadly correlative with well-dated glacial records in Europe, suggesting climate linkages between the tropics and the North Atlantic region. For the latest Holocene, our leading hypothesis is that climate forcings involving southward migration of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone can explain concurrent glaciations in tropical South America and northern high latitudes, but the influence of other climate drivers such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation may have also played a role. Estimated differences between equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) on modern glaciers and those inferred for expanded latest Holocene glaciers reveal an ELA rise of 165-200 m since the LIA, suggesting that temperatures 1.1-1.3°C cooler than present could have sustained glaciers at their LIA maximum positions if temperature was the only control, and thus providing an upper bound on temperature depression during the LIA. However, further work is required to constrain the likely role of precipitation changes. These new Peruvian glacier chronologies and ELA reconstructions complement ice core and
Verosub, K. L.; Lippman, J.
A critical test of the new understanding of volcanic aerosols developed since 1982 is to determine if it can predict the effects of larger eruptions than those that have occurred since El Chichon. To do that, requires detailed information about the effects of specific large eruptions. We have been investigating the human and climatic impacts of the 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina volcano in Peru. The estimated Volcanic Explosivity Index for this eruption is 6, which is comparable to that of the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano in Indonesia, which produced global cooling and led to crop failures, famine and social unrest. On the basis of tree-ring data, Briffa et al. (1998) suggested that the most severe short-term Northern Hemisphere cooling event of the past 600 years occurred in 1601, the year following the Huaynaputina eruption. In order gain a better understanding of the nature and extent of this cooling, we have been collecting annual time series that provide information about climatic conditions during time intervals that bracket the Huaynaputina eruption. Among the time series that we have examined (or plan to examine) are ice conditions in the harbors of Tallinn, Estonia, and Riga, Latvia and in Lake Suwa in Japan: cherry blossom blooming (sakura) dates from Kyoto, Japan; records of agricultural production from China and Russia; tithe records from the Spanish colonial empire; dates of the beginning of the wine harvest in France and the rye harvest in Sweden; prices of agricultural commodities in Europe; and river flows from the Nile and the Colorado. Often, in the records we have examined, 1601 shows up as one of the coldest years, if not the coldest year. In addition, the worst famines in Russian history took place between 1601 and 1603, which eventually led to the overthrow of Tsar Boris Gudonov. Thus, there is considerable evidence that the climatic impacts of the Huaynaputina eruption were comparable to those from the Tambora eruption. This result is
Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie; Calle, Juan; Moreno, Isabel; Andrade, Marcos; Velarde, Fernando; Ticona, Laura; Carrasco, Gualberto; Castellón, Yaruska; Oria Rojas, Clara; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Rohrer, Mario
Assessing climatological trends and extreme events requires high-quality data. However, for many regions of the world, observational data of the desired quality is not available. In order to eliminate errors in the data, quality control (QC) should be applied before data analysis. If the data still contains undetected errors and quality problems after QC, a consequence may be misleading and erroneous results. A region which is seriously affected by observational data quality problems is the Central Andes. At the same time, climatological information on ongoing climate change and climate risks are of utmost importance in this area due to its vulnerability to meteorological extreme events and climatic changes. Beside data quality issues, the lack of metadata and the low station network density complicate quality control and assessment, and hence, appropriate application of the data. Errors and data problems may occur at any point of the data generation chain, e.g. due to unsuitable station configuration or siting, poor station maintenance, erroneous instrument reading, or inaccurate data digitalization and post processing. Different measurement conditions in the predominantly conventional station networks in Bolivia and Peru compared to the mostly automated networks e.g. in Europe or Northern America may cause different types of errors. Hence, applying QC methods used on state of the art networks to Bolivian and Peruvian climate observations may not be suitable or sufficient. A comprehensive amount of Bolivian and Peruvian maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation in-situ measurements were analyzed to detect and describe common data quality problems. Furthermore, station visits and reviews of the original documents were done. Some of the errors could be attributed to a specific source. Such information is of great importance for data users, since it allows them to decide for what applications the data still can be used. In ideal cases, it may even allow to
Nick Ellis, Organising Committee
The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics. Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...
California Natural Resource Agency — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...
Contreras-Pulache, Hans; Mori-Quispe, Elizabeth; Hinostroza-Camposano, Willy D; Yancachajlla-Apaza, Maribel; Lam-Figueroa, Nelly; Chacón-Torrico, Horacio
To determine the characteristics of violence seen in pregnant teenagers who were treated at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out by INMP between January and March, 2010 using a probabilistic and systematic sampling. The study unit comprises every hospitalized teenager who had just given birth and who lived in Lima. A semi-structured interview was conducted. History of violence was operationalized into: verbal violence (insults, ridicule, and humiliation), physical violence (arm pulling, hair pulling, pushes), direct aggression (slaps, kicking, burns) and sexual violence (sexual intercourse without consent). 292 teenage mothers aged 16,5 ± 1 in average took part in the study. 47.9% lived with their partners and 51.4% were single. In 97.3% of the cases, they got pregnant as a result of a conserted sexual relationship, while 2.7% got pregnant as a result of rape. 90.1% of teenage mothers reported not having planned the pregnancy. Conserning history of violence: 48.1% had had verbal violence, 17.1% physical violence, 8.2% direct aggression and 6.8% sexual violence. Violence during teenage pregnancy is not an isolated event; actually, it is rather common in any of its forms.
Alcázar, Lorena; Ocampo, Diego; Huamán-Espino, Lucio; Pablo Aparco, Juan
To estimate the economic impact of chronic, acute and global malnutrition in Peru. This study, through an econometric model, estimated the economic impact of child malnutrition in two time horizons (incidental retrospective and prospective) during 2011, considering malnutrition-associated costs of health, education and productivity for the Peruvian economy. Information collected is a combination of data coming from the Demographic Survey of Family Health, the National Survey of Homes, the 2007 Census of Population and Housing, and public budget information, as well as estimates of risks a child is exposed to due to malnutrition during their first years of life. Nationwide it was found that in the perspective retrospective, the cost of child malnutrition in 2011 was 10,999 million soles, which was equal to 2.2% of GDP for that same year. Prospective costs nationwide, of those who by 2011 were 0 to 59 months, reached 4,505 million soles and represented 0.9% of GDP in 2011. Most cases stem from losses of productivity in both cases. Moreover, malnutrition affects much more both the Andes and jungle regions. The economic impact of child malnutrition represents a significant percentage of GDP, reason for which it is necessary to continue investing equitably in its prevention through participation with proven efficiency.
Full Text Available The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05 higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.
The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05) higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.
Pelly, T F; Santillan, C F; Gilman, R H; Cabrera, L Z; Garcia, E; Vidal, C; Zimic, M J; Moore, D A J; Evans, C A
Malnutrition and intestinal parasites cause immunosuppression. This may cause false-negative tuberculin skin tests (TST) and failure to identify tuberculosis (TB) infection. To assess factors associated with TST positivity and anergy in disadvantaged communities in Peru. A study of 212 randomly selected adults: 102 in a rural Amazonian village and 110 shanty town residents in urban Lima. Respectively 52% and 53% of urban and rural jungle populations were TST-positive. Using simultaneous tetanus and candida skin tests, 99% had at least one positive skin test. Generalised anergy was therefore rare, despite frequent intestinal parasitic infection, including 34% helminth infection prevalence in the jungle. TST positivity was associated with age (P = 0.001), known TB contact (P = 0.02) and poor household ventilation (P = 0.007). TST positivity was not significantly associated with crowding, reported past TB, single/multiple BCG vaccination, income, intestinal parasites, dietary factors, body mass index or body fat. Individuals with lower anthropometric body protein, as measured by corrected arm muscle area, were less likely to be TST-positive (P = 0.02), implying that protein malnutrition caused tuberculin-specific anergy. These results identify the importance of household ventilation for community TB transmission and add to the evidence that protein malnutrition suppresses TB immunity, causing false-negative TST results.
Dávalos Moscol, Milagros
Hepatitis C infection is a global burden disease. Its relationship to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma has been demonstrated, and at the current moment in USA and Europe is one of the major causes for liver transplantation. In Latin America, seroprevalence for HCV is between 1-2%. Risk groups are well-known: persons that have received blood products, drug addicts, health-workers, sexual workers, convicts, those with tattoo or piercing, as well as newborns from women positive for HCV. Genotype 1 is the more prevalent (> 80%) in Latinamerica, although genotypes 2, 3 and 4 have been found. In Peru, prevalence is low, around 1%, being found more frequently in the jungle region. Risk groups demonstrated in Perú are persons that received transfusion, patients in hemodyalisis, health-workers (in special those that work with blood products), and drugaddicts especially those with cocaine aspiration. Genotype 1 is the more prevalent, although few studies have been done. It is urgent to do more epidemiological studies related to this infection to know the real situation of this disease and its consequences in order to establish better health strategies.
Castro, Ítalo Braga; Iannacone, José; Santos, Sabino; Fillmann, Gilberto
Tributyltin (TBT) environmental concentrations as well as imposex levels have been declining in several coastal areas worldwide. However, recent studies have shown that TBT contamination is still an important issue along some Latin American coastal areas. Thus, the incidence of imposex and butyltin compounds (BTs) in sediments and gastropod tissues was spatially and temporally (2009 and 2012) appraised in Lima (Peru) along potential TBT sources (harbors and marinas). Despite the general pattern of reduction close to Callao harbor, a clear increment in the levels of imposex (RPLI = 0.0 to 8.4 and 0.0 to 28.4/VDSI = 0.0 to 3.3 and 0.0 to 3.5) and TBT in tissues (25 to 112 and 62 to 146 ng Sn g -1 ) of Thaisella chocolata were seen from 2009 to 2012 in two sampling sites, respectively, located nearby a newly established marina. Thus, despite the international restrictions on the use of TBT-based antifouling paints are apparently reducing the inputs at international harbors, the present study clearly shows that marinas are still acting as important sources of TBT to the study area due possibly to the lack of legal restrictions on production, trading and/or use of TBT. The present findings reinforce what has been seen along many other Latin American coastal areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matus-López, Mauricio; Toledo, Lorena Prieto; Pedraza, Camilo Cid
Objective To assess the fiscal space for public health in Peru so as to attain the goal of raising health spending to 6% of gross domestic product, as agreed upon by member countries of the Pan American Health Organization in 2014. Methods The main sources of fiscal space were identified by means of a thorough literature review. Technical feasibility was determined from statistics and national and international surveys and by reviewing various documents and official reports. Political feasibility was ascertained by studying policy guidelines. Results The sources showing the greatest technical and political feasibility are economic growth, a broadening of the personal income tax base, and an increase in tobacco-specific taxes. Decreasing informality in the job market and increasing contributory coverage are considered to be less politically feasible, but there is ample technical space for these measures. Conclusions There is enough fiscal space to allow for an increase in public health spending. Nevertheless, the 6% target will be reached only if the timeline is extended, tax revenues are increased, and informality in the job market is reduced.
Placzek, Christa; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.
Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17° 22‧S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ∼2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16°S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes.
Grobman, Alexander; Bonavia, Duccio; Dillehay, Tom D; Piperno, Dolores R; Iriarte, José; Holst, Irene
Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is among the world's most important and ancient domesticated crops. Although the chronology of its domestication and initial dispersals out of Mexico into Central and South America has become more clear due to molecular and multiproxy archaeobotanical research, important problems remain. Among them is the paucity of information on maize's early morphological evolution and racial diversification brought about in part by the poor preservation of macrofossils dating to the pre-5000 calibrated years before the present period from obligate dispersal routes located in the tropical forest. We report newly discovered macrobotanical and microbotanical remains of maize that shed significant light on the chronology, land race evolution, and cultural contexts associated with the crop's early movements into South America and adaptation to new environments. The evidence comes from the coastal Peruvian sites of Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru; dates from the middle and late preceramic and early ceramic periods (between ca. 6700 and 3000 calibrated years before the present); and constitutes some of the earliest known cobs, husks, stalks, and tassels. The macrobotanical record indicates that a diversity of racial complexes characteristic of the Andean region emerged during the preceramic era. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon determinations carried out directly on different structures of preserved maize plants strongly suggest that assays on burned cobs are more reliable than those on unburned cobs. Our findings contribute to knowledge of the early diffusion of maize and agriculture and have broader implications for understanding the development of early preindustrial human societies.
Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Lenhart, Audrey; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S; Astete, Helvio; McCall, Philip J
As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Khanal, S. P.; Muttiah, R. S.; Janovec, J. P.
The recent landslides in La Conchita, California, Mumbai, India, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka and Sugozu village, Turkey have dramatically illustrated prolonged rainfall on water induced change in soil shear stress. In these examples, the human footprint may have also erased or altered the natural river drainage from small to large scales. By studying patterns of landslides in natural ecosystems, government officials, policy makers, engineers, geologists and others may be better informed about likely success of prevention or amelioration programs in risk prone areas. Our study area in the Los Amigos basin in Amazon rainforests of Southeastern Peru, has recorded several hundred landslides. The area has no large human settlements. The basin is characterized by heavy rainfall, dense vegetation, river meander and uniform soils. Our objectives were: 1). Determine the spatial pattern of landslides using GIS and Remotely sensed data, 2). Model the statistical relationship between environmental variables and, 3). Evaluate influence of drainage on landscape and soil loss. GIS layers consisted of: 50cm aerial imagery, DEMs, digitized streams, soils, geology, rainfall from the TRMM satellite, and vegetation cover from the LANDSAT and MODIS sensors.
Bebbington, Anthony J.; Bury, Jeffrey T.
Global consumption continues to generate growth in mining. In lesser developed economies, this growth offers the potential to generate new resources for development, but also creates challenges to sustainability in the regions in which extraction occurs. This context leads to debate on the institutional arrangements most likely to build synergies between mining, livelihoods, and development, and on the socio-political conditions under which such institutions can emerge. Building from a multiyear, three-country program of research projects, Peru, a global center of mining expansion, serves as an exemplar for analyzing the effects of extractive industry on livelihoods and the conditions under which arrangements favoring local sustainability might emerge. This program is guided by three emergent hypotheses in human-environmental sciences regarding the relationships among institutions, knowledge, learning, and sustainability. The research combines in-depth and comparative case study analysis, and uses mapping and spatial analysis, surveys, in-depth interviews, participant observation, and our own direct participation in public debates on the regulation of mining for development. The findings demonstrate the pressures that mining expansion has placed on water resources, livelihood assets, and social relationships. These pressures are a result of institutional conditions that separate the governance of mineral expansion, water resources, and local development, and of relationships of power that prioritize large scale investment over livelihood and environment. A further problem is the poor communication between mining sector knowledge systems and those of local populations. These results are consistent with themes recently elaborated in sustainability science. PMID:19805172
Hamad, Rita; Fernald, Lia C H
Microcredit services--the awarding of small loans to individuals who are too poor to take advantage of traditional financial services--are an increasingly popular scheme for poverty alleviation. Several studies have examined the ability of microcredit programmes to influence the financial standing of borrowers, but only a few studies have examined whether the added household income improves health and nutritional outcomes among household members. This study examined the hypothesis that longer participation in microcredit services would be associated with better nutritional status in women. Cross-sectional data were obtained in February 2007 from 1593 female clients of a microcredit organisation in Peru. The primary predictor variable was length of time as a microcredit client measured in number of completed loan cycles (range 0 to 5.5 years, average loan size US$350). The outcome variables were age-adjusted body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin levels (g/dl) and food insecurity measured using the US household food security survey module. Extensive data on demographic and socioeconomic status were also collected. Longer microcredit participation was associated with higher BMI (β=0.05, p=0.06), higher haemoglobin levels (β=0.07, pmicrocredit participation has positive effects on the nutritional status of female clients. Further research should explore more definitive causal pathways through which these effects may occur and should examine the effects on other household members.
Full Text Available The paper studies the ‘wholesale’ market through which microfinance institutions operating in three contexts (Peru, Tanzania and the state of Tamil Nadu in India obtain loans from a variety of domestic and international funding bodies. The nature and characteristics of the relationships between them are captured through network analysis and visualization tools, with a dataset comprising inter-organisational lending relationships and organisations’ attributes over the years 2006-8. Focus is on the extent to which patterns in wholesale lending relationships relate to the legal status and characteristics of microfinance institutions; to the regulatory, business and social environment in which they operate; and to shifts in the balance between social and commercial interests of diverse types of lenders.The analysis brings to light considerable cross-country variation in the structure and features of wholesale lending relationships, and relates it primarily to differences in governance and regulation. On this basis, it makes the case that building a more enabling regulatory environment for funding partnerships may improve the capacity of microfinance to achieve its dual goals of poverty alleviation and financial sustainability.
The medical duty of confidentiality represents a key element for the provision of reproductive and sexual health services. In some Latin American countries, such as Argentina and Peru, the legal systems impose—or are interpreted as imposing—on health professionals the duty of confidentiality, but also the duty to report the commission of a public order offense that they know about owing to the practicing of their profession. In these countries, the conflicting duties and the criminalization of abortion cause severe public health and human rights problems when health professionals assist their patients for post-abortion treatment. Typically, patients are deterred from seeking prompt medical care, and their privacy, autonomy, and dignity are violated. A 2010 ruling from the Supreme Court of Argentina and a 2004 ruling from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights emerge as important instruments that grant a more adequate protection of medical confidentiality. © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lachos, A.; Marquez, J. F.
The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)