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Sample records for chicks struthio camelus

  1. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. PMID:25446146

  2. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted

  3. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  4. Histologische, histochemische und ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen am Eileiter des Straußes (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenstein, Gertrud Maria

    2014-01-01

    Meine Arbeit befasst sich mit der histologischen, histochemischen und elektronenmikroskopischen Analyse des Eileiters des Straußes (Struthio camelus). Als Untersuchungsmaterial dienten die Eileiter von acht geschlechtsreifen und zwei nicht geschlechtsreifen Blauhals-Schwarzhals-Hybriden aus der Straußenfarm Donaumoos in Leipheim. Die Histomorphologie wurde mittels konventioneller Färbungen (H.E.-Färbung, van Gieson-Resorcinfuchsin-Färbung, Trichromfärbung nach Masson und Goldner, Alcianbla...

  5. The use of microsatellite polymorphism in genetic mapping of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kawka, M; Parada, R.; Jaszczak, K.; J. O. Horbańczuk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine microsatellite polymorphism in ostriches and using it in creation the genetic map of the ostrich. The polymorphism analysis covered 30 microsatellite markers characteristic of ostrich, for the CAU (China Agricultural University) group. The material consisted of 150 ostriches (Struthio camelus). The 30 microsatellite loci was examined and a total of 343 alleles was identified. The number of alleles at a single locus ranged from 5 at locus CAU78 to 34 at l...

  6. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    OpenAIRE

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W. R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted of 93 feathers of two different generations. Moult in the tail proceeds asymmetrically and seems to be fully irregular. The phylogenetic significance of these findings is discussed.

  7. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John R.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Jonas Rubenson; Kate H. Rosenbluth; Siston, Robert A.; Scott L. Delp

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities ...

  8. Reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey : research communication

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    U. Polat

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, a1-globulin, a2-globulin, b-globulin, g-globulin, and a-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein, pre-b-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein and b-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14 % crude protein and 2 950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96 % albumin, 0.24% a1-globulin, 15.91 % a2-globulin, 13.34 % b-globulin, 9.55 % g-globulin, 53.77 % HDL, 0.60 % VLDL and 48.09 % LDL.

  9. The structure of the atrioventricular node in the heart of the female laying ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, P

    2012-02-01

    The electrical impulse for cardiac contraction is generated in the Sinoatrial node (SA node), subsequently spreads to the Atrioventricular node (AV node) and continues in the Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle). The AV node may not always be present in different avian species and seems to differ in location and contents between species. In this study, the anatomy and histology of the AV node were studied five female adult ostriches (Struthio camelus). Routine paraffin sectioning and transmission electron microscopic method were performed. The study showed that in the ostrich, the AV node is located in the endocardium of the atrial surface of the right atrioventricular valve adjacent to the fibrous ring. The parenchyma of the AV node is formed by small specialized muscle fibres that are spread within a loose connective tissue network. The AV node is not covered by a connective tissue sheath and some arterioles are present. Nerve fibres are seen related to the node. Ultrastructurally, they stain lighter and contain fewer organized myofibrils than usual myocardial cells. The myofibril bundles run parallel to one another and have interspersed mitochondria, which display distinct cristae. The cells have a large euchromatic nucleus with a clear perinuclear area, and they connected by desmosomes. The ostrich is, thus, one of the birds that have the AV node, whose position varies from the other birds. PMID:21943125

  10. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Meagan M.; Snively, Eric; Cotton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomography (CT) reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE) model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy–Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics–FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches. Conclusions/Significance High safety factors suggest that bone

  11. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

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    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  12. Poblaciones bacterianas utilizadoras de hidrógeno presentes en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz (Struthio camelus Var. Domesticus

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    J. M. Miramontes-Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres grupos de bacterias compiten por hidrógeno en diferentes ecosistemas anaerobios, y junto con CO 2 , producen metano, sulfuro dehidrógeno y acetato. Estas reacciones representan ganancia de energía al animal. Motivo por el cual, el presente trabajo pretende evaluar la presencia y tamaño de poblaciones de bacterias utilizadoras de hidrógeno en el tracto gastrointestinaldel avestruz. Para ello se utilizaron medios AC11 para acetogénicas, Potgate para sulfato-reductoras y Fosfato buffer para metanogénicas. Las poblaciones se determinaron por el método del número más probable (NMP. El diseño fue completamente al azar, con arreglo factorial, A = porciones del tracto digestivo y B = microorganismo. El NMP, de acetogénicas y metanogénicas fue cero. Las bacterias sulfato-reductoras están presentes en todo el tracto gastrointestinal. Las poblaciones fueron 544.00; 532.00; 157.20; 155.32 y 76.48 x 10/ 6 para el intestino grueso, ciegos, intestino delgado, proventrículo y ventrículo, respectivamente. Los resultados confirman presencia y predominio de las sulfato-reductoras en todas las porciones del tracto gastrointestinal del Struthio camelus. La producción de AGV en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz, es producto del metabolismo y reutilización del hidrógeno por bacterias sulfato-reductoras.

  13. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R; Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenbluth, Kate H; Siston, Robert A; Delp, Scott L

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force-length or force-velocity properties in selecting postures). This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model's results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action) that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our results illustrate

  14. What prevents Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae (Palaeognathae from choking? A novel anatomical mechanism in ratites, the linguo-laryngeal apparatus

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    Crole Martina R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. It is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, which in mammals is achieved by covering the glottis with the epiglottis, as well as by adduction of the arytenoid cartilages. An epiglottis, however, is reportedly absent in birds. Ratites such as Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae possess a very wide glottis in comparison to other birds. The question therefore arises as to how these large birds avoid inhalation of ingesta through a wide glottis, with apparently little protection, particularly as their feeding method involves throwing the food over the glottis to land in the proximal esophagus. Results In S. camelus when the glottis was closed and the tongue body retracted, the smooth tongue root became highly folded and the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound was encased by the pocket in the base of the ∩ − shaped tongue body. In this position the lingual papillae also hooked over the most rostral laryngeal projections. However, in D. novaehollandiae, retraction of the tongue body over the closed glottis resulted in the prominent, triangular tongue root sliding over the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound. In both S. camelus and D. novaehollandiae these actions resulted in the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound and weakest point of the adducted glottis being enclosed and stabilised. Conclusions Only after conducting a comparative study between these two birds using fresh specimens did it become clear how specific morphological peculiarities were perfectly specialised to assist in the closure and protection of the wide glottis. We identify, describe and propose a unique anatomical mechanism in ratites, which may functionally replace an epiglottis; the linguo-laryngeal apparatus.

  15. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  16. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    A. Rezakhani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either monophasic (QS or biphasic (rS or RS. The T-wave showed more variation than other waves. The durations of P, P-R, QRS, Q-T and T-waves of chicks and of those more than 3 months of age (4-15-month-old were 0.04 + 0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.14+0.04, 0.16+0.00; 0.04+0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.18+0.00, 0.27+0.00 and 0.06+0.00, 0.09+0.01 s, respectively, and amplitudes of the main direction of P-, QRS and T- waves of 2 groups were 0.29 + 0.02, 0.26 + 0.01; 1.87 + 0.17, 2.21 + 0.08; and 0.34 + 0.06, 0.37 + 0.02 mV, respectively. Ten cases showed cardiac dysrhythmias of which 9 showed sinus arrhythmia and 1 showed premature atrial contractions (PAC. This study showed that the base apex lead can be a suitable monitoring lead for electrocardiographic examination of ostriches.

  17. Sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric, and geometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsal bone in 14-month-old ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuta, A; Dzierzecka, M; Pierzchala, M; Cooper, R G; Polawska, E; Horbanczuk, J O

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo-old male and female ostriches, and interrelationships between these parameters. The study was conducted on 20 tibiae and 20 tarsometatarsal bones of the left pelvic limb derived from 20 healthy 14-mo-old ostriches (Struthio camelus): 10 males and 10 females. The following parameters were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography: bone mineral content (BMC), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical content (CRT_CNT), cortical density (CRT_DEN), trabecular content, trabecular density (TRAB_DEN), bone area (TOT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A), cortical area (CRT_A), cortical thickness (CRT_THK_C), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endocortical circumference (ENDO_C), and strength-strain index (SSI) in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the bones. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results was performed using Student's t-test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient between the investigated parameters was determined. The obtained results have shown significant differences in proximal metaphysis between males and females when evaluating such parameters as CRT_DEN, TOT_A, TRAB_A, PERI_C, SSI in tibia (P correlations between BW and bone weight were found (P correlations of morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of metaphysis and diaphysis of the tibia and tarsometatarsus were stated (P correleations observed between the investigated parameters have shown that ostrich tibia and tarsometatarsus may present a valuable model for further studies on bone tissue metabolism regulation in breeding birds. PMID:24135601

  18. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly...

  19. Ultrastructure of ostrich (Struthio camelus) spermatozoa: I. Transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, J T

    1993-06-01

    The origin and relationships of the tinamous (Order Tinamiformes), ratites (Order Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuariiformes, Apterygiformes) and birds of the order Galliformes and Anseriformes is the subject of much debate and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. This paper describes the fine structure of ostrich sperm and compares the results with published information for other non-passerine birds. Ostrich sperm display a short, conical acrosome which covers the tapered tip of the long, cylindrical nucleus. A nuclear invagination housing an acrosomal rod extends deep within the karyoplasm. A centriolar complex is situated beneath the head and consists of a short proximal centriole and a long (3.0 microns) distal centriole which extends the complete length of the midpiece. The central cavity of the distal centriole contains a pair of microtubules embedded in a rod of electron-dense material. The midpiece is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath. Concentrations of fine granular material are present between the mitochondria. The principal-piece of the tail is demarcated from the midpiece by a distinct annulus and characterized by a ribbed fibrous sheath enclosing a typical axoneme. Rudimentary coarse fibres are observed between the fibrous sheath and the doublet microtubules of the axoneme in the proximal region of the principal-piece. The end-piece contains a disorganized collection of axonemal microtubules. Ostrich sperm differ in a number of respects from that of other non-passerine birds (the absence of a typical perforatorium; the presence of a ribbed fibrous sheath; a deep nuclear invagination; the structure and length of the distal centriole) but show a close similarity to sperm of the rhea and crested tinamou, both representatives of primitive avian families. These observations add further support to the theory that the ratites and tinamous constitute a monophyletic group. The evidence presented also reinforces the hypothesis that the ratites were the first group to branch off from the main avian stem, to be followed by the Galliformes & Anseriformes. Although it was impossible to determine whether the sperm of the tinamou are more "primitive" than those of the ostrich or rhea, it is clear that ostrich and rhea sperm are closely allied and distinct from tinamou sperm. PMID:8332322

  20. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  1. Aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in an ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the most common mycotic infection in a wide variety of bird and causes significant economic losses. The present study described concurrent occurrence of aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in a 4-year-old male ostrich. The bird had respiratory problems, coughing and anorexia. Postmortem examination revealed numerous greenish-white caseous foci, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter distributed on the surfaces of the air sacs and throughout the lungs. In histopathological study, multifocal areas of caseous necrosis that surrounded by inflammatory cells including heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were present. Long branching septated hyphae were visible in the necrotic areas with hematoxylin and eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Thrombi were present in the blood vessels. The proventriculus was full of gravel.

  2. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

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    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  3. Morphological aspects of atrioventricular valves in the ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Marco A. Pereira-Sampaio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart anatomy in the ostrich has been reported, but there are few information on the histological features of the atrioventricular valves. Hearts of young ostriches were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h and dissected to characterize their macroscopic anatomy. Samples of valves were harvested and stained with Mallory’s trichrome, Gomori’s trichrome, and Picro-Sirius red, for later analysis. The right atrioventricular valve consists of a muscle flap with two fixations. The left atrioventricular valve consists of two layers of endocardium with a layer of connective tissue between them. The free border of the tricuspid valve supports a varying number of chordae tendineae. One of the cusps is attached to the septum, while the other two cusps are attached to the opposite wall. The aortic valve, as well as the pulmonary trunk valve, consists of three cusps. The right atrioventricular valve showed up only as a muscle flap of myocardium coated with a thin layer of dense connective tissue, with two fixations. In the connective tissue, we find a predominance of type I collagen fibers and a lesser amount of type III, with a small presence of elastic fibers. The presence of Purkinje fibers were also usual in the valvular subendocardium, suggesting that they directly participate in the transmission of nervous stimulation to the muscle fibers within the valves. The left atrioventricular valve consisted of 3 cusps, a dorsal, a left, and a right.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  5. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus: estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus: light microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  6. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  7. Macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    M.Z.J. Elias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich were studied in six pre-pubertal and three sexually mature and active birds. Each testis was drained by one to four testicular veins. The right testicular veins drained the right testis and epididymis and its appendix to the caudal vena cava and to the right common iliac vein, whereas the left testicular veins drained the left testis and epididymis and its appendix exclusively to the left common iliac vein. A number of variations in the drainage pattern based on the point of entry and number of testicular veins were observed. The cranial aspect of the testis was also linked to the caudal vena cava or common iliac vein via the adrenal veins. The cranial, middle and caudal segments of the ductus deferens (and ureter were drained by the cranial, middle and caudal ureterodeferential veins respectively, to the caudal testicular veins, the caudal renal veins and pudendal / caudal part of the internal iliac veins. In some specimens, the caudal ureterodeferential veins also drained into the caudal mesenteric vein. The surface of the phallus was drained by tributaries of the pudendal vein. The basic pattern of venous drainage of the reproductive organs of the male ostrich was generally similar to that described for the domestic fowl. However, important differences, including the partial fusion of the caudal renal veins, drainage of the cranial aspect of the testes via the adrenal veins, drainage of the caudal ureterodeferential veins into the caudal mesenteric vein and the presence of veins draining the surface of the phallus, were observed. Although significant, these differences may simply reflect variations in the normal pattern of venous drainage of the reproductive tract of birds which could be verified by studying more specimens and more species.

  8. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Kubba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  9. Serosurvey of selected avian pathogens in brazilian commercial Rheas (Rhea americana) and Ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    OC Freitas Neto; AOT Carrasco; TF Raso; RLM Sousa; A Berchieri Júnior; AA Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and...

  10. Serosurvey of selected avian pathogens in brazilian commercial Rheas (Rhea americana and Ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella Pullorum were evaluated in 100 serum samples collected from commercial ostriches and in 80 serum samples from commercial rheas reared in Brazil. All sampled animals were clinically healthy. The results showed that all ostriches and rheas were serologically negative to Newcastle disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae. Positive antibody responses against Salmonella Pullorum antigen were not detected in ostrich sera, but were detected in two rhea serum samples. These results can be considered as a warning as to the presence of Salmonella spp. in ratite farms. Therefore, the implementation of good health management and surveillance programs in ratite farms may contribute to improve not only animal production, but also public health conditions.

  11. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the biomechanics and motor control of avian bipedalism. PMID:17601959

  12. Mechanical and energetic scaling relationships of running gait through ontogeny in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola C; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-03-01

    It is unclear whether small animals, with their high stride frequency and crouched posture, or large animals, with more tendinous limbs, are more reliant on storage and return of elastic energy during locomotion. The ostrich has a limb structure that appears to be adapted for high-speed running with long tendons and short muscle fibres. Here we investigate biomechanics of ostrich gait through growth and, with consideration of anatomical data, identify scaling relationships with increasing body size, relating to forces acting on the musculoskeletal structures, effective mechanical advantage (EMA) and mechanical work. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected through growth from running ostriches. Joint moments scaled in a similar way to the pelvic limb segments as a result of consistent posture through growth, such that EMA was independent of body mass. Because no postural change was observed, relative loads applied to musculoskeletal tissues would be predicted to increase during growth, with greater muscle, and hence tendon, load allowing increased potential for elastic energy storage with increasing size. Mass-specific mechanical work per unit distance was independent of body mass, resulting in a small but significant increase in the contribution of elastic energy storage to locomotor economy in larger ostriches. PMID:23155079

  13. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezakhani, A; H. Komali; M.R. Mokhber-Dezfoul; M. Zarifi; M. Ghabi; N Alidadi; M.G. Nadalian

    2007-01-01

    Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either mo...

  14. Pox in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, B; Gur-Lavie, A; Samberg, Y

    1988-01-01

    Clinical signs suggesting pox were observed in a flock of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus), 10 to 60 days old. The disease was confirmed by isolation of the agent from affected ostriches and reproduction of typical pox lesions in turkeys. Further infection of young ostriches was prevented by vaccination with fowl pox vaccine. PMID:18766730

  15. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    O. Vieira-da-Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  16. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  17. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) Infected with H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in South Korea in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun; Bae, You-Chan

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N8 subtype was isolated from a young ostrich in South Korea in March 2014. Clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, and signs of nervousness were observed. The isolated A/ostrich/Korea/H829/2014 (H5N8) virus had a cleavage site motif containing multiple basic amino acids, typical of HPAI virus. The phylogenetic tree of the hemagglutinin gene of the H5 HPAI virus showed that this ostrich H5N8 virus belongs to clade 2.3.4.4 viruses together with H5N8 strains isolated from ducks and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. Pathologically, redness of pancreas, enlargement and hemorrhage of spleen, friability of brain, and hydropericardium were prominently found. Histologic legions were observed in pancreas, spleen, liver, lung, heart, and brain, and influenza A nucleoproteins were detected in the same organs by immunohistochemistry. Other ostriches farmed together in open camps were not infected with HPAI virus based on the serologic and virologic tests. The findings indicate that ostriches are susceptible to H5N8 HPAI virus, but this virus does not spread efficiently among ratites. PMID:27309301

  18. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed Namibian ostriches (Struthio camelus f. dom.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Erhard F; Werner, Ortrud; Hemberger, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Meat and skin from farmed ostriches are valuable products for European consumers. The EU regulations require that ostrich products deamed for export need to come from ostriches that are free of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (avian paramxovirus type 1, aPMV-1). After the detection of antibodies against aPMV-1 in one of five ostrich farms in Namibia, attempts were made to isolate the causative virus. No aPMV-1 but an avian paramyxovirus type 3 (aPMV-3) was isolated from five pharyngeal/cloacal swabs of clinically healthy farmed Namibian ostriches. Subtype determination proved that all isolates are members of the subtype aPMV-3 of psittacine bird origin and were designated as aPMV-3b. In the haemagglutination inhibition test, the aPMV-3b isolates cross-reacted with aPMV-1. This allows the conclusion that the antibodies originally detected in sera of the ostriches are due to the cross-reaction with aPMV-3b, rather than to an infection with aPMV-1.To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of aPMV-3b in farmed ostriches. PMID:20329642

  19. Risk factors and molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from ostriches (Struthio camelus) from a Brazilian slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2016-07-30

    Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution with different genotypes reported in animals and humans. The parasite is of great importance to food production and public health, highlighted by the high diversity of hosts, i.e. ostriches. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in ostriches from a Brazilian slaughterhouse, the genotype, and the associated risk factors. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 38/344 (11.05%) serum samples using the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites (MAT-HS); the parasite was isolated from 14/38 (36.84%) ostrich brain samples using the mouse bioassay; and the DNA was detected from 25/38 (65.79%), using PCR. In farms, the water tank was considered the main risk factor (OR=141.87; p-valueanimals were slaughtered (1st sampling), and 40% (8/20) one-year after (2nd sampling) using microscopy and PCR. Non-ostrich fecal samples on the ground resulted negative. Bioassay isolation was confirmed by PCR. All PCR positive samples were sequenced and resulted in 100% homology to Toxoplasma gondii repetitive DNA sequence (GenBank access number EF648168-1). These samples were also typed through RFLP-PCR using 11 markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico and CS3. Two isolates had a complete genotype, typed from the ostrich tissue. In ostrich samples, the parasite load ranged from 19,043 (TgOsBr1, avirulent) to 54,829 parasitesmL(-1) (TgOsBr2, virulent) using qPCR, whereas soil samples ranged from 11 to 2,275 parasitesmL(-1). Both typed isolates resulted on atypical clones, one previously reported to cause congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients (TgOsBr1, ToxoDB #206). Thus, these findings support the occurrence of T. gondii in slaughtered ostriches from Brazil, ostriches as sentinel for environmental contamination with T. gondii, the genotypic variability in Brazilian isolates, and the first isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from Brazilian slaughtered ostriches. PMID:27369578

  20. Učinak EDTA, heparina i pohrane na osmotsku krhkost eritrocita, osmolalnost plazme i hematokrit u odraslih nojeva (Struthio camelus).

    OpenAIRE

    Mafuvadze, Benford; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey

    2007-01-01

    Istražen je učinak dvaju naširoko rabljenih antikoagulanata i pohrana eritrocita na njihovu in vitro osmotsku krhkost, hematokrit i osmolalnost plazme u nojeva. Krv je bila uzeta iz vene osam nojeva (90-110 kg) u epruvetu s vakuumom koja je sadržavala ili EDTA (k3) ili litij-heparin. Osmotska krhkost eritrocita bila je određena mjerenjem oslobođenoga hemoglobina iz krvi dodane u epruvete sa serijski razrijeđenom fosfat-puferiranom fiziološkom otopinom (PBS, pH 7,4). Hematokrit je bio određen ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of serum albumin from Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman; SKRZYPCZAK-JANKUN, EWA; JANKUN, JERZY

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin constitutes 35–50 mg/ml of plasma proteins and performs various physiological activities including the regulation of osmotic pressure on blood, maintaining buffering of the blood pH, carrying different fatty acids and other small molecules, such as bilirubin, hormones, drugs and metal ions, as well as participating in immunological responses. Serum albumin is an extensively used protein in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is well ta...

  2. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.;

    1998-01-01

    During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died, Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the hock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed...... epizootic of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  3. Gross anatomical and histomorphological observations on the terminal rectum and the cloaca in the Ostrich Struthio camelus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warui, C.N.; Erlwanger, K.H.; Skadhauge, Erik

    2009-01-01

    rectum had an unusual tunica muscularis externa (TME) and was clearly demarcated from the caudal part of the rectum proper by a semilunar fold, an abrupt thickening of the gut wall and an increase in the calibre of the gut. The cloaca had a distinct rectocoprodeal fold at the terminal rectum......-cloaca junction with a well-formed sphincter muscle. The cloaca had a proximal coprodeum, a middle urodeum and a caudal proctodeum. The mucosa of the cloaca was folded and lined by simple columnar epithelium except in the urodeum and the floor and ventral walls of the proctodeum. The coprodeal wall had a thick...

  4. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais F. Fagundes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a criação de avestruzes foi iniciada no final do Século XX, para suprir o mercado internacional de carne, plumas e couro. As plumas têm importância econômica nos setores industrial e artesanal. Os piolhos podem causar prurido intenso, que, dependendo da intensidade de infestação, pode levar à depreciação das plumas. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, são desconhecidas as espécies de piolhos que infestam avestruzes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os piolhos que ocorrem nas aves pertencentes a um criatório comercial no Município de Três Rios. Nos anos de 2003 a 2006, mensalmente, as avestruzes foram examinadas, para verificar a presença de ectoparasitos. Quando constatada a infestação, algumas plumas foram retiradas, colocadas em sacos plásticos e enviadas ao laboratório para exame. Após serem coletados das plumas, os ectoparasitos foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópio, clarificados em hidróxido de potássio a 10%, desidratados em álcool etílico e montados em lâmina com balsamo do Canadá natural, para observação em microscópio óptico. Baseando-se na observação das características, foi possível determinar os espécimes coletados como pertencentes à espécie Struthiolipeurus rheae.In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  5. Anatomia do sistema porta renal e suas implicações no emprego de agentes anestésicos na contenção de avestruzes (Struthio camelus Anatomy of the renal portal system and its implications for the use of anesthetic agents in the restraint of ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Silva de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar a anatomia do sistema porta renal e verificar sua influência sobre o protocolo anestésico xilazina, tiletamina e zolazepam na contenção de avestruzes, por comparação da administração dos fármacos nos músculos da perna ou da asa. Em cinco animais foi injetado látex nas veias femorais no sentido de drenagem e, posteriormente, as aves foram fixadas em formol a 10%, por 72 horas. Em uma ave, procedeu-se à localização, colheita e fixação das valvas portais renais em formol a 10%. O sistema porta renal apresentou-se constituído por duas veias portais renais craniais, duas veias portais renais caudais e seis valvas portais renais. Na contenção química, seis avestruzes foram pré-tratados com xilazina (1mg kg-1 e, decorridos 10 minutos, receberam tiletamina/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. Os animais foram manipulados em duas ocasiões diferentes, sendo que na primeira anestesia o protocolo foi administrado nos músculos da base das asas (GI e, após 15 dias, os mesmos animais receberam o protocolo nos músculos das pernas (GII. Os períodos de latência, hábil e de recuperação não foram diferentes entre os grupos (P>0,05. A freqüência cardíaca permaneceu abaixo dos valores basais durante a anestesia (PThis study was aimed at characterizing the anatomy of the renal portal system, and determining its influence on the anesthetic protocol xylazine, tiletamine and zolazepam, in the restraint of ostriches, compared with the administration of drugs into the leg or wing muscles. Latex was injected into the femoral veins of five animals, for drainage purposes, and the birds were then fixed in 10% formaldehyde, for 72 hours. In one bird, the renal portal valves were located, collected and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The renal portal system consisted of two cranial renal portal veins, two caudal renal portal veins, and six renal portal valves. In the chemical restraint, six ostriches were anesthetized with xylazine (1mg kg-1 and after 10 minutes, tiletamine/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. The animals were handled on two different occasions: in the first anesthesia, the protocol was administered into the muscles at the base of the wings (GI and after 15 days, the same animals received the protocol in the leg muscles (GII. The periods for the onset and duration of the anesthesia, and recovery, showed no difference between the groups (P>0.05. The heart rate remained below the basal values during the anesthesia (P<0.05, in both groups. The cloacal temperature increased in both groups, particularly in GII, leading to an increased respiratory rate to facilitate heat loss. Since the chemical restraint was adapted for procedures of short duration in the field in the ostriches of both groups, it was not possible to demonstrate the influence of the renal portal system.

  6. Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Younan, Mario; Andersson, Göran; Tettelin, Herve; Riley, David R; Jores, Joerg; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Bishop, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a range of clinical syndromes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). We report the genome sequences of two S. agalactiae isolates that induce abscesses in Kenyan camels. These genomes provide novel data on the composition of the S. agalactiae “pan genome” and reveal the presence of multiple genomic islands.

  7. Avian maternal response to chick distress

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; C. J. Nicol

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s interva...

  8. Anovel defensin from the mucus of the wood wasp Xiphydria camelus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monincová, Lenka; Fučík, Vladimír; Voburka, Zdeněk; Cvačka, Josef; Čeřovský, Václav; Šrůtka, P.

    Praha : Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v. v. i, 2011 - (Slaninová, J.), s. 86-89 ISBN 978-80-86241-44-9. - (Collection Symposium Series. 13). [Biologically Active Peptides /12./. Praha (CZ), 27.04.2011-29.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : insect defensin * Xiphydria camelus * antimicrobial activity * mass spectrometry * sequencing Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Purification and functional characterization of pancreatic insulin from camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Elamin, Babiker A.; Al-Maleki, Abdulmajeed; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of insulin still represents the key step in helping diabetic patients throughout the world. Many species and approaches have been used for the production of insulin. In this study, we purified and characterized for the first time pancreatic insulin from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) using a modified acid-alcohol extraction method. After extraction insulin was purified using a one-step gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column leading to a purification yield of ...

  10. TOPOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LYMPH NODES OF THE DROMEDARY (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    P GAVRYLIN; D.E. Rahmoun; M LIESHCHOVA

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of the lymph node dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) differs from that shown in the conventional patterns of other mammalian animals, generally formed of a plurality of aggregates, the latter are surrounded by a connective tissue which extends over the whole area surface lymph node and each cluster is a node itself. Vascular distribution in these lymphoid aggregates is relatively abundant and each node receives one or two afferent lymphatic’s and is drained by four or five effer...

  11. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  12. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    OpenAIRE

    Ven, van de, J.; Wagenberg, van, A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B; Brand, van den, MGJ Mark

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival ...

  13. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  14. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection (Caseous Lymphadenitis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to describe & report for the first time outbreaks of natural C.pseudotuberculosis infection in adult camel herds (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan. An infectious disease syndrome was reported in three camel herds (Camelus dromedarius intensively raised at south province in Jordan. Approach: The herds included over 160 adult camels out of which about 8% were affected with multiple muscle and subcutaneous abscesses at various sites of the body. The camels were also heavily infested with ticks. Results: The infected camels did not respond favorably to several broad spectrum antibiotics. Post-mortem examination of 5 carcasses revealed emaciation and presence of external and internal multiple abscesses particularly in the lungs. The abscesses were encapsulated by fibrous tissue and contained creamy yellowish white pus. The lymph nodes were slightly congested and swollen. Conclusion: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis type I strain or biovar ovis (the known cause of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep was isolated from pus, lymph nodes, ticks, milk, blood and liver samples. The clinical symptoms, nature and distribution of lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in camels are not as typical as in sheep. Recommendations for pseudotuberculosis control were given.

  15. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vyas S; Sharma N; Sheikh FD; Singh S; Sena DS; Bissa UK

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the behaviour and reproductive status of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Methods:This study was conducted at two places, Government Bactrian Camel Farm, Chusoot, Leh and Hundar village, Nubra valley, India, situated at higher than 10000 feet above sea level during the month of October, said to be initial period of breeding season. Results:The uterine horns were similar to that of dromedary i.e. between T and Y shaped. The ovaries were irregular but without follicle. The male camels were not showing any symptoms of rut or breeding season but were capable of mounting and copulating the sitting female. Conclusions:There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  16. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide potentiates organophosphate toxicosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banan K. Al-Baggou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2 on the acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon and their inhibitoryactions on plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities. Material and Methods: H2O2 was given indrinking water (0.5% v/v for 2 weeks in unsexed day old chicks, a regimen known to induce oxidativestress in this species. A control group received drinking tap water. All experiments were conducted onthe chicks at the age of 15 days after exposure to H2O2. The acute (24 h oral LD50 values of dichlorvosand diazinon in the insecticidal preparations as determined by the up-and-down method in the controlchicks were 9.4 and 15.6 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The poisoned chicks manifested signs ofcholinergic toxicosis within one hour after the dosing including salivation, lacrimation, gasping, frequentdefecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsions and recumbency. The acute (24 h oral LD50 valuesof dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks provided with H2O2 were reduced to 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg, by 63 and58%, respectively when compared to respective control LD50 values. The intoxicated chicks also showedcholinergic signs of toxicosis as described above. Plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities of thechicks exposed to H2O2 were significantly lower than their respective control (H2O values by 25, 28 and27%, respectively. Oral dosing of chicks with dichlorvos at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited cholinesteraseactivities in the plasma, brain and liver of both control (42-67% and H2O2-treated (15-59% chicks.Diazinon at 5 mg/kg, orally also inhibited cholinesterase activities in the plasma, brain and liver of bothcontrol (36-66% and H2O2-treated (15-30% chicks. In the H2O2 groups, dichlorvos inhibition of livercholinesterase activity and diazinon inhibition of liver and brain cholinesterase activities weresignificantly lesser than those of the respective values of

  18. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovová, E.; Sedmera, David; Luptáková, L.; Mazenský, D.; Danko, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2012), s. 1312-1318. ISSN 1093-4529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Bendiocarb * central nervous system * chick embryo * liver * toxicity Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.252, year: 2012

  19. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi

    2005-05-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

  20. CHICK PEAS EFFICIENCY IN HENS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev S. I.; Karapetyan A. K.; Kornilova E. V.; Struk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of the chick peas use instead of sunflower cake, in feeding young and adult livestock hens-layers of the cross "Hajseks brown". The researches were carried out in the JSC "Agrofirm Vostok" of the Nikolayevskiy district in the Volgograd region. The sunflower cake replacement with legumes - chickpeas as the part of the experimental animal fodder for young and adult livestock hens-layers had a positive influence on productivity, physiological state of the birds,...

  1. Structural and thermodynamic properties of kappa class glutathione transferase from Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Fouad, Dalia; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Ismael, Mohamed A; Saeed, Hesham M; Ataya, Farid S

    2016-07-01

    The Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius is naturally adapted to extreme desert climate and has evolved protective mechanisms to limit oxidative stress. The mitochondrial kappa class glutathione transferase enzyme is a member of GST supergene family that represents an important enzyme group in cellular Phase II detoxification machinery and is involved in the protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotics. In the present study, C. dromedarius kappa class glutathione transferase (CdGSTK1-1) was cloned, expressed in E. coli BL21, purified and its structural, thermodynamic and unfolding pathway was investigated. The results showed that CdGSTK1-1 has unique trimeric structure, exhibits low thermostability and a complex equilibrium unfolding profile. It unfolds through three folding states with formation of thinly populated intermediate species. The melting points (Tm) of the first unfolding transition was 40.3±0.2°C and Tm of the second unfolding transition was 49.1±0.1°C. The van't Hoff enthalpy of the first and second transition were 298.7±13.2 and 616.5±2.4kJ/mol, respectively. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence and near-UV CD studies indicates that substrate binding does not leads to major conformational changes in CdGSTK1-1. PMID:27044344

  2. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  3. Cytokine responses in camels (Camelus bactrianus) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbileg, Raadan; Purevtseren, Byambaa; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Buyannemekh, Tumurjav; Galmandakh, Zagd; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Konnai, Satoru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we determined the levels of cytokines produced by camel (Camelus bactrianus) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to live attenuated Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 vaccine. Seven camels were vaccinated with commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine, and their cytokine responses were determined using a real-time PCR assay. Cytokine responses to B. abortus S19 were examined at 6 hr, 48 hr and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination. Serological tests were performed to further confirm these immune responses. The results revealed that IFN-gamma and IL-6 were upregulated during the first week post-vaccination. Low level expressions of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-10 and no expression of IL-2 and IL-4 were observed compared with the control camels. The findings showed that B. abortus stimulates cell-mediated immunity by directly activating camel Th1 cells to secrete IFN-gamma. This quantification of cytokine expression in camels is essential for understanding of Camelidae disease development and protective immune responses. This is the first report of in vivo camel cytokine quantification after vaccination. PMID:18319583

  4. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  5. ACUTE CLINICAL LEPTOSPIROSIS (GRIPPOTYPHOSA SEROVAR) IN AN ADULT DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Burns, Roy B; Erol, Erdal; Bolin, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old castrated male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) presented with lethargy and partial anorexia. A diagnostic examination revealed fever, and further workup revealed a neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenemia, renal azotemia, and a rapid onset of a high Leptospira antibody titer during the acute clinical period (Grippotyphosa serovar). The camel responded clinically to antimicrobial treatment with ceftiofur crystalline free acid injections, but renal azotemia persisted, presumably secondary to chronic renal damage. Subsequent Leptospira polymerase chain reaction testing on urine samples obtained over the following 4 mo revealed no evidence of urinary shedding, so a persistent infection was unlikely. Although often mentioned as a potential cause of reproductive loss, well-documented case reports of clinical leptospirosis in camelids are very rare. In this case, native wildlife contamination of a small watering hole is suspected to have been the source of infection. In response to this experience, the camel and two conspecifics were prescribed a vaccination regimen using an inactivated pentavalent Leptospira vaccine licensed for cattle. PMID:26352970

  6. Measuring the style of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the distribution of the hundred most frequent function words of two novelistic genres (chick lit and literature) gives insight into the genre styles. The results shows that the literary style is more descriptive and informational, whereas the style of the chick-lit

  7. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples

  8. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether. PMID:6711983

  9. Structure of vomeronasal organ (Jacobson organ) in male Camelus Domesticus Var. dromedaris persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Mansoori Ale Hashem, R; Ardalani, G; Sadrkhanloo, R; Hayatgheibi, H

    2014-12-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a tubular structure in the roof of nasal cavity. The important role of this organ is olfaction of sexual odour. In this study, position, anatomical structure and histology of VNO in Iranian camels (camelus domesticus var. dromedaris persica) were determined. Fourteen healthy male camel heads were collected from an industrial slaughterhouse in Tehran, Iran, for anatomical and histological studies (seven each). The length of VNO and width of dental pad and the number and width of palatine crests were measured. For anatomical studies, the mandible was removed, and maxilla and nasal cavity was cut longitudinally and transversely. For histological studies, the mandible was removed, and first 0.5 cm of initial part of VNO was cut. Then, nasal cavity was cut in some segments with 2 cm thickness. The width of VNO was 3.85 ± 0.31 cm and 1.57 ± 0.18 cm in front and distal parts, respectively. The length of VNO was 15.61 ± 0.59 cm. In histological examinations, VNO was surrounded by J-shape hyaline cartilage. The lining epithelium of lateral wall of VNO was originated from respiratory epithelium, while it had an olfactory epithelium origin in the medial wall. Lamina propria and tunica submucosa were a cavernous connective tissue with seromucous gland with abundant of serous secretory units. The lumen of VNO opens into nasal cavity. The presence of olfactory epithelium found in our study indicates an important role for VNO in pheromone perception and beginning of sexual behaviour. PMID:24611976

  10. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  11. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  12. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  13. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

  14. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  15. Interaction of human and chick DNA repair functions in UV-irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum-chick erythrocyte heterokaryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion of chick erythrocytes with human primary fibroblasts results in the formation of heterokaryons in which the inactive chick nuclei become reactivated. The expression of chick DNA repair functions was investigated by the analysis of the DNA repair capacity after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of such heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick erythrocytes with normal human or xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells of complementation groups A, B, C and D. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in normal human nuclei in these heterokaryons is suppressed during the first 2-4 days after fusion. The extent and duration of this suppression is positively correlated with the number of chick nuclei in the heterokaryons. Suppression is absent in heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chicken embryonic fibroblasts with XP cells (complementation group A and C). Restoration of DNA repair synthesis is found after fusion in XP nuclei of all complementation groups studied. It occurs rapidly in XP group A nuclei, starting one day after fusion and reaching near normal human levels after 5-8 days. In nuceli of the B, C and D group increased levels of UDS are found 5 days after fusion. At 8 days after fusion the UDS level is about 50% of that found in normal human nuclei. The pattern of UDS observed in the chick nuclei parallels that of the human counterpart in the fusion. In heterokaryons obtained after fusion of chick fibroblasts with XP group C cells UDS remains at the level of chick cells. These suggest that reactivation of chick erythrocyte nuclei results in expression of repair functions which are able to complement the defects in the XP complementation groups A, B, C and D

  16. Specification of germ layer identity in the chick gastrula

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Qin; Matsumoto Kiyoshi; Chapman Susan C; Schoenwolf Gary C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chick definitive endoderm is an important source of signals that pattern the early embryo forming a central structure around which the body plan is constructed. Although the origin of definitive endoderm has been mapped in the chick, arising principally from rostral streak at elongating streak stages, it is not known when this layer first becomes fully committed to its germ layer fate, an important issue to resolve in light of its critical role in subsequent patterning of ...

  17. Modification of radioresponse of chick spleen with vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven days old white leghorn male chicks were exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body gamma radiations with and without vitamin E and studied for histopathological changes in the spleen for a period of twenty eight days postirradiation. The results reveal that the radiation-induced depletion of lymphocytic population in the lymphoid region and the damage to the tissue architecture is comparatively less and reparation of the spleen faster in the vitamin E treated irradiated chicks. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs

  18. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  19. Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David

    2006-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. PMID:16287170

  20. Hypoxia adaptation and hemoglobin mutation in Tibetan chick embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU; Xiao; LI; Ning; LIAN; Linsheng; YAN; Dawei; ZHANG; Hao

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan chick lives at high altitudes between 2600 and 4200 m with a high hatchability and low land breeds survive rarely with a hatchability of 3.0% under hypoxia of simulated 4200 m. Under hypoxia of whole 21 d, the hatchability of Tibetan chick and Recessive White Feather broiler differed with a greatest disparity from day 4 to 11 and also significantly in other stages except from day 1 to 3. Hypoxia in each stage did not reduce significantly survival rate of this stage except hatchability. These two results indicated that the hypoxia in the early stage had an adverse effect on the later stage. All exons encoding chick hemoglobins were sequenced to analyze gene polymorphism. The functional mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu, related with hypoxia, was found in αD globin chain and the mutation frequency increased with increased altitude. In addition, under hypoxic conditions, the population with higher mutation frequency had a higher hatchability. The automated homology model building was carried out using crystal structure coordinates of chick HbD. The results indicated that the substitution Met-32(B13)-Leu provides a more hydrophobic environment which leads to higher stability of heme and oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The occurrence of the mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu is related to the origin of Tibetan chick.

  1. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input. PMID:27079969

  2. Glutamine synthetase and glutamyltransferase in developing chick and rat tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzfeld, A.; Raper, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Concomitant determination of ..gamma..-glutamine-hydroxylamine-glutamyltransferase (GT) and ..gamma..-glutamyl hydroxamate synthetase (GS) activities in chick retina, brain and liver between the 13th day of incubation and a day after hatching showed that while both activities increased late in incubation, in neural tissues their rises were not simultaneous throughout development; in liver both activities were already high on the 14th day of incubation and changed in parallel thereafter. GS and GT activities could be evoked prematurely in all three tissues by cortisol, but GT activity showed higher responses to the hormone. GT and GS were separable by differential solubilization in chick liver but not in retina of chick or rat. The wide spread of the ratios of GT : GS activities in homogenates of a number of chick and rat tissues (1 : 1 to 73 : 1) indicates that the GS reaction is not catalyzed by the same protein that catalyzes the GT reactions. Relative amounts of GT(T) (free of GS activity) and of variants of GS (with different competences to catalyze the GT reaction) may govern the changes between the two activities during development and their distribution among different adult tissues in chick and rat.

  3. Generalization of visual regularities in newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolin, Chiara; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of learning and generalization of visual regularities in a newborn organism is provided in the present research. Domestic chicks have been trained to discriminate visual triplets of simultaneously presented shapes, implementing AAB versus ABA (Experiment 1), AAB versus ABB and AAB versus BAA (Experiment 2). Chicks distinguished pattern-following and pattern-violating novel test triplets in all comparisons, showing no preference for repetition-based patterns. The animals generalized to novel instances even when the patterns compared were not discriminable by the presence or absence of reduplicated elements or by symmetry (e.g., AAB vs. ABB). These findings represent the first evidence of learning and generalization of regularities at the onset of life in an animal model, revealing intriguing differences with respect to human newborns and infants. Extensive prior experience seems to be unnecessary to drive the process, suggesting that chicks are predisposed to detect patterns characterizing the visual world. PMID:27287627

  4. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  5. Modeling Daily Feed Intake of Four Strains of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gheisari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast growth rate is one of the main characteristics of broiler chicks which emanate from their high appetite. Probably it is right to say that broilers appetite depends on energy concentration of the diet but the optimum energy concentration of the diet is still highly disputable. Therefore taking into the account chick's real energy requirements, considering physiological and environmental changes relative to the values exhibited in chick's requirements tables seems to be a viable strategy for optimizing the production costs. Poultry nutritionists have been trying to make an accurate estimation of bird's energy requirements using statistical models. Energy models estimate energy considering different influential factors on bird's energy requirements. But since these estimative models express energy requirements as kcal day-1, it seems essential to know the amount of chick daily feed intake in different stages of growth which can help to formulate diets with optimum energy levels. Also, FI models can be applied in quantitative and qualitative feed restriction programs in order to assign optimum feed allocation. Considering the importance of an accurate estimation of birds daily feed intake and its impact on making these estimative models more practical, this study aimed at using four quadric regression models estimating daily feed intake relative to chick's daily body weight according to the data provided by Ross 308, Cobb 500, Arbor Acres and Lohmannn performance tables. The results led to the definition of four quadric regression models with a high coefficient of determination (R2. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a high correlation between daily feed intake and daily body weight changes in the foregoing strains of broiler chicks.

  6. Immunization of young chicks using graded dose of wild strain of Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Kimbita

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Eimeria tenella was isolated and utilized for immunization studies. Its optimal sporulation was attained at room temperature 24-25 °C after 24-48 h. Two groups of chicks were immunized by dosing a graded dose of five oocysts/chick/day for 6 days followed by 50 oocysts/chick/day for 7 days. A third group was not immunized and served as a negative control. Immunized chicks gained mass at the same rate as unimmunized ones, but when challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick, mass gains declined in the unimmunized group. The growth rate of immunized chicks was not affected by challenge (P > 0.05. Upon challenge, unimmunized chicks produced significantly more oocysts than immunized chicks (P < 0.005. Immunized chicks withstood a challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick without developing any clinical signs whereas the unimmunized chicks developed typical clinical signs of coccidiosis. Unimmunized chicks had significantly more severe lesions in the caecum than any other group (P > 0.005 and also produced significantly more oocysts than any other group (P > 0.005.

  7. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  8. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  9. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  10. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Khan, Zahid

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the full length sequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA (G6PD) from the Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius G6PD has an open reading frame of 1545 bp, and the cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 59.0 KDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest identity with Equus caballus (92%) and Homo sapiens (92%). The G6PD cDNA was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The purity and the molecular weight of the enzyme were checked on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity of G6PD was determined to be 289.6 EU/mg protein with a fold purification of 95.45 and yield of 56.8%. PMID:22538316

  11. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. PMID:26228561

  12. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  13. Neurotoxic effect of the dithiocarbamate tecoram on the chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, G. van; Logten, M.J. van

    1971-01-01

    Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts

  14. Indicators of functional differentiation of the chick embryonic kidney

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Zdeňka; Ujec, Evžen; Jirsová, Z.; Maňáková, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2002), s. 847-860. ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/98/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Chick embryo * Mesonephros * Glomerular filtration Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.274, year: 2002

  15. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  16. Serological survey for Brucella antibodies in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius herds in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Gidado Adamu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the Brucella antibodies in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius herds in Yobe State, North-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from four hundred (400 camels comprising 168 males and 232 females from the five agricultural zones of Yobe State. The sera obtained from the blood samples were screened by C-ELISA. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to the herdsmen to obtained information on pastoralist personal data such as age, educational background, family size, and type of labour employed. Other information includes herd size, herd medical history, and patronage of veterinary services. Results: 66 (16.5% of the 400 screened camels were found seropositive for Brucella. This was comprised of 26 (6.5% male and 40 (10.0% female camels. Out of the 66 seropositive camels, 2(0.5% and 64 (16.0% were young and adult camels, respectively. Geidam agricultural zone of the state had the highest specific sero-prevalence of 24 (6.0%, followed by Gashua 19 (4.75%, Nguru 11 (2.75%, Potiskum 8 (2.0%, and Damaturu 4 (1.0%. There was a significant statistical association between the age of camel and serological reaction to C-ELISA (P>0.05, with the adult camels more significantly associated with Brucella infection OR = 7.881 (1.880 – 33.039; P>0.05 than the young camels. There was no significant statistical association (P>0.05 between sexes of camels and positive serological reaction to C-ELISA. Low level of education, low patronage of veterinary services, and lack of vaccination against brucellosis were observed among the herdsmen. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the camels of all the agricultural zones of the state indicates that the disease is endemic and camel is one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease.

  17. Characteristics of the somatic hypermutation in the Camelus dromedarius T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Salvatrice; Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Tasco, Gianluca; Consiglio, Arianna; Casadio, Rita; Linguiti, Giovanna; Antonacci, Rachele

    2014-10-01

    In previous reports, we had shown in Camelus dromedarius that diversity in T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains can be generated by somatic hypermutation (SHM). In the present paper, we further the previous finding by analyzing 85 unique spleen cDNA sequences encoding a total of 331 mutations from a single animal, and comparing the properties of the mutation profiles of dromedary TRG and TRD variable domains. The transition preference and the significant mutation frequency in the AID motifs (dgyw/wrch and wa/tw) demonstrate a strong dependence of the enzymes mediating SHM in TRG and TRD genes of dromedary similar to that of immunoglobulin genes in mammals. Overall, results reveal no asymmetry in the motifs targeting, i.e. mutations are equally distributed among g:c and a:t base pairs and replacement mutations are favored at the AID motifs, whereas neutral mutations appear to be more prone to accumulate in bases outside of the motifs. A detailed analysis of clonal lineages in TRG and TRD cDNA sequences also suggests that clonal expansion of mutated productive rearrangements may be crucial in shaping the somatic diversification in the dromedary. This is confirmed by the fact that our structural models, computed by adopting a comparative procedure, are consistent with the possibility that, irrespective of where (in the CDR-IMGT or in FR-IMGT) the diversity was generated by mutations, both clonal expansion and selection seem to be strictly related to an enhanced structural stability of the γδ subunits. PMID:24836674

  18. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in the One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius in East and Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Champour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This comprehensive study was conducted on multi-purpose one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius sera and ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV in northeast Iran.Methods: From May 2012 to January 2013, eleven cities were randomly selected in the Khorasan Provinces of Iran as “clusters,” and at least 14 one-humped camels were sampled from each area. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the CCHFV genome in ticks. Sera were analyzed using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests.Results: Four hundred and eighty ixodid ticks were collected, and the genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2% out of 480 ticks. The CCHFV genome was detected in two out of four tick species, and in tick samples from three cities in Khorassan-e-Jonoobi. All three provinces, and six out of eleven cities, were CCHFV-specific IgG-positive. In total, nine (5.3% out of 170 one-humped camels were IgG-positive. The highest rate of IgG-positive samples was found in Nehbandan (16.67%.Conclusion: Continued surveillance and strictly enforced importation and quarantine practices should be imple­mented to prevent human exposure and the on-going dispersal of infected ticks and livestock in these regions. It is recommended that acaricides be used to prevent CCHF transmission to humans, and to reduce the tick population. In addition, care should be taken by abattoirs workers and people who work with one-humped camels.

  19. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants. PMID:26922739

  20. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1-14C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  1. Newly hatched chicks solve the visual binding problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N

    2014-07-01

    For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

  2. Evaluation of vitamin E against deltamethrin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, U; Reddy, A Gopala; Reddy, K S; Anjaneyulu, Y; Kalakumar, B

    2003-10-01

    Deltamethrin toxicity was studied in broilers and vitamin E was evaluated for therapeutic management. Day old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 chicks in each. Group 1 was maintained as control for 6 wks, group 2 was fed on deltamethrin (100 mg/kg feed) for 6 wks and group 3 was fed on deltamethrin for the first 4 wks and during the subsequent 2 wks with vitamin E (300 mg/kg feed) with out deltamethrin. Weekly body weights, feed conversion ratio, glutathione (GSH) concentration and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were significantly (P biomarkers were increased significantly (P feed is useful in treating accidental toxicity. PMID:15266958

  3. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.;

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups eac...

  4. The Mind Through Chick Eyes : Memory, Cognition and Anticipation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Toshiya; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Aoki, Naoya; Yanagihara, Shin

    2003-01-01

    To understand the animal mind, we have to reconstruct how animals recognize the external world through their own eyes. For the reconstruction to be realistic, explanations must be made both in their proximate causes (brain mechanisms) as well as ultimate causes (evolutionary backgrounds). Here, we review recent advances in the behavioral, psychological, and system-neuroscience studies accomplished using the domestic chick as subjects. Diverse behavioral paradigms are compared (such as filial ...

  5. Formation of Youth Identity in Indonesian Islamic Chick Lit

    OpenAIRE

    Novita Dewi

    2011-01-01

    This paper is to argue that literature studies may help reveal the formation of young Indonesian female Muslim identity by looking at the books they read and write. It will particularly discuss two popular Islamic Chick Lit Santri Semelekete [Funky Islamic Boarding School Girl] (2005) by Ma’rifatun Baroroh and Jilbab Britney Spears: Catatan Harian Sabrina [Britney Spears’ Headscarf: Sabrina’s Diary] (2004) by Herlinatiens. The first part of the discussion will examine some external aspects su...

  6. Paddy Straw as an Alternate Bedding Material for Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Burning of agricultural residues especially paddy straw is now recognized as a major source of environmental concern in India. Burning of huge quantities of paddy straw annually leads to emission of obnoxious gases thus causing adverse impacts on, health of human, animal and bird population. This practice can be discouraged through its utilization as an alternate litter material to commonly used paddy husk which is now available at costly prices because of its use in different industries thus raising the cost of broiler production. This was evaluated through the experiment during winter season conducted on broiler chicks. Broiler chicks (n=144 were distributed into three treatment groups, each having 4 replicates of 12 chicks with equal sex and ratio and average group weight, and reared up to 42 days of age under similar conditions of housing and management except the variation in litter material. Paddy husk (PH, unchopped paddy straw (UPS and chopped paddy straw (CPS were used as different litter materials. The growth parameters tested in the experiment were body weight, weight gain, FCR, PER, EER and carcass characteristics (viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts. The litter type had no significant effect on body weight, weight gain, FCR, PER and EER among all the treatments. The average body weight at 42 days of age was 1939, 1947 and 1960 g, respectively in PH, CPS, UCPS groups. The bedding type had no significant effect and no influence on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass, so it was concluded that paddy straw can be used as good bedding material for broiler chicks.

  7. Microarray analysis of normal and abnormal chick ventricular myocardial development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Eliška; Peševski, Živorad; Dealmeida, A.C.; Mrug, M.; Fresco, V.M.; Argraves, W.S.; Barth, J.L.; Cui, X.; Sedmera, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S137-S144. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * gene chip array * hypoplastic left heart syndrome * hemodynamics * gene expression Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  8. SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway in chick intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unidirectional influx of 36Cl- into isolated chick epithelial cells is 30% inhibited by 300 μM SITS. Characteristics of the SITS-sensitive flux pathway were examined in terms of sensitivity to changes in membrane potential and intracellular pH. Potential dependence was evaluated using unidirectional influx of [14C]tetraphenylphosphonium ([14C]-TPP+) as a qualitative sensor of diffusion potentials created by experimentally imposed gradients of CL-. Steady-state distribution of [14C]methylamine ([14C]MA) was used to examine for Cl--dependent changes in intracellular pH. Imposed Na+ gradients, but not Cl- gradients, induce changes in [14C]MA distribution. SITS does not alter the [14C]MA distribution observed in cells with imposed gradients of Na+ and Cl-. Both results suggest that inhibition of Cl- influx. However, if relative permeabilities for ion pairs via conductance pathways are compared, it can be shown that SITS causes a marked reduction of PCl relative to either PNa or PK. SITS also inhibits electrically induced influx of [14C]TPP+ or [14C]α-methylglucoside driven by imposed Cl- influx can be blocked by SITS. These observations are all consistent with a SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway associated with the plasma membrane of chick intestinal cells. No Cl--OH- exchange capability can be detected for chick intestinal cells

  9. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chen, Jian-Long; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26177723

  10. Numerical abstraction in young domestic chicks (Gallus gallus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rugani

    Full Text Available In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals.

  11. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter;

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became noncultu......The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became......-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization....

  12. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-01-01

    Teeth were lost in birds 70–80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick ...

  13. Kidney alkaline phosphatase in mercuric chloride injected chicks resistant and susceptible to leukosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; McIntyre, J.A.; Bearse, G.E.

    1969-01-01

    Two strains of chickens were selected for resistance and susceptibility to avian leukosis. Researchers found that the resistant chicks retained two to four times as much mercury in the liver and kidneys as did the susceptible chicks following injection of mercuric chloride or phenylmercuric acetate. Differences in alkaline phosphatase in the kidneys of the resistant and susceptible chicks, and the effect of the mercuric chloride injection on the alkaline phosphatase activity were reported in this paper. 19 references, 2 tables.

  14. Distribution of trans and cis 18:1 fatty acid isomers in chicks fed different fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Athari, A K; Watkins, B A

    1988-05-01

    The effects of dietary trans isomers of 18:1 (t-18:1) were studied in chicks by feeding purified diets containing soybean oil (SBO) as the control lipid source, saturated fat (SF), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), or spent restaurant grease (SRG) for three weeks. Argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography were used to separate trans and cis (c) isomers of 18:1 and to determine the fatty acid composition in chick tissues. Chicks fed HSBO (34% t-18:1 of total 18:1) had weight gains similar to those of chicks fed SF but significantly (P less than .05) lower gains than those of chicks fed SBO or SRG. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratios (total feed:total gain) across treatments. Trans-18:1 was incorporated into liver, heart, lung, and abdominal fat pad of chicks fed HSBO. Chicks fed HSBO had higher levels of c-16:1 omega 7 and 18:1 and lower levels of linoleate and arachidonate in tissue lipids. Similar changes were observed in liver microsomal fatty acids of chicks fed SRG that was adequate in linoleate, but which contained low levels of t-18:1 (4% of total 18:1). Positional and geometrical isomers of 18:1 appear to impair essential fatty acid metabolism in the chick. PMID:3405954

  15. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  16. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  17. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  18. Chick embryo fibroblasts produce two forms of hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Orkin, RW; Toole, BP

    1980-01-01

    Cultured chick embryo fibroblasts derived from skin and skeletal muscle exhibit hyaluronidase activity both associated with the cell layer and secreted into the medium. Although both forms of the enzyme have a number of similar characteristics (R.W. Orkin and B.P. Toole, 1980, J. Biol. CHem. 255), they differ in thermal stability at neutral pH and in behavior on ion-exchange chromatography. Both forms of the enzyme are equally stable at acidic pH for long intervals, but the cell-associated hy...

  19. Effects of begging on growth rates of nestling chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Ángel; Jesús M Zúñiga; Redondo, T.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether an increase in begging levels delays growth of chicks. In experiment 1, we hand-reared nine pairs of ring dove squabs, divided into a control and a begging group. All squabs received similar amounts of food, but those in the begging group had to beg for a prolonged period in order to be fed, while squabs in the control group received food without begging. Squabs stopped responding to the treatment after 10 days and, at that time, there was no effect of induced begging ...

  20. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  1. COMPARATIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BROILER CHICKS TO NEWCASTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shuaib, M. Ashfaque, Sajjad-ur-Rahman, M.K. Mansoor and I. Yousaf1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was designed to asses the humoral and cell mediated immune response in the broiler chicks double vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND using Lasota strain of ND virus vaccine. Double vaccination 7 days following Ist vaccination gave haemagglutination inhibition (HI titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:128, that was significantly higher than the HI antibody titer recorded after single vaccination. Similarly, macrophage migration inhibition (MMI activity ranged from 28.57 to 40.86%, with mean activity of 36.07%. No correlation was found between HI titer and MMI test.

  2. Social stimuli, testosterone, and aggression in gull chicks : Support for the challenge hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, AFH; Dieleman, SJ; Groothuis, TGG; Dieleman, Steph J.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Groothuis, A.G.G.

    2002-01-01

    We tested the challenge hypothesis for the hormonal regulation of aggression in chicks of the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus. Chicks of this species are highly aggressive toward conspecifics, but never to peers that hatched from the same clutch (modal clutch size is three). Therefore, in the fi

  3. Foraging behavior and physiological changes in precocial quail chicks in response to low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, KL; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether low ambient temperatures influence foraging behavior of precocial Japanese quail chicks and alter the balance between investment in growth and thermogenic function. To test this, one group of chicks was exposed to 7 degreesC and one group to 24 degreesC during foraging throughout

  4. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue;

    2005-01-01

    Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information on...

  5. IN VIVO TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES IN CHICK EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrapragasam Vani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Silica is one of the most effective stored seedand food grain protecting pesticide agent, usedfor ages Silica nanoparticles are hard and strong andresistant to brittle fracture under an imposed stress. The aim of our study is to synthesize and evaluate the toxicity of silica nanoparticles at various concentrations using chick embryo, as it serves as a bridging model between in vivo and ex vivo studies. Silica nanoparticles of 70 nm sizewith concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 PPM were injected in vivo and incubated for 19 days as per IACUC guidelines. The study was carried out on dissected chick embryo after the 19th day of incubation. Vital tissues such as liver and heart tissues were subjected to toxicity assays. Biochemical assay of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were assessed. The results showed a decreased level of MDA (Malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid Peroxidation, whereas increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were observed. Therefore silica nanoparticles may be used as a pesticide and also as a biomaterial for therapeutic application in the field of medicine.

  6. Characterisation of genes induced during memory formation in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Memory formation can be divided into short-term and long-term. Short-term memory involves electro-chemical activity in the neurons whereas long-term memory requires a permanent change that includes protein synthesis. One of the problems involved with identifying late memory related genes is determining an optimal system in which to study gene expression. We have used a discriminated passive avoidance task in chicks to identify genes that are differentially regulated during memory formation. A mRNA subtraction method was previously used to specifically identify several genes that are expressed in the chick intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) within two hours of training. Eight bands ranging in size from 400bp to 1100bp were obtained in the initially screen. We are currently cloning these PCR products into suitable vectors for further analysis. Two of these clones have been sequenced and analysed using both the blastn and blastx programs in ANGIS. The first clone was found to correspond to cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) is a transmembrane protein localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane and forms part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. The second clone codes for the ferritin heavy chain. Ferritin is a ubiquitous protein that is involved in iron homeostasis. At present it is unclear what role these two proteins play in memory formation but further studies are being undertaken to determine the expression profiles of these genes following memory induction. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  7. The Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on the Vitamin A Storage in the Livers of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    SALMANOĞLU, Berrin

    2002-01-01

    The effect of AFB1 in feed on the liver and serum vitamin A and b-carotene levels and the ability of the liver to stor vitamin A in broiler chicks were investigated. Twenty day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 4 groups with 5 each in the control group, group I, group II, and group III. The chicks of the control group and group I were fed ad libitum on broiler chick growing feed. The chicks of group II and group III were fed ad libitum on feed with AFB1 (4 ppm/kg) feed. On ...

  8. Reorienting strategies in a rectangular array of landmarks by domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, Tommaso; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Spatial reorientation in a rectangular array of four landmarks located in the center of a circular enclosure was investigated in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus). One of the landmark possessed unique visual features, indicating the location of a food reward. After training, chicks were tested (a) with the same array as during the training; (b) with four identical landmarks of the type previously nonrewarded, of the type previously rewarded, or of a new type; (c) after having transformed one of the landmarks located at the geometric incorrect location into the type of landmark previously rewarded; or (d) with a fifth landmark of the rewarded type at a new location. Chicks encoded information provided by local featural cues but not the geometric information provided by the shape of the array. Moreover, when trained in a rectangular array of identical landmarks chicks failed to reorient. In a second series of experiments, the array was located in correspondence to the corners of a rectangular enclosure. This time chicks successfully learned to locate the reward using geometric information. However, when the rectangular array was located in the center of a larger rectangular enclosure, chicks failed to reorient, indicating that the geometric information given by the macroscopic layout of arena surfaces was not used to specify different locations. These results suggest that chicks reorient on the basis of a local representation of single landmarks and that encoding of the global aspects of geometry only occurs with respect to the large, extended surfaces of an enclosure. PMID:20476814

  9. Responses of commercial broiler chicks to 60Co gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 360 chicks of Nichols line at one-day old were used in this study. Within each sex, the chicks were divided into three exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 400 rads and 800 rads). The source of irradiation was 60Co gamma-rays. The results can be summarized as follows: Of the 360 chicks used in this study, only 10 chicks died during the experimental period. Radiation induced a reduction in body weight in both sexes during the growth period. Gamma-rays reduce the feed intake in both sexes. Moreover, the feed conversion ratio for the irradiated chicks was higher than that the non-irradiated birds. While red blood cells and hemoglobin content were higher in the irradiated chicks, white blood cells count and especially lymphocytes did not affect by 60Co gamma-rays. Gamma-rays had no effect on carcass, bone, meat and giblets as fractions of body weight in both sexes. Moreover, meat water content decreased and meat fat content increased in irradiated chicks. The total length and the total weight of the GI tract decreased due to 60Co gamma-rays. The response of the different regions of the GI tract to this rays is different. Moreover, the effect of this radiation on the GI tract is dependent upon the body weight irrespective of the sex. (orig./MG)

  10. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior. PMID:25930217

  11. Growth and its relationship to fledging success of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjørve, Kathleen M C; Underhill, Leslie G

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the growth of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks on Robben Island, South Africa, over three austral summers, 2001-2004. Using a robust regression analysis to determine the growth parameters of chicks of known and unknown age we found that oystercatchers from our study population had a Gompertz growth rate coefficient that was 2% less than predicted for body mass based on the equation for waders. Leg growth lagged initially, then increased and slowed again as the chicks became older, whereas wing growth was slow initially but increased with age. Chicks with small growth rate coefficients for body mass exhibited retarded growth of all body measures except wing length. This enabled these chicks to fledge in a shorter period of time than their slow growth would otherwise allow. The growth rate of body mass was observed to vary greatly between chicks. Fast-growing African black oystercatchers had a shorter pre-fledging period; were larger at fledging and were more likely to fledge successfully. African black oystercatchers display sibling rivalry, and once a dominance relationship is established, the larger chick remains so during the pre-fledging period. Larger siblings fledged earlier and at a heavier mass than the smaller siblings and this may improve their chances of survival. Neither hatching date nor brood size influenced the growth rate coefficients. PMID:18838259

  12. Specification of germ layer identity in the chick gastrula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Qin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chick definitive endoderm is an important source of signals that pattern the early embryo forming a central structure around which the body plan is constructed. Although the origin of definitive endoderm has been mapped in the chick, arising principally from rostral streak at elongating streak stages, it is not known when this layer first becomes fully committed to its germ layer fate, an important issue to resolve in light of its critical role in subsequent patterning of the early embryo. Results Through gene expression screening of chick gastrula, we identified molecular markers of definitive endoderm restricted to rostral (Sox17 and caudal (Gata5/6 regions, suggesting that at least two subpopulations of definitive endodermal cells exist during ingression. We show (1 that presumptive mesoderm cells migrate to the middle layer and remain mesenchymal when transplanted to rostral primitive streak, and prospective endoderm cells enter the lower layer and become epithelial when transplanted to caudal primitive streak; and (2 that presumptive endoderm cells and mesoderm cells lose normal gene expression (Sox17 and Wnt8c, respectively when transplanted outside of their normal position of origin. Moreover, when rostral or caudal primitive streak segments are transplanted into rostral blastoderm isolates (RBIs, both types of transplants express Sox17 4–6 hours later–consistent with their new position, regardless of their presumptive germ layer origin–and prospective mesoderm transplants, which normally express Wnt8c, turn off expression, suggesting that signals within the rostral blastoderm induce endoderm gene expression, and repress mesoderm gene expression, during gastrulation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that germ layer identity is fixed at the time populations of endoderm and mesoderm cells ingress through the primitive streak, whereas their gene expression patterns remain labile. In addition, our results show that

  13. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull

  14. Effect of Low Dose Radiation Upon Antioxidant Parameters in Skeletal Muscle of Chick Embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs with low dose ionizing radiation upon lipid peroxide (TBARS) level, glutathione (GSH) level, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle of chick embryo and newly hatched chicks. The eggs of a heavy breeding chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the irradiated chick embryos, there was a control group of non-irradiated chick embryos. The antioxidant parameters were measured in breast muscle (m. pectoralis superficialis) and thigh muscle (m. biceps femoris) of chick embryos on 1, 3, 6, 24 and 72 h after egg irradiation. All parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Lipid peroxidation, GSH level and CAT activity decreased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the first hour after irradiation, while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the thigh muscle on the 1st hour after irradiation. CAT activity decreased in the breast muscle of chick embryos on the hour 24 after irradiation. The GSH level increased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the hour 72 after irradiation while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the breast muscle. At the same time CAT activity decreased in breast muscle while lipid peroxidation decreased in thigh muscle. The obtained results showed that acute irradiation of chicken eggs on the 19th day of incubation with the dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation could be an oxidative stress in both types of muscles immediately after irradiation. However, at the one-day old chicks (72 hours after irradiation) this dose could have a stimulating effect upon GSH level in both breast and thigh muscle.(author)

  15. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Y. J. Mousa; Mohammad, F. K.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50) of xylazine and...

  16. Secondary imprinting in the domestic chick: Binocular and lateralized monocular performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia; Zucca, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    Newly-hatched chicks were reared with a coloured imprinting object on day 1 of life (primary imprinting) and then with an object of a different colour (secondary imprinting) on day 2. They were then tested on day 3 for preferences between the primary and the secondary imprinting object in binocular and in monocular conditions. The main results were that (1) left-eyed chicks usually showed clearer choice than right-eyed chicks; (2) there were colour preferences that appeared to affect choice d...

  17. Bilateral neuro-retinitis following chick embryo cell anti-rabies vaccination – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Harminder

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Optic nerve is rarely involved after sheep brain anti-rabies vaccination in the form of retrobulbar neuritis or papillitis. Bilateral neuroretinitis after chick embryo cell antirabies vaccination has not been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 56 year old male who developed bilateral neuro-retinitis following three injections of antirabies vaccine prepared from the chick embryo. Conclusion The chick embryo cell antirabies vaccine can cause bilateral neuroretinits which has not been reported previously.

  18. Formation of Youth Identity in Indonesian Islamic Chick Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to argue that literature studies may help reveal the formation of young Indonesian female Muslim identity by looking at the books they read and write. It will particularly discuss two popular Islamic Chick Lit Santri Semelekete [Funky Islamic Boarding School Girl] (2005 by Ma’rifatun Baroroh and Jilbab Britney Spears: Catatan Harian Sabrina [Britney Spears’ Headscarf: Sabrina’s Diary] (2004 by Herlinatiens. The first part of the discussion will examine some external aspects such as physical presentation, biographical details of the authors, and publication-related matters. Then, using such side-line information, the next part will discuss the novels’ contents to see in what way they offer some cultural analysis of youth identity in contemporary Indonesian society.

  19. Dynamics of skeletal pattern formation in developing chick limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S A; Frisch, H L

    1979-08-17

    During development of the embryonic chick limb the skeletal pattern is laid out as cartilaginous primordia, which emerge in a proximodistal sequence over a period of 4 days. The differentiation of cartilage is preceded by changes in cellular contacts at specific locations in the precartilage mesenchyme. Under realistic assumptions, the biosynthesis and diffusion through the extracellular matrix of a cell surface protein, such as fibronectin, will lead to spatial patterns of this molecule that could be the basis of the emergent primordia. As cellular differentiation proceeds, the size of the mesenchymal diffusion chamber is reduced in descrete steps, leading to sequential reorganizations of the morphogen pattern. The successive patterns correspond to observed rows of skeletal elements, whose emergence, in theory and in practice, depends on the maintenance of a unique boundary condition at the limb bud apex. PMID:462174

  20. The effect of insecticide Deltamethrin on development of chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cyto and the embryo toxicity of Deltamethrin and its commercial formulation DECIS 50 EC in chick embryo during its critical embryonic development period before and in the organogenesis. The embryos were incubated in well closed plastic caps containing the complete egg composition at 38 o. the Deltamethrin and DECIS were found to cause histological and morphological malformations, specially in the brain, also they reduced the majority of the synthetic activities of the DNA, RNA, and proteins in the embryonic and the vascular areas. The flow cytometric analysis showed alterations in frequency of cells in both embryonic and vascular areas in the treated embryo during the cell cycle phases. Our study also showed that the DECIS had greater cyto and embryo toxicity than the Seltamethrin for analysis (author). 149 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Isolation and characterization of new collagens from chick cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Mark, K; van Menxel, M; Wiedemann, H

    1982-05-01

    Three unique collagen chains were isolated from chick sternal cartilage following pepsin solubilization of total cartilage collagens and removal of the predominant type II collagen by fractional salt precipitation. Native molecules containing 1 alpha, 2 alpha and 3 alpha chains precipitated between 0.7 M and 1.2 M NaCl at acidic pH and could be purified by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose and agarose columns. Although similar to mammalian 1 alpha, 2 alpha and 3 alpha chains, differences in the mobilities on sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis, CNBr peptide profiles and amino acid composition were found. The 1 alpha and 2 alpha chains resemble, but are structurally distinct from, the chick alpha 1(V) and alpha 2(V) chains. The 3 alpha chain appears to be closely related to the alpha 1(II) chain, although some differences in the cyanogen bromide peptides suggest that they might be different gene products. In addition, two collagenous fragments of Mr 140 000 (M1) and 35 000 (M2) were found which precipitated at 2.0 m NaCl at acidic pH. Both fragments contain interchain disulfide bonds. The larger fragment was reducible to subunits of approximate Mr 120 000, 48 000, 28 000 and 11 000. The smaller fragment gave rise to peptides of Mr about 12 000 and 10 000 after reduction. By the technique of rotary shadowing the native, unreduced larger fragment M1 appeared as a slender rod-like molecule with a distinct bend approximately 40 nm from one end. We interpret this finding as indicative of a focal amino acid sequence irregularity, disrupting the triple-helical conformation. PMID:7084229

  2. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  3. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. effect on muscle growth of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Khan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the aqueous seed extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek on the weight of breast, thigh and leg of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments i.e., A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate. Groups B, C and D received the aqueous extract of fenugreek @ 10, 20 and 30 ml/L, respectively while group A served as a control. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. The data showed that weight of breast, thigh and leg were significantly (P<0.05 heavier in group C compared to control. It was concluded from this study that Trigonella foenum-graecum at the rate of 30 ml/L aqueous extract has a beneficial impact on the growth of these muscle tissues.

  4. Invertebrate Availability and Preference by Northern Bobwhite Chicks in Mississippi Old Fields

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invertebrate density, biomass, and diversity, northern bobwhite Colinus virginianus chick invertebrate preference, and vegetation stem density and biomass were...

  5. The hormonal control of begging and early aggressive behavior: Experiments in black-headed gull chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Groothuis, TGG; Ros, AFH; Groothuis, Ton G.G

    2005-01-01

    The hormonal control of begging and sibling competition is largely unknown, but recent evidence suggests a role for steroid hormones. We tested the influence of the aromatizable androgen testosterone (T), the non-aromatizable androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17 beta-estradiol (E) on both begging behavior and aggressive behavior in black-headed gull chicks (Larus ridibundus). Chicks of this species have a conspicuous begging display, while their frequently performed early aggres...

  6. Are acoustical parameters of begging call elements of thin-billed prions related to chick condition?

    OpenAIRE

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud; Mundry, Roger; Masello, Juan F.

    2010-01-01

    Chicks of burrowing petrels use begging calls to advertise their hunger levels when parents arrived at the nest. In a previous study, adult thin-billed prions Pachyptila belcheri responded to higher begging call rates of their single chick by regurgitating larger meals. We tested whether acoustic parameters of begging call elements may also be involved in signalling. To describe variation in begging, we determined begging session parameters, namely the duration, number of calls and the mean a...

  7. Short Copy Number Variations Potentially Associated with Tonic Immobility Responses in Newly Hatched Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Hideaki Abe; Kenji Nagao; Miho Inoue-Murayama

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tonic immobility (TI) is fear-induced freezing that animals may undergo when confronted by a threat. It is principally observed in prey species as defence mechanisms. In our preliminary research, we detected large inter-individual variations in the frequency and duration of freezing behavior among newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus). In this study we aim to identify the copy number variations (CNVs) in the genome of chicks as genetic candidates that underlie the behavi...

  8. Avian myeloblastosis virus-induced lymphosarcoma producing erythroblastic leucosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Yoshito

    1975-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloblastosis and several forms of tumor, including one case of lymphosarcoma occurred when avian myeloblastosis virus (BAI-A strain was inoculated into newly hatched chicks (SPF. The homogenate of lymphosarcoma inoculated intraperitoneally into other newly hatched chicks induced a high incidence of erythroblastic leucosis. Electron microscopy did not reveal the presence of C-type virus particles in the tumor tissue. The relationship between avian myeloblastosis virus, lymphosarcoma and erythroblastic leucosis is discussed.

  9. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P

    2011-06-15

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited. PMID:21591754

  10. Feeding, fasting and foraging success during chick rearing in macaroni penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Green, J. A.; Boyd, I.L.; Woakes, A.J.; Green, C J; Butler, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Foraging behaviour and energy expenditure were measured continuously throughout the chick-rearing period of free-ranging macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus. These data were integrated with values obtained from the literature on body mass, assimilation efficiency, body reserve consumption and deposition rates, chick growth and energy expenditure and energy content of food in a new type of algorithm to predict (with 95% confidence limits [CL]) foraging success and daily changes in body mas...

  11. Evidence that coated vesicles transport acetylcholine receptors to the surface membrane of chick myotubes

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Coated vesicles are present in the myoplasm of embryonic chick myotubes grown in vitro. They are most numerous beneath regions of the surface membrane that contain a high density of acetylcholine receptors (AChR). Prolonged exposure of myotubes to saline extract of chick brain increases the number of intracellular AChR and the number of coated vesicles. This suggests that coated vesicles contain AChR, and this hypothesis was tested with horseradish peroxidase-alpha-bungarotoxin (HRP-alpha BTX...

  12. Chicks from a high and low feather pecking line of laying hens differ in apomorphine sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    van Hierden, YM; Koolhaas, JM; Kost'al, L; Vyboh, P; Sedlackova, M; Rajman, M.; Jurani, M; Korte, SM; Hierden, Yvonne M. van; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Košt’ál, L’ubor; Sedlačková, Monika

    2005-01-01

    Proactive rodents show a larger behavioral response to apomorphine (APO) than reactive copers, suggesting a more sensitive DA system in proactive individuals. Previously, chicks from a high feather pecking (HFP) and low feather pecking line (LFP) have been suggested to display a proactive and reactive cooing strategy, respectively. therefore, at approximately 4 weeks of age, the behavior of 48 LFP and 48 HFP chicks in response to an APO injection Was studied using an open field. Another objec...

  13. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined. PMID:20371858

  14. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  15. Selenium involved with vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Hady, M.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the vitamin E (VE) deficiency disease of the chick, encephalomalacia (EM), is affected by changes in selenium (Se) status. When 0.15 ppm Se and either 3.3 or 100 IU/kg VA was added to the diet, chicks fed the lower VE level showed signs of EM by 7 days. Day-old chicks had a mean plasma {alpha}-T level of .384 {mu}g/ml and relatively high {alpha}-T levels in brain, with those of the cerebrum exceeding those of the cerebellum (the target of histological lesions in EM). Chicks fed the greater VE level had no EM and showed increasing tissue {alpha}-T levels over time. Chicks fed the lower VE level showed progressive decreases in the {alpha}-T levels of plasma, cerebrum and cerebellum; when EM was manifest, the {alpha}-T levels in these tissues had dropped to {lt}.10 {mu}g/ml, {lt}.35 {mu}g/g and {lt}.3 {mu}g/g, respectively. When the diet was supplemented with a marginal level of Se and graded levels of VE, at least 10 IU VE/kg was required to prevent EM. A 2 {times} 3 complete factorial design with two levels of Se and three levels of VE revealed that, among chicks fed the lowest VE level, Se-adequate chicks showed a lower incidence of EM with later onset than low-Se chicks; nevertheless, dietary Se level did not affect brain {alpha}-T levels.

  16. Vitamin E as a radioprotector of bursa of Fabricius in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective influence of vitamin E has been studied on the bursa of Fabricius 1 and 7 day old white leghorn chicks exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body γ-radiations. The study has revealed that the loss of lymphocytic population in the bursal follicles due to irradiation was very small in vitamin E treated animals compared to the untreated irradiated chicks. Also, the rate of reparation and lymphocytic repopulation was enhanced with vitamin E administration. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  17. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  18. Glucocorticoids inhibited hypothalamic target of rapamycin in high fat diet-fed chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4 μg/2 μL) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (Pgene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. PMID:26188033

  19. Effects of estrogen on very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in fed and fasted chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single injection of estrogen into growing chicks resulted in a marked elevation in plasma triglyceride (TG) followed by phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH) in both fed and fasted chicks. Estrogen caused a development of massive fatty liver in fed chicks. Hepatic malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities also increased significantly in fed chicks and, to a small extent, in fasted chicks. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were barely detectable in the fasted control plasma. However, the VLDL concentration increased markedly upon estrogen injection, becoming the most prevalent lipoprotein in the plasma. The administration of estrogen resulted in an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid content except in the cholesteryl ester of VLDL and LDL. VLDL of estrogenized birds had β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis, and they eluted in two peaks on agarose gel filtration chromatography. Both peaks on gel filtration exhibited the same β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. Nevertheless, the apoprotein composition of these two peaks were substantially different from each other; apo B was not present in the first peak VLDL. VLDL-TG kinetic studies conducted in vivo, using 14C-TG-VLDL prepared endogenously from control and estrogenized chicks revealed that VLDL-TG produced from the former had a higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) than VLDL-TG from the latter

  20. Suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles by alpha-ketoisocaproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, K; Yakabe, Y; Ishida, A; Yamazaki, M; Abe, H

    2007-09-01

    We previously reported that L-leucine suppresses myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles. In the current study, we compared the effects of L- and D-enantiomers of leucine on myofibrillar proteolysis in skeletal muscle of chicks. We also assessed whether leucine itself or its metabolite, alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC), mediates the effects of leucine. Food-deprived (24 h) chicks were orally administered 225 mg/100 g body weight L-leucine, D-leucine or alpha-KIC and were sacrificed after 2 h. L-Leucine administration had an obvious inhibitory effect on myofibrillar proteolysis (plasma N(tau)-methylhistidine concentration) in chicks while D-leucine and alpha-KIC were much more effective. We also examined the expression of the proteolytic-related genes (ubiquitin, proteasome, m-calpain and cathepsin B) by real-time PCR of cDNA in chick skeletal muscles. Ubiquitin mRNA expression was decreased by D-leucine and alpha-KIC but not L-leucine. Proteasome and m-calpain mRNA expressions as well as cathepsin B mRNA expression were likewise decreased by L-leucine, D-leucine and alpha-KIC. These results indicate that D-leucine and alpha-KIC suppress proteolytic-related genes, resulting in an decrease in myofibrillar proteolysis while L-leucine is much less effective in skeletal muscle of chicks, may be explain by conversion of D-leucine to alpha-KIC. PMID:16998714

  1. Responses of broiler chicks to radiation processed full-fat rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion for full-fat rapeseed processed through radiation treatment, as a step towards detoxification, in broiler chick's diet. Raw and processed full-fat seeds (10 and 20 KGy) were fed to arbor acres broiler chicks from 7 d of 49 d of age. Body weight of chicks fed the control diet were heaviest followed in order against those fed seed irradiated at 20 and 10 KGy weight depression relative to birds fed, over the experimental duration, of chicks fed diets containing raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy were-11.2, - 7.2 and - 0.14%, respectively. In general, the study indicates that processed seeds at 20 KGy fed to broilers resulted in body weights (7 wk) similar to the control birds. leg abnormalities were seen in birds fed raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy to be 31.1, 17.8 and 8.9%, respectively. Mortality rate of birds fed raw seeds was more pronounced than those fed the irradiated seeds. Birds fed raw seeds showed thyroid and liver enlargement. Processed seeds at 10 and 20 KGy reduced the effect on these organs. Feeding chicks irradiated seed at 10 and 20 KGy did not normalize the weight of thyroid and liver. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in relative weight of gizzard, pancreas, heart and kidney of chicks fed control diet and those fed irradiated seeds

  2. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. PMID:26419601

  3. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  4. Influence of hydrogen peroxide in drinking water on diazepam pharmacokinetics in chicks

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    Yaareb J. Mousa

    Full Text Available Aim: Stressful conditions affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study examines the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in a chick model of oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks were either provided with plane tap water (control group or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. On treatment days 7–14, the chicks were treated with a sedative dose of diazepam at 10 mg/kg, intramuscularly. Blood samples were obtained from chicks (5/each sampling time at times of between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of diazepam in the plasma were determined by an HPLC method with UV-detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were calculated from the mean drug concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of diazepam resulted in the appearance of the drug in the plasma of control and H2O2 -treated chicks at mean concentrations ranging between 0.11 to 0.444 and 0.131 to 0.535 μg/ml, respectively when measured between 0.17 to 4 h after administration. Diazepam concentrations of the H O -treated chicks were significantly higher than those of the control group at the sampling times 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 4 h. The highest concentration of diazepam in the plasma of both the control and H2O2 treated chicks occurred one h after the injection. The elimination half-life, mean residence time, maximum plasma concentration, area under the moment curve and area under plasma concentration-time curve in the H2O2 -treated chicks were higher than those of the control group by 35, 28, 23, 91 and 49%, respectively. Correspondingly, the steady state volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and total body clearance in the H2O2 -treated chicks decreased from those of the respective control values by 15, 24 and 33%. Conclusion: The data suggest that oral

  5. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

  6. Method of Electroporation for the Early Chick Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Shimamura, Kenji

    Chick embryos have long been one of the favored model systems in the field of embryology and developmental biology. Recent advances in the gene manipulation technologies (Muramatsu et al., 1997; Nakamura et al., 2004) make this model system even more attractive for the developmental biologists (see review by Stern, 2005). Thanks to its two dimensional geometry, easiness in accessibility and observation, and well-established fate maps (e.g. Couly and Le Douarin, 1988; Garcia-Martinez et al., 1993; Hatada and Stern, 1994; Psychoyos and Stern, 1996; Sawada and Aoyama, 1999; Cobos et al., 2001; Lopez-Sanchez et al., 2001; Redkar et al., 2001; Fernandez-Garre et al., 2002; Kimura et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2008), it has great advantages especially for studies at the early embryonic stages, such as the processes of gastrulation, neural induction, left-right patterning, etc. For such purposes, a whole embryo culture system, originally invented by Dennis A. T. New (New, 1955), and its derivatives (Flamme, 1987; Sundin and Eichele, 1992; Stern, 1993; Chapman et al., 2001) have been widely used.

  7. Corticosterone in thin-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri chicks: diel rhythm, timing of fledging and nutritional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud; Chastel, Olivier; Masello, Juan F.

    2007-11-01

    Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) of the hypothalam-pituitary-adrenal axis play a role in association with both stressful events and daily life processes. However, relatively little is known about the role of GCs in relation to daily and seasonal life processes in animals in the wild. In this paper, we present data on basal levels of plasma corticosterone CORT in chicks of a pelagic seabird, the thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, during two predictable changes in demands, the daily activity pattern and the preparation for fledging. By comparing chicks fed recently with unfed chicks, we test how GC levels are modified according to nutritional condition. In accordance with their nocturnal feeding rhythm, chicks had a clear daily rhythm with increased CORT secretion at night, but CORT levels during the active phase were also highly elevated in unfed chicks compared with fed chicks. Close to fledging, chicks rapidly increased basal CORT levels, and again unfed chicks had higher levels than fed chicks, although the age effect here was stronger than the effect of recent feeding. The present data thus support the hypothesis that GC levels are adjusted to life stages with predictable changes in demands, but food availability and/or internal energy stores also affect the level to which GCs increase.

  8. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Takekawa, John Y; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Iverson, Samuel A

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 microg g(-1) fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by < or =3% over the range of observed mercury concentrations during the 28-day period from hatching to fledging. We also salvaged newly-hatched chicks that were found dead during routine nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild. PMID:17701344

  9. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto) in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Attar; Farid Firouzbakhsh; Hadi Sayyahzadeh; Mansour Rezaei; Mahalam Ghiyasi

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto) in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high) and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2%) in a completely ra...

  10. Effect of soybean variety and processing on growth performance of young chicks and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M F; Easter, R A; Soltwedel, K T; Parsons, C M; Douglas, M W; Hymowitz, T; Pettigrew, J E

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether soybeans without the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and lectins could be fed effectively to young chicks and pigs. Specifically, we compared the growth performance of chicks and pigs fed diets containing modified soybeans: Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free (KF), lectin-free (LF), lectin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free (LFKF), conventional soybeans (CSB), and commercially obtained, dehulled, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM). A 7-d chick experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of CSB, KF, LF, LFKF, and SBM. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with four replicates, five treatments, and six male chicks per pen (n = 120). The five treatments consisted of 23% CP dextrose-soybean-based diets containing KF, LF, LFKF, CSB, or SBM as the source of dietary protein. A 28-d pig experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of CSB, LF, LFKF, and SBM. Pens of four pigs were assigned randomly to a control, corn-SBM, or one of six corn-soybean diets containing raw or extruded soybean varieties as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with five blocks per treatment (n = 140). Chicks fed diets containing any of the raw soybean varieties gained less weight (P lectins and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (ADG of 16.56 g for LFKF) than by removing each antinutritional factor separately (ADG of 14.38 and 14.11 g for KF and LF, respectively). Pig growth performance was different (P antinutritional factor, lectin, was removed from the soybean and improved further (P = 0.045) when both lectins and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor were removed. The growth-inhibiting effect of feeding modified soybeans to young animals was more detrimental for pigs than for chicks in our experiments. Soybeans without the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and lectins cannot be fed successfully to young chicks and pigs without heating. PMID:15080333

  11. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

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    Michael R Guttery

    Full Text Available Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  12. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

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    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  13. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs. PMID:26536362

  14. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

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    Gourav Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  15. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer M; Tyerman, Donald J; Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L; Oswald, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL) among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167), and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body) occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem) most likely fledged 10-20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns. PMID:27231646

  16. Forster's tern chick survival in response to a managed relocation of predatory California gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herring, Garth

    2014-01-01

    Gull populations can severely limit the productivity of waterbirds. Relocating gull colonies may reduce their effects on nearby breeding waterbirds, but there are few examples of this management strategy. We examined gull predation and survival of Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks before (2010) and after (2011) the managed relocation of the largest California gull (Larus californicus) colony (24,000 adults) in San Francisco Bay, California. Overall, survival of radio-marked Forster's tern chicks from hatching to fledging was 0.22 ± 0.03 (mean ± SE), and daily survival rates increased with age. Gulls were the predominant predator of tern chicks, potentially causing 54% of chick deaths. Prior to the gull colony relocation, 56% of radio-marked and 20% of banded tern chicks from the nearest tern colony were recovered dead in the gull colony, compared to only 15% of radio-marked and 4% of banded chicks recovered dead from all other tern colonies. The managed relocation of the gull colony substantially increased tern chick survival (by 900%) in the nearby (3.8 km) reference tern colony (0.29 ± 0.10 in 2010 and 0.25 ± 0.09 in 2011). Among 19 tern nesting islands, fledging success was higher when gull abundance was lower at nearby colonies and when gull colonies were farther from the tern colony. Our results indicate that the managed relocation of gull colonies away from preferred nesting areas of sensitive waterbirds can improve local reproductive success, but this conservation strategy may shift gull predation pressure to other areas or species.

  17. Physiological adaptive indicators in fasted neonate broiler chicks in response to calcium gluconate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravinia, H

    2016-06-01

    Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2)  = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2)  = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks. PMID:26344414

  18. Response of Chick B Islets to Insulin Secretagogues is Comparable to those of Human Islet Equivalents

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    Bhawna Chandravanshi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Context The B islets isolated from 3-5 day old chick respond well to glucose challenge in a similar fashion to those isolated from mouse pancreas. Objective To compare insulin secretory response of chick B islets with that of human Islet Equivalents (hIEqs generated from stem cells. Methods Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs were differentiated into hIEqs employing three step sequential serum free protocols. Results Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated Insulin, C peptide and Glut 2 positivity of both these islets. Static insulin stimulation of these islets in response to glucose, metformin and Gama Amino Butyric Acid (GABA resulted in increased insulin secretion as compared to basal glucose stimulation. Our results demonstrate that insulin secretory response of Chick B islets to Metformin and GABA is comparable to those of hIEqs. Moreover, both chick and hIEqs could be successfully cryopreserved and revived in a commercially available cryomix - Cryostore 5, indicating resemblance in their behaviour at sub-zero temperatures. Inference Present study advocates Chick islets as an alternative source for diabetes research and islet banking.

  19. Aspects of chick growth in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of concerns about apparent population declines and low productivity of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) along the coast of Virginia, we investigated whether food limitations may result in retarded growth rates of young. Several colonies of Gull-billed Terns were monitored from May to July each year from 1994 to 1996 on both sandy barrier islands and marsh/shellpile islands in coastal Virginia. Nests were visited one to three times a week to monitor clutch size and hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick growth from hatching to at least two weeks of age. When comparing chick growth, we found significant year, habitat and hatch order effects. Chicks from marsh shellpiles had higher mass and culmen growth rates than did those from barrier islands, and first-hatched (A) chicks had significantly higher culmen growth rates than did second-hatched (B) chicks. Year effects were only found for mass growth rates. Growth rates of Gull- billed Terns in these Virginia colonies seem to be low relative to those of six other North American tern species from other geographic areas. These findings suggest that growth rates of young Gull-billed Terns, as well as other reproductive parameters, need to be examined in detail in other coastal areas such as Texas, where the species is more abundant, to determine whether our growth results are species- or region-specific.

  20. Performance of broiler chicks fed on irradiated full-fat soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A N experiment was conducted to evaluate physiological and biochemical responses of arbor chicks from 7 to 49 days fed on diets containing raw and full-fat soybeans processed at 20 and 50 KGy. The results demonstrate that feeding chicks on raw soybeans significantly depressed growth rate and increased feed intake. A significant thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard enlargement were also noticed, in addition a significant reduction was found in total plasma protein and albumin during the experimental period. These responses were not as pronounced as when soybeans irradiated at 20 KGy were fad. Soybeans processed at 50 KGy markedly reduced trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent (71% and 87%, respectively) and resulted in improved chick performance and normalized thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard weight and total plasma protein and albumin concentrations. Plasma transaminase activities were similar in all chicks during the experimental period. The improvement in performance of groups fed processed soybeans was the correlated with reduction of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent. It is concluded that the radiation processing of soybeans up to 50 KGy is sufficiently suitable to have potential in the feed industry without any deleterious effect on chicks' performance as evidenced by the physiological and biochemical responses

  1. Hemicellulose does not affect iron bioavailability in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fly, A D; Czarnecki-Maulden, G L; Fahey, G C; Titgemeyer, E C

    1996-01-01

    Two iron repletion experiments using hemoglobin as a response criterion were conducted to assess effects of hemicelluloses on iron bioavailability to chicks. In Experiment 1, iron bioavailability from intact fiber sources was determined by adding tomato pomace (14.6% hemicelluloses), soybean hulls (20.6% hemicelluloses), beet pulp (21.5% hemicelluloses), orchard grass (24.1% hemicelluloses) and corn fiber (55.2% hemicelluloses) to a casein dextrose basal diet providing 0.4-4.1% hemicelluloses to the diet. Test foods were analyzed for iron, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent residue, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, pectins and uronic acids. Hemicelluloses were determined by the difference of neutral detergent residue minus acid detergent fiber. Iron bioavailability was determined by the standard curve method to be (percent relative to ferrous sulfate using hemoglobin as the response criterion) as follows: tomato pomace, 82.0; soybean hulls, 94.0; beet pulp, 26.5; orchard grass, 68.9; corn fiber, 69.4. Iron bioavailability was not related to hemicellulose content of test foods or diets. In Experiment 2, the effect of psyllium husk (a fiber source that contains predominantly hemicelluloses) on iron bioavailability from ferrous sulfate was assessed. Bioavailability was determined by the slope ratio method where treatments consisted of graded levels of ferrous sulfate in the presence and absence of 5% dietary psyllium. Although iron intrinsic to psyllium was unavailable, bioavailability of ferrous sulfate iron was not affected (P > 0.05) by the presence of psyllium. Thus, there was no clear effect of hemicelluloses on iron bioavailability. However, some feeds that contained high levels of hemicelluloses had low intrinsic iron bioavailabilities, suggesting that other dietary factors are primarily responsible for determining iron bioavailability from these feed components. PMID:8558316

  2. Developmental expression of BK channels in chick cochlear hair cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Mingjie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cochlear hair cells are high-frequency sensory receptors. At the onset of hearing, hair cells acquire fast, calcium-activated potassium (BK currents, turning immature spiking cells into functional receptors. In non-mammalian vertebrates, the number and kinetics of BK channels are varied systematically along the frequency-axis of the cochlea giving rise to an intrinsic electrical tuning mechanism. The processes that control the appearance and heterogeneity of hair cell BK currents remain unclear. Results Quantitative PCR results showed a non-monotonic increase in BK α subunit expression throughout embryonic development of the chick auditory organ (i.e. basilar papilla. Expression peaked near embryonic day (E 19 with six times the transcript level of E11 sensory epithelia. The steady increase in gene expression from E11 to E19 could not explain the sudden acquisition of currents at E18-19, implicating post-transcriptional mechanisms. Protein expression also preceded function but progressed in a sequence from diffuse cytoplasmic staining at early ages to punctate membrane-bound clusters at E18. Electrophysiology data confirmed a continued refinement of BK trafficking from E18 to E20, indicating a translocation of BK clusters from supranuclear to subnuclear domains over this critical developmental age. Conclusions Gene products encoding BK α subunits are detected up to 8 days before the acquisition of anti-BK clusters and functional BK currents. Therefore, post-transcriptional mechanisms seem to play a key role in the delayed emergence of calcium-sensitive currents. We suggest that regulation of translation and trafficking of functional α subunits, near voltage-gated calcium channels, leads to functional BK currents at the onset of hearing.

  3. Studies on chicks fed irradiated animal protein by-products. Pt. 2. Biochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilali, E.A.; El-Hakeim, N.F. (El-Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Animal Production); Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.; Diaa El-Din, M.; Farag, H. (National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-01-01

    In three separate 9-weeks experiments, broiler chicks were supplemented with either unirradiated or irradiated (10 Gy) animal protein by-products. Irradiated blood meal induced insignificant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globuline or A/G ratio during the 5th and 7th week of age. A decrease in total plasma protein was remarked by the 9th week. This trend was observed with fish meal. Irradiated meat-bone meal caused slight changes in total plasma protein by the 5th week. Chicks fed on irradiated animal protein byproducts did not affect blood transaminases level which reveal no impairment in liver function and/or myocardial infarction. Also, blood uric acid concentration, creatine and creatinine indicate that the experimental chicks neither suffered degenerative diseases in skeletal muscles nor renal function injury. (orig.).

  4. The effect of excess dietary manganese on uninfected and Ascaridia galli infected chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrashanska, M.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Balarew, C.; Gálvez-Morros, M. M.; Arambarri, Pablo de

    1999-01-01

    The effect of dietary manganese from two different sources on chicks (uninfected and infected with Ascaridia galli) was studied. Chick diet was supplemented with 0.9 g Mn2+ kg-1 food either in the form of MnSO4.H2O or 2Gly. MnCl2.2H2O for 20 days. Chicks were divided into six groups: group 0, control; group 1, control + MnSO4.H2O; group 2, control + 2Gly.MnCl2.2H2O; group 3, infected with A. galli; group 4, infected with A. galli + MnSO4.H2O; and group 5, infected with A. galli + 2Gly.MnCl2.2...

  5. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  6. Trivial or Commendable? : Women’s Writing, Popular Culture, and Chick Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  7. CHICK BRAIN ENZYME INHIBTON METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LEAD COMPOUNDS BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.SEETHAMMA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chick brain succinate dehydrogenase was employed as a biosource for the detaction of lead compound from industrial water sample by an enzyme inhibition technique on thin layer chromatograms. The lead compounds (lead nitrate abd lead acetate appeared as white spots on a pinkb back ground due to the inhibition of chick brain succinate dehydrogenase employing a chromogenic reagent mixture containing sodium succinate substrate, (2-(4-lodophenyl -3 (4- nitrophenyl -5 phenyl tetrazolium chloride and N-methyl phenasonium metho sulphate. Many other animal succinate dehydrogenases also gave inhibition spot under the same condition on micro thin layer chromatographic plates but they were less sensitive than chick brain succinate dehydrogenases. Industrial water sample was collected from scrab smelter plant and was used for detection of lead compound by enzyme inhibition technique.

  8. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  9. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter

    2016-04-15

    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs. PMID:27016751

  10. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  11. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27388114

  12. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  13. Use of hyperimmune serum for passive immunization of chicks experimentally infected with newcastle disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were isolated from field outbreaks. ELD/sub 50/ of the VNDV was determined at 10/sup -5.33/. La Sota strain and Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) were inoculated in adult chicks to raise hyper immune serum. The serum was purified and used to reduce the morbidity and mortality in experimentally infected broiler chicks with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). 120 day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D. At 14 The day of age, the chicks were infected with velogenic field isolate of Newcastle disease virus (ELD/sub 50/= 10/sup -5.33/0.1mL) and two hours post infection the birds were passively immunized with HIS at the rate 2mL, 3mL and 6mL, in group B, C and D, respectively, while group A was kept as control. Chicks received 2mL HIS exhibited severe respiratory and enteric signs of Newcastle disease, while chicks received 3mL and 6mL HIS were anorexic in early days and on 10th day post inoculation (DPI) they were recovered. Gross lesions in infected birds were hemorrhages in trachea, proventriculus and intestine, and congestion in infected lungs. Histo- athological examination showed epithelial sloughing, congestion of blood vessels in group A, mild tracheitis and alveoli of lungs filled with exudates along with lymphocytes in group B, mild lymphocytic infiltration in group C, while trachea and lungs showed no significant change in group D. Higher range of GMT values were observed in group D while low range of GMT values were observed in group A. It was concluded that HIS against NDV can be used to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in experimentally infected birds. (author)

  14. Immunization of chicks at various ages with irradiated infective eggs of Ascaridia galli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of safe immunization of chicks at an appropriate age with a double-dose irradiated Ascaridia galli vaccine given orally at two weeks interval was explored. Chicks immunized at 7 or 10 days of age were not affected adversely since they did not develop any clinical signs and there was no worm establishment after challenge infection. Immunization also elicited detectable circulating antibody titres, with IHA and the conglutinating complement absorption test having a tendency to be enhanced after the booster dose. (author)

  15. Utilization of choline from crude soybean lecithin by chicks. 1. Growth and prevention of perosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, B; Bornstein, S; Budowski, P

    1977-01-01

    Data obtained with growing chicks fed a semi-purified diet indicate that choline from crude soybean lecithin is as well utilized as synthetic choline chloride, on the basis of growth, relative liver weight and prevention of perosis. Extrapolation of the results on growth and perosis prevention, obtained between 1 and 3 weeks of age, to performance on practical-type diets yields choline requirements for broiler-type chicks ranging from 800 to 1000 mg./kg. diet (as choline chloride). The requirement seems to decrease with age. PMID:564504

  16. A comparison of protocols for passive and discriminative avoidance learning tasks in the domestic chick

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, M.; Johnston, A N B; Mileusnic, R.; S. F. Crowe

    2008-01-01

    A one-trial learning task where chicks learn that a bead of a particular shape and/or colour has a bitter taste (100% Methyl anthranilate – MeA) and subsequently avoids it on test has been widely used by research groups across the world. However, there are some differences in the results reported by different research laboratories. One important difference is found when chicks are trained on a diluted bitter taste (10 or 20% MeA) such that memory is not consolidated and fades, e.g. memory las...

  17. Effects of Optically Imposed Astigmatism on Early Eye Growth in Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chin Hung Geoffrey; Kee, Chea Su

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of optically imposed astigmatism on early eye growth in chicks. Methods 5-day-old (P5) White Leghorn chicks were randomly assigned to either wear, monocularly, a “high magnitude” (H: +4.00DS/-8.00DC) crossed-cylindrical lens oriented at one of four axes (45, 90, 135, and 180; n = 20 in each group), or were left untreated (controls; n = 8). Two additional groups wore a “low magnitude” (L: +2.00DS/−4.00DC) cylindrical lens orientated at either axis 90 or 180 (n ...

  18. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  19. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Hercules R; Ferraz, Gabriel; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Ribeiro-Resende, Victor T; Chiarini, Luciana B; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Matos Oliveira, Karen Renata H; Pereira, Tiago de Lima; Ferreira, Leonardo G B; Kubrusly, Regina C; Faria, Robson X; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Reis, Ricardo A de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH) is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1-10 mM) showed that 5-10 mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells), while neurons responded to 50 mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells). BBG 100 nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70 μM and MK-801 20 μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at 5 mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s) protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit. PMID:27078878

  20. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  2. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Hall-Martin; B. P Botha

    1980-01-01

    DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  3. The Protective Effects of Different Sources of Maternal Selenium on Oxidative Stressed Chick Embryo Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue; Yuan, Dong; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2016-07-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the protective effects of different sources of maternal selenium (Se) on oxidative stressed chick embryo. A total of 270 Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly allocated into three treatments with five replicates for 18 birds each. Breeders were fed with basal diet (BD) including 0.04 mg/kg Se or BD supplemented with sodium selenite (SS) or selenomethionine (SM) at a level of 0.15 mg Se/kg. The rearing experiment lasted for 8 weeks after an 8-week pre-test. Twenty eggs were collected from each replicate during the last 10-day, then incubated in a commercial incubator. On embryonic 17th, fertile eggs were transferred into 39.5 °C temperature stimulation for 6 h. Afterward, five eggs were randomly selected from each replicate for collecting chick embryo sample. The results showed that Se supplementation in the diet of breeders resulted in lower reactive oxygen species (ROS), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations and higher glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in heat stress treated chick embryo (P reduce ROS concentration and oxidative damage by upregulating the expression of antioxidative selenoprotein, and maternal SM is superior to SS in heat stress treated chick embryo. PMID:26554950

  4. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobek, V.; Plachý, Jiří; Pintérová, D.; Kološtová, K.; Boubelík, Michael; Jiang, P.; Yang, M.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2004), s. 347-352. ISSN 0262-0898 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : chick embryo * Lewis lung carcinoma * metastasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2004

  5. Histamine in the chick pineal gland: origin, metabolism, and effects on the pineal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J Z; Zawilska, J B; Woldan-Tambor, A; Sek, B; Voisin, P; Lintunen, M; Panula, P

    1997-01-01

    The chick pineal gland contains histamine and tele-methylhistamine. The levels of both substances are elevated after treatment of chicks with the amino acid precursor of histamine, L-histidine (1 g/kg, ip). In control and L-histidine-loaded animals the pineal levels of histamine and tele-methylhistamine are higher in light-exposed than in dark-adapted animals (measured at the end of the light phase and in the middle of the dark phase of 12 hr light, 12 hr dark illumination cycle, respectively). The chick pineal gland contains histamine-immunofluorescent cells displaying mast cell morphology; they are seen in the vicinity of the capsule and in the parenchyma. Enzymatic studies showed the presence of the activity of histamine synthesizing and inactivating enzyme, i.e., L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine-methyltransferase (HMT). The detected enzyme activities were sensitive to specific inhibitors of HDC (alpha-fluoromethylhistidine and alpha-hydrazinohistidine) and HMT (quinacrine and metoprine); inhibitors of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase alpha-methyl-DOPA and NSD-1015 were inactive on HDC. Exogenous histamine added to organ-cultured chick pineals strongly stimulated endogenous cyclic AMP accumulation and moderately increased melatonin secretion. The data, considered collectively, suggest that in avians histamine, probably originating from the pineal mast cell compartment, may function as a regulator of pineal gland activity. PMID:9062867

  6. Maternal testosterone influences a begging component that makes fathers work harder in chick provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José C; Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    In species with biparental care, parents disagree evolutionarily over the amount of care that each of them is willing to provide to offspring. It has recently been hypothesised that females may try to manipulate their mates by modifying offspring begging behaviour through yolk hormone deposition, shifting the division of labour in their own favour. To test this hypothesis we first investigated how yellow-legged gull (Larus michaellis) parents feed offspring in relation to each component of complex begging behaviour and if feeding behaviour varies between sexes. Then we investigated the effect of yolk testosterone on chicks' begging by experimentally increasing yolk testosterone levels. Our results revealed that yolk testosterone has a component-specific effect on chicks' begging, specifically increasing the number of chatter calls. Parental feeding effort was influenced by the number of chatter calls emitted by chicks, but most importantly, the influence was stronger in male than in female parents. Moreover, chick body mass increased with the number of paternal feeds. In conclusion, these results show that female gulls may use yolk testosterone deposition to exploit their partners as predicted by the 'Manipulating Androgen Hypothesis (MAH)'. PMID:23651611

  7. Development of remnant kidney in the chick embryos with unilateral renal agenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Zdeňka; Jirsová, Z.; Murphy, M. J.

    Berlin : Institute of biology, 2005. s. 61-61. [Combined workshop of fundamental physiology of the european working group of physiology and perinatal development poultry /2./. 23.09.2005-25.09.2005, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/04/0972 Keywords : chick embryo * renal agenesis * mesonephros Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  8. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization. PMID:3027282

  9. Absorption of the trypan blue in the proximal tubules of the chick mesonephros

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, Z.; Zemanová, Zdeňka; Martínek, J.

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita, 2005. s. 56-56. ISBN 80-210-3793-8. [Congress of the Czech anatomical society /43./, Lojda symposium /42./. 04.09.2005-07.09.2005, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0972 Keywords : chick embryo * mesonephros * proximal tubule * trypan blue Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  10. Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.

    2007-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ??g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  11. Bendiocarb effect on liver and central nervous system in the chick embryo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovová, E.; Sedmera, David; Lešník, František; Luptáková, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2009), s. 383-388. ISSN 0360-1234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bendiocarb * Chick embryo * Toxicity Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2009

  12. Morphogenetic Activities of Bendiocarb as Cholinesterase Inhibitor on Development of the Chick Embryo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovová, E.; Luptáková, L.; Mazenský, D.; Danko, J.; Sedmera, David

    Rijeka: InTech, 2011 - (Stoytcheva, M.), s. 469-494 ISBN 978-953-307-457-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bendiocarb * chick embryo * toxicity * development * pesticides * central nervous system * cell death Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  13. Comparison of the cell cytoskeleton in migratory and stationary chick fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badley, R A; Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1980-01-01

    The organization of the principal cytoskeletal components (actin, tubulin and 10 nm filament protein) have been compared by immunofluorescence microscopy in two populations of chick heart fibroblasts, previously shown to be adapted respectively for rapid, directed migration or adhesion and growth...

  14. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  15. Adaptation of infectious bronchitis virus in primary cells of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Mohammed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells to infectious bronchitis virus was evaluated after twenty consecutive passages in chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. At 72 hours post-infection (p.i. in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cells, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by immunoperoxidase from 24 hours p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Tissue culture ineffective dose50 (TCID50 was used to measure virus titration performed on primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells and the titre in twenty passage was 108.6 TCID50/ml. The results obtained in this study suggested that the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells can be used for adaptation infectious bronchitis virus (IBV and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

  16. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  17. Histochemical demonstration of the heterogeneity of the epithelium of proximal tubules in the chick mesonephros

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Zdeňka; Jirsová, Z.; Murphy, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2002), s. 419-422. ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/98/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : chick mesonephros * proximal tubule * alkaline phosphatase Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2002

  18. HAEMATOLOGICAL VALUES AND PLASMA CHOLESTEROL AS AFFECTED BY MOULTING IN NICK CHICK LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Tanzeela Talat

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine effect of moulting on haematological values and plasma cholesterol levels of 86 weeks old Nick Chick laying hens. Washington and California moulting methods were used. Young laying hens, 40 weeks old served as control group. There were 408 hens in each group. There was no significant (P

  19. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  20. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  1. Chicks from a high and low feather pecking line of laying hens differ in apomorphine sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hierden, Yvonne M; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Kost'ál, L'ubor; Výboh, Pavel; Sedlacková, Monika; Rajman, Marek; Juráni, Marian; Mechiel Korte, S

    2005-03-16

    Proactive rodents show a larger behavioral response to apomorphine (APO) than reactive copers, suggesting a more sensitive DA system in proactive individuals. Previously, chicks from a high feather pecking (HFP) and low feather pecking line (LFP) have been suggested to display a proactive and reactive coping strategy, respectively. Therefore, at approximately 4 weeks of age, the behavior of 48 LFP and 48 HFP chicks in response to an APO injection was studied using an open field. Another objective of the present study was to determine whether behavioral variation (in an open field) between HFP and LFP birds, after APO injection, is also reflected by variation of D(1) and D(2) receptor densities in the brain. Receptor binding capacities were assessed by measuring specific binding of tritiated D(1) and D(2) receptor ligands in different regions of the brain of control HFP and LFP chicks. In the present study, it is shown that indeed HFP chicks display a more enhanced behavioral response to acute APO treatment (0.5 mg/kg BW) than LFP birds in an open field. This difference was not reflected by variation of D(1) and D(2) receptor densities in the brain between both lines. PMID:15763586

  2. Changes in activation sequence of embryonic chick atria correlate with developing myocardial architecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmera, David; Wessels, A.; Trusk, T. C.; Thompson, R. P.; Hewett, K. W.; Gourdie, R. G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 291, 4 (2006), H1646-H1652. ISSN 0363-6135 Grant ostatní: NIH RR-16434; NIH HL-50582; NIH HL-52813; NIH HD-39446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : chick embryo * optical mapping * conduction system Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.724, year: 2006

  3. Diurnal cycles in serotonin acetyltransferase activity and cyclic GMP content of cultured chick pineal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S D

    1980-06-12

    Levels of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT: acetul CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.5.) activity in the chick pineal gland exhibit a marked diurnal variation in birds kept under a diurnal cycle of ilumination. Activity begins to rise rapidly at the start of the dark phase of the cycle and reaches maximum levels at mid-dark phase about 25-fold greater than the minimum basal level at mid-light phase. Thereafter, the level of activity declines to the basal level about the start of the light phase. This diurnal cycle in chick pineal NAT activity found in vivo has recently been reproduced in vitro with intact glands incubated in organ culture. The mechanism of the 'biological clock' which regulates these variations in level of chick pineal NAT activity is unknown. However, I now report that chick pineal glands cultured under a diurnal cycle of illumination exhibit a diurnal cycle in content of cyclic GMP which roughly parallels the cycles in NAT activity. In contrast, there was no correlation between variations in pineal content of cyclic AMP and in level of NAT activity. PMID:6250035

  4. From high heels to weed attics: a syntactic investigation of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.; Koolen, C.W.; van Cranenburgh, Andreas; de Jong, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stylometric analysis of prose is typically limited to classification tasks such as authorship attribution. Since the models used are typically black boxes, they give little insight into the stylistic diff erences they detect. In this paper, we characterize two prose genres syntactically: chick lit (

  5. Increased ventricular preload is compensated by myocyte proliferation in normal and hypoplastic fetal chick left ventricle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dealmeida, A.; McQuinn, T. C.; Sedmera, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2007), s. 1363-1370. ISSN 0009-7330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : chick embryo * hemodynamics * fetal surgery * hypoplastic left heart syndrome Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 9.721, year: 2007

  6. Chicks from a high and low feather pecking line of laying hens differ in apomorphine sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hierden, YM; Koolhaas, JM; Kost'al, L; Vyboh, P; Sedlackova, M; Rajman, M; Jurani, M; Korte, SM; Hierden, Yvonne M. van; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Košt’ál, L’ubor; Sedlačková, Monika

    2005-01-01

    Proactive rodents show a larger behavioral response to apomorphine (APO) than reactive copers, suggesting a more sensitive DA system in proactive individuals. Previously, chicks from a high feather pecking (HFP) and low feather pecking line (LFP) have been suggested to display a proactive and reacti

  7. Generation of the Dimensional Embryology Application (App) for Visualization of Early Chick and Frog Embryonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca L.; Bilitski, James; Zerbee, Alyssa; Symans, Alexandra; Chop, Alexandra; Seitz, Brianne; Tran, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The study of embryonic development of multiple organisms, including model organisms such as frogs and chicks, is included in many undergraduate biology programs, as well as in a variety of graduate programs. As our knowledge of biological systems increases and the amount of material to be taught expands, the time spent instructing students about…

  8. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  9. Investigation of the chick embryo as a potential alternative to the mouse for evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The chick embryo is an emerging in vivo model in several areas of pre-clinical research including radiopharmaceutical sciences. Herein, it was evaluated as a potential test system for assessing the biodistribution and in vivo stability of radiopharmaceuticals. For this purpose, a number of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 18F, 125I, 99mTc, and 177Lu were investigated in the chick embryo and compared with the data obtained in mice. Methods: Chick embryos were cultivated ex ovo for 17–19 days before application of the radiopharmaceutical directly into the peritoneum or intravenously using a vein of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). At a defined time point after application of radioactivity, the embryos were euthanized by shock-freezing using liquid nitrogen. Afterwards they were separated from residual egg components for post mortem imaging purposes using positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Results: SPECT images revealed uptake of [99mTc]pertechnetate and [125I]iodide in the thyroid of chick embryos and mice, whereas [177Lu]lutetium, [18F]fluoride and [99mTc]-methylene diphosphonate ([99mTc]-MDP) were accumulated in the bones. [99mTc]-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and the somatostatin analog [177Lu]-DOTATOC, as well as the folic acid derivative [177Lu]-DOTA-folate showed accumulation in the renal tissue whereas [99mTc]-mebrofenin accumulated in the gall bladder and intestine of both species. In vivo dehalogenation of [18F]fallypride and of the folic acid derivative [125I]iodo-tyrosine-folate was observed in both species. In contrast, the 3′-aza-2′-[18F]fluorofolic acid ([18F]-AzaFol) was stable in the chick embryo as well as in the mouse. Conclusions: Our results revealed the same tissue distribution profile and in vivo stability of radiopharmaceuticals in the chick embryo and the mouse. This observation is promising with regard to a potential use of the chick embryo as an inexpensive

  10. Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Koshiba

    Full Text Available Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

  11. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  12. A method for detecting MFO induction by Japanese pulp mill effluents with chick embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kamaya, Yasushi [Japan Pulp and Paper Research Inst. Inc., Tokodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    As a biomarker of physiological responses in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents, mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction has been investigated by many researchers. The induction and/or inhibition of MFOs is generally affected by various factors of fish such as species, maturity, sex, size and spawning status, and by other environmental variables. Therefore, the method demands technical skills to get a constant result. In addition, the test is costly and also time consuming. In this paper, the authors propose a MFOs induction method using chick embryo, instead of fish, for the assessment of pulp mill effluent. The merits of this method are as follows; inexpensive and commercially available test organisms, easy maintenance of the organisms, no feeding, high uniformity of the developing stage, sensitive responses to xenobiotics, low sample volume requirements, easy testing of various samples at one time and minimal training. P450 1A1 has been found in the microsome of chick embryo. Metabolic function of the P450 1A1 can be regarded basically the same as that of fish. Small amount of xenobiotics, about 100 {micro}l, were injected into the air chamber of 16-day-old chick embryos. Liver microsomes were isolated 48 h after administration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined by the direct fluorimetric method. Using the chick embryo method, the authors analyzed various chloro-organics, model bleached kraft pulp mill effluents, model black liquor and several total effluents of Japanese pulp mills. Methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-TCDD were used as positive controls. In this paper, the authors will report the details of the chick embryo method and also some results of the assessment using the method.

  13. Chick embryo partial ischemia model: a new approach to study ischemia ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamantak Majumder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemia is a pathophysiological condition due to blockade in blood supply to a specific tissue thus damaging the physiological activity of the tissue. Different in vivo models are presently available to study ischemia in heart and other tissues. However, no ex vivo ischemia model has been available to date for routine ischemia research and for faster screening of anti-ischemia drugs. In the present study, we took the opportunity to develop an ex vivo model of partial ischemia using the vascular bed of 4(th day incubated chick embryo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ischemia was created in chick embryo by ligating the right vitelline artery using sterile surgical suture. Hypoxia inducible factor- 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha, creatine phospho kinase-MB and reactive oxygen species in animal tissues and cells were measured to confirm ischemia in chick embryo. Additionally, ranolazine, N-acetyl cysteine and trimetazidine were administered as an anti-ischemic drug to validate the present model. Results from the present study depicted that blocking blood flow elevates HIF-1alpha, lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite level in ischemic vessels while ranolazine administration partially attenuates ischemia driven HIF-1alpha expression. Endothelial cell incubated on ischemic blood vessels elucidated a higher level of HIF-1alpha expression with time while ranolazine treatment reduced HIF-1alpha in ischemic cells. Incubation of caprine heart strip on chick embryo ischemia model depicted an elevated creatine phospho kinase-MB activity under ischemic condition while histology of the treated heart sections evoked edema and disruption of myofibril structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study concluded that chick embryo partial ischemia model can be used as a novel ex vivo model of ischemia. Therefore, the present model can be used parallel with the known in vivo ischemia models in understanding the mechanistic insight of ischemia development and in

  14. EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION OF ETIZOLAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHICK EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta P. Alai et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are various drugs used in daily life. Some of them show hazardous effect on various organs and some of them shows even lethal effect. Such drugs are required to banned. One of them is Etizolam (marketed under the brand name Sedekopan, Pasaden or Depas is a drug which is a thiebenzothiodiazepines analog. The aim of this work is done to compare the effect of administration of the etizolam drug at (Zero-day before incubation and at the (5-day first week of incubation, to get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effect of this drug on the development of chick embryo. So that morphological and biochemical studies were done on the chick embryo of 8- and 16-days old chick embryos treated with (0.5mg/ml egg of etizolam on the (zero and 5-th days of incubation. Etizolam caused abnormality in concentration dependent manner. Enlarged remains of primitive streak was seen at 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml concentration of Etizolam embryo dies. Etizolam inhibit development of somites of the development of 5-day at of incubation also it does not allow the development of notochord. The toxic effects of the drug was seen also more at 16-days treated chick embryos and the drug induced death of chick embryo at both 8- and 16-days treated with 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml. The conclusion from this study was the etizolam drug has dangerous effects on tissues and with powerful toxicity on the cells, because the drug absorbed rapidly with peak plasma levels achieved between 30 minutes and 2 hours and has a mean elimination half life of about 3 and a half hours.

  15. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin's gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5-24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin's gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  17. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  18. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

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    Minka N. Salka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  19. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of 137Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically 137Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml-1137Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2 g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of 137Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p 137Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of 137Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the 137Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the 137Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard

  20. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

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    Friday Chima NWORGU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  1. Haemato-biochemical and pathological studies on aflatoxicosis and treatment of broiler chicks in Egypt

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    Mohamed A. Hashem

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of protexin (probiotic, inulin (prebiotic and both (synbiotics, when included in a diet containing aflatoxins and fed to growing broiler chicks (from 1 to 21 days old. The criteria of the evaluation included body weight gain, haematological profile and biochemistry, in addition to associated lesions in chicks. A total of 160 Hubbard male day-old broiler chicks were separated into eight groups that all received different diets (additional aflatoxins, protexin, inulin and symbiotic. The birds were weighed and sacrificed at the age of 21 days. Compared to the controls, aflatoxins alone significantly (p<0.05 decreased body weight gain in one group. No difference in body weight gain was found in three groups, indicating apparent protection against the deleterious effects caused by aflatoxins. The weight gain of chicks fed on the diet containing synbiotics alone or synbiotics and aflatoxins was significantly (p<0.05 greater than that of chicks on a diet containing the other treatments. The birds the second group showed significant (p<0.05 reduction in the haematological parameters in comparison with the controls. The biochemical analysis showed a considerable (p<0.05 increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, uric acid and creatinine levels, with a reduction in the serum total proteins, albumin and globulins. The addition of protexin, inulin, or both, diminished the adverse effects of aflatoxins. Finally, it was concluded that the protexin, inulin and synergism of both are effective in the amelioration of the toxic effects of aflatoxins that may be present in poultry rations at levels up to 4 mg/kg diet. Synbiotics (protexin and inulin are more effective than the protexin and the inulin alone which are variable in the alleviation of toxic effects caused by aflatoxins.

  2. Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) from the Egyptian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae), first identification on the basis of light and ultrastructural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Fol, Mona; Yehia, Salma

    2014-12-01

    Haemonchus longistipes is a gastrointestinal abomasal nematode which is one of the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites infesting the stomach of ruminants. On the basis of light and ultrastructural data, the objective of the present study was to introduce a first identification of the cameline haemonchosis caused by H. longistipes. Abomasa of 42 Egyptian camels Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae) were collected monthly from September 2013 to April 2014 from the main slaughter house of Cairo, Egypt. Adult male and female nematode worms were recovered from 26 (62%) specimens of the examined abomasa. The parasites were of yellow color; the body was filiform (slender) tapered towards the anterior end in male and towards both ends in female. Buccal capsules absent, the buccal cavity was small with a conspicuous dorsal lancet extended from dorsal wall. The cervical papillae were prominent and spine-like. The body length of the female worm was 16.6-20.5 (18.5 ± 0.3) mm. The anterior end to the cervical papillae was 3.19-4.30 (4.12 ± 0.5) mm. The vulva of the female had a linguiform process or flap, the tail is without a spine, and the anal pore at the posterior end of the body had a simple dorsal rim. The body of male was 10.4-14.7 (13.9 ± 2.0) mm in length. The male bursa had elongated lobes supported by long, slender rays. The small dorsal lobe was asymmetrical with Y-shaped dorsal rays. The spicules were long with a length of 0.52-0.54 (0.53 ± 0.05) mm, each provided with a small barb and pore near its extremity. Synlophe was bilaterally and dorsoventrally symmetrical; it extended from cephalic expansion over anterior 50% of prebursal or prevulvar body and consisted of a maximum of 42 ridges. The described species herein was compared with the three morphologically similar species Haemonchus mitchelli, Haemonchus okapiae, and H. longistipes with their synlophes consist of 42 ridges distributed over the anterior half of the body. These

  3. Analyse moléculaire de la diversité génétique des dromadaires (Camelus dromedarius en Tunisie

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    Ould Ahmed, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of molecular genetic diversity of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius in Tunisia. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and relationships among Tunisian camel populations in three different geographical locations (Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine from Southern arid and semi-arid regions in Tunisia. Eight selected microsatellite markers were used for a sample of 90 dromedary genotypes. A total of 34 alleles were detected in the three populations. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to seven with an average of 4.25 alleles per locus. For each population the average of alleles per locus is 3.33, 3.71 and 3.87 for Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine, respectively. The mean of the observed heterozygosity (Ho were 0.43, 0.50, 0.57 and 0.52 for Kebili, Medenine, Tataouine and total populations, respectively. These values were lower than expected with heterozygosity (He values 0.50, 0.57, 0.62 and 0.61, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient was 15.3% in Kebili, 11.4% in Medenine and 8.3% in Tataouine. The mean estimates of F-statistics were FIT = 0.15, FIS = 0.071 and FST = 0.083. These values were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05 and suggest a moderate differentiation. An inbreeding rate of 15% was found. Estimated genetic distances revealed by the loci varied from 0 to 0.9 between dromedary individuals. The estimated genetic distances pair-wise showed 0.104 among Medenine-Tataouine, 0.280 between Kebili-Medenine and 0.290 between Kebili-Tataouine. The distance matrix was able to distinguish between two separate genetic entities: Nefzawa (Kebili including Merzougui, G'oudi and M'hari ecotypes and the Aaradh group (Medenine and Tataouine that includes Maghribi and Khaouar ecotypes. The results of this study did not confirm the present classification established by dromedary herders who divide the population into five different ecotypes, apparently based on the sociogeographical criteria

  4. A review of sarcocystosis in camels and redescription of Sarcocystis cameli and Sarcocystis ippeni sarcocysts from the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hilali, M; Van Wilpe, E; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Abbas, I E

    2015-10-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in camels. Five species: Sarcocystis cameli, Sarcocystis ippeni, Sarcocystis camelicanis, Sarcocystis camelocanis and Sarcocystis miescheri were named with inadequate descriptions and no type specimens. Here, we review literature on sarcocystosis in camels worldwide and redescribe structure of S. cameli and S. ippeni sarcocysts by light- and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM). Eight sarcocysts from the oesophagi of two camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Egypt were studied. By LM, all sarcocysts were thin-walled with barely visible projections on the cyst walls. By TEM, two structurally distinct sarcocysts were recognized by unique villar protrusions (vp) not found in sarcocysts from any other host. Sarcocysts of S. cameli had vp of type 9 j. The sarcocyst wall had upright slender vp, up to 3.0 µM long and 0.5 µM wide; the total thickness of the sarcocyst wall with ground substance (gs) layer was 3.5 µM. On each vp, there were rows of knob-like protrusions that appeared to be interconnected. The vp had microtubules that originated at midpoint of the gs and continued up to the tip; microtubules were smooth, without any granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were approximately 14-15 × 3-4 µM in size with typical organelles. Sarcocystis ippeni sarcocysts had type 32 sarcocyst wall characterized by conical vp with an electron dense knob. The total thickness of the sarcocyst wall (from the base of gs to vp tip) was 2.3-3.0 µM. The vp were up to 1.2 µM wide at the base and 0.25 µM at the tip. Microtubules in vp originated at midpoint of gs and continued up to tip; microtubules were criss-crossed, smooth and without granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were 12.0-13.5 × 2.0-3.0 µM in size. Sarcocystis camelicanis, S. camelocanis and S. miescheri are considered invalid. PMID:26416197

  5. Increase of numbers of egg clutch and reduction of mortality rate of Thai native chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all Thai farmers in the villages raise Thai Native chickens. Chickens are the main protein source in the rural areas. The surplus of chickens can be the additional income for the farmer family. Raising of chickens is commonly in the backyard where chickens can feed on leftover or residuals from the family consumption. Generally people like to eat native chickens because their meat contains less fat and had a good taste. Native chickens are able to use low quality food efficiently and they are more resistant to tropical diseases. Thailand tries to improve native chickens for growth meanwhile maintain good characteristics; tolerance, feeding ability, fertility. Thirty-six farmers in the North part of Thailand were selected for testing of raising chickens, by supporting 5-12 hens per family. Farmers were divided randomly into 3 categories; separation of chicks at birth, at 14 d and allowing chicks to be with hens naturally. Growth performance was recorded together with losses, mortality, consumption and sale of native chickens for a period of 1 year. Hens and chickens were feeding by themselves in the nature. There were 273 hens at the beginning of the experiment and 210 hens at the end. The average body weight of the hens in the village at the first laying was 1.52 kg. The average number of egg clutch was 3.41. A total of 210 hens produced 8,550 eggs, 5,466 chicks in 1 year of the experiment. The hens whose chicks were separated from birth produced 14.8 - 16.4 more chicks per year, 1.2 - 1.4 more clutches of eggs and 19.0 - 22.0 more eggs than group 2 and group 3, respectively. On average, a hen laid 39.14 eggs and produced 24.84 chicks per year. Farmers in this study had 72.03 chickens for consumption per family and 84.47 chickens for sale, which incurred an income of 3,879.82 Baht per family. The expenses involved feed cost and electricity (for incubation) had a value of 1,797.94 Bath. The cash return on average was 2,081.65 Bath per family. When averaging

  6. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

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    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  7. Effects of optically imposed astigmatism on early eye growth in chicks.

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    Chin Hung Geoffrey Chu

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of optically imposed astigmatism on early eye growth in chicks.5-day-old (P5 White Leghorn chicks were randomly assigned to either wear, monocularly, a "high magnitude" (H: +4.00DS/-8.00DC crossed-cylindrical lens oriented at one of four axes (45, 90, 135, and 180; n = 20 in each group, or were left untreated (controls; n = 8. Two additional groups wore a "low magnitude" (L: +2.00DS/-4.00DC cylindrical lens orientated at either axis 90 or 180 (n = 20 and n = 18, respectively. Refractions were measured at P5 and after 7 days of treatment for all chicks (P12, whereas videokeratography and ex-vivo eyeshape analysis were performed at P12 for a subset of chicks in each group (n = 8.Compared to controls, chicks in the treatment groups developed significant amounts of refractive astigmatism (controls: 0.03 ± 0.22DC; treatment groups: 1.34 ± 0.22DC to 5.51 ± 0.26DC, one-way ANOVAs, p ≤ 0.05 with axes compensatory to those imposed by the cylindrical lenses. H cylindrical lenses induced more refractive astigmatism than L lenses (H90 vs. L90: 5.51 ± 0.26D vs. 4.10 ± 0.16D; H180 vs. L180: 2.84 ± 0.44D vs. 1.34 ± 0.22D, unpaired two-sample t-tests, both p ≤ 0.01; and imposing with-the-rule (H90 and L90 and against-the-rule astigmatisms (H180 and L180 resulted in, respectively, steeper and flatter corneal shape. Both corneal and internal astigmatisms were moderately to strongly correlated with refractive astigmatisms (Pearson's r: +0.61 to +0.94, all p ≤ 0.001. In addition, the characteristics of astigmatism were significantly correlated with multiple eyeshape parameters at the posterior segments (Pearson's r: -0.27 to +0.45, all p ≤ 0.05.Chicks showed compensatory ocular changes in response to the astigmatic magnitudes imposed in this study. The correlations of changes in refractive, corneal, and posterior eyeshape indicate the involvement of anterior and posterior ocular segments during the development of astigmatism.

  8. Partial purification and biological activities and properties of chick growth factors.

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    Takahashi,Fumio

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular stimulating factors on cell proliferation in the supernatants of chick embryo carcases and adult muscles were studied. There were plural stimulating factors in embryonic and adult muscular supernatants that promoted cell proliferation without any supplement of sera and other materials. Salting-out methods with ammonium sulfate, ethanol fractionation, and isoelectric precipitation were used to isolate the stimulating factors, and these three methods proved the presence of plural stimulants on cell proliferation in the supernatants of chick embryo and adult muscles. The stimulants had altered physico-chemical properties and biological activities due to embryological development. The embryonic stimulants enhanced the synthesis of DNA and protein remarkably, and RNA synthesis in whole cell systems slightly. The muscular stimulants enhanced protein synthesis without any stimulation of DNA and RNA synthesis. Partial purification of the stimulants from the ethanol fractions was performed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex gel chromatography.

  9. Protein requirements of bobwhite chicks for survival, growth and efficiency of feed utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; McClure, H.E.

    1942-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1939 four experiments were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the protein requirements of bobwhite chicks. A total of 816 chicks were used to compare six levels of protein, namely, 22,24,26, 28, 30, and 32 per cent.....From the three standpoints of survival, rate of growth, and efficiency of feed utilization for the first ten weeks of life, the 28 per cent level of protein gave the best results. During the ninth and tenth weeks, the highest efficiency of feed utilization was obtained on the 22 per cent level. The results indicate that after the birds have reached about twothirds of their mature weight, the difference in efficiency between a diet containing 28 per cent of protein and one containing 22 per cent may be small enough to justify, in the interest of economy, the use of a diet containing the lower percentage of protein.

  10. Pyridoxine treatment alters embryonic motility in chicks: Implications for the role of proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew A; Bekoff, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6 ), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic motility in the chick. Injection of pyridoxine on embryonic day 7 (E7) and E8 reduced the amplitude of leg movements recorded on E9 and the number of large, healthy neurons in the ventral-lateral portion of the DRGs. We conclude that proprioception is initially used during embryogenesis to modulate the strength of motor output, but that it is not incorporated into other aspects of pattern generation until later in development as poly-synaptic pathways develop. PMID:25645095

  11. Effects of various stocking density on productive performance and some physiological traits of broiler chicks

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    Ihsan T. Tayeb,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out as a survey at the commercial poultry farm of broiler chickens in Duhok region namely Amedy, Akry and Sumail in order to study the effect of stocking density on the chick performance and some physiological traits. Chicks were divided into three stocking densities namely 8.66, 10.41 and 13.36 birds/m². The results obtained are summarized as follows: Live body weights and feed conversion ratio at 7 weeks of age were non significant differences between different stocking densities. Data of feed intake was significantly high in 8.66 while mortality was significant high in stocking density of 13.36. Concerning hematological and blood serum parameters, data revealed insignificant differences among stocking density groups for triglycerides, total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, PCV and RBC count. While there were significant differences in glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, VLDL and Hb between different stocking densities.

  12. Total haemolytic complement profile in chicks following fowl pox vaccination or infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, S; Das, S K; Kumar, A

    1989-01-01

    Total haemolytic complement levels were assessed in normal, fowl pox-vaccinated or infected chicks using radial immune haemolysis up to 28 days post-treatment. Significantly lower values of total haemolytic complement were recorded 7-21 days post-vaccination or 21 days post-infection as compared to controls (p less than 0.05). The differences between intervals, the influence of the period of treatment were also significant, but the vaccinated chicks did not differ significantly from the infected ones (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that lower circulating levels of total haemolytic complement may be due to deposition of complement at the sites of virus replication. PMID:2565680

  13. Effect of starvation-refeeding and an exogenous glucocorticoid on carbohydrate metabolism in chick liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrough, R W; McMurtry, J P; Richards, M P; Steele, N C

    1984-12-01

    Broiler chicks, 4 weeks of age, were subjected to a regimen of 48-hr starvation and 24-hr refeeding as a means of inducing hepatic glycogen supercompensation. A synthetic glucocorticoid (prednisolone) and transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D) treatment were superimposed on the starvation-refeeding regimen to examine the effect of an exogenous glucocorticoid and the necessity for de novo protein synthesis during glycogen supercompensation. Starvation decreased plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin and liver glycogen. These parameters returned to, or overshot prefasting levels after a 48-hr refeeding period. Prednisolone magnified the overshoot response but some de novo protein synthesis was required. Glycogen synthase a activity was opposite that of liver glycogen content. A possible nonhormone stimulated glycogen synthetic mechanism in the starvation-refeeding response of the chick was noted. PMID:6442419

  14. Recovery of Salmonella from Incubated Eggs, Newly Hatched Chicks and Contaminated Environments

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    A.N.M. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400 hatchery samples comprised of yolk interior (100, paper pad (100, shell membrane (100 and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks (100 were tested to detect the presence of Salmonella organism by bacteriological agar plate test. Positive cases recorded in this study were 37 (37, 12 (12, 3 (3 and 19 (19% from each sample (100 of yolk interior, paper pad, shell membrane and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks, respectively. A representative numbers of 50 isolates were used for the identification of serogoups of Salmonella prevailing in selected area by using polyvalent antisera. The result indicated that the test isolates 45(90% were typed to a specific serogroup of "O". All 45 isolated Salmonella serogroup ?O? were then characterized by different specific biochemical media. Based on these tests, the selective isolates were identified as Salmonella gallinarum.

  15. Eradication of Salmonella Typhimurium in broiler chicks by combined use of P22 bacteriophage and probiotic

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    Guilherme Augusto Marietto Gonçalves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that the phage therapy is effective in controlling the number of colony-forming unit (CFU of Salmonella spp. in chicken gut. This paper describes the protective effect of phage and Lactobacilli administration on Salmonella infection in 1-day-old chicks. We administered the bacteriophage P22 in a single dose and a probiotic mixture of four species of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus once a day for one week. Samples were analyzed every 48 hours, and intestinal eradication of S. Typhimurium was confirmed after treatments. We observed an increase in the size of duodenal villi and cecal crypts, as well as an increase in body weight in groups that received daily doses of Lactobacilli. This study confirms the efficiency of bacteriophage therapy in controlling salmonellosis in chicks and the beneficial effect of Lactobacilli mixtures in the weight gain of the birds.

  16. Chick myotendinous antigen. I. A monoclonal antibody as a marker for tendon and muscle morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Extracellular matrix components are likely to be involved in the interaction of muscle with nonmuscle cells during morphogenesis and in adult skeletal muscle. With the aim of identifying relevant molecules, we generated monoclonal antibodies that react with the endomysium, i.e., the extracellular matrix on the surface of single muscle fibers. Antibody M1, which is described here, specifically labeled the endomysium of chick anterior latissimus dorsi muscle (but neither the perimysium nor, wit...

  17. Colonization and organ invasion in chicks experimentally infected with Dermanyssus gallinae contaminated by Salmonella Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Fravalo, Philippe; Amelot, Michel; Chauve, Claude; Salvat, Gilles; Zenner, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is the most important and common ectoparasite of laying hens in Europe. This haematophagous mite has been experimentally demonstrated to be a vector of Salmonella Enteritidis by acquiring bacteria through the blood meal or cuticular contact. We have evaluated another route of infection by orally inoculating chicks with mites previously infected by S. Enteritidis. Two methods of infecting the mites were tested: mites contaminated b...

  18. Automated Analysis of Behavioural Variability and Filial Imprinting of Chicks (G. gallus), using Autonomous Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Gribovskiy, A.; Mondada, F.; Deneubourg, J. L.; Cazenille, L.; Bredeche, N.; Halloy, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-individual variability has various impacts in animal social behaviour. This implies that not only collective behaviours have to be studied but also the behavioural variability of each member composing the groups. To understand those effects on group behaviour, we develop a quantitative methodology based on automated ethograms and autonomous robots to study the inter-individual variability among social animals. We choose chicks of \\textit{Gallus gallus domesticus} as a classic social ani...

  19. Influence of Nonobvious Learning on the Development of the Approach Response in Chicks (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Delsaut, M

    1990-01-01

    The role of prenatal auditory stimulations in the development of the postnatal approach response in young nidifugous birds is well known. However most of the studies in this area treat these stimulations as passive events. The purpose of this experimental series is to establish a link between prenatal stimulations and concomitant modifications of embryonic environment (warming and egg turning). Chicks were thus tested in a situation in which they could choose between two pure tones, one of wh...

  20. Endocrine cells in atresic chick embryo intestine: histochemical and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Renda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal motility disorders are an important problem in the postoperative management of patients with intestinal atresia. Intestinal motility could be initiated by luminal factors that activate intrinsic and extrinsic primary afferent nerves involved in the peristaltic reflex. Endocrine cells act as a key point, because they transfer information regarding the intestinal contents and intraluminal pressure to nerve fibers lying in close proximity to the basolateral surface of the epithelium. In chick embryo, experimental intestinal atresia is associated with disorders in the development of the enteric nervous system, related to the severity of intestinal dilation. Our aim was to investigate the distribution pattern of endocrine cells in the developing endocrine system of chick embryo small intestine with experimentally-induced atresia on day 12 and on day 16. Changes in enteroendocrine population were examined in gut specimens (excised proximal and distal to the atresia from experimental embryos 19 days old and in control sham-operated chick embryos at the same age. Sections from proximal and distal bowel and control bowel were stained with Grimelius silver stain, a valuable histochemical method for detecting the argyrophil and argentophilic cells, and with an immunohistochemical procedure for detecting serotonin and neurotensin immunoreactive cells. In chick embryo proximal bowel, intestinal dilation differed in the various embryos. We found significantly higher enteroendocrine cell counts in proximal bowel than in distal and control bowel. The differences depended on the precociousness of surgery and the severity of dilation. Considering the major contribution of enteroendocrine cells to the peristaltic reflex, our data may help to explain the pathogenesis of motility disorders related to intestinal atresia.

  1. Pyridoxine Treatment Alters Embryonic Motility in Chicks: Implications for the Role of Proprioception

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Andrew A.; Bekoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic ...

  2. Fusion mechanism of the myoblasts in the myotome of the chick embryo

    OpenAIRE

    González Santander, R.; Toledo Lobo, M.V.; Martínez Alonso, F.J.; Martínez Cuadrado, G.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the fusion process of rnyoblasts in the mytome corresponding to H.H. stages 22, 23 and 24 from calcitonin-treated chick embryos and their untreated controls. The micrograph images of this process were studied to detect the ultrastructural changes in myoblast morphology that could be associated with the known hormonal and biochen~ical changes that take place in preparation of fusion. Once actin and myosin myofilament differentiation and sarcomero...

  3. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Klenova, Anna V.

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous sp...

  4. Low dose trichloroethylene alters cytochrome P450 - 2C subfamily expression in the developing chick heart

    OpenAIRE

    Makwana, Om; Ahles, Lauren; Lencinas, Alejandro; Selmin, Ornella I.; Runyan, Raymond B.

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent and common environmental contaminant. TCE exposure is associated with heart defects in humans and animal models. Primary metabolism of TCE in adult rodent models is by specific hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (Lash et al., 2000). As association of TCE exposure with cardiac defects is in exposed embryos prior to normal liver development, we investigated metabolism of TCE in the early embryo. Developing chick embryos were dosed in ovo with environme...

  5. Novel Two-Step Hierarchical Screening of Mutant Pools Reveals Mutants under Selection in Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M; Elfenbein, Johanna R; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Reynolds, M Megan; Porwollik, Steffen; Cheng, Pui; Xia, Xiao-Qin; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    2016-04-01

    Contaminated chicken/egg products are major sources of human salmonellosis, yet the strategies used bySalmonellato colonize chickens are poorly understood. We applied a novel two-step hierarchical procedure to identify new genes important for colonization and persistence ofSalmonella entericaserotype Typhimurium in chickens. A library of 182S.Typhimurium mutants each containing a targeted deletion of a group of contiguous genes (for a total of 2,069 genes deleted) was used to identify regions under selection at 1, 3, and 9 days postinfection in chicks. Mutants in 11 regions were under selection at all assayed times (colonization mutants), and mutants in 15 regions were under selection only at day 9 (persistence mutants). We assembled a pool of 92 mutants, each deleted for a single gene, representing nearly all genes in nine regions under selection. Twelve single gene deletion mutants were under selection in this assay, and we confirmed 6 of 9 of these candidate mutants via competitive infections and complementation analysis in chicks.STM0580,STM1295,STM1297,STM3612,STM3615, andSTM3734are needed forSalmonellato colonize and persist in chicks and were not previously associated with this ability. One of these key genes,STM1297(selD), is required for anaerobic growth and supports the ability to utilize formate under these conditions, suggesting that metabolism of formate is important during infection. We report a hierarchical screening strategy to interrogate large portions of the genome during infection of animals using pools of mutants of low complexity. Using this strategy, we identified six genes not previously known to be needed during infection in chicks, and one of these (STM1297) suggests an important role for formate metabolism during infection. PMID:26857572

  6. High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging analysis of breast cancer xenograft on the chick chorioallantoic membrane

    OpenAIRE

    ZUO, ZHI

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an age-adapted cooling regime for immobilization of the chick embryo is proposed. Reliable immobilization completely avoided motion artifacts, enabling high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chicken embryo and also tumor xenograft on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Tumor growth monitoring was firstly evaluated after xenotransplantation of MDA-MB-231 cells on the CAM. Tumor volumes were monitored from day 4 to day 9 after grafting applying a T2-weighted R...

  7. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF SPEARMINT (Mentha spicata) ON BROILER CHICKS PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. AMASAIB; B.H. ABD ELRAHMAN; Abdelhameed, A A; B.A. ATTA ELMNAN; A.G. MAHALA

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of addition different levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on broiler chick’s performance. One hundred and twenty eight day old unsexed (Cobb) broiler chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were distributed randomly into 16 pens (8/pen) as replicates, in a complete randomized design. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. Feed and water were freely accessed. Feed intake, bo...

  8. Gastrointestinal absorption of lead in chicks: involvement of the cholecalciferol endocrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of dietary calcium and phosphorus in modifying the intestinal absorption of lead and also the effect of lead ingestion on the metabolism of cholecalciferol were studied in chicks. The efficiency of absorption of 203Pb and 47Ca was increased when the animals were fed a low calcium diet and treated with cholecalciferol. The synthesis of the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP) was correspondingly increased. When the chicks were depleted of vitamin D and repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] as their only source of the vitamin, the absorption of both 47Ca and 203Pb was unaffected by dietary calcium levels, and no change in CaBP levels occurred. Low dietary intake of phosphorus resulted in an increase in 47Ca and 203Pb absorption and in CaBP synthesis when the animals were treated with cholecalciferol. However, when the birds were repleted with 1,25(OH)2D3, the intestinal absorption of 47Ca and of 203Pb was increased, as well as the intestinal CaBP levels. Intracardial injection of increasing doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 to rachitic chicks resulted in a concomitant increase in 203Pb absorption in a manner that correlated with the degree of synthesis of CaBP. Ingestion of lead by the chicks was found to impair growth and renal production of 1,25(OH)2D3, resulting in lowered circulating and intestinal content of the hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol

  9. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurochemical phenotype and birthdating of specific cell populations in the chick retina

    OpenAIRE

    Karin da Costa calaza; Patricia F. Gardino

    2010-01-01

    The chick embryo is one of the most traditional models in developing neuroscience and its visual system has been one of the most exhaustively studied. The retina has been used as a model for studying the development of the nervous system. Here, we describe the morphological features that characterize each stage of the retina development and studies of the neurogenesis period of some specific neurochemical subpopulations of retinal cells by using a combination of immunohistochemistry and autor...

  11. Expansion, folding, and abnormal lamination of the chick optic tectum after intraventricular injections of FGF2

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Luke D.; Alaama, Roula A.; Freise, Amanda C.; Huang, Johnny C.; Charvet, Christine J.; Georg F Striedter

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research has shown that evolutionary increases in brain region volumes often involve delays in neurogenesis. However, little is known about the influence of such changes on subsequent development. To get at this question, we injected FGF2—which delays cell cycle exit in mammalian neocortex—into the cerebral ventricles of chicks at embryonic day (ED) 4. This manipulation alters the development of the optic tectum dramatically. By ED7, the tectum of FGF2-treated birds is abnormally ...

  12. Biochemical and cytochemical evidence indicates that coated vesicles in chick embryo myotubes contain newly synthesized acetylcholinesterase

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated highly purified coated vesicles from 17-d-old chick embryo skeletal muscle. These isolated coated vesicles contain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a latent, membrane-protected form as demonstrated enzymatically and morphologically using the Karnovsky and Roots histochemical procedure (J. Histochem. Cytochem., 1964, 12:219- 221). By the use of appropriate inhibitors the cholinesterase activity can be shown to be specific for acetylcholine. It also can be concluded that most of ...

  13. Intra- and extracellular calcium modulates stereocilia stiffness on chick cochlear hair cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Pae, S S; Saunders, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Segments of the chick basilar papilla were isolated and maintained in culture medium. The sensory hair bundle of individual hair cells was observed with light microscopy and stimulated with a water microjet at 600 Hz. Hair bundle motion was slowed by illuminating the microscope with stroboscopic light, and water jet intensity was systematically varied in decibel (dB) steps until a visual detection level (VDL) threshold of hair bundle motion was achieved. The VDL threshold of many hair cells w...

  14. The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrew Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Results Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of somitogenesis, when it slows down. When the chick embryo reaches its final number of somites at stage HH 24-25 there is still some remaining unsegmented PSM in which expression of components of the somitogenesis oscillator is no longer dynamic. Finally, we identify a change in expression of retinoic acid regulating factors in the tail bud at late stages of somitogenesis, such that in the chick embryo there is a pronounced onset of Raldh2 expression while in the mouse embryo the expression of the RA inhibitor Cyp26A1 is downregulated. Conclusions Our results show that the chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. In addition, endogenous retinoic acid is probably also involved in the termination of the process of segmentation, and in tail growth in general.

  15. Effects of white light on the pineal gland of the chick embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Aige-Gil, Vicente; Murillo-Ferrol, Narciso

    1992-01-01

    Chick embryos were directly exposed to a source of white light during incubation and sacrificed before hatching. The light caused a number of teratological effects such as high mortality, delay in development, celosomy, hepatomegaly, auricular dilation and micrognatia. The pineal gland of the illuminated embryos showed an increase in number and size of the intracytoplasmic lipid droplets of the follicular pinealocytes. These findings suggest that the pineal...

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on the free amino acid content of blood plasma of chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As has been shown by thin-layer chromatography irradiation (1000 rad) of chick embryos decreases the free amino acid content of blood plasma. The quantity of lysine and histidine was only decreased 24 hours after exposure. The contents of lysine, histidine, arginine, glycine, glutamine, serine, aspartic and glutamic acids, threonine and alanine reduced 2, 3 and 10 days after irradiation. The amount of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, valine and tyrosine remained invariable throughout the entire perjod of observation

  17. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops alcatraz snake venom in chick biventer cervicis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Delkia Seabra; Aparecido de Abreu, Valdemir; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Leite, Gildo B; Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Maria; Travaglia-Cardoso, Silvia R; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2012-02-01

    Venom (10-100 μg/ml) from Bothrops alcatraz, a pitviper from the Alcatrazes Archipelago off the coast of southeastern Brazil, caused progressive, irreversible neuromuscular blockade in chick isolated biventer cervicis preparations. The venom also inhibited contractures to exogenous ACh (110 μM) and KCl (20 mM), caused myofiber damage and increased creatine kinase release. Commercial bothropic antivenom raised against mainland Bothrops species neutralized the neuromuscular activity, depending on the venom concentration. PMID:22155137

  18. Increased Intracellular [dATP] Enhances Cardiac Contraction in Embryonic Chick Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Schoffstall, Brenda; Chase, P. Bryant

    2008-01-01

    Although ATP is the physiological substrate for cardiac contraction, cardiac contractility is significantly enhanced in vitro when only 10% of ATP substrate is replaced with 2’-deoxy-ATP (dATP). To determine the functional effects of increased intracellular [dATP] ([dATP]i) within living cardiac cells, we used hypertonic loading with varying exogenous dATP/ATP ratios, but constant total nucleotide concentration, to elevate [dATP]i in contractile monolayers of embryonic chick cardiomyocytes. T...

  19. A receptor that is highly specific for extracellular ATP in developing chick skeletal muscle in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S A; Zawisa, M. J.; Lin, X.; Hume, R. I.

    1991-01-01

    1. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activated an early excitatory conductance followed by a late potassium conductance in developing chick skeletal muscle. A series of ATP analogues were tested for their ability to activate these two conductances. All compounds tested were either agonists for both responses or for neither. Furthermore, the potency of agonists was similar for the two responses. 2. The order of potency for agonists was ATP approximately adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotripho...

  20. From high heels to weed attics: a syntactic investigation of chick lit and literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jautze, K.J.; Koolen, C.W.; Cranenburgh, Andreas van; de Jong, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stylometric analysis of prose is typically limited to classification tasks such as authorship attribution. Since the models used are typically black boxes, they give little insight into the stylistic diff erences they detect. In this paper, we characterize two prose genres syntactically: chick lit (humorous novels on the challenges of being a modern-day urban female) and high literature. First, we develop a top-down computational method based on existing literary-linguistic theory. Using an o...

  1. Synthesis of type III collagen by fibroblasts from the embryonic chick cornea

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Synthesis of collagen types I, II, III, and IV in cells from the embryonic chick cornea was studied using specific antibodies and immunofluorescence. Synthesis of radioactively labeled collagen types I and III was followed by fluorographic detection of cyanogen bromide peptides on polyacrylamide slab gels and by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography followed by disc gel electrophoresis. Type III collagen had been detected previously by indirect immunofluorescence in the corneal epithelial cel...

  2. Pineal melatonin acts as a circadian zeitgeber and growth factor in chick astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Paulose, Jiffin K.; Peters, Jennifer L.; Karaganis, Stephen P.; Cassone, Vincent M.

    2009-01-01

    Melatonin is rhythmically synthesized and released by the avian pineal gland and retina during the night, targeting an array of tissues and affecting a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. Among these targets, astrocytes express two melatonin receptor subtypes in vitro, the Mel1A and Mel1C receptors, which play a role in regulating metabolic activity and calcium homeostasis in these cells. Molecular characterization of chick astrocytes has revealed the expression of orthologs of...

  3. Effects of mechanical loading on early conduction system differentiation in the chick

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaňková, Barbora; Machálek, J.; Sedmera, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 5 (2010), H1571-H1576. ISSN 0363-6135 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : chick embryo * optical mapping * cardiac conduction system Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.880, year: 2010

  4. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation and Irradiation of Barley on Broiler Chicks Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were conducted to study the influence of irradiation treatment at dose levels of 0.20 and 60 kGy on barley beta-glucan and the effect of enzyme supplementation and irradiation of barley on broiler chicks performance. The amount of total and water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was 36 kg-1, respectively. The effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan was insignificant while the level of soluble beta-glucan was increased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The effect of irradiation treatment and enzyme supplementation of barley diets on growth and conversion performance of broiler chicks indicated that birds fed raw barley diet had lower body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Irradiation of barley at dose of 20 kGy did not affect the chick performance (feed consumption, weight gain feed-gain ratio) that received the B 20 diet from 7 to 21 days of age, but when bird maintained on B 20 diet from 7 28 days of age, only feed-gain ratio was improved by 14.4%. The results indicate that there was a significant effect of irradiation of barley at 60 kGy (B 60) on feed -gain ratio of chicks when were fed B 60 diet from 7 to 21 days of age. The corresponding improvement in feed-gain ratio was 16.4%. When birds were fed B 60 diet from 7-28 days of age, the improvement in body weight and feed-gain ratio was 25.5 and 19.6%, respectively

  5. [Effects of chronic paralysis of chick embryo by flaxedil on the development of the neuromuscular junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, J P; Betz, H; Changuex, J P

    1978-03-13

    Chronic paralysis of Chick embryos by the cholinergic antagonist flaxedil blocks the subsynaptic accumulation of acetylcholinesterase but not the formation of acetylcholine receptor cluster. Flaxedil paralysis also causes an increase of the total muscle content of acetylcholine receptor without altering the half-life of the receptor protein. The spontaneous activity of the embryon therefore "shuts off" the synthesis of extrasynpatic acetylcholine receptor. PMID:417864

  6. Nitric oxide and fever: immune-to-brain signaling vs. thermogenesis in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantonio, Valter; Batalhão, Marcelo E; Fernandes, Marcia H M R; Komegae, Evilin N; Buqui, Gabriela A; Lopes, Norberto P; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Carnio, Évelin C; Steiner, Alexandre A; Bícego, Kênia C

    2016-05-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in thermogenesis but does not mediate immune-to-brain febrigenic signaling in rats. There are suggestions of a different situation in birds, but the underlying evidence is not compelling. The present study was designed to clarify this matter in 5-day-old chicks challenged with a low or high dose of bacterial LPS. The lower LPS dose (2 μg/kg im) induced fever at 3-5 h postinjection, whereas 100 μg/kg im decreased core body temperature (Tc) (at 1 h) followed by fever (at 4 or 5 h). Plasma nitrate levels increased 4 h after LPS injection, but they were not correlated with the magnitude of fever. The NO synthase inhibitor (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, l-NAME; 50 mg/kg im) attenuated the fever induced by either dose of LPS and enhanced the magnitude of the Tc reduction induced by the high dose in chicks at 31-32°C. These effects were associated with suppression of metabolic rate, at least in the case of the high LPS dose. Conversely, the effects of l-NAME on Tc disappeared in chicks maintained at 35-36°C, suggesting that febrigenic signaling was essentially unaffected. Accordingly, the LPS-induced rise in the brain level of PGE2 was not affected by l-NAME. Moreover, l-NAME augmented LPS-induced huddling, which is indicative of compensatory mechanisms to run fever in the face of attenuated thermogenesis. Therefore, as in rats, systemic inhibition of NO synthesis attenuates LPS-induced fever in chicks by affecting thermoeffector activity and not by interfering with immune-to-brain signaling. This may constitute a conserved effect of NO in endotherms. PMID:26984892

  7. The control of chick myoblast fusion by ion channels operated by prostaglandins and acetylcholine

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Chick myoblast fusion in culture was investigated using prostanoid synthesis inhibitors to delay spontaneous fusion. During this delay myoblast fusion could be induced by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), by raising extracellular potassium and by addition of carbachol. Carbachol-induced fusion, but not PGE-induced fusion, was prevented by the acetylcholine receptor blocker alpha-bungarotoxin. Fusion induced by any of these agents was prevented by the Ca channel blockers lanthanum and D600. The thresho...

  8. A MENINGO-ENCEPHALITIS IN CHICKS PRODUCED BY THE INTRACEREBRAL INJECTION OF FOWL POX VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddingh, G. John

    1938-01-01

    1. Intracerebral inoculation of fowl pox virus in young chicks produces a disease characterized by the development of drowsiness and somnolence 4 to 5 days after inoculation. This is followed by spastic paralysis and convulsions on the 6th and 7th day. The majority of inoculated chicks die on the 7th or 8th day. 2. The pathological lesions are found chiefly in the meninges, perivascular structures, the choroid plexus, paranasal sinuses, mastoid cells, the bone marrow of the cranial bones, and the orbital tissues. No affinity for nervous tissue per se develops. 3. In this environment the virus has a high virulence for the choroidal plexus epithelium and acquires the capacity for infecting cells of mesodermal origin. All infected cells of whatever origin undergo a similar structural change. Fowl pox inclusions can be demonstrated within them and they become spherical in shape and detached from each other. 4. The virus has been carried through 14 successive intracerebral passages. The symptoms and lesions in the chicks inoculated with the 14th passage showed no marked difference from those of the first passage. No enhancement of the changes brought about in the virus by the intracerebral environment seems to take place upon repeated passage. PMID:19870765

  9. Social predisposition dependent neuronal activity in the intermediate medial mesopallium of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Lorenzi, Elena; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Species from phylogenetically distant animal groups, such as birds and primates including humans, share early experience-independent social predispositions that cause offspring, soon after birth, to attend to and learn about conspecifics. One example of this phenomenon is provided by the behaviour of newly-hatched visually-naïve domestic chicks that preferentially approach a stimulus resembling a conspecific (a stuffed fowl) rather than a less naturalistic object (a scrambled version of the stuffed fowl). However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying this behaviour are mostly unknown. Here we analysed chicks' brain activity with immunohistochemical detection of the transcription factor c-Fos. In a spontaneous choice test we confirmed a significant preference for approaching the stuffed fowl over a texture fowl (a fowl that was cut in small pieces attached to the sides of a box in scrambled order). Comparison of brain activation of a subgroup of chicks that approached either one or the other stimulus revealed differential activation in an area relevant for imprinting (IMM, intermediate medial mesopallium), suggesting that a different level of plasticity is associated with approach to naturalistic and artificial stimuli. c-Fos immunoreactive neurons were present also in the intermediate layers of the optic tectum (a plausible candidate for processing early social predispositions) showing a trend similar to the results for the IMM. PMID:27173429

  10. Characterization of a putative acetylcholine receptor in chick ciliary ganglion neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies to the main immunogenic region on the alpha subunit of acetylcholine receptors in muscle and electric organ recognize membrane components in chick brain and ciliary ganglia that are candidates for the neuronal receptor. The component in chick brain has been purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. It specifically binds nicotine but not alpha-bungarotoxin, and can be affinity labeled with (3H)bromoacetylcholine. The cross-reacting component in ciliary ganglion neurons is concentrated in synaptic membrane, and can be modulated by exposure of the cells to cholinergic ligands in culture. The cross-reacting component in ciliary ganglion neurons is an integral membrane component that binds concanavalin A, and it is distinct from the alpha-bungarotoxin binding component. The acetylcholine receptor function in these neurons can be locked by affinity alkylation with bromoacetylcholine, indicating similarity in this respect to receptors from muscle and electric organ. Antisera raised against the partially purified component from chick brain also block receptor function on ciliary ganglion neurons. The subcellular distribution of the ganglion component in culture is assessed, and it is shown that approximately 2/3 of the cross-reacting components are intracellular; the majority of these seem not to be destined for insertion into the plasma membrane

  11. Die Fledermaus: regarding optokinetic contrast sensitivity and light-adaptation, chicks are mice with wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Through adaptation, animals can function visually under an extremely broad range of light intensities. Light adaptation starts in the retina, through shifts in photoreceptor sensitivity and kinetics plus modulation of visual processing in retinal circuits. Although considerable research has been conducted on retinal adaptation in nocturnal species with rod-dominated retinas, such as the mouse, little is known about how cone-dominated avian retinas adapt to changes in mean light intensity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the optokinetic response to characterize contrast sensitivity (CS in the chick retina as a function of spatial frequency and temporal frequency at different mean light intensities. We found that: 1 daytime, cone-driven CS was tuned to spatial frequency; 2 nighttime, presumably rod-driven CS was tuned to temporal frequency and spatial frequency; 3 daytime, presumably cone-driven CS at threshold intensity was invariant with temporal and spatial frequency; and 4 daytime photopic CS was invariant with clock time. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Light- and dark-adaptational changes in CS were investigated comprehensively for the first time in the cone-dominated retina of an avian, diurnal species. The chick retina, like the mouse retina, adapts by using a "day/night" or "cone/rod" switch in tuning preference during changes in lighting conditions. The chick optokinetic response is an attractive model for noninvasive, behavioral studies of adaptation in retinal circuitry in health and disease.

  12. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  13. Maternal Antibody Protected Chicks from Growth Retardation and Immunosuppression Induced by Early Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-hong; GUI Zhi-zhong; QU Li-xin

    2007-01-01

    To determine if the maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with cell culture-adapted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) could protect chicks from early REV infection, one-day-old chicks with or without anti-REV maternal antibodies were inoculated with REV, and then their growth rates and antibody tilers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, were compared. This study indicated that REV infection could cause growth retardation and severely inhibit immune reactions to inactivated vaccines against NDV and Avian influenza virus (AIV, H9 and H5) in one-day-old broilers without maternal antibodies specific to REV. Maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with an attenuated REV vaccine effectively protected REV-challenged birds from growth retardation and immunosuppression on antibody reactions to NDV and AIV vaccines. Four weeks after vaccination, the HI liters to NDV, AIV-H9, and AIV-H5 in maternal antibody positive and negative groups were 3.36±2.04 versus 1.58±1.69 (P<0.01), 6.27±3.87 versus 0.71±1.60(P<0.01), and 6.72 versus 0.54±1.44(p<0.01). Maternal antibodies from breeders vaccinated with REV vaccine could successfully protect chicks from REV infection and effectively prevent REV-induced growth retardation and immunosuppression in antibody responses to NDV and AIV.

  14. Levels of metabolizable energy and digestible lysine for broiler chicks 8-21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of metabolizable energy (ME levels and digestible lysine (DL levels on the performance of 8-21 days old broiler chicks. Eight hundred and sixty four broiler chicks were used, with average weight of 160 ± 5g, randomly distributed in 48 boxes (experimental unit, experimental unit in a factorial 4x4 with four levels of ME (2,700, 2,825, 2,950, and 3,075 kcal kg-1 and four levels of DL (1,080; 1,187; 1,295 and 1,403% resulting in 16 treatments with three replications. Increases in levels of ME and DL in the diets caused significant interaction (P <0.05 in weight gain and feed conversion. Increasing levels of ME and DL caused significant interaction (P <0.05 for the deposition rate of protein and fat in the carcass. The simultaneous increases of ME and DL in the diet promoted a linear increase (P <0.05 in villus height of the duodenum, jejunum, and villous:crypt ileum. It is recommended the use of 3,075 kcal kg-1 ME and 1,403% of LD for best performance, protein deposition rate, and intestinal morphometric characteristics of 8-21 days old broiler chicks.

  15. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J triggers caspase-1-mediated inflammatory response in chick livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Lan; Shan, Wen-Jie; Jia, Li-Juan; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Wu, Ya-Rong; Xu, Fa-Zhi; Li, Jin-Nian

    2016-04-01

    Many pathogens trigger caspase-1-mediated innate immune responses. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious immunosuppression and diverse tumors in chicks. The caspase-1 inflammasome mechanism of response to ALV-J invading remains unclear. Here we investigated the expression of caspase-1, the inflammasome adaptor NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in response to ALV-J infection in the liver of chick. We found caspase-1 mRNA expression was elevated at 5dpi and peaked at 7dpi in ALV-J infected animals. Corresponding to this, the expressions of NLRP3 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly increased at 5 or 7dpi. In addition, caspase-1 protein expression and inflammatory cell infiltration were induced after virus infection. These results indicated that ALV-J infection could trigger the caspase-1- mediated inflammatory response in chicks. Thus, an understanding of the inflammatory responses can provide a better insight into the pathogenicity of ALV-J and a possible anti-virus target for ALV-J infection. PMID:26811903

  16. One day-old chicks transport: Assessment of thermal profile in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the thermal profile of truck with different levels of box placement during one day-old chicks transport. An experiment was conducted through monitoring of 11 transport loads. A acclimatized truck was used in this research, with maximum capacity of 630 one day-old chicks boxes, totalizing 63,000 animals. The assessment of thermal environment was performed in 5 min intervals, through the following variables: temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. The treatments were registered at two levels of the load (first rack and floor where 17 data loggers were distributed throughout the truck. The experiment used a completely randomized design and geostatistics was used for spatial dependency and Kriging interpolation. The microclimatic conditions of the truck were not as per recommended values, which confirm a heterogeneous distribution of heat and moisture in environment. Regarding the box positioning, the mean values of thermal variables associated with thermal comfort of one day-old chicks was found in the floor area. The most stressful environment for birds inside the truck was located in front and at the center of the truck.

  17. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, J.A.; Combs, G.F. Jr.; Whitacre, M.E.; Dietert, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets. These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.

  18. Who is who? Non-invasive methods to individually sex and mark altricial chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Honarmand, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments require early determination of offspring's sex as well as early marking of newborns for individual recognition. According to animal welfare guidelines, non-invasive techniques should be preferred whenever applicable. In our group, we work on different species of song birds in the lab and in the field, and we successfully apply non-invasive methods to sex and individually mark chicks. This paper presents a comprehensive non-invasive tool-box. Sexing birds prior to the expression of secondary sexual traits requires the collection of DNA-bearing material for PCR. We established a quick and easy method to sex birds of any age (post hatching) by extracting DNA from buccal swabs. Results can be obtained within 3 hours. For individual marking chick's down feathers are trimmed in specific patterns allowing fast identification within the hatching order. This set of methods is easily applicable in a standard equipped lab and especially suitable for working in the field as no special equipment is required for sampling and storage. Handling of chicks is minimized and marking and sexing techniques are non-invasive thereby supporting the RRR-principle of animal welfare guidelines. PMID:24893585

  19. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-01-01

    Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum) mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND), Infectious bronchit...

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohh, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Seongjin; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-Mahn

    2016-06-01

    Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions. PMID:26954210

  1. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks. PMID:27182141

  2. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  3. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Yi-Fang; Tan, Rui-Rong; Tsoi, Bun; Huang, Wen-Shan; Huang, Yi-Hua; Tang, Xiao-Long; Hu, Dan; Yao, Nan; Yang, Xuesong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Qi; He, Rong-Rong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg) was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD) 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation. PMID:26744353

  4. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.

  5. Phycoremediation of waste water from a plastic manufacturing industry with Chlorella pyrenoidosa H.Chick in laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenanga Sari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrack - The plastic industries has increased by 7-8% per year, it will cause a negative impact for the environment. The wastewater of plastic industrial contain many pollutants such as hazardous substances bensen, formaldehyde and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb. Heavy metals Cu is the most dangerous heavy metals since Cu can inhibit enzyme systems, remediation are needed to reduce the pollutants in the environment. One effective way is by using Chlorella pyrenoidosa H.Chick as phycoremediation agent. This study aims to assess the percentage of population growth and decline of heavy metals Cu after inoculation with C. pyrenoidosa H.Chick. The method used is to cultivate C. pyrenoidosa H.Chick in plastic wastewater for 8 days and observed a decrease of percentage heavy metal Cu and population growh of C.pyrenoidosa H.Chick. Environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, pH, light intensity is maintained in order to remain stable. The data obtained with T test. After 8 days of the study turned out that C. pyrenoidosa H.Chick able to reduce Cu of 0.435 mg / l to 0.24 mg / l within 8 days and decrease percentage is 44.83%, thus meeting the criteria of the quality standard of waste according to the PP. 82 of 2001 in the amount of 0.2 ppm and safe for environment. Keywords: Chlorella pyrenoidosa, phycoremediation, water, plastic, copper.

  6. Age and food deprivation affects expression of the glucocorticosteroid stress response in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian G; Wingfield, John C; Boersma, P Dee

    2005-01-01

    We examined how the glucocortical stress response in free-living Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks changes with age and whether adrenocortical function of chicks within a brood varies in relation to food provisioned by adults. Chicks showed little corticosterone response to capture stress shortly after hatching, an intermediate response around 45-d posthatch, and a robust stress response near fledging. However, in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, hatchlings were capable of secreting corticosterone at adult-like levels. The larger sibling in broods of two showed a similar gradual stress-response development pattern. In contrast, by day 45, when differences in body condition were well established between siblings, the smaller, food-deprived chicks significantly increased baseline levels of corticosterone but showed normal stress-induced levels. Near fledging, baseline levels had returned to normal, but stress-induced levels were lower than expected. Similar to altricial species, normally developing semialtricial Magellanic penguin chicks do not express a robust corticosterone stress response until near fledging. Chronic stressors such as food deprivation cause corticosterone use to be up-regulated earlier than expected. However, in cases of extended chronic stress, down-regulation may ensue, thus avoiding the negative effects of chronically elevated levels of corticosterone. PMID:15702466

  7. Response of broiler chicks to threonine-supplemented diets to 4 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsheimer, J P; Vereijken, P F; Schutte, J B

    1994-09-01

    1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the response of broiler chicks to threonine-supplemented diets between 10 and 28 d and 7 and 21 d of age, respectively. 2. In the first experiment female broiler chicks were fed on 11 experimental diets. Two iso-energetic basal diets (diets 1 and 2) were prepared with 200 and 160 g CP/kg and 7.6 and 6.0 g threonine/kg respectively. Both diets contained 11.5 g lysine and 8.7 g sulphur-containing amino acids/kg. Diet 3 was composed of diet 2, supplemented with all essential and non-essential amino acids (EAA and NEAA, respectively) except threonine, to the concentrations of the amino acids in diet 1. The NEAA were added as a combination of glutamic acid and glycine. Diets 4 to 11 had the same compositions as diet 3, but contained increasing amounts of threonine. 3. For birds fed on diet 2, gain was significantly lower and food/gain ratio was significantly higher than for birds fed on diet 1. Supplementation with EAA, NEAA and threonine to the same concentrations in diet 1 resulted in a performance similar to that found on diet 1. 4. In experiment 2, male and female broiler chicks both received 10 experimental diets. Diet 1 contained 220 g CP/kg and 8.5 g threonine/kg, diet 2 contained 160 g CP/kg from natural raw materials and 6 g threonine/kg. Both diets contained 12.4 g lysine and 9.3 g sulphur-containing amino acids/kg. Basal diet 2 was supplemented with all EAA and NEAA to the concentrations of basal diet 1, except for threonine. Diets 3 to 10 had the same compositions as the supplemented diet 2, but contained increasing amounts of threonine. 5. For male and female chicks on diet 2, gain was significantly lower and food/gain ratio significantly higher than those on diet 1. Diet 10 (160 g CP/kg plus all EAA, including threonine, and NEAA supplemented to the concentrations of diet 1) resulted in the same performance as diet 1. 6. The results indicate that, when low protein maize-soyabean meal diets supplemented with

  8. Distribution and accumulation of mercury in tissues of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Hines, R.K.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the distribution and accumulation of Hg in tissues of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks maintained for up to 15 weeks on either a control diet with no added methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) or one containing either 0.4 or 1.2 ??g Hg (as MeHgCl)/g wet-weight food. Total Hg and MeHg tissue concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 > 0.95) with the amount of Hg delivered to individual chicks throughout the course of the experiment. The pattern of differential Hg concentration in internal tissues was consistent within each treatment: Liver > kidney > muscle > carcass > brain. Feather Hg concentrations were consistently higher than those of internal tissues and represented an important route of Hg elimination. Feather mass accounted for 4.3% ?? 0.1% (average ?? standard error) of body mass, yet 27.3% ?? 2.6% of total Hg intake was excreted into feathers. Our calculations indicate that 26.7% ?? 4.9% of ingested Hg was not accounted for and, thus, either was never absorbed or was absorbed and subsequently eliminated in feces. With the additional excretion into feathers, 54% of ingested Hg was excreted. Demethylation was evident in the liver at all treatment levels and in the kidneys of chicks dosed at 1.2 ??g Hg/g. Mercury concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 ??? 0.95) among internal tissues and with blood Hg concentration. Mercury concentrations of secondary feathers were moderately correlated (r2 = 0.82-0.93) with internal tissues. We supply regression models that may be used to provide perspective and a useful means of interpreting the variety of measures of Hg exposure reported in the literature. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  9. Effect of Different Levels of Dietary Glucosinolates on Performance of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghighian Roudsari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred Arian broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of contents of dietary glucosinolates on performance of broiler chicks during starter (0-21 days of age and grower periods (22-42 days of age in a completely randomized design. The dietary glucosinolates contents in the starter period were 0 (S1, 7.5 (S2, 15 (S3, 22.5 (S4, 30 (S5 µmol/g and in the grower period they were 0 (G1, 5.7 (G2, 11.4 (G3, 17.1 (G4, 22.8 (G5 µmol/g. Feed intake during the grower period was affected (P<0.05 by different levels of glucosinolates in the diets and the lowest feed intake was observed in the G5 treatment. The lowest body weight gains were observed in the S5 and G5 treatments during the starter and grower periods, respectively (P<0.05. The feed conversion ratio (FCR in the S5 treatment for the starter and the G5 treatment for the grower period were significantly different (P<0.05 from other treatments. The correlation between the body weight gain and level of dietary glucosinolates or glucosinolate consumption was high during the starter (r = -95.3% and -94.7%, respectively and relatively high (r = -69.5% and -72.4%, respectively during the grower period. This experiment showed that the amount of glucosinolates in the diets of broiler chicks for the periods of starter and grower feeding system should not be more than 11.36 and 8.11µmol/g diet, respectively. Also during the starter and grower feeding periods, the highest level of rapeseed meal could be used in the broiler diets are 13 and 8 percent, respectively.

  10. The Pinay as Fun, Fearless Female: Philippine Chick Literature in the Age of the Transnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Stuart Santiago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes Philippine chick literature by Summit Publishing – the first to come out with local chick literature via the Summit Books – and as a by-product of its magazine Cosmopolitan Philippines.This study delves into chick lit’s existence given these context(s: 1. the dynamics of publication in this country, i.e., the “literary” versus the “popular”, works in English versus works in Filipino, the “artsy” versus the bestseller; 2. the various kinds of feminism(s of which the middle class Filipina of today is necessarily part; and 3. the facts of globalization and the transnation that are the bases of the Summit Books’ existence, given its links to Cosmopolitan Philippines, and the latter’s existence as a local franchise of a transnational magazine. This paper also looks at the marginalization and suppression that is contingent upon these perspectives of the Summit Books with a view of seeing the possibilities of resistance and rebellion within them. This project uses as backbone contemporary third world feminist and current Philippine cultural theories that insist on the urgent tasks of relevance and involvement that all contemporary cultural productions by women must face. More particularly, this study uses notions of subjectivity and agency, and the processes of negotiation these allow, towards an analysis of where these women’s texts necessarily belong to. This kind of analysis is utilized precisely because these texts traverse across the oppressive and the empowering, the status quo and the possibilities of rebellion, and the powerless and the powerful. In the end, such negotiation is seen as Summit Books’ contribution to the contemporary creation of the Philippine feminine – one that demands that no text be reduced to just its class origins, or just the popular.

  11. The chick chorioallantoic membrane as an in vivo xenograft model for Burkitt lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive malignancy that arises from B-cells and belongs to the group of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models NHL research is mainly performed in vitro. Here, we studied the use of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for the generation of human BL xenograft tumors, which we compared with known characteristics of the human disease. In order to generate experimental BL tumors, we inoculated human BL2B95 and BL2-GFP cells on the CAM. BL2B95 xenograft-tumors were grown for seven days and subsequently analyzed with transmission electron and immunofluorescence microscopy, as well as histological staining approaches. BL2-GFP cells were studied at regular intervals up to seven days, and their metastatic behavior was visualized with intravital immunofluorescence techniques. Xenografted BL2B95 cells formed solid tumors in the CAM model with a Ki67-index greater than 90%, preservation of typical tumor markers (CD10, CD19, CD20), a ‘starry sky’ morphology, production of agyrophilic fibers in the stroma, formation of blood and lymphatic vessels and lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 to distant sites. We identified macrophages, lymphocytes and heterophilic granulocytes (chick homolog of neutrophils) as the most abundant immune cells in the experimental tumors. BL2-GFP cells could be traced in real-time during their distribution in the CAM, and the first signs for their dissemination were visible after 2-3 days. We show that xenografted BL2B95 cells generate tumors in the CAM with a high degree of cellular, molecular and proliferative concord with the human disease, supporting the application of the CAM model for NHL research with a focus on tumor-stroma interactions. Additionally we report that BL2-GFP cells, grafted on the CAM of ex ovo cultured chick embryos, provide a powerful tool to study lymphogenic dissemination in real-time

  12. Early expression of hypocretin/orexin in the chick embryo brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle E Godden

    Full Text Available Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O neuropeptides are released by a discrete group of neurons in the vertebrate hypothalamus which play a pivotal role in the maintenance of waking behavior and brain state control. Previous studies have indicated that the H/O neuronal development differs between mammals and fish; H/O peptide-expressing cells are detectable during the earliest stages of brain morphogenesis in fish, but only towards the end of brain morphogenesis (by ∼ 85% of embryonic development in rats. The developmental emergence of H/O neurons has never been previously described in birds. With the goal of determining whether the chick developmental pattern was more similar to that of mammals or of fish, we investigated the emergence of H/O-expressing cells in the brain of chick embryos of different ages using immunohistochemistry. Post-natal chick brains were included in order to compare the spatial distribution of H/O cells with that of other vertebrates. We found that H/O-expressing cells appear to originate from two separate places in the region of the diencephalic proliferative zone. These developing cells express the H/O neuropeptide at a comparatively early age relative to rodents (already visible at 14% of the way through fetal development, thus bearing a closer resemblance to fish. The H/O-expressing cell population proliferates to a large number of cells by a relatively early embryonic age. As previously suggested, the distribution of H/O neurons is intermediate between that of mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. This work suggests that, in addition to its roles in developed brains, the H/O peptide may play an important role in the early embryonic development of non-mammalian vertebrates.

  13. Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid protein composition in early developmental stages in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, A; Martín, P; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Pulgar, M A; Moro, J A

    2004-04-01

    Foetal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has a very high protein concentration when compared to adult CSF, and in many species five major protein fractions have been described. However, the protein concentration and composition in CSF during early developmental stages remains largely unknown. Our results show that in the earliest stages (18 to 30 H.H.) of chick development there is a progressive increase in CSF protein concentration until foetal values are attained. In addition, by performing electrophoretic separation and high-sensitivity silver staining, we were able to identify a total of 21 different protein fractions in the chick embryo CSF. In accordance with the developmental pattern of their concentration, these can be classified as follows: A: high-concentration fractions which corresponded with the ones described in foetal CSF by other authors; B: low-concentration fractions which remained stable throughout the period studied; C: low-concentration fractions which show changes during this period. The evolution and molecular weight of the latter group suggest the possibility of an important biological role. Our data demonstrate that all the CSF protein fractions are present in embryonic serum; this could mean that the specific transport mechanisms in neuroepithelial cells described in the foetal period evolve in very early stages of development. In conclusion, this paper offers an accurate study of the protein composition of chick embryonic CSF, which will help the understanding of the influences on neuroepithelial stem cells during development and, as a result, the appropriate conditions for the in vitro study of embryonic/foetal nervous tissue cells. PMID:15039986

  14. BMP is an important regulator of proepicardial identity in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Jan; Männer, Jörg; Brand, Thomas

    2006-07-15

    The proepicardium (PE) is a transient structure formed by pericardial coelomic mesothelium at the venous pole of the embryonic heart and gives rise to several cell types of the mature heart. In order to study PE development in chick embryos, we have analyzed the expression pattern of the marker genes Tbx18, Wt1, and Cfc. During PE induction, the three marker genes displayed a left-right asymmetric expression pattern. In each case, expression on the right side was stronger than on the left side. The left-right asymmetric gene expression observed here is in accord with the asymmetric formation of the proepicardium in the chick embryo. While initially the marker genes were expressed in the primitive sinus horn, subsequently, expression became confined to the PE mesothelium. In order to search for signaling factors involved in PE development, we studied Bmp2 and Bmp4 expression. Bmp2 was bilaterally expressed in the sinus venosus. In contrast, Bmp4 expression was initially expressed unilaterally in the right sinus horn and subsequently in the PE. In order to assess its functional role, BMP signaling was experimentally modulated by supplying exogenous BMP2 and by inhibiting endogenous BMP signaling through the addition of Noggin. Both supplying BMP and blocking BMP signaling resulted in a loss of PE marker gene expression. Surprisingly, both experimental situations lead to cardiac myocyte formation in the PE cultures. Careful titration experiments with exogenously added BMP2 or Noggin revealed that PE-specific marker gene expression depends on a low level of BMP signaling. Implantation of BMP2-secreting cells or beads filled with Noggin protein into the right sinus horn of HH stage 11 embryos resulted in downregulation of Tbx18 expression, corresponding to the results of the explant assay. Thus, a distinct level of BMP signaling is required for PE formation in the chick embryo. PMID:16677627

  15. Effect of species-specific sound stimulation on the development and hatching of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Bahr, C; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; Demmers, T

    2015-04-01

    1. Previous research has reported that chicken embryos develop a functionary auditory system during incubation and that prenatal sound may play an important role in embryo development and alter the hatch time. In this study the effects of prenatal auditory stimulation on hatch process, hatch performance, the development of embryo and blood parameters were investigated. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler breeder eggs were incubated either in control or in sound-stimulated groups. The sound-stimulated embryos were exposed to a discontinuous sound of species-specific calls by means of a speaker at 72 dB for 16 h a day: maternal calls from d 10 to d 19 of incubation time and embryo/chick calls from d 19 until hatching. The species-specific sound was excluded from the control group. 3. The onset of hatch was delayed in the sound-stimulated group compared to the controls. This was also supported by comparison of the exact hatching time of individual focal chicks within the two groups. However, the sound-stimulated embryos had a lower hatchability than the control group, mainly due to significantly increased numbers of late deaths. 4. The embryos exhibited a similar growth pattern between the sound-stimulated group and the control group. Although sound exposure decreased body weight at d 16, no consistent effect of sound on body weight at incubation stage was observed. Species-specific sound stimulation also had no impact on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone concentrations during hatch. PMID:25559058

  16. Xanthophyll supplementation regulates carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Ji, Jun; Jin, Ling; Sun, Bao-Li; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Chang-Kang; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40% lutein and 60% zeaxanthin; Juyuan Biochemical Co., Ltd., GuangZhou, China) on gene expression associated with carotenoid cleavage enzymes (β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, BCMO1; and β-carotene 9', 10'-dioxygenase, BCDO2) and retinoid metabolism (lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) and STRA6) of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into 3 groups and fed diets supplemented with zero (as the control group), 20, or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at d 35 of the trial. Results showed that 40 mg/kg xanthophyll supplementation increased BCDO2 mRNA in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum; LRAT mRNA in the jejunum; and STRA6 mRNA in the liver, while it decreased LRAT mRNA in the liver. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from a zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at zero, 7, 14, and 21 d after hatching. Results showed that in ovo xanthophyll modulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly within one wk after hatching. The maternal effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work one to 2 wk after hatching. Dietary xanthophyll regulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly from 2 wk onward. The xanthophyll regulation of carotenoid and retinoid metabolism also revealed strong tissue specificity. In conclusion, xanthophyll supplementation could modulate carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in different tissues of hens and chicks. PMID:26574032

  17. Chick embryos have the same pattern of hypoxic lower-brain activation as fetal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeremy P; Hawkins, Connor; Lee, Aaron; Coté, Alexandra; Balaban, Evan; Pompeiano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    cFos expression (indicating a particular kind of neuronal activation) was examined in embryonic day (E) 18 chick embryos after exposure to 4 h of either normoxia (21% O2), modest hypoxia (15% O2), or medium hypoxia (10% O2). Eight regions of the brainstem and hypothalamus were surveyed, including seven previously shown to respond to hypoxia in late-gestation mammalian fetuses (Breen et al., 1997; Nitsos and Walker, 1999b). Hypoxia-related changes in chick embryo brain activation mirrored those found in fetal mammals with the exception of the medullary Raphe, which showed decreased hypoxic activation, compared with no change in mammals. This difference may be explained by the greater anapyrexic responses of chick embryos relative to mammalian fetuses. Activation in the A1/C1 region was examined in more detail to ascertain whether an O2-sensitive subpopulation of these cells containing heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2) may drive hypoxic brain responses before the maturation of peripheral O2-sensing. HMOX2-positive and -negative catecholaminergic cells and interdigitating noncatecholaminergic HMOX2-positive cells all showed significant changes in cFos expression to hypoxia, with larger population responses seen in the catecholaminergic cells. Hypoxia-induced activation of lower-brain regions studied here was significantly better correlated with activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) than with that of HMOX2-containing A1/C1 neurons. Together, these observations suggest that (1) the functional circuitry controlling prenatal brain responses to hypoxia is strongly conserved between birds and mammals, and (2) NTS neurons are a more dominant driving force for prenatal hypoxic cFos brain responses than O2-sensing A1/C1 neurons. PMID:25964066

  18. Identification of genes differentially expressed in dorsal and ventral chick midbrain during early Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volff JN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the development of the central nervous system (CNS, patterning processes along the dorsoventral (DV axis of the neural tube generate different neuronal subtypes. As development progresses these neurons are arranged into functional units with varying cytoarchitecture, such as laminae or nuclei for efficient relaying of information. Early in development ventral and dorsal regions are similar in size and structure. Different proliferation rates and cell migration patterns are likely to result in the formation of laminae or nuclei, eventually. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that establish these different structural arrangements are not well understood. We undertook a differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR screen to identify genes with distinct expression patterns between dorsal and ventral regions of the chick midbrain in order to identify genes which regulate the sculpturing of such divergent neuronal organisation. We focused on the DV axis of the early chick midbrain since mesencephalic alar plate and basal plate develop into laminae and nuclei, respectively. Results We identified 53 differentially expressed bands in our initial screen. Twenty-six of these could be assigned to specific genes and we could unambiguously show the differential expression of five of the isolated cDNAs in vivo by in situ mRNA expression analysis. Additionally, we verified differential levels of expression of a selected number of genes by using reverse transcriptase (RT PCR method with gene-specific primers. One of these genes, QR1, has been previously cloned and we present here a detailed study of its early developmental time course and pattern of expression providing some insights into its possible function. Our phylogenetic analysis of QR1 shows that it is the chick orthologue of Sparc-like 1/Hevin/Mast9 gene in mice, rats, dogs and humans, a protein involved in cell adhesion. Conclusion This study reveals some

  19. The developmental gross morphology of pancreas in chick embryo after prenatal administration of valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of prenatal administration of valproic acid on the developmental gross morphology of pancreas in chick embryo. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Anatomy Department, Regional Centre, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Islamabad, from February 2010 to February 2011. Methodology: An experimental group-A and control group-B, comprised of 30 eggs each. Freshly laid fertilized chicken eggs of experimental group were injected with valproic acid, incubated and hatched. Eggs of control group underwent sham treatment using normal saline. The chicks were sacrificed on hatching or day 22 of incubation, whichever was earlier. The pancreata of only alive chicks of both groups were dissected out, and evaluated for gross morphology in terms of length and weight by statistically comparing with control ones. Then pancreata were stained with aldehyde fuchsin and orange-G stain to study other obvious histological effects, if any. Results: Chicken embryos exposed to valproic acid in ovo, showed significant decrease in length and weight of pancreata. The mean of length (cm) of pancreata in group-A was 2.208 +- 0.166, and group-B was 2.300 +- 0.102 (p=0.008). The mean of weight (g) of pancreata in group-A was 0.032 +- 0.009, and group-B was 0.048 +- 0.005 (p=0.001). Conclusion: Valproic acid exposure showed retarding effect on the gross development of pancreas as depicted by decrease in the length and weight of pancreata. (author)

  20. Chick PTPσ regulates the targeting of retinal axons within the optic tectum

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid-Doubell, F.; McKinnell, I.; Aricescu, A R; Sajnani, G.; Stoker, A.

    2002-01-01

    Chick PTP (cPTP), also known as CRYP, is a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase found on axons and growth cones. Putative ligands for cPTP are distributed within basement membranes and on glial end feet of the retina, optic nerve, and optic tectum, suggesting that cPTP signaling is occurring along the whole retinotectal pathway. We have shown previously that cPTP plays a role in supporting the retinal phase of axon outgrowth. Here we have now addressed the role of cPTP within retinal...

  1. Na/K pump current in aggregates of cultured chick cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneously beating aggregates of cultured embryonic chick cardiac myocytes, maintained at 37 degrees C, were voltage clamped using a single microelectrode switching clamp to measure the current generated by the Na/K pump (Ip). In resting, steady-state preparations an ouabain- sensitive current of 0.46 +/- 0.03 microA/cm2 (n = 22) was identified. This current was not affected by 1 mM Ba, which was used to reduce inward rectifier current (IK1) and linearize the current-voltage relationship. ...

  2. Intracellular sodium affects ouabain interaction with the Na/K pump in cultured chick cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Whether a given dose of ouabain will produce inotropic or toxic effects depends on factors that affect the apparent affinity (K0.5) of the Na/K pump for ouabain. To accurately resolve these factors, especially the effect of intracellular Na concentration (Nai), we have applied three complementary techniques for measuring the K0.5 for ouabain in cultured embryonic chick cardiac myocytes. Under control conditions with 5.4 mM Ko, the value of the K0.5 for ouabain was 20.6 +/- 1.2, 12.3 +/- 1.7, ...

  3. Immunogenicity of formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine inactivated infectious bursal disease virus in broiler chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HABIB Mudasser; HUSSAIN Iftikhar; IRSHAD Hamid; YANG Zong-zhao; SHUAI Jiang-bing; CHEN Ning

    2006-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was inactivated by two different chemicals-formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine (BEI). Formaldehyde was used at 0.1% and 0.2%, while BEI was used at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L.These four vaccines were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of broiler chicks.Both BEI-inactivated vaccines gave relatively higher antibody titers and were almost twice as efficient as formaldehyde-inactivated ones.

  4. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick biventer cervicis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Esfandiar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available biventer cervicis muscleD. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick EsfandiarAbstractBackground and Purpose: NO is a short-lived gas molecule generated by degradation of L-arg to citrulline and by the activation of enzyme NOS Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. There are multiple NOS isoforms that strongly are expressed in skeletal muscle, suggesting the crucial role of NO in regulating muscular metabolism and function. In this study, the effect of L-arginine was examined at the neuromuscular junction of the chick biventer cervicis muscle.Materials and Methods: Biventer cervicis muscle preparations from chick’s age of 3 weeks were set up in the organ bath. The organ bath had a vessel with volume of about 70 ml; it contained Tyrode solution aerated with oxygen and was kept at 37º C. NO levels was also measured in the chick biventer cervicis muscle homogenates, using spectrophotometer method for the direct detection of NO, nitrite and nitrate. Total nitrite (nitrite+nitrate was measured by a spectrophotometer at 540 nm after the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by copperized cadmium granules.Results: L-Arginine at 500 µg/ml, decreased twitch response to electrical stimulation, and produced rightward shift of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol. L-arginine at 1000 µg/ml produced a strong shift to the right of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol with a reduction in efficacy. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine on the twitch response was blocked by caffeine (200 µg/ml. NO levels were found to be significantly increased in concentrations 500 and 1000 µg/ml of L-arginine in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001.Conclusion: These findings indicate a possible role of increased NO levels in the suppressive action of L-arginie on the twitch response. In addition, the results indicate that the post-junctional antagonistic action of L-arginine is probably the result of impaired sarcoplasmic

  5. Changes in the number of chick ciliary ganglion neuron processes with time in cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of chick ciliary ganglion neurons dissociated from embryonic day 8 or 9 ganglia and maintained in vitro. Most of the neurons were multipolar during the first three days after plating, with an average of 6.0 processes extending directly from the cell body. The neurons became unipolar with time. The remaining primary process accounted for greater than 90% of the total neuritic arbor. This striking change in morphology was not due to the select...

  6. Feeding and growth of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) chicks with unpredictable food access

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, P.; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of unpredictable feeding times on feeding activity and body mass gain in fast growing Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) from 7 to 31 d of age. Quail chicks were subjected to a long day length (18L:6D) with ad libitum food during (1) 17.5 h of the light period, starting 0.5 h after lights-on (group A, n = 14), (2) 6 h of the light period, starting 0.5 h after lights-on (group B, n = 14), and (3) 6 h of the light period, starting pseudorandomly either 0.5, 6, or 1...

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on free amino acid content of chick embryo blood plasma. [. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, B.; Dryanovski, P.; Simeonovska, M.

    1979-06-01

    Using thin-layer chromatography on cellulose film, it was demonstrated that there is a decrease in blood plasma free amino acids after exposing chick embryos to radiation (1000 rad). Only lysine and histidine content decreases on the 1st day. On the 2d, 3d, and 10th days, there is a decrease in lysine, histidine, arginine, glycine, glutamine, serine, aspartic and glutamic acids, threonine, and alanine. There was no change in amounts of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, valine, and tyrosine throughout the observation period. It was demonstrated that there is a change in rate of migration of nonessential amino acids from egg albumin to embryo blood after exposure to radiation.

  8. Influence of early environmental experience on development of pecking behaviour in chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Si-He; Bao, Jun

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the sensitive imprinting period and the influence of early experience on feather-pecking behaviour of young chicks. The experiment included 8 treatment-groups: one group of chickens (0F) were reared on sandy floor during the whole experiment period (0–14 weeks); one group (0P) were reared on barren floor; three groups were reared on barren floor for 2 weeks (3P), 4 weeks (5P), or 6 weeks (7P), respectively, and then reared on sandy floor till 14 we...

  9. Transcriptional and pathway analysis in the hypothalamus of newly hatched chicks during fasting and delayed feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba Jason

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamus plays a central role in regulating appetite and metabolism. However, the gene networks within the hypothalamus that regulate feed intake and metabolism, and the effects of fasting on those pathways are not completely understood in any species. The present experiment evaluated global hypothalamic gene expression in newly hatched chicks using microarray analysis to elucidate genes and pathways regulated by feeding, fasting, and delayed feeding. Ten groups of chicks were sampled over four days post-hatch, including fed, fasted, and 48 h fasted followed by access to feed for 4 h, 24 h, and 48 h. Hypothalamic samples were collected for microarray analysis (n = 4. Expression patterns of selected genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Pathway analysis of the microarray results predicted a network of genes involved in neuropeptide or neurotransmitter signaling. To confirm the functionality of this predicted gene network, hypothalamic neurons from fed and fasted chicks were isolated and cultured in the presence of neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, norepinephrine, and L-phospho-serine. Results confirmed functional relationships among members of the predicted gene network. Moreover, the effects observed were dependant upon the nutritional state of the animals (fed vs. fasted. Results Differences in gene expression (≥ 1.6 fold were detected in 1,272 genes between treatments, and of those, 119 genes were significantly (P SSTR5, NPY5R, POMC, ADRB2, GRM8, and RLN3 were associated within a gene network. In vitro experiments with primary hypothalamic neurons confirmed that receptor agonists involved in this network regulated expression of other genes in the predicted network, and this regulation within the network was influenced by the nutritional status and age of the chick. Conclusions Microarray analysis of the hypothalamus during different nutritional states revealed that many

  10. Chicks use changes in luminance and chromatic contrast as indicators of the sign of defocus

    OpenAIRE

    Rucker, Frances J.; Wallman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    As the eye changes focus, the resulting changes in cone contrast are associated with changes in color and luminance. Color fluctuations should simulate the eye being hyperopic and make the eye grow in the myopic direction, while luminance fluctuations should simulate myopia and make the eye grow in the hyperopic direction. Chicks without lenses were exposed daily (9 a.m. to 5 p.m.) for three days on two consecutive weeks to 2 Hz sinusoidally modulated illumination (mean illuminance of 680 lux...

  11. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Woyengo, T. A.; Emiola, I. A.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at t...

  12. Response of peripheral leucocytes to whole body irradiation and vitamin E treatment in white leghorn chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced changes in peripheral blood leucocytes in 1 day old male white leghorn chicks were studied after whole body exposure to 2.25 Gy dose of gamma radiation at the rate of 0.50 Gy/sec with and without vitamin E. The changes in total leucocyte counts, lymphocytes and heterophils were observed at 1,3,5,7,14 and 28 days postirradiation. A pronounced leucocytopenia was noted in the initial post-irradiation period. The lymphocytes and heterophils showed a reciprocal relationship after radiation. With vitamin E treatment, considerable and faster recovery was noticed in the leucocytes after irradiation. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  13. Influence of red laser irradiation on the embryo development and condition of Japanese quails' chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We researched the influence of low-level laser irradiation of Japanese Quail hatching eggs on the embryo development, mortality, hatch ability, and physiological state of one-day old chicks and showed the stimulation of embryo development, a statistically reliable decrease in early embryo mortality, and an increase in hatch ability of quail as compared with control. It is detected that one-day old quails from irradiated eggs have higher indices of red blood and a reliable lower level of lipid peroxidation in liver compare with the control group

  14. [Non-invasive method of sex identification of crane chicks by the DNA from capillary vessels of alantois].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The non-invasive method of determining the sex of chicks after hatching based on the DNA isolated from capillary vessels of allantois of the egg-shell membranes was demonstrated on four crane species (Gruinae, Aves), which were bred in the Crane Breeding Centre of the Oka Nature Reserve in 2009-2012. Using the EE0.6 molecular marker of sex, the gender of 26 Siberian (Grus leucogeranus), 15 Red-crowned (G. japonensis), 4 Common (G. grus) and 1 Demoiselle (Anthropoides virgo) crane chicks was identified. This method can be recommended for determining the sex of chicks and the ratio of sexes in cranes that reproduce both in captivity and natural populations. PMID:25507804

  15. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry industry. PMID:26475072

  16. Immunological Changes of Chicks Immunized with Marek‘s Disease Vaccines and Challenged with Virulent MD Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuZhonggui; GaoRong; 等

    1995-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to inoculate one-day old chicks with Marek's disecae(MD) trivalent and herpesvirus of turkey(HVT) vaccines separately,and then to challenge them with virulent MD virus(vMDV) at the age of 15 days,and 5,25,45,and 75 days after the challenge with vMDV,comparing with the cotrol-challenged chicks without immunization,to detect the immunoprotetive efficacy and dynamic changes of the inductive activity of interleukin-2(IL-2),expression of IL-2 receptor and proliferative function of T cells in thymus and spleen;the number of ANAET,APT,cells and IgG,IgM,IgA antibody-producing cells in Bursa Fabricius,spleen,thymus,cecal tonsil and Harder gland;as the amount of T cells and IgG,IgA in peripheral blood as well as the content of IgG,IgM and IgA in the tear,trachea washings,bile and intestinal fluids of the experimental chicks.The experimental results firstly demonstrate that the immunoregulation of IL-2,and IL-2 receptor,the cellualr and humoral immune resposes were significantly enhanced in the central and peripheral immune organs;the local mucosal immune funcsignificantly enhanced in the central and peripheral immune organs;the local mucosal immune function were markedly amplified in the respiratory and digestive tracts of the immunized-challenged,chicks,which were closely correlated with the immunoprotection against MD;the immune response and immunoprotective effect of the trivalent vaccine-immunized chicks wrer much better than those of HVT vaccine-immunized chicks.

  17. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  18. Analysis of growth rate variables and postfeeding regurgitation in hand-reared Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, Heidi; Watson, Ryan; Hammer, Sven; Raidal, Shane R

    2008-09-01

    The Spix's macaw, or little blue macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), is one of the most critically endangered bird species in the world. In 1990, the Brazilian Nature Conservation Authority established a permanent committee to oversee the captive breeding of about 20 individual Spix's macaws held in various locations throughout the world. Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) successfully bred 10 Spix's macaws in the 2005 and 2006 breeding seasons but intermittent episodes of postfeeding regurgitation in hand-raised chicks prompted the need to better understand and monitor the nutritional and physiologic requirements of growing nestlings. To ascertain and rank the possible causes of regurgitation in chicks, we undertook a critical analysis of the feeding, growth, and health data recorded for each individual hand-raised chick. Factors such as the total daily food intake (TDFI), growth curves, nursery room climate (temperature and humidity), and nutritional requirements were investigated as well as any health issues. Chicks attained a maximum body weight of 375 +/- 25 g at 45 days and then gradually lost weight until they reached a weaning weight of 300 +/- 30 g. The maximum daily volume of food that each chick received was 101 +/- 29 g at 42 days of age, which was also the age at which a peak in postfeeding regurgitation episodes occurred. The TDFI as a percentage of body weight peaked (83.1 +/- 12.3%) at day 3 of age and dropped to 30.1 +/- 2.3% by day 45 and then to 19.6 +/- 1.1% at day 92. Detailed analyses of the 2005 and 2006 records indicate that the regurgitation episodes may be primarily the result of overfeeding during the second trimester of hand-rearing. Our results indicate that smaller meals during the period when chicks are attaining their maximum body weights may contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of regurgitation episodes in hand-reared Spix's macaws. PMID:19014091

  19. Hippocampus and medial striatum dissociation during goal navigation by geometry or features in the domestic chick: An immediate early gene study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Pecchia, Tommaso; Bingman, Verner Peter; Flore, Michele; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We employed a standard reference memory task to study the involvement of the hippocampal formation (HF) of domestic chicks that used the boundary geometry of a test environment to orient to and locate a reward. Using the immediate early gene product c-Fos as a neuronal activity marker, we found enhanced HF activation in chicks that learned to locate rewarded corners using the shape of a rectangular arena compared to chicks trained to solve the task by discriminating local features in a square-shaped arena. We also analyzed neuronal activity in the medial part of the medial striatum (mMSt). Surprisingly, in mMSt we observed a reverse pattern, with higher activity in the chicks that were trained to locate the goal by local features. Our results identify two seemingly parallel, memory systems in chicks, with HF central to the processing of spatial-geometrical information and mMSt important in supporting local feature discrimination. PMID:26135386

  20. Long-term effects of corn, soybean meal, wheat bran, and fish meal on manganese utilization in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Baker, D H

    1986-07-01

    A 7-week assay was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of several natural feed ingredients on Mn utilization. Chicks were fed a Mn-deficient casein-dextrose diet supplemented with fish meal, wheat bran, or a corn-soybean meal mixture. Although these feed ingredients contain significant quantities of Mn, they actually depressed performance and reduced the Mn concentration in key tissues when dietary Mn was near the chick's minimal requirement. At deficient levels of dietary Mn, fish meal also had detrimental effects on those parameters, and it increased the severity of perosis as well. PMID:3748949

  1. Investigation of the Effects of Pre-Incubation Formaldehyde Fumigation on the Tracheal Epithelium of Chicken Embryos and Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    HAYRETDAĞ, Sibel; KOLANKAYA, Dürdane

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-incubation formaldehyde fumigation on the tracheal epithelium of chicken embryos and chicks. Throughout the study pre-incubation formaldehyde fumigation was applied to 18-day-old embryos and 1-day-old chicks only once, at 1 of 2 different concentrations (3x, 42 ml of formalin and 21 g of potassium permanganate per m3 and 4x, 56 ml of formalin and 28 g of potassium permanganate per m3) for 1 of 2 different durations (20 min and 40 min). Tracheal ...

  2. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AML Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  3. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  4. Influence of canthaxanthin on broiler breeder reproduction, chick quality, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Hernandez, J M; Yao, B; Zhu, Q

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effect of canthaxanthin supplied via a maternal route on the production of both breeder hens and chickens, 270 Chinese Three-Yellow breeder hens were randomly divided into 2 groups consisting of 135 birds each (5 replicates of 27) for study. The breeder hens were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 6 mg of canthaxanthin/kg for 24 wk. At the end of the 24-wk breeder experiment, all hatching eggs laid in 5 consecutive days of each group were collected and incubated. For each breeder group, 100 newly hatched chicks (5 replicates of 20) were reared under environmentally controlled conditions for 21 d. Canthaxanthin supplementation resulted in the following outcomes: an enhancement of the serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of breeder hens (P = 0.029), a significant increase in the yolk colorimetric score of Roche Yolk Color Fan (RYCF; P pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF for their shank skin (P pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF and antioxidant capacity were observed for at least 7 d posthatching, and the chicks that hatched from canthaxanthin-enriched eggs showed a lower mortality (0 vs. 4%) during the first 21 d posthatching. These findings support the hypothesis that canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet enhances the protective capacity of tissues against oxidative stress in vivo, which might be beneficial for poultry producers. PMID:21673167

  5. FT-IR microscopic mappings of early mineralization in chick limb bud mesenchymal cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Camacho, N. P.; Mendelsohn, R.; Doty, S. B.; Binderman, I.

    1992-01-01

    Chick limb bud mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes and form a cartilaginous matrix in culture. In this study, the mineral formed in different areas within cultures supplemented with 4 mM inorganic phosphate, or 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP), was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy. The relative mineral-to-matrix ratios, and distribution of crystal sizes at specific locations throughout the matrix were measured from day 14 to day 30. The only mineral phase detected was a poorly crystalline apatite. Cultures receiving 4 mM inorganic phosphate had smaller crystals which were less randomly distributed around the cartilage nodules than those in the beta GP-treated cultures. beta GP-induced mineral consisted of larger, more perfect apatite crystals. In cultures receiving 5 or 10 mM beta GP, the relative mineral-to-matrix ratios (calculated from the integrated intensities of the phosphate and amide I bands, respectively) were higher than in the cultures with 4 mM inorganic phosphate or in the in vivo calcified chick cartilage.

  6. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  7. Immunization with recombinant alpha toxin partially protects broiler chicks against experimental challenge with Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K K; Trinh, H T; Songer, J Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry has re-emerged as a concern for poultry producers, due in part to banning, by many countries, of the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feeds. This re-emergence has led to a search for alternative methods for control of the disease, particularly vaccination. The objective of this work was to determine if vaccination of broiler chicks with recombinant alpha toxin protected against experimental challenge. Broiler chicks were vaccinated subcutaneously at 5 and 15 days of age, followed 10 days later by challenge with Clostridium perfringens. Birds were challenged twice daily on 4 consecutive days by mixing C. perfringens cultures with feed (three parts culture: four parts feed). Non-vaccinated birds challenged with C. perfringens developed NE at the rate of 87.8%, while only 54.9% of vaccinated birds developed lesions. In addition, non-vaccinated birds had lesion scores averaging 2.37, while average scores in vaccinated birds were 1.35. Vaccination produced an antibody response, with post-vaccination anti-alpha toxin IgG (IgY) titers in vaccinated birds more than 5-fold greater than in non-vaccinated birds. After challenge, vaccinated birds had average IgG (IgY) titers>15-fold higher than those in non-vaccinated birds. These results suggest that alpha toxin may serve as an effective immunogen, and, as such, may play a role in pathogenesis. PMID:18635321

  8. Heart Myofibrillogenesis Occurs in Isolated Chick Posterior Blastoderm: A Culture Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early cardiogenesis including myofibrillogenesis is a critical event during development. Recently we showed that prospective cardiomyocytes reside in the posterior lateral blastoderm in the chick embryo. Here we cultured the posterior region of the chick blastoderm in serum-free medium and observed the process of myofibrillogenesis by immunohistochemistry. After 48 hours, explants expressed sarcomeric proteins (sarcomeric α-actinin, 61%; smooth muscle α-actin, 95%; Z-line titin, 56%; sarcomeric myosin, 48%); however, they did not yet show a mature striation. After 72 hours, more than 92% of explants expressed I-Z-I proteins, which were incorporated into the striation in 75% of explants or more (sarcomeric α-actinin, 75%; smooth muscle α-actin, 81%; Z-line titin, 83%). Sarcomeric myosin was expressed in 63% of explants and incorporated into A-bands in 37%. The percentage incidence of expression or striation of I-Z-I proteins was significantly higher than that of sarcomeric myosin. Results suggested that the nascent I-Z-I components appeared to be generated independently of A-bands in the cultured posterior blastoderm, and that the process of myofibrillogenesis observed in our culture model faithfully reflected that in vivo. Our blastoderm culture model appeared to be useful to investigate the mechanisms regulating the early cardiogenesis

  9. Protein expression profiling during chick retinal maturation: a proteomics-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stitt Alan W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying pathways that drive retinal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis are still relatively poorly understood. Protein expression analysis can provide direct insight into these complex developmental processes. The aim of this study was therefore to employ proteomic analysis to study the developing chick retina throughout embryonic (E development commencing at day 12 through 13, 17, 19 and post-hatch (P 1 and 33 days. Results 2D proteomic and mass spectrometric analysis detected an average of 1514 spots per gel with 15 spots demonstrating either modulation or constitutive expression identified via MS. Proteins identified included alpha and beta-tubulin, alpha enolase, B-creatine kinase, gamma-actin, platelet-activating factor (PAF, PREDICTED: similar to TGF-beta interacting protein 1, capping protein (actin filament muscle Z line, nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase, triosphoaphate isomerase, DJ1, stathmin, fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7/B-FABP, beta-synuclein and enhancer of rudimentary homologue. Conclusion This study builds upon previous proteomic investigations of retinal development and represents the addition of a unique data set to those previously reported. Based on reported bioactivity some of the identified proteins are most likely to be important to normal retinal development in the chick. Continued analysis of the dynamic protein populations present at the early stages and throughout retinal development will increase our understanding of the molecular events underpinning retinogenesis.

  10. The influence of side-curtain color on broiler chick behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R do A Vercellino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian poultry production is prospering, and negative-pressure broiler houses are increasingly used to improve environmental control. One important issue is the color of the side curtains used in such houses due to the influence of colors on broiler behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of different curtain color on the welfare of 7-day-old broilers, considering luminosity and other environmental parameters. Chicks were housed in three different negative-pressure broiler houses either with black (T1, blue (T2, or yellow (T3 side curtains. House environment (luminosity, dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, air velocity, and gas emissions and the behavior of chicks on day 7 after housing were evaluated in three consecutive flocks in the morning and in the afternoon. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis, Kruskal-Wallis' test, and Pearson's correlation test. Luminosity and ITU were influenced by curtain color, and some of the evaluated behaviors were associated with luminosity or other environmental parameter.

  11. Detection probability of least tern and piping plover chicks in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the abundance and stability of populations of conservation concern is often complicated by an inability to perfectly detect all members of the population. Mark-recapture offers a flexible framework in which one may identify factors contributing to imperfect detection, while at the same time estimating demographic parameters such as abundance or survival. We individually color-marked, recaptured, and re-sighted 1,635 federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum; endangered) chicks and 1,318 piping plover (Charadrius melodus; threatened) chicks from 2006 to 2009 at 4 study areas along the Missouri River and investigated effects of observer-, subject-, and site-level covariates suspected of influencing detection. Increasing the time spent searching and crew size increased the probability of detecting both species regardless of study area and detection methods were not associated with decreased survival. However, associations between detection probability and the investigated covariates were highly variable by study area and species combinations, indicating that a universal mark-recapture design may not be appropriate.

  12. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution of 1P1 antigen expression in the plexiform layers of developing chick retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHOUHUA; QIUBAOSONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of 1P1-antigen in the developing chick retina have been examined by indriect immunofluorescence staining technique using the novel monoclonal antibody(MAb)1P1.Expression of the 1P1 antigen was found to be regulated in radial as well as in tangential dimension of the retina,being preferentially or exclusively located in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the neural retina depending on the stages of development ,With the onset of the formation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 antigen becomes expressed in the retina.With progressing differentiation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 immunofluorescence revealed 2 subbands at E9 and 6 subands at E18,At postnatal stages(after P3) immunoreactivity was reduced in an inside-outside sequence leading to the complete absence of the 1P1 antigen in adulthood.1P1 antigen expression in the outer plexiform layer was also subject to developmental regulation.The spation-temporal pattern of 1P1 antigen expression was correlated with the time course of histological differentation of chick retina,namely the synapse rich plexiform layers.Whether the 1P1 antigen was functionally involved in dendrite extension and synapse formation was discussed.

  14. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchimura Motoaki

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. Results A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. Conclusion These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  15. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rong Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  16. Effect of a single sublethal dose of permethrin on the development of heart in chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of single sublethal doses (0.05 ml) of four different concentrations of permethrin (25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) on the development of heart in 16/sup th/ day old chick embryo. Saline homogenate/extract of heart tissue was analyzed for the estimation of a few enzyme activities and some of the biochemical components. Enzymes included the amylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acid phosphatase (AcP), Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (AST), Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (ALT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the biochemical components included the glucose, glycpen, total proteins, soluble proteins, free amino acids, total lipids, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, DNA and RNA contents. Activities of some enzymes were decreased whereas others increased. Significant decrease was observed, in alkaline phosphatase (AkP) activity, glutamate pyruvate transmainase (ALT) activity and in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST) activity at different dose levels. Significant increase was observed in the activities of amylase and acid phosphatase. However, the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) remained unaffected. Some of the biochemical components were decreased whereas others increased. Significant increases were noted in glucose, Glycogen, soluble protein, free amino acid, cholesterol and DNA contents. Significant decreases were observed in total protein, urea, uric acid, total lipids and RNA contents. Results of this experiment indicates that permethrin seriously affects the function of the heart of the developing chick embryo through damaging its muscles. (author)

  17. Morphometric and autoradiographic analysis of frontonasal development in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimensional changes in the nasal processes were measured in chick embryos from Hamburger and Hamilton (1951) stages 20 through 27.5. Transverse measurements in the frontonasal region of freshly fixed embryos were compared to frontal sections of the nasal region of comparably staged embryos. These observations were correlated with autoradiographic studies of cell movement employing an implant labeling technique. Morphometric analysis indicated that between stages 20 and 25 the separation of the nasal pit orifices increased coincidentally with rapid forebrain enlargement. Since the separation of the nasal pit fundi increased more rapidly, the orientation of the nasal pits changed. Autoradiographic studies indicated that lateral movement of medial nasal process mesenchyme into the base of the nasal groove and medial area at the base of the lateral nasal process had occurred. After stage 25, the separation of the nasal orifices declined dramatically, coincidental with rapid orbital enlargement. In contrast, the separation of the nasal pit fundi was maintained. It is proposed that nasal development of the chick embryo may be governed initially by forebrain enlargement and associated lateral movements of mesenchyme in the medial nasal processes, resulting in reorientation of the invaginating nasal placodes; subsequently, orbital enlargement and an associated medial redirection of growth of the lateral nasal processes assumes greater significance to the continued development of the frontonasal region

  18. Central administration of dipeptides, beta-alanyl-BCAAs, induces hyperactivity in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denbow D Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine is a putative neurotransmitter and has a possible role in neuron-glia cell interactions. Previously, we reported that carnosine induced hyperactivity in chicks when intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v. administered. In the present study, we focused on other β-alanyl dipeptides to determine if they have novel functions. Results In Experiment 1, i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-leucine, but not β-alanyl-glycine, induced hyperactivity behavior as observed with carnosine. Both carnosine and β-alanyl-L-leucine stimulated corticosterone release. Thus, dipeptides of β-alanyl-branched chain amino acids were compared in Experiment 2. The i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-isoleucine caused a similar response as β-alanyl-L-leucine, but β-alanyl-L-valine was somewhat less effective than the other two dipeptides. β-Alanyl-L-leucine strongly stimulated, and the other two dipeptides tended to stimulate, corticosterone release. Conclusion These results suggest that central β-alanyl-branched chain amino acid stimulates activity in chicks through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We named β-alanyl-L-leucine, β-alanyl-L-isoleucine and β-alanyl-L-valine as Excitin-1, Excitin-2 and Excitin-3, respectively.

  19. Immunological evaluation of the intestinal mucosa of broiler chicks treated with Lactobacillus Spp. and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Okamoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the antibody production by intestinal mucosa of broilers chicks were orally inoculated with Lactobacillus spp. at one and/or 21 days of age, and subsequently challenged with Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica, serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. A total number of 288 drug-free broiler chicks was divided into 6 groups (groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, according to age at Lactobacillus spp. inoculation and SE challenge. The intestinal mucosa immune response was determined as the production of immunoglobulin A against S. Enteritidis, and evaluated by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique in intestinal washing fluid. Groups treated with Lactobacillus spp. presented higher IgA production only when the chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis at 21 days of age. Nevertheless, the expected stimulus for intestinal mucosa antibody production induced by Lactobacillus spp was observed in only some of the treated groups, demonstrating that the protocol utilized in the present experiment resulted in few beneficial effects for chicks, particularly during the first days of life.

  20. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Covaci, Adrian; Halley, Duncan J.; Moum, Truls; Eulaers, Igor; Eens, Marcel; Ims, Rolf A.; Hanssen, Sveinn A.; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Johnsen, Trond; Schnug, Lisbeth; Riget, Frank Farsø; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  1. Identification of Gelatinases involved in the Rous sarcoma Virus-induced Tumors in Chicks as Prognostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kotresh and Meena Kataria

    Full Text Available The present work is undertaken to study the expression of levels of gelatinases in tumorogenesis by Rous sarcoma virus(RSV in layer chicks and explored the possibility of using gelatinases as potential biological markers in metastatic neoplasms. Two days old chicks (40 were divided into two groups (Gp I and Gp II. Gp-I (20 treated with Rous sarcoma virus for tumor induction. The Gp II (control was inoculated with RPMI-1640. Tumors appeared earliest by three days post infection with RSV and were progressive leading to mortality of birds by twenty eight days. Distant tumors were observed in liver, heart, lung, and kidney on post mortem. A prominent band of gelatinase of around 75 kDa was detected in plasma of infected chicks by gelatin zymography. Results indicate over expression of gelatinases and are leaked into plasma on Rous sarcoma virus infection. Expression of gelatinases in primary tumors, metastasized liver, heart, lung and kidney and corresponding tissues in healthy control chicks was determined by RT-PCR analysis. Over expression of gelatinase gene was observed in metastaic tissues and primary tumors than control. The described assays could be used as a prognostic assay method for detection of proteases in metastatic neoplasms of animals. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 500-502

  2. Colonization of day-of-hatch broiler chicks with antimicrobial resistant strains of salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen linked to poultry and poultry products. However, limited research regarding the in vivo interactions of non-host adapted Salmonella serotypes in broiler chicks is available. In order to evaluate the effect of two serotypes on colonization, 600 day-of-hatch ...

  3. Pattern of trypan blue storage in the chick embryonic kidney reflects development of absorptive capacity of the proximal tubules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Zdeňka

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3-4 (2004), s. 160-165. ISSN 1470-2061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/04/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : chick embryo * mesonephric nephrons * trypan blue Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2004

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 regulates proliferation of cardiac myocytes in normal and hypoplastic left ventricles in the developing chick

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dealmeida, A.; Sedmera, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 159-169. ISSN 1047-9511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/08/0615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Chick embryo * Hypoplastic left heart syndrome * Adenovirus Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.183, year: 2009

  5. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from 25... examined. (d) Culture the tetrathionate pools as outlined for selective enrichment in illustration 2 of.... Confirm suspect colonies as described. Further culture all salmonella-negative tetrathionate broths...

  6. The influence of sex hormones on the pineal gland of the chick: a histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    OpenAIRE

    Boya, J; Calvo, J.; Zamorano, L.

    1980-01-01

    The pineal gland of chicks treated with oestrogens and androgens has been studied histochemically and ultrastructurally from post-hatching until 90 days of age. The results obtained may demonstrate a precocious maturity of the gland caused by its response to the early high level of sex hormones circulating in the blood.

  7. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. PMID:21212638

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the immune system of the chick embryo and the induction of tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of low doses of gamma ray (1, 2.5 and 5 gray) irradiation on the lymphoid organs (bursa of fabricius - BF-, the thymus- Thy - and the bone marrow) of the developing chick were investigated.The embryos were irradiated at stage 34 (about 8 days of incubation)

  9. Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Routti, H.; Helgason, L.B.; Arukwe, A.; Wolkers, J.; Heimstad, E.S.; Harju, M.; Berg, V.; Gabrielsen, G.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how contaminant exposure and reduced food intake affect tissue distribution and biotransformation of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in Arctic seabirds using herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a model species. Herring gull chicks were exposed f

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE ON THE UTILIZATION OF FOOD ENERGY IN BABY CHICKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, M; Dougherty, J E

    1934-05-20

    1. An optimum of environmental temperature is to be expected for the utilization of food energy in warm blooded animals if their food intake is determined by their appetite. 2. Baby chicks were kept in groups of five chicks in a climatic cabinet at environmental temperatures of 21 degrees , 27 degrees , 32 degrees , 38 degrees , and 40 degrees C. during the period of 6 to 15 days of age. The intake of qualitatively complete food was determined by their appetite. Food intake, excretion, and respiratory exchange were measured. Control chicks from the same hatch as the experimental groups were raised in a brooder and were given the same food as the experimental chicks. The basal metabolism of each experimental group was determined from 24 to 36 hours without food at the age of 16 days. 3. The daily rate of growth increased with decreasing environmental temperature from 2.74 gm. at 40 degrees C. to 4.88 gm. at 21 degrees C. This was 4.2 to 6.5 per cent of their body weight. 4. The amount of food consumed increased in proportion to the decrease in temperature. 5. The availability of the food, used for birds instead of the digestibility and defined as See PDF for Structure showed an optimum at 38 degrees C. 6. The CO(2) production increased from 2.95 liters CO(2) per day per chick at 40 degrees C. to 6.25 liters at 21 degrees C. Per unit of the 3/4 power of the body weight, 23.0 liters CO(2) per kilo(3/4) was produced at 40 degrees C. and 43.4 liters per kilo(3/4) at 21 degrees C. The CO(2) production per unit of 3/4 power of the weight increased at an average rate of approximately 1 per cent per day increase in age. The R.Q. was, on the average, 1.04 during the day and 0.92 during the night. 7. The net energy is calculated on the basis of C and N balances. A maximum of 11.8 Cal. net energy per chick per day was found at 32 degrees C. At 21 degrees C. only 6.9 Cal. net per day per chick was produced and at 40 degrees C. an average of 6.7 Cal. 8. The composition of the

  11. Changes in acetylcholine release from the chick retina are not associated with myopia development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effectiveness of muscarinic receptor antagonists in inhibiting myopia progression in animal models and humans implicates cholinergic signalling in ocular growth regulation. Therefore to determine if changes in the release of acetylcholine from the retina are involved in myopia development, the efflux of acetylcholine from the in vitro retina of normal and myopic chick eyes was investigated. Chicks were monocularly deprived (MD) of pattern vision with translucent occluders for 2 or 7 days and refractive error of MD groups and age matched normals was monitored using retinoscopy (n=6 each group). 3H-choline-Cl (1 Ci in 7μL) was injected into the vitreous of each eye under 2.5% halothane anaesthesia. After 1hr, the eyes were enucleated, under terminal anaesthesia (sodium pentobarbital, 120 mg/kg, im). Retinas were flat-mounted on acetate filter discs and superfused with oxygenated physiological saline solution (PSS) for 30min at 0.4mL/min. Five baseline fractions were collected (B1-B5), then three stimulated fractions were collected in the presence of PSS containing 50mM KCl (K1-K3) at 2min intervals. 3H-acetylcholine ( 3H-ACh) in each fraction was quantified by liquid scintillation counting. Significant amounts of myopia were induced in MD eyes after 2 (-5.1±0.8D) and 7 days (-18.8±2.4D) relative to control eyes (paired t-test p3H-ACh release was 146±15% above basal levels (K2/B1%) from retinas of normal animals. After 2 days MD, there was no significant difference between KCl-evoked release of 3H-ACh from deprived eyes (147 39%) compared to control eyes (198±61%, paired t-test, p=0.27) or the eyes of normal animals (ANOVA, p>0.5). Similar results were obtained following 7 days MD. The results demonstrate that evoked acetylcholine release from the chick retina of myopic eyes is unaltered relative to control or normal eyes using an in vitro approach. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  12. Growth prior to thermogenesis for a quick fledging of Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Dégletagne

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trade-off between tissue growth and mature function restricts the post natal development of polar birds. The present study uses an original integrative approach as it includes gene expression, plus biochemical and physiological analysis to investigate how Adélie penguin chicks achieve a rapid growth despite the energetic constraints linked to the cold and the very short breeding season in Antarctica. In pectoralis muscle, the main thermogenic tissue in birds, our data show that the transition from ectothermy to endothermy on Day 15 post- hatching is associated with substantial and coordinated changes in the transcription of key genes. While the early activation of genes controlling cell growth and differentiation (avGHR, avIGF-1R, T3Rβ is rapidly down-regulated after hatching, the global increase in the relative expression of genes involved in thermoregulation (avUCP, avANT, avLPL and transcriptional regulation (avPGC1α, avT3Rβ underlie the muscular acquisition of oxidative metabolism. Adélie chicks only become real endotherms at 15 days of age with the development of an oxidative muscle phenotype and the ability to shiver efficiently. The persistent muscular expression of IGF-1 throughout growth probably acts as a local mediator to adjust muscle size and its oxidative capacity to anticipate the new physiological demands of future Dives in cold water. The up-regulation of T3Rβ mRNA levels suggests that circulating T3 may play an important role in the late maturation of skeletal muscle by reinforcing, at least in part, the paracrine action of IGF-1. From day 30, the metabolic shift from mixed substrate to lipid metabolism, with the markedly increased mRNA levels of muscle avLPL, avANT and avUCP, suggests the late development of a fatty acid-enhanced muscle non-shivering thermogenesis mechanism. This molecular control is the key to this finely-tuned strategy by which the Adélie penguin chick successfully heads for the sea

  13. Innate Immune Responses in ALV-J Infected Chicks and Chickens with Hemangioma In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Xie, Tingting; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1β, and interferon-β (IFN-β) were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-β protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) and a twofold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in 1 week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression.

  14. Effect of dietary vitamin A and Nigella sativa on the performance of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding different added levels of vitamin A and Nigella sativa seeds on broiler performance, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. One- hundred forty four, one-day old unsexed (Lohman) broiler chicks were divided randomly into eight groups, each represented a treatment (18 birds/treatment), with 2 replicates for each treatment 2x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design was used. The experimental basal rations were formulated to meet requirement for essential nutrients for broiler chicks according to NCR (1984) recommendation. Four graded levels of added vitamin A (0,3000,4500 and 9000 IU/kg) and two levels of Nigella sativa (0, 0.25%) were used. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined. In addition blood chemistry, absolute weight of internal organs and carcass characteristics were measured. The added level 3000 IU of vitamin A significantly increased weight gain (P≤ 0.01) decreased feed conversion ratio (P≤ 0.01) and increased muscle: bone ratio (P≤ 0.05). The level 0.25% of Nigella sativa with no added vitamin A significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased body weight and weight gain. High level of added vitamin A decreased absolute weight of liver (P≤ 0.01), and increased fat content of muscles (P≤ 0.01) and abdominal fat (P≤ 0.01). Vitamin A and Nigella sativa significantly affect serum Ca (which was determined according to the calorimetric method), P, Zn , and alkaline phosphates(alk.ase) and cholesterol (P≤ 0.05) which was determined according to the Enzymatic Calometric Test . Addition of 0.25% Nigella sativa significantly affect serum cholestrol (P ≤0.01). The treatments had no significant affect on serum glucose and ash content of meat. Significant interaction between vitamin A and Nigella sativa were observed on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake (P≤ 0.01, P≤0.05, and P≤0

  15. Toxicity and EROD-inducing potency of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Broman, D. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Naef, C. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1991-08-01

    The toxicities (embryolethality) of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in chick embryos using a 72-h test. The substances, dissolved in peanut oil, were injected into the air sacs of eggs preincubated for 7 days. LD{sub 50} values were determined for the four most toxic of the 24 compounds. Benzo(k)fluoranthene was the most potent, with an LD{sub 50} of 14 {mu}g (56 nmol)/kg egg. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benz(a)lanthracene and benzol(b)naphtho(2,3-d)thiophene were a few times less toxic (LD{sub 50} = 39 {mu}g (140 nmol)/kg, 79 {mu}g (349 nmol)/kg and 82 {mu}g (350 nmol)/kg, respectively). The LD{sub 50} of benzo(k)fluoranthene was only about 5 times higher than that previously found for the most potent coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (LD{sub 50} = 3.1 {mu}g (9.4 nmol)/kg), in the same kind of test. The toxicities of 18 of the PAHs in this study have also been evaluated previously using a 2-week test in chick embryos. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, which had not been studied earlier in the 2-week test, proved to be almost as toxic as previously found for benzo(k)fluoranthene in that test. Several of the PAHs studied induced EROD activity in chick embryos, and, in general, the most toxic PAHs were also the most potent inducers of EROD. The highest enzyme activities were found after treatment with indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (12 times the control value) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (8 times the control value). However, due to the high toxicity of dibenz(a,h)anthracene, the dose used was 7 times lower than that of indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Following injection of PAHs on day 7, the EROD activities on day 10 were considerably lower than those obtained after a corresponding treatment with coplanar PCBs in an earlier study. Of the PAHs studied, some exhibited very high embryotoxicity. The most toxic PAHs induced EROD activity, suggesting that their toxicity was at least partly mediated via binding to the Ah receptor

  16. Effect of vegetable wastage and energy in ostrich chick diet on performance and hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasirnafas, Mohammadebrahim; Seidavi, Alireza; Rasouli, Behrouz; Kawka, Magdalena

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of dietary vegetable wastage and energy on ostrich chick performance and hematology. Twenty-four ostrich chicks (blue and black African breed) were allocated to eight treatments. The diet in treatments T1 to T4 had 2,500 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, while treatments T5 to T8 had 2,700 kcal/kg. Each treatment had 0, 10, 20, and 30% of vegetable wastage. Vegetable wastage included parsley (Petroselinum crispum, 51.3 %), cress (Lepidium sativum, 15.0%), spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 15.0%), wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum, 14.0%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, 2.5%), and basil (Ocimum basilicum, 2.2 %). The body weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly. Blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, LDL/HDL, ratio and alkaline phosphatase. The highest level of weight was seen in the second treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 10% dietary wastage). The hematological parameters were different depending on the treatment used. The lowest level of total cholesterol was observed in eighth treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30% dietary wastage), while the lowest level of triglycerides was in fourth treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30 % of wastage). The level of alkaline phosphatise was the lowest in seventh treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 20% wastages). The energy level had no effect (P < 0.05) on feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency for each week and for all experimental period. The level of vegetable wastage showed effect (P = 0.033) on feed intake, but the increase of this level showed depressive effect on the feed intake. This is the first report on the performance and blood parameters of commercial ostrich chicks fed diets differing in vegetable wastage. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25877259

  17. Effects of 17beta-estradiol on distribution of primordial germ cell migration in male chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Mei Jin; Yi-Xiang Zhang; Zan-Dong Li

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether exogenous estradiol has any effect on migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the chick. Methods: Fertilized eggs were treated with 17beta-estradiol (Ez) (80 lag/egg) at stage X (day 0 of incubation),stages 8-10 (incubation 30 h) and 13-15 (incubation 55 h). Controls received vehicle (emulsion) only. Changes in PGC number were measured on different days according to developmental stages. Results: In male right gonads,but not in female left gonads, at stages 28-30 (incubation 132 h) significant decreases in the mean number of PGCs aggregating were observed compared with the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that E2 has significant effects on the localization of PGCs in male fight, but not female left, gonads of chicken embryos at stages28-30, compared with controls.

  18. Effect of fenitrothion and disulfoton on lipid metabolism in tissues of white leghorn chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of acute and chronic toxicity due to Disulfoton (diethyl S-(2-ehtyl thio) ethyl phosphorothionate) and Fenitrothion (dimethyl P-3-methyl-4 nitrophenyl phosphorothionate) on the lipid metabolism in tissues of white leghorn chicks (Gallus domesticus) was studied by using 32P-phosphate, 2-14C-acetate and U-14C-glucose as precursors. During acute toxicity, the biosynthesis of fatty acids and aerobic oxidation of glucose appear to be inhibited in nervous tissues. However, during chronic toxicity, the biosynthesis of fatty acids is not inhibited. The biosynthesis of phospholipids is depressed in certain tissues due to decreased availability of diglyceride precursors during acute toxicity. During chronic toxicity, the formation of diglyceride from phosphatidic acid appears to be inhibited. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed

  20. The tradition of consciousness-raising fiction in contemporary popular fiction Chick lit

    OpenAIRE

    Gruslytė, Monika; Taujanskaitė, Aurelija; Žemaitytė, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Kultūrinės, socialinės sąlygos moterims viešai reikšti savo mintis skyrėsi per pastaruosius kelis šimtmečius. Meilės romanų laikotarpis buvo tam tikrų suvaržymų, susijusių su socialinėmis nuostatomis, materialinėmis galimybėmis ir emocine laisve, laikotarpis. Modernizmas į grožinę literatūrą įnešė nemažai pokyčių, įskaitant ir feministines idėjas. Šiuolaikinė grožinė literatūra „chick lit“, postfeminizmo reiškinys, siejasi tiek su meilės romano tradicija, tiek su feministinėmis emancipacijos ...

  1. Visual hierarchical processing and lateralization of cognitive functions through domestic chicks' eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Chiandetti

    Full Text Available Hierarchical stimuli have proven effective for investigating principles of visual organization in humans. A large body of evidence suggests that the analysis of the global forms precedes the analysis of the local forms in our species. Studies on lateralization also indicate that analytic and holistic encoding strategies are separated between the two hemispheres of the brain. This raises the question of whether precedence effects may reflect the activation of lateralized functions within the brain. Non-human animals have perceptual organization and functional lateralization that are comparable to that of humans. Here we trained the domestic chick in a concurrent discrimination task involving hierarchical stimuli. Then, we evaluated the animals for analytic and holistic encoding strategies in a series of transformational tests by relying on a monocular occlusion technique. A local precedence emerged in both the left and the right hemisphere, adding further evidence in favour of analytic processing in non-human animals.

  2. Visual hierarchical processing and lateralization of cognitive functions through domestic chicks' eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Pecchia, Tommaso; Patt, Francesco; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical stimuli have proven effective for investigating principles of visual organization in humans. A large body of evidence suggests that the analysis of the global forms precedes the analysis of the local forms in our species. Studies on lateralization also indicate that analytic and holistic encoding strategies are separated between the two hemispheres of the brain. This raises the question of whether precedence effects may reflect the activation of lateralized functions within the brain. Non-human animals have perceptual organization and functional lateralization that are comparable to that of humans. Here we trained the domestic chick in a concurrent discrimination task involving hierarchical stimuli. Then, we evaluated the animals for analytic and holistic encoding strategies in a series of transformational tests by relying on a monocular occlusion technique. A local precedence emerged in both the left and the right hemisphere, adding further evidence in favour of analytic processing in non-human animals. PMID:24404163

  3. A study on increasing the breeding rate of chicks with low-dosage stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1985 ∼ 1990, the semen of male fowl was irradiated by β-rays, the survival time of the spermatozoa was prolonged and fertility increased by 2% to 5%. The breeding eggs of 'Harbin White hen' were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays to stimulate the growth of the blastoderm of fertilized eggs, the hatching rate increased by 6.86%, the healthy bird rate increased by 5.52%, and the chick weight increased by 5% to 6%. The egg production rate of the first irradiated generation hens increased by 8.03%, the first-egg age of the second irradiated generation hens shifted 6 to 7 weeks earlier and the egg production period prolonged. 72-week egg production was raised by 10.48%

  4. Immune response of chicks to oral vaccination against Newcastle disease and fowl pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, S S; Sodhi, S S; Maiti, N K; Sharma, S N

    1990-01-01

    The humoral immune response and immunity conferred in chicks were compared following separate and combined oral vaccination with F strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and HP1 strain of fowl pox virus. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titre against NDV and passive haemagglutination (PHA) antibody titre against fowl pox virus were comparable in two respective groups. The serum IgG concentration increased significantly after the second vaccination in all the groups. The NDV vaccine induced significantly higher IgG production as compared to fowl pox virus vaccine. There was no significant difference in serum IgG concentration produced by combined vaccine and separate F strain vaccine. The protection afforded by combined and separate vaccinations did not vary significantly against challenge with virulent strains of NDV and fowl pox virus at different stages. PMID:2157575

  5. Immune response of chicks to oral vaccination with combined extra- and intracellular fowl pox viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, S S; Maiti, N K; Sharma, S N

    1990-08-01

    The immune response of chicks to oral vaccination with HP1-strain of fowl pox virus was studied using intracellular virus alone or a combination of intra and extracellular viruses. The first and second vaccinations were done at four days and 25 days of age, respectively. In both groups the birds showed 50% protection against challenge virus at 32 days of age while no immunity was recorded at 95 days of age. The serum IgG concentration in both the vaccinated groups was comparable and it was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than the control birds one week after revaccination. The serum haemolytic complement activity in both the vaccinated groups was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the control birds. PMID:2171176

  6. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid regulates neuroepithelial survival, proliferation, and neurogenesis in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Angel; Moro, J A; Alonso, M I; Bueno, D; De La Mano, A; Martín, C

    2005-05-01

    Early in development, the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is controlled by several factors, which act in a developmentally regulated manner. Diffusible factors are secreted locally by the neuroepithelium itself, although other nearby structures may also be involved. Evidence suggests a physiological role for the cerebrospinal fluid in the development of the brain. Here, using organotypic cultures of chick embryo neuroepithelial explants from the mesencephalon, we show that the neuroepithelium in vitro is not able to self-induce cell survival, replication, and neurogenesis. We also show that the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) promotes neuroepithelial stem cell survival and induces proliferation and neurogenesis in mesencephalic explants. These data strongly suggest that E-CSF is involved in the regulation of neuroepithelial cells behavior, supporting the hypothesis that this fluid plays a key role during the early development of the central nervous system. PMID:15803475

  7. Ethanol- and/or Taurine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chick Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Berning, Emily J.; Noah Bernhardson; Kelly Coleman; Farhat, Dina A.; Courtney M. Gushrowski; Alison Lanctot; Maddock, Benjamin H.; Michels, Kathryn G.; Luke A. Mugge; Nass, Catherine M.; Yearsley, Sarah M.; Miller, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Because taurine alleviates ethanol- (EtOH-) induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage in rats, we asked whether exogenous taurine could alleviate EtOH-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Exogenous EtOH (1.5 mmol/Kg egg or 3 mmol/Kg egg), taurine (4 μmol/Kg egg), or EtOH and taurine (1.5 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg or 3 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg) were injected into fertile chicken eggs during the first three days of embryonic development (E0–2). At 11 days of develop...

  8. The Comparison of Performance of Three Hybrid Combinations of Broiler Chicks at Different Dose of Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Weis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available If we want to find replacement to use of antibiotics, we must search more naturally alternative methods. Such method can be also used with probiotics in poultry nutrition. By the help of them we can achieve better health state and higher increase of live and slaughter weight. We tested the effect of probiotic Propoul in the experiment. We applied two different doses of probiotic at three hybrid combinations broiler chicks (Ross 308, Hubbard JV, Cobb 500. We watched difference among live weight, body symmetry and feed conversation. In all hybrids we found statistically significant difference (P<0,05 between experimental groups and control group, only experimental group 2 and control group at hybrid Ross 308 we found statistically significant difference (P<0,05. We did not find the difference between experimental groups. With the application of probiotics are reached better feed conversation in experimental groups against control group. We did not find statistically significant difference in body symmetry.

  9. Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling in the Developing Chick Heart: The Deranging Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hejnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiac contractility. Here we analyzed the key components of myocardial AC signaling in the developing chick embryo and assessed the impact of selected β-blocking agents on this system. Application of metoprolol and carvedilol, two commonly used β-blockers, at embryonic day (ED 8 significantly downregulated (by about 40% expression levels of AC5, the dominant cardiac AC isoform, and the amount of Gsα protein at ED9. Activity of AC stimulated by forskolin was also significantly reduced under these conditions. Interestingly, when administered at ED4, these drugs did not produce such profound changes in the myocardial AC signaling system, except for markedly increased expression of Giα protein. These data indicate that β-blocking agents can strongly derange AC signaling during the first half of embryonic heart development.

  10. Severe histiolymphocytic and heterophilic bronchopneumonia as a reaction to in ovo fowlpox vaccination in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S M; Smith, J A; Garcia, M; Brinson, D; Kiupel, M; Hofacre, C

    2010-01-01

    Broiler chickens on several farms from a single poultry company experienced neurological signs and mortality in chicks between 3 days and 10 days of age over a 3-week period after use of a fowlpox-vectored infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine in ovo. At necropsy the lungs contained numerous tan or gray, opaque to translucent, 0.5- to 2.0-mm nodules in the parenchyma. Microscopic lesions were a multifocal severe lymphohistiocytic and heterophilic bronchopneumonia. Immunohistochemistry was positive for fowlpox virus in macrophages and lymphocytes, and polymerase chain reaction on paraffin-embedded lung tissues was positive for a fowlpox vector virus commonly used as a vaccine. The cause of the neurological signs was not determined. PMID:20080499

  11. NMR Based Cerebrum Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Simultaneous Interconnected Changes during Chick Embryo Incubation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Feng

    Full Text Available To find out if content changes of the major functional cerebrum metabolites are interconnected and formed a network during the brain development, we obtained high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra of cerebrum tissues of chick embryo aged from incubation day 10 to 20, and postnatal day 1, and analyzed the data with principal component analysis (PCA. Within the examined time window, 26 biological important molecules were identified and 12 of them changed their relative concentration significantly in a time-dependent manner. These metabolites are generally belonged to three categories, neurotransmitters, nutrition sources, and neuronal or glial markers. The relative concentration changes of the metabolites were interconnected among/between the categories, and, more interestingly, associated with the number and size of Nissl-positive neurons. These results provided valuable biochemical and neurochemical information to understand the development of the embryonic brain.

  12. Transferin concentration and location during formation of chick retina: developmental correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of transferrin in chick retina was measured during development and compared to transferrin location seen immunocytochemically. Between embryonic day 6 (E6), and 5 days post hatching, two periods occur in which transferrin concentrations rise sharply and decline. During the first, transferrin concentration rises 5-fold between E6 and 10, then rapidly declines by E14. A second increase begins on E17 and peaks by E19-20. Immunocytochemical findings demonstrate that during the first rise in concentration, transferrin is located primarily in neuritic layers. Later in development, when levels again increase, newly forming photoreceptor outer segments are strongly transferrin positive. These findings are discussed in light of developmental events occurring during retinal maturation (author)

  13. Translation of avidin mRNA from chick oviduct in the oestrous mouse uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestrogen-primed immature chicks were injected with 5.0 mg of progesterone. Twenty hours after, progesterone avidin mRNA was isolated and purified by a method including an antibody precipitation of the avidin polysomes, phenol extraction and nitrocellulose trapping. A water solution of mRNA (1 μg) with [14C]amino acids was instilled into the uterine horn of oestrous or dioestrous mice. Saline and [14C]amino acids were injected into the opposite control uterine horn. Avidin was assayed by an antibody method. A clear-cut avidin synthesis was found in the oestrous uterus, whereas the dioestrous showed only a slight avidin synthesis. This suggests that there are no absolute species-specific factors required at the translational level of uterine protein synthesis and that the mammalian uterus can translate foreign hormone-specific proteins at a rate dependent on the endogenous protein synthesis. (author)

  14. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

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    Ingrid R. Cordeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1 regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues.

  15. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweon-Ho Nam

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with

  16. The impact of caffeine on connexin expression in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahir, Bhavesh K; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-07-01

    Cardiomyocytes are electrically coupled by gap junctions, defined as clusters of low-resistance multisubunit transmembrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs). The expression of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45, which are present in cardiomyocytes, is known to be developmentally regulated. This study investigates the premise that alterations in gap junction proteins are one of the mechanisms by which teratogens may act. Specifically, those molecules known to be teratogenic in humans could cause their effects via disruption of cell-to-cell communication pathways, resulting in an inability to co-ordinate tissue development. Caffeine significantly inhibited contractile activity at concentrations above and including 1500 μm (P < 0.05), while not affecting cell viability and total protein, in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system. The effects of caffeine on key cardiac gap junction protein (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression were analysed using immunocytochemistry and in-cell Western blotting. The results indicated that caffeine altered the expression pattern of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≥2000 μm), i.e., at concentrations that did not affect total cell protein and cell viability. In addition the effects of caffeine on cardiomyocyte formation and function (contractile activity score) were correlated with modulation of Cxs (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression, at above and including 2000 μm caffeine concentrations (P < 0.05). These experiments provide evidence that embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture may be a useful in vitro method for mechanistic studies of perturbation of embryonic heart development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26304238

  17. Effect of Saffron aqua Extract on Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane

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    Javad Baharara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies confirmed anticancer properties of saffron extract. Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels which is necessary in many physiological stages and pathological events such as tumor growth. So it would be an effective strategy to inhibit angiogenesis to treat many cancers and metastasis. In this experimental study, effects of saffron on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane (CAM were investigated. Materials and Methods: Fifity ross fertilized eggs divided in 5 groups, including: control, sham exposed, experimental group 1, 2 and 3. In second day of incubation window was opened on eggs. In day 8 gelatin sponges contain gelatin and albumin was put on chorioalantoic membrane and was soaked with Saffron aqua extract in concentration 100, 400 and 800 μg/ml. In 12th day all cases were photographed by photo stereomicroscope. Numbers and lengths of vessels around the sponges were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 in significant level p<0.05. Results: According to data analysis, changes had no correlation on the average length of blood vessels in the first experimental group (41.5±5.5 mm, compared with the control group, (44.5±2.4 mm. While in the second and third experimental group (40.2±2.1 mm and (38.4±3.8 mm these changes were significant (p=0.001. On the other hand, the average number of blood vessels in the first experimental group (22.07±5.2 in compare with the control group (27.46±4.4 shows a significant reduction (p=0.02, this decline between the second (18.80±4.4 and third (15.87±3.8 experimental groups was significant at the level of p=0.001. Conclusion: Saffron extract has a dose dependent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane.

  18. Effects of harmane, norharmane and harmine on apomorphine-induced pecking behavior in chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Farzin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available .(Received 3 January, 2009; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: -carboline alkaloids, also known as harmala's alkaloids have a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions including a stimulatory action on release of dopamine and other catecholamines in several brain regions and an inhibitory action on monoamine oxidase (MAO. These findings suggest that -carbolines should alleviate at least some of the dopaminergic stereotyped behaviors. The purpose of present study is to determine the effects of -carbolines harmane, norharmane and harmine on apomorphine-induced pecking behavior in chick.Materials and methods: All experiments were carried out on male/female chicks (40-60 g. The modulatory effects of -Carbolines on stereotyped behavior were assessed using the pecking behavior induced by apomorphine. Subcutaneous (s.c. injection of apomorphaine (0.025 mg/kg, mixed agonist of dopamine D1/D2 receptors induced pecking. The pecking response was counted by direct observation and recorded for a 40-minute period.Results: S.C. injection of harmane (2.5-10 mg/kg and harmine (1.25-5 mg/kg significantly decreased the pecking behavior induced by apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg. The norharmane (2.5-15 mg/kg, i.p. response was biphasic. The inhibitory effects of harmane, norharmane and harmine were blocked by flumazenil (5 mg/kg, i.e., 30 minutes before the test or reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.e., 18 hours before the test.Conclusion: Results suggest that the modulatory effect of harmane, norharmane and harmine on the pecking behavior may be mediated through an inverse agonistic/monoaminergic mechanism.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(70: 1-8 (Persian

  19. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by IRFI 042, a vitamin E analogue, decreases monensin cardiotoxicity in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monensin, a well-known ionophore antibiotic, may cause severe damage in myocardial cells. We investigated whether IRFI 042, a new analogue of vitamin E, may block lipid peroxidation in myocardial cells and in turn protect against monensin toxicity. Monensin toxicity was induced by repeated daily administration of the ionophore antibiotic (150 mg/kg/day for 7 days). Sham animals received by oral gavages only a saline solution and were used as controls. All animals were randomized to receive concomitantly by oral gavages IRFI 042 (20 mg/kg) or its vehicle. The experiment lasted 8 days. Survival rate, heart lipid peroxidation, studied by means of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels, cardiac expression of endothelial nitric oxide (e-NOS) and histological analysis of the heart were performed. Monensin administration caused a decrease in survival rate. Mortality appeared following the second monensin injection and at day 7 caused a survival rate of 20%. Thereafter, no further mortality was observed. IRFI 042 administration improved survival rate. Injection of the ionophore antibiotic resulted in a marked cardiac lipid peroxidation and in a significant reduction in cardiac e-NOS message and protein expression. IRFI 042 decreased heart TBARs levels (Monensin + vehicle = 6.5 ± 0.8 nmol/mg; Monensin + IRFI 042 = 3.2 ± 1.1 nmol/mg; P < 0.001) and increased e-NOS message and protein expression. Histological analysis showed that IRFI 042 improved myocardial cells damage and enhanced the depressed e-NOS expression in chick heart samples following monensin administration. Our data suggest that IRFI 042 is a promising drug to reduce monensin cardio-toxicity in chicks

  20. Nutritional value of rapeseed meal for broiler chicks as influenced by gamma irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5-week feeding trial was conducted on day-old broiler chicks to study the effect of incorporating radiation treated (5kgy) and untreated control rapeseed meal (RSM) in the diet on their performance. Differences among different groups regarding total feed intake per bird, total weight gain per bird and final weight per bird were statistically non-significant. It was clear from the results that, although non-significant, feed consumption was maximum in 5 and 10 kGy groups, indicating some taste improvement, which, however, was not paralleled by a concomitant increase in weight gain and, consequently, the feed to gain ratio was maximum with 5 kGy diets. Data regarding dressing percentage showed minimum value for 10-kGy group, while values observed for control, 5 kGy and standard group were comparable to each other (56 to 57%). Values noted for heart weight ranged from 0.58g/100g of body weight (10kGy group) to 0.67g/100g of body weight (5kGy group), Liver weight ranged from 2.09g/100g body weight (control and 10kGy group) to 2.44g/100g body weight (5 kGy group) and gizzard weight ranged from 1.31g/100g of body weight (10 kGy group) to 1.61g/100g of body weight (5 kGy group). It can be concluded from the study that irradiation of rapeseed meal enhanced its nutritional value in terms of feed consumption and final weight per chick. Irradiation of the meal resulted in sizable reduction in its glucosinolate contents. (author)

  1. Studies on zinc-induced pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and its consequences in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the nature of zinc (Zn)-induced pancreatic exocrine damage, some of its consequences and its interaction with other nutrients, especially selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VE) in the chick. When fed excess Zn, the chick pancreas accumulated as much as an order of magnitude more Zn than the liver on a unit weight basis. The levels of activities of pancreatic secretory enzymes were significantly reduced by excess dietary Zn and distortion of the acinar pancreas structure, losses of zymogen granules and varying degree of fibrotic infiltration were observed histologically. The reduction of the level of pancreatic secretory enzyme activities was accompanied by a reduction of the quantity of enzyme proteins rather than a modification of enzyme activity. The rate of synthesis of pancreatic amylase, as assessed by the incorporation of 3H-leucine, was significantly decreased by excess dietary Zn. As consequences of Zn-induced pancreatic damage, the digestibility of dietary starch and tissue VE status were decreased, the latter effect being caused primarily by an impaired utilization of dietary source of the vitamin as determined by the appearance of 3H-α-tocopherol in the blood after an oral dose. Excess dietary Zn increased the Se status of the pancreas, but not those of the plasma and the liver. Supranutritional levels of Se and/or VE did not protect the pancreas against Zn-induced damage, nor did Se-deficiency exacerbate this damage. An in vitro inhibitory effect of Zn and some heavy metal ions on α-amylase activity was discovered and characterized by a non-competitive mechanism. This inhibitory effect could become an important modular of utilization of dietary starch under conditions of Zn toxicosis

  2. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast. PMID:26971621

  3. Efficacy of Live attenuated and Inactivated Oil Emulsion Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccines in Broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed Lone*, Shafqat Fatima Rehmani1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Shahana Urooj Kazmi3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aims to evaluate the efficacy of indigenous live and inactivated Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccines in broilers. Two hundred and fifty (250, a-day-old broiler chicks divided into five groups (A-E were immunized with live and inactivated vaccine at varying ages. Live vaccine was given to group A (at 8 days post hatch, B (at 8, 15 days post hatch, C (at 8, 15 and 23 days post hatch and D (at 8 days post hatch. In addition group D received a booster dose of inactivated vaccine at 21 days of age, while group E served as control. Antibody titers were measured via Agar Gel Precipitation (AGP test and ELISA, while the degree of protection against the virulent strains of IBDV was also recorded. Results showed that vaccine program adopted for group C and D produced significantly (P<0.05 higher antibody titer as compared to other groups. While a significant (P<0.05 difference in antibody titers was observed between group A and B while no considerable antibodies were detected in group E. The response to challenge dose was recorded as the difference of lesions in bursa, pectoral muscles or other visceral organs with the exception of group C and D. The study suggests that broiler chicks may be vaccinated at days 8, 15 and 23 with live attenuated vaccine or live attenuated vaccine followed by inactivated vaccine at days 8 and 21 that could provide an adequate protection against the virulent form of IBDV.

  4. Investigation of Interaction between Deferoxamine and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Angiogenesis in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Dashtizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferoxamine (DFO is an iron chelator. In the present research, the synergic effects of deferoxamine and electromagnetic field (with 50 H frequency and 100 Gauss intensity on angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 80 fertilized egg used and randomly divided 8 group: control group, laboratory control groups of 1 and 2, experimental group 1 (treatment with electromagnetic field, 2 and 3 (treatment with deferoxamine 10, 100 µmol, respectively, 4 and 5 (treatment both deferoxamine 10 and 100 µmol respectively and electromagnetic field. On 8th day of incubation, 2 and 4 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine and for 3 and 5 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine 100 µmol. On 10th day, 1, 4 and 5 groups were put in electromagnetic field. On 12th day, the number and length of vessels in all samples was measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed by SPSS-19, ANOVA and t-test. Results: The mean number and length of vessels in the control and experimental cases did not show any significant differences. Comparison between mean number of vessels in the control and group 2, 3, 4, 5 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 and groups 2 and 4 was showed a significant decrease in the mean length of vessels compared with the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using deferoxamine with low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz and 100 G cause inhibition of angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

  5. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  6. IMMUNO-MODULATORY EFFECT OF INACTIVATED EIMERIA TENELLA VACCINE AND LIVE IMPPORTED COCCIDIAL VACCINE ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS VACCINA TED BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram Muneer, Haji Ahmad Hashmi, Masood Rabbani, Zahid Munir Chaudhry and Ali M. Bahrami

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 160 one-day-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of an inactivated Eimeria tenella vaccine and a live polyvalent imported antiococcidial vaccine (Coccivac. This study indicated that both of these vaccines did not adversely affect the development of serum antibody against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and the chicks vaccinated with either of the anticoccidial vaccines resisted the virulent NDV challenge. A study of the lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricuis: thymus and spleen from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable with those from the chicks not vaccinated with these coccidial vaccines. The overall findings of this study indicate that anticoccidial vaccines do not have any effects on the immune functions of the vaccinates. In fact these vaccines prevented the occurrence of clinical coccidiosis in the vaccinates.

  7. A new approach to study of seabird-fishery overlap: Connecting chick feeding with parental foraging and overlap with fishing vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Sugishita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Incidental fisheries bycatch is recognised as a major threat to albatross populations worldwide. However, fishery discards and offal produced in large quantities might benefit some scavenging seabirds. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach to better understand the ecological ramifications of fine-scale overlap between seabirds and fisheries. As a case study, we examined whether foraging in association with a fishing vessel is advantageous for chick provisioning in terms of quantity of food delivered to chicks, in northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi at Taiaroa Head, New Zealand. Fine-scale overlap between albatrosses and vessels was quantified by integrating GPS tracking and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS. Meal size delivered to chicks was measured using custom-designed nest balances, and monitoring of attendance of adults fitted with radio transmitters was used in conjunction with time-lapse photography at the nest allowed us to allocate each feeding event to a specific parent. The combination of these techniques enabled comparison of meal sizes delivered to chicks with parental foraging trip durations with or without fishing vessels association. A total of 45 foraging trips and associated chick feeding events were monitored during the chick-rearing period in 2012. Differences in the meal size and foraging trip duration relative to foraging overlap with fisheries were examined using a linear mixed-effect model, adjusted for chick age. Our results, based on three birds, suggest that foraging in association with vessels does not confer an advantage for chick feeding for this population that demonstrated low rates of overlap while foraging. The integrated research design presented can be applied to other seabird species that are susceptible to bycatch, and offers a valuable approach to evaluate habitat quality by linking habitat use and foraging success in terms of total amount of food delivered to offspring.

  8. Protection conferred by a live avian metapneumovirus vaccine when co-administered with live La Sota Newcastle disease vaccine in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ganapathy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects on specific pathogen-free (SPF chicks when avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV La Sota strain vaccines are co-administered. Day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups. The first group was inoculated with sterile water (SW and the rest of the groups were inoculated with live NDV vaccine VG/GA by the oculo-oral route. At 21 days-old, the unvaccinated chicks were again inoculated with SW. The four VG/GA-vaccinated groups were further inoculated with (i SW, (ii live aMPV vaccine, (iii live NDV La Sota, or (iv combined live NDV La Sota and live aMPV, respectively. Chicks were monitored for post-vaccination reactions and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for vaccines detection. Blood samples were collected to detect aMPV ELISA and NDV haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies. Twenty-one days following the second vaccination, six chicks from each group were challenged with virulent NDV or aMPV respectively. Chicks were monitored for clinical signs and mortality and oropharyngeal swabs collected for aMPV detection. Results showed that, when challenged with a virulent aMPV, both chicks previously vaccinated with VG/GA and subsequently given aMPV vaccine singly or in combination with La Sota were equally protected against clinical signs. Chicks that were vaccinated against NDV either once with VG/GA or followed by La Sota (singly or in combination with aMPV were fully protected when challenged with velogenic NDV. We concluded that simultaneous administration of live aMPV and NDV La Sota vaccines have no adverse effects on protection conferred by either live vaccine.

  9. Moral ‘Lock-In’ in Responsible Innovation: The Ethica land Social Aspects of Killing Day-Old Chicks and its Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Blok, V.; Stassen, E.N.; Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will help in understanding and evaluating, along social and ethical lines, the issue of killing day-old male chicks and two alternative directions of responsible innovations to solve this issue. The following research questions are addressed: Why is the killing of day-old chicks morally problematic? Are the proposed alternatives morally sound? To what extent do the alternatives lead to responsible innovation? The conceptual frame...

  10. Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan; Thrane, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new method of rotational image acquisition for four-dimensional (4D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of beating embryonic chick hearts. The rotational axis and the central A-scan of the OCT are identical. An out-of-phase image sequence covering multiple heartbeats is acquired at.......We demonstrate this approach and provide a video of a beating Hamburger and Hamilton stage 16 embryonic chick heart generated from a 4D OCT data set using rotational image acquisition....

  11. Bambi and Sp8 Expression Mark Digit Tips and Their Absence Shows That Chick Wing Digits 2 and 3 Are Truncated

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús C Casanova; Claudio Badia-Careaga; Verónica Uribe; Juan José Sanz-Ezquerro

    2012-01-01

    An often overlooked aspect of digit development is the special nature of the terminal phalanx, a specialized structure with characteristics distinct from other phalanges, for example the presence of ectodermal derivatives such as nails and claws. Here, we describe the unique ossification pattern of distal phalanges and characteristic gene expression in the digit tips of chick and duck embryos. Our results show that the distal phalanx of chick wing digit 1 is a genuine tip with a characteristi...

  12. Catching-up but telomere loss: half-opening the black box of growth and ageing trade-off in wild king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Sylvie; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Lebard, Thomas; Reichert, Sophie; Stier, Antoine; LE Maho, Yvon; Criscuolo, Francois

    2012-03-01

    One of the reasons for animals not to grow as fast as they potentially could is that fast growth has been shown to be associated with reduced lifespan. However, we are still lacking a clear description of the reality of growth-dependent modulation of ageing mechanisms in wild animals. Using the particular growth trajectory of small king penguin chicks naturally exhibiting higher-than-normal growth rate to compensate for the winter break, we tested whether oxidative stress and telomere shortening are related to growth trajectories. Plasma antioxidant defences, oxidative damage levels and telomere length were measured at the beginning and at the end of the post-winter growth period in three groups of chicks (small chicks, which either passed away or survived the growth period, and large chicks). Small chicks that died early during the growth period had the highest level of oxidative damage and the shortest telomere lengths prior to death. Here, we show that small chicks that grew faster did it at the detriment of body maintenance mechanisms as shown by (i) higher oxidative damage and (ii) accelerated telomere loss. Our study provides the first evidence for a mechanistic link between growth and ageing rates under natural conditions. PMID:22117889

  13. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. PMID:25513727

  14. Optical coherence tomography. A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yelbuz, T.M.; Choma, M.A.; Thrane, L.;

    2002-01-01

    Background-Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a depth-resolved, noninvasive, non-destructive imaging modality, the use of which has yet to be fully realized in developmental biology. Methods and Results-We visualized embryonic chick hearts at looping stages using an OCT system with a 22 mum...... axial and 27 mum lateral resolution and an acquisition rate of 4000 A-scans per second. Normal chick embryos from stages 14 to 22 and sham-operated and cardiac neural crest-ablated embryos from stages 15 and 18 were scanned by OCT. Three-dimensional data sets were acquired and processed to create...... volumetric reconstructions and short video clips. The OCT-scanned embryos (2 in each group) were photographed after histological sectioning in comparable planes to those visualized by OCT. The optical and histological results showing cardiovascular microstructures such as myocardium, the cardiac jelly, and...

  15. EFFECT OF DIGESTARCOM, A HERBAL FEED ADDITIVE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram, M. Laiq Khan, Amer Tariq, Hasnat Ahmed and Rafia Firdous

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Digestarcom, a herbal feed additive on the performance of broiler chicks fed different levels of rapeseed cake was investigated. Fourteen experimental rations containing 7 rapeseed (0,2, 4, 6,8, 10 and 12% x 2 Digestarcom (0 and 150 9 per tone feed levels were formulated and fed to 14 treatment groups in three replications having 10 chick each. A higher weight gain per bird was observed for all the levels 0( rapeseed treated with Digestarcom as compared to non-supplemented control group. The maximum feed consumption was observed in group fed 10% rape seed cake treatment and maximum weight gain was observed in 6% level. More feed was consumed and more weight was gained by the broilers fed ration supplemented with digestarcom and exhibited better feed to gain ratio than non-supplemented control

  16. Effects of dietary sorghum of different tannin concentrations and tallow supplementation on the performance of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour-Reza, J; Edriss, M A

    1997-12-01

    1. The chemical compositions and tannin contents of 17 varieties of grain sorghum were determined. 2. Commercial broiler chicks were fed from 7 to 49 d of age on 15 experimental diets which varied in their concentrations of tannins and animal fat (tallow), by the inclusion of different amounts of high and a low protein varieties of sorghum. 3. Substitution of a low tannin sorghum completely for maize did not have any significantly adverse effect on performance. Broiler chicks could tolerate up to 2.6 g tannin/kg above which their performance was reduced. Addition of tallow did not significantly affect broiler performance except at the highest tannin content and added fat intake, where weight gain and efficiency appeared to improve significantly. PMID:9510995

  17. Effects of Dietary Male and Female Ferula Eleaochytris Powder on Growth Performance and Body Components of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Duru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary addition of male and female Ferula eleaochytris powder (FEP on growth performance and body components of broilers (Ross-308. Treatment groups were allocated to 5 dietary in which 0 (control, 5 g and 10 g male FEP, 5 g and 10 g female FEP doses per kg commercial broiler diet. In total, 80 male broiler chicks (1-d old in which 16 animals in each group were used in study. Body weight gain and feed intake were monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Forty two days old broiler chicks were slaughtered to determine the possible changes in body components. The results of the study indicated that FEP had no effect on any parameters. However; the weight of the control group gave higher values than 5 g male Ferula group. In conclusion the measured parameters had no effect between all groups.

  18. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  19. Compensatory adaptations of the remnant kidney to the overload in the chick model of the unilateral renal agenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Zdeňka; Jirsová, Z.; Hubičková, L.; Klusoňová, Petra; Tůma, P.

    Berlin : Freie Universität, 2007. s. 47-47. [Combined workshop on fundamental physiology and perinatal development in poultry /3./. 05.10.2007-07.10.2007, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * chick embryo * unilateral renal agenesis * compensatory renal agenesis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  20. Uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1989-02-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane.

  1. A set of stage-specific gene transcripts identified in EK stage X and HH stage 3 chick embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Cho Seoae; Moon Sunjin; Park Tae; Kim Heebal; Lee Bo; Park Taesung; Lim Jeong; Han Jae

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The embryonic developmental process in avian species is quite different from that in mammals. The first cleavage begins 4 h after fertilization, but the first differentiation does not occur until laying of the egg (Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EK) stage X). After 12 to 13 h of incubation (Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 3), the three germ layers form and germ cell segregation in the early chick embryo are completed. Thus, to identify genes associated with early embryonic deve...

  2. Nest defence in a cuckoo host: great reed warblers risk themselves equally for their own and parasitic chicks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Šicha, Václav; Požgayová, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 147, 5-6 (2010), s. 741-756. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * chick discrimination * cuckoo * mobbing * nest defence * nestlingnestling recognition * parental investment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010

  3. EFFECT OF CINNAMON AND GINGER COMPARED TO DOXYSTIN (ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELBAGIR M. NABIELA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the medicinal plants cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and ginger (Zingiber officinale, as natural feed additives in comparison to (Doxystin “Doxycycline HCl 50 mg and Colistin sulfate” , known antimicrobial growth promoter on the serum lipid profile of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty (one day-old broiler chicks were assigned to four groups of the same mean weight, each with four replicates of ten chicks. The first group was used as control group and fed broilers basal diet, the second group fed the basal diet supplemented with the (Doxystin as 0.5%, the third and fourth groups fed basal diet mixed with C. verum, and Z. officinale as 2% of the diet respectively. The experimental diets affected all parameters measured follows, total cholesterol and serum (low density lipoprotein LDL-C concentration was significantly (P<0.05 decreased in groups received spices diet compared to Doxystin and control groups. Whereas, the (high density lipoprotein HDL-C concentration showed significantly (P<0.05 lower levels in the two spice treated groups compared to the control group only, and the antibiotic treated animals showed similar level to that observed in spice treated groups. Triacylglycerols and the VLDL-C fraction showed clearly reduced values in all treated groups compared to the control group, though the difference was not significant but it was more pronounced in the spice treated groups, as they reported half the level of the control group. It can be concluded that inclusion of C. verum and Z. officinale as feed additives acted as natural hypocholesterolemic agents in broiler chicks in particular and reduced blood lipids in general.

  4. Effects of mannanoligosaccharide and/or organic acid mixture on performance, blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamettin Senkoylu; Hasan Akyurek; Fisun Koc; Aylin Agma Okur; Hasan Ersin Samli; Mehmet Levent Ozduven

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acid mixture and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) on growth performance, blood parameters and intestinal microbiota in 120 Ross 308 male broiler chicks, over a period of 21 days. Birds were maintained in battery brooders confined in an environmentally controlled experimental room. There were 4 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates. Dietary treatments were: (i) basal diet (as a control), (ii) basal diet + MOS 2 kg/ton...

  5. A neural-network reinforcement-learning model of domestic chicks that learn to localize the centre of closed arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2007-03-29

    Previous experiments have shown that when domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) are first trained to locate food elements hidden at the centre of a closed square arena and then are tested in a square arena of double the size, they search for food both at its centre and at a distance from walls similar to the distance of the centre from the walls experienced during training. This paper presents a computational model that successfully reproduces these behaviours. The model is based on a neural-network implementation of the reinforcement-learning actor - critic architecture (in this architecture the 'critic' learns to evaluate perceived states in terms of predicted future rewards, while the 'actor' learns to increase the probability of selecting the actions that lead to higher evaluations). The analysis of the model suggests which type of information and cognitive mechanisms might underlie chicks' behaviours: (i) the tendency to explore the area at a specific distance from walls might be based on the processing of the height of walls' horizontal edges, (ii) the capacity to generalize the search at the centre of square arenas independently of their size might be based on the processing of the relative position of walls' vertical edges on the horizontal plane (equalization of walls' width), and (iii) the whole behaviour exhibited in the large square arena can be reproduced by assuming the existence of an attention process that, at each time, focuses chicks' internal processing on either one of the two previously discussed information sources. The model also produces testable predictions regarding the generalization capabilities that real chicks should exhibit if trained in circular arenas of varying size. The paper also highlights the potentialities of the model to address other experiments on animals' navigation and analyses its strengths and weaknesses in comparison to other models. PMID:17255019

  6. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  7. A new take on an old story: chick limb organ culture for skeletal niche development and regenerative medicine evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    EL Smith; JM Kanczler; ROC Oreffo

    2013-01-01

    Scientific research and progress, particularly in the drug discovery and regenerative medicine fields, is typically dependent on suitable animal models to develop new and improved clinical therapies for injuries and diseases. In vivo model systems are frequently utilised, but these models are expensive, highly complex and pose a number of ethical considerations leading to the development and use of a number of alternative ex vivo model systems. The ex vivo embryonic chick long bone and limb b...

  8. Phycoremediation of waste water from a plastic manufacturing industry with Chlorella pyrenoidosa H.Chick in laboratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenanga Sari; Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati; Riche Hariyati

    2014-01-01

    Abstrack - The plastic industries has increased by 7-8% per year, it will cause a negative impact for the environment. The wastewater of plastic industrial contain many pollutants such as hazardous substances bensen, formaldehyde and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb). Heavy metals Cu is the most dangerous heavy metals since Cu can inhibit enzyme systems, remediation are needed to reduce the pollutants in the environment. One effective way is by using Chlorella pyrenoidosa H.Chick as phycoremed...

  9. The Effects of Some Alternative Feed Additives for Antibiotic Growth Promoters on the Performance and Gut Microflora of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    CEYLAN, Necmettin; ÇİFTÇİ, İbrahim

    2003-01-01

    In this research, the effects of some alternative feed additives for antibiotic growth promoters on performance and gut microflora were examined using 500, one-day-old Ross 508 broiler chicks. Commercial corn-soy-based broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated as basal diets for control treatment. Basal diets were supplemented with an antibiotic growth promoter, a probiotic, a prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide) and a humic-acid-based mixture, respectively. It total, five dietary trea...

  10. Uptake of 75Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane

  11. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  12. Effects of different sulphur amino acids and dietary electrolyte balance levels on performance, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoofard, V; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, E

    2016-02-01

    As alterations of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) can influence amino acid metabolism via changes the ions incur in their configurations, performance and immunological responses of broiler chicks might be affected. So, the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of sulphur amino acids (SAA) and DEB on performance, jejunal morphology and immunocompetence of broiler chicks. A total of 360 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine experimental treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of SAA (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation, provided by methionine supplementation in diets with the same cysteine level) and three levels of DEB (150, 250, and 350 mEq/kg) that were fed during the entire of trial in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that the relative weights of intestine and abdominal fat were decreased markedly (p sheep red blood cell was neither individually nor in combination influenced by supplementation of SAA or DEB. Nevertheless, a decrease in DEB level led to a suppression in heterophile (p diet (p = 0.11). Although feeding high-DEB level led to a remarkable decrease in villus height (p diet for each level of SAA. PMID:25808567

  13. Effects of interchanging hyperopic defocus and form deprivation stimuli in normal and optic nerve-sectioned chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Vivian; Lew, MinJung Y; Nadel, Michel W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2006-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that the same mechanisms mediate form deprivation and lens-induced myopia, the ocular growth responses of chicks alternately exposed to lenses and diffusers at regular intervals (3h) were compared to those of chicks exposed to either negative lenses or diffusers alone. In total, there were four experiments: (1) -15 D lenses and/or diffusers on normal birds, (2) -15 D lenses and/or diffusers on optic nerve-sectioned (ONS) birds, (3) -5/-10/-15 D lenses (sequentially applied) and/or diffusers on normal birds and (4) -5/-10/-15 D lenses and/or diffusers on ONS birds. All treatments were monocular. In all experiments, optical axial lengths (cornea-to-retina distances) in treated eyes were greater than in fellow eyes, irrespective of the optical device (diffuser, lens or switch), lens power (fixed or incremented) and optic nerve condition (intact or severed). In normal chicks, optical axial length responses in the switch group were significantly reduced relative to those of the diffuser but not to those of the -15 D lens group. For both groups of ONS birds, diffusers exaggerated the optical axial length changes. For all groups, the responses to the switch and lens groups were most similar. These results together suggest that the mechanisms mediating form deprivation- and lens-induced myopia are different. PMID:16212999

  14. THE EFFECT OF GINGER ROOT POWDER (zingiber officinale SUPPLEMENTATION ON BROILER CHICKS PERFORMANCE, BLOOD AND SERUM CONSTITUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. ZOMRAWI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study using one hundred and twenty eight unsexed day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 32 birds/treatment with four replicates was conducted to evaluate the effect of ginger root powder as natural feed additives on growth performance, blood and serum constituents of broiler chickens. Four dietary treatments were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of broiler chick containing ginger root powder at levels 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Result showed that significant decreased (P0.05 in feed conversion ratio among all dietary treatments. Treatments had significant decreased (P0.05 were observed in dressing percentage. There were no significant effect (P>0.05 on serum glucose, total protein and creatinine. Significant differences were observed in serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 among all dietary treatments in Hb percentage, PCV percentage, TRBcs, MCV, MCH and MCHC percentage. The results showed that the inclusion of ginger root powder at levels 0.5% and1% in the diet , had lowering effect on cholesterol levels, and the chick may tolerate up to 1.5% without adverse effect on growth performance and blood parameters.

  15. Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herb on Growth and Immunization of Laying Chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA De-ying; SHAN An-shan; LI Qun-dao; DU Juan

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate effects of Chinese medicinal herb (CMH) on growth and immunization of laying male chicks,eleven CMHs were used in this study,which are Astragalus membranacens (AM),Schisandra chinensis (SC),Ligustrum Lucidum(LL), Codonopsis, Scutellaria baicalensis (SB),Atractylodes macrocephala(AMA),Haw,Ginger,Acanthopanax scenticosns (AS),Angelica and Lycium, added to basal diet as 1%,respectively,with the basal diet supplemented with 50 mg*kg-1 bacitracin zinc(BZ) as the control.The body weight (BW) of birds were recorded at 1,21 and 42 days after birth,individually.The birds were vaccinated 0.50 mL against Newcastle disease (ND) with La sota vaccinel (containing mineral oil as adjuvant) by I.m.inoculation at 21 d of age.All of birds was vaccinated with F48E9 NDV by I.m.inoculation at 49 day of age.Blood samples were taken via wing vein from each bird on the day receiving the vaccination (Day-1) and on 14,21,28,30 and 34 d after vaccination (Days 14,21,28,30 and 34).Results showed that bodyweight (BW) and bodyweight gain(BWG) of the trial groups are similar to the control group.No significant differences of relative weight (RW) of bursa and spleen were observed among trial groups except for AS (P<0.05).Serum antibody titers of SC,LL,Codonopsis,SB,AMA and Lycium groups were significantly increased (P<0.05) in contrast to these control group on day-21 or 28 after immunized ND La sota vaccinel,which suggested that SC,LL,Codonopsis,SB,AMA and Lycium could augment antibody formulation.Furthermore,Compared with the control,antibody titers in SC,Codonopsis,AS,Lycium,SB and AMA group were higher (P<0.05) after vaccinated with F48E9 NDV,which suggested that SC,Codonopsis,AS,Lycium,SB and AMA have activity of antivirus.In conclusion,CMH used in the present study have similar effect on BW and BWG of chicks compared with the control.Moreover,these eleven CMH have little influence on RW of immunized organ except AS.However,SC,Codonopsis,LL,Lycium,SB and AMA could

  16. Evaluation of strategies to improve village chicken production: controlled field trials to assess effects of Newcastle disease vaccination and altered chick rearing in Myanmar [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2009-07-01

    Previous research identified Newcastle disease and poor management of chicks (birds younger than 6 weeks of age) as major constraints to village chicken production in Myanmar. Based on these findings, controlled trials were conducted in 124 randomly selected households in nine villages in Myanmar over a period of 12 months to evaluate strategies to enhance survival of village chickens. Two intervention strategies were assessed: Newcastle disease vaccination using the thermostable I-2 vaccine and changes to the management of chick rearing (confinement and supplementary feeding). These interventions were applied in two trials: (1) a randomised controlled trial to compare I-2 vaccination, altered chick management and no intervention (apart from placebo treatment) at household level and (2) nested within this trial, a double-blinded controlled trial at bird-level to compare serological titres between I-2 vaccinated and placebo-treated birds both between and within households. Outcomes measured in the first trial were crude incidence rate of mortality, proportional mortality rate for deaths due to disease stratified by age group of birds and mortality attributed to Newcastle disease, number of sales, income from sale of birds, consumption of birds and hatching of birds. Odds of having protective titres two weeks after vaccination were up to 125 times higher in I-2 vaccinated birds and up to 47 times higher in control birds in contact with I-2 vaccinates compared to birds without I-2 contact. Vaccination against Newcastle disease reduced the proportions of mortalities assumed to be caused by disease in growers and chicks. Crude mortality incidence was lower in households that applied management changes to chick rearing. In household-months when birds were sold, numbers sold were higher and income from sale of birds were about 2.50 US dollars per month higher in households allocated to altered chick management. Altered chick management resulted in more households having

  17. Reduction of bacterial infections in newly hatched chicks by the use of antimicrobial dips: preliminary approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Nabbut, N H; Hinners, S W; Al-Nakhli, H M

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriological examination of hatchery waste eggs, identification of the isolated bacteria, and susceptibility testing against seven antimicrobial agents were used in an attempt to establish a rational basis for reducing bacterial infections in newly hatched chicks. Chloramphenicol at 1000 ppm was selected as the antibiotic for preliminary dipping trials and 0.45% iodophore (Wescodyne) was added for later trials. The control treatment consisted of formaldehyde fumigation. The following conclusions can be drawn: Hatchery waste eggs are highly contaminated (69.1%) and enterobacteriaceae predominate (26.6%). Chloramphenicol is the most effective antimicrobial tested. Dip treatments with either chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol plus Wescodyne result in a reduced percentage of abnormal navels (8.4% and 10.4%), as compared with 21.9% for the control treatment. Hatchability of either group of dipped eggs is reduced in comparison with fumigated eggs. Dip treatment with chloramphenicol plus Wescodyne significantly reduces the anal carrier rates for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. This treatment reduces the incidence of bacterial infection in abnormal navels to zero. PMID:3919494

  18. Effect of phorbol esters on contractile state and calcium flux in cultured chick heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phorbol esters are potent tumor promoters that have been widely used in studies of transmembrane signaling because of their ability to activate protein kinase C. To study the effect of phorbol esters (and indirectly, the role of protein kinase C) on the cardiac muscle contractility, the authors examined the effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on contractile state, transmembrane 45Ca fluxes, and cytosolic free Ca concentration ([Ca]/sub i/) using spontaneously contracting cultured chick ventricular cells. PMA produced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the amplitude of cell motion [half maximum inhibitory concentration] with maximal effect observed at 1 μM. PMA (1 μM) reduced 45Ca uptake rate by 16 /plus minus/ 4% and the size of the rapidly exchangeable Ca pool by 11 /plus minus/ 2%, but did not alter the 45Ca efflux rate. In fura-2-loaded cells. PMA produced a decrease in [Ca]/sub i/ from 96 /plus minus/ 7 to 72 /plus minus/ 5 nM with a time course similar to that of alteration in contractile amplitude. These results indicate that PMA influences transsarcolemmal Ca uptake, and thus the excitation-contraction process, and suggest that protein kinase C may modulate myocardial Ca homeostassis and contractile state

  19. The Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Platinum Group Metals in Developing Chick Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ioana; Monahan, Jennifer; Markopoulos, Marjorie; Gagnon, Zofia; Nejame, Britney; Cawley, Jacob; Reens, David

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies showed that platinum group metals (PGMs) such as Pt, Pd, and Rh from automobile catalytic converters, can accumulate in the soft tissues of a variety of living organisms. However, the effects of PGMs on bone and organs development of animals are not clearly understood. To examine these aspects, developing chick embryos were injected with 0.1, 1.0, 5, or 10 ppm solutions of Pt, Rh, Pd, or with a PGMs mixture. 1) Pathological Changes: were observed for all PGM treatments above 1 ppm. Bone Cells Assesment: Chondrocyte cells in thibiotarsus showed decreased diameter and length. 2) PGMs Accumulation in Tissues: was quantified by GFAAS spectrometry on finely ground tissue powder. 3) Bone Demineralization: was detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy imaging on paraffin embedded bone sections. 4) DNA Damage in Cells: was determined by using a Comet assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxidative Damage in Tissues: was analyzed using a glutathione peroxidase assay. The overall results indicated that PGMs presence in our environment raises concerns about their long-term health effects on all organisms.

  20. Productive performance of broiler chicks fed rations containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the feed efficiency (FE) (feed intake/body weight gain), energy efficiency (EE) (metabolizable energy intake/body weight gain), total protein efficiency (TPE) (body weight gain/protein intake), metabolized energy (ME) and body weight gain and in the biological aspects of the digestive organs by broiler chicks during different periods of age (14-21 days: 3 weeks, 21-28 days: 4 weeks, 28-35 days: 5 weeks, 35-42 days: 6 weeks) were evaluated in 5 groups fed on experimental diets containing irradiated meat (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy). the results showed that no significant (p0.05) with age (comparing ages 5 and 6 weeks with 3 and 4 weeks) No significant (p<0.05) differences were noticed in FE, EE and TPE between the ages 3 and 4 weeks. There was a significant increase (p.0.05) in ME values for the age 6 weeks compared to 3, 4 and 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the ME values between the ages 4 and 5 weeks. (author)

  1. Photodynamic damage to cartilage and synovial tissue grafted on a chick's chorioallantoic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M.; Nahir, A. M.; Kimel, Sol

    1997-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovial joints causing pain deformities and disability. The highly vascular inflamed synovium has aggressive and destructive characteristics, it invades, erodes and gradually destroys cartilage and underlying bone. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model to investigate the vitality of synovium and cartilage implanted on the CAM. Synovium, obtained from human patients, was grafted onto the CAM; gross microscopy and histology proved its vitality 7 days post grafting. Cartilage obtained from rabbit knee joint was also maintained on the CAM for 7 days. Its vitality was demonstrated by histology and by measuring metabolic and enzymatic activity of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) as well as the collagen and proteoglycans content. Selective PDT was performed using aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4), a hydrophilic compound, soluble in biological solutions, as a photosensitizer. After irradiation with a diode laser (lambda equals 670 nm, 10 mW) damage was observed in vascularized synovium grafts, whereas avascular cartilage remained intact.

  2. Lumped parameter estimation for the embryonic chick vascular system: a time-domain approach using MLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshigi, M; Knott, G D; Keller, B B

    2000-08-01

    We have evaluated several lumped parameter analog models for the early chick embryonic vascular system that may be used to infer loading characteristics of the developing heart. We measured dorsal aortic pressure and flow simultaneously with a servo-null pressure system and a pulsed Doppler velocimeter. Four different analog circuit models were chosen for comparisons. We formulated the time-domain differential equations specifying the relations between pressure and flow in the models, and then estimated the lumped parameters that produced the best fit. The MLAB mathematical modeling software was used for solving differential equations, and for minimizing the difference between model-predicted values and experimental data. The traditional three-element Windkessel model with an added inductance term was most often the best-fitting model. This is compatible with the previous study using a frequency-domain approach. The procedures developed for the current study are adaptable for the study of a variety of nonlinear models, and distributed parameter models for mammalian cardiovascular development with mechanically, pharmacologically, or genetically altered conditions. PMID:10927152

  3. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF SPEARMINT (Mentha spicata ON BROILER CHICKS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. AMASAIB

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of addition different levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata on broiler chick’s performance. One hundred and twenty eight day old unsexed (Cobb broiler chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were distributed randomly into 16 pens (8/pen as replicates, in a complete randomized design. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. Feed and water were freely accessed. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were weekly recorded and Mortality rate was recorded throughout the experiment. At the end of the experimental period, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected, weighed and slaughtered for determination of carcass weight and dressing percentage. Average feed intakes obtained from the experiment were 2680.20, 2679.11, 2708.55 and 2692.57 for diets 0, 1, 1.5%and 2%, respectively. However, the body weight gains for the treatments were 1481.63, 1512.81, 1519.57 and 1519.63, 0, 1, 1.5 and 2, respectively. Feed conversion ratios for treatments were found to be 1.92, 1.94, 1.92 and 1.99 respectively. Dressing percentage were 73.12, 74.17, 73.08 and73.47 respectively. The results indicated that the supplementation of different levels of spearmint to the diets of broiler improved feed intake and body weight gain.

  4. Adrenergic innervation of the developing chick heart: neural crest ablations to produce sympathetically aneural hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablation of various regions of premigratory trunk neural crest which gives rise to the sympathetic trunks was used to remove sympathetic cardiac innervation. Neuronal uptake of [3H]-norepinephrine was used as an index of neuronal development in the chick atrium. Following ablation of neural crest over somites 10-15 or 15-20, uptake was significantly decreased in the atrium at 16 and 17 days of development. Ablation of neural crest over somites 5-10 and 20-25 caused no decrease in [3H]-norepinephrine uptake. Removal of neural crest over somites 5-25 or 10-20 caused approximately equal depletions of [3H]-norepinephrine uptake in the atrium. Cardiac norepinephrine concentration was significantly depressed following ablation of neural crest over somites 5-25 but not over somites 10-20. Light-microscopic and histofluorescent preparations confirmed the absence of sympathetic trunks in the region of the normal origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves following neural crest ablation over somites 10-20. The neural tube and dorsal root ganglia were damaged in the area of the neural-crest ablation; however, all of these structures were normal cranial and caudal to the lesioned area. Development of most of the embryos as well as the morphology of all of the hearts was normal following the lesion. These results indicate that it is possible to produce sympathetically aneural hearts by neural-crest ablation; however, sympathetic cardiac nerves account for an insignificant amount of cardiac norepinephrine

  5. Study on the kinetics of photorepair of dimers in the DNA of chick embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied quantitative aspects of photoreactivation of UV irradiated chick embryo fibroblast cells (C.E.F.), by monitoring the disappearance of U.V. endonuclease sensitive sites (E.S.S.) from their DNA. We used sucrose gradient sedimentation to measure the molecular weight of the DNA treated with the UV endonuclease and the molecular weight of the same DNA not treated with the endonuclease. Comparing the two gives us the number of remaining E.S.S. A dose of 10 J/m2 (260 nm) yields about 2.6 E.S.S. per 107 dalton. It was found that C.E.F. are proficient in dark repair, this repair taking place at a rate of about 0.1 E.S.S. per 107 dalton per hour. Under influence of blacklight (365 nm) a much greater repair rate was found. We estimate the sensitivity, obtained with our methods and techniques thus far, to be better than 0.1 E.S.S./107 dalton, but we discuss several ways in which we can improve this number. From our results, we estimate that the average number of effective enzyme molecules is less than 0.7/107 dalton, resulting in an upper estimate of 105 photorepair enzyme molecules per C.E.F. cell

  6. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Salicylic acid nanoparticles behavior on chick CAM vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard [' Politechnica' University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Buteica, Alice Sandra; Neamtu, Johny [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Faculty of Pharmacy (Romania); Istrati, Daniela [' Politechnica' University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Mindrila, Ion, E-mail: tutu0101@yahoo.com [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Department of Morphological Sciences (Romania)

    2013-08-15

    A modified ferrite co-precipitation synthesis was used to obtain core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/salicylic acid magnetic nanoparticles (Sa-MNP) with well-dispersed aqueous solution properties. The newly developed iron oxide nanoparticles properties were investigated with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and laser light scattering for their characteristic establishment. The resulting Sa-MNPs have spherical morphology, homogenous size distribution around 60 nm (35 nm FWHM), and a 67 mV Zeta potential value (15.5 mV STDV). In vivo biocompatibility and intravascular behavior of the 60 nm diameter size range synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated on chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The results show a reversible and good controlled intravascular accumulation under static magnetic field, a low risk of embolisation with nanoparticle aggregates detached from venous intravascular nanoblocked areas, a persistent blocking of the arterioles and dependent capillaries network, a good circulating life time and biocompatibility. The beneficial effects of salicylic acid (SA) and in vivo demonstrated capacity of Sa-MNPs to cutoff regional vascular supply under static magnetic field control suggest a possible biomedical application of these MNPs in targeted cancer therapy through magnetic controlled blood flow nanoblocking mechanism.

  7. Cysteic acid and taurine synthesis from sulphate in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of taurine from sulphate was studied in the chick embryo using the radioisotopes of: sulphur, carbon and hydrogen. The following reactions occur: 1) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; 2) fixation of the sulphite on a carbon chain with an amino group, resulting from desulphydration of L-cysteine, which leads to the formation of L-cysteic acid; 3) decarboxylation of L-cysteic acid. Reaction (1) takes place only in the endo-dermal cells of the yolk sac; reaction (2) in these same cells and in the yolk; reaction (3) is general, localized in the yolk sac, in the yolk as well as in the tissues of the embryo itself. The enzyme which catalyses reaction (2) has been purified; the coenzyme is pyridoxal phosphate. The desulphydration of cysteine by this enzyme is a reversible reaction. In non-physiological conditions of concentration and temperature, pyridoxal phosphate catalyses in the presence of metallic ions, the desulphydration of cysteine and the formation of cysteic acid from sulphite. (author)

  8. Automated computational framework of blood vessel quantification in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong

    2014-10-01

    Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth.

  9. Postural and neurological deficits in broiler chicks after cervical vaccination with live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, C R; Cooper, G L; Charlton, B R; Bickford, A A; Nordhausen, R

    2003-07-01

    A disease characterized by paresis and paralysis was seen in 7-9-day-old broiler chicks after vaccination in the neck area at day-of-age with a live virus vaccine containing viruses of Marek's disease, fowl pox, and infectious bursal disease. Affected birds presented with variable signs of ataxia, lateral recumbency, leg paralysis, and twisting or S-shaped flexure of the neck. Gross lesions noted at necropsy included swelling and edema of the subcutaneous tissues and muscles of the neck at the injection site area. A heavy mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in the subcutaneous tissues, connective tissues, and muscles of the neck at the injection site. In some cases, the inflammatory process extended along fascial planes to involve the epidural spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Fatty changes with possible demyelination of nerve fibers were noted in some sections of the spinal cord adjacent to the inflammatory lesions. Clusters of poxviruses were found within some inflammatory lesions on transmission electron photomicrographs. PMID:12918818

  10. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin. PMID:19054059

  11. Automated computational framework of blood vessel quantification in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong

    2014-01-01

    Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth. PMID:25277148

  12. Angiogenic Potential of Human Neonatal Foreskin Stromal Cells in the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the multipotentiality of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs as being able to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts and potentially other cell types. Recently, we demonstrated that hNSSCs play a role during in vitro angiogenesis and appear to possess a capacity to differentiate into endothelial-like cells; however, their angiogenic potential within an ex vivo environment remains unclear. Current study shows hNSSCs to display significant migration potential in the undifferentiated state and high responsiveness in the in vitro wound healing scratch assay. When hNSSCs were seeded onto the top of the CAM, human von Willebrand factor (hVWF, CD31, smooth muscle actin (SMA, and factor XIIIa positive cells were observed in the chick endothelium. CAMs transplanted with endothelial-differentiated hNSSCs displayed a higher number of blood vessels containing hNSSCs compared to CAMs transplanted with undifferentiated hNSSCs. Interestingly, undifferentiated hNSSCs showed a propensity to differentiate towards ectoderm with indication of epidermal formation with cells positive for CD1a, CK5/6, CK19, FXIIIa, and S-100 cells, which warrant further investigation. Our findings imply a potential angiogenic role for hNSSCs ex vivo in the differentiated and undifferentiated state, with potential contribution to blood vessel formation and potential application in tissue regeneration and vascularization.

  13. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takito, J.; Shinki, T.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T. (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3). The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane.

  14. A proteomic study of memory after imprinting in the domestic chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Meparishvili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate and medial mesopallium (IMM of the domestic chick forebrain has previously been shown to be a memory system for visual imprinting. Learning-related changes occur in certain plasma membrane and mitochondrial proteins in the IMM. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry has been employed to identify more comprehensively learning-related expression of proteins in the membrane-mitochondrial fraction of the IMM 24 h after training. We inquired whether amounts of these proteins in the IMM and a control region (posterior pole of the nidopallium, PPN are correlated with a behavioural estimate of memory for the imprinting stimulus. Learning-related increases in amounts of the following proteins were found in the left IMM, but not the right IMM or the left or right PPN: (i membrane cognin; (ii a protein resembling the P32 subunit of splicing factor SF2; (iii voltage-dependent anionic channel-1; (iv dynamin-1; (v heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1. Learning-related increases in some transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were also found, without significant change in mitochondrial DNA copy number. The results indicate that the molecular processes involved in learning and memory underlying imprinting include protein stabilization, increased mRNA trafficking, synaptic vesicle recycling and specific changes in the mitochondrial proteome.

  15. Mechanisms of reoxygenation-induced calcium overload in cultured chick embryo heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined mechanisms by which Ca enters cultured myocardial cells during posthypoxic reoxygenation. Monolayer cultures of chick embryo ventricular cells were prepared from hearts 10 days in ovo. Cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions (PO2 less than 1.5 Torr), and 45Ca uptake during subsequent reoxygenation was then examined in the absence and presence of modulators of Ca channel-dependent Ca entry and Na-Ca exchange. Modulation of Ca entry by free radical-scavenging enzymes was also examined. Hypoxia for 120 min followed by reoxygenation increased Ca content from 1.9 to 6.1 nmol/mg protein (P less than 0.05) at 30 min. Verapamil (10(-5) M) added before reoxygenation reduced Ca overload to 3.1 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein (P less than 0.05), but both verapamil and BAY K 8644 were without effect on modulating Ca entry if added 30 min after reoxygenation. 24Na content of cells increased from 70 nmol/mg protein in control cells to 157 nmol/mg protein (P less than 0.05) after hypoxia and reoxygenation, favoring Ca entry via Na-Ca exchange. Dichlorobenzamil significantly ameliorated reoxygenation-induced Ca overload, as did catalase and superoxide dismutase. We conclude that reoxygenation-induced Ca overload is unlikely to occur via the Ca channel. It occurs in part via Na-Ca exchange and is substantially ameliorated by enzymatic O2 free radical scavengers

  16. Influence of early environmental experience on development of pecking behaviour in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Si-He

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the sensitive imprinting period and the influence of early experience on feather-pecking behaviour of young chicks. The experiment included 8 treatment-groups: one group of chickens (0F were reared on sandy floor during the whole experiment period (0–14 weeks; one group (0P were reared on barren floor; three groups were reared on barren floor for 2 weeks (3P, 4 weeks (5P, or 6 weeks (7P, respectively, and then reared on sandy floor till 14 weeks; the other three groups were reared on sandy floor for 2 weeks (3F, 4 weeks (5F, or 6 weeks(7F, respectively, and then reared on barren floor till 14 weeks. Feather-pecking, ground-pecking, object-pecking and staring at object were measured. The results showed that the most important period of imprinting for feather-pecking behaviour was during first four weeks after birth, especially week 3 and week 4. It was found that the early environmental experience can modify feather-pecking behaviour at later age, but can not completely change it. On the other hand, the environmental conditions seemed not to affect object-pecking and staring at object in this study [Acta Zoologica Sinica 54(6):955–963, 2008].

  17. Fe3O4/Salicylic acid nanoparticles behavior on chick CAM vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified ferrite co-precipitation synthesis was used to obtain core–shell Fe3O4/salicylic acid magnetic nanoparticles (Sa-MNP) with well-dispersed aqueous solution properties. The newly developed iron oxide nanoparticles properties were investigated with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and laser light scattering for their characteristic establishment. The resulting Sa-MNPs have spherical morphology, homogenous size distribution around 60 nm (35 nm FWHM), and a 67 mV Zeta potential value (15.5 mV STDV). In vivo biocompatibility and intravascular behavior of the 60 nm diameter size range synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated on chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The results show a reversible and good controlled intravascular accumulation under static magnetic field, a low risk of embolisation with nanoparticle aggregates detached from venous intravascular nanoblocked areas, a persistent blocking of the arterioles and dependent capillaries network, a good circulating life time and biocompatibility. The beneficial effects of salicylic acid (SA) and in vivo demonstrated capacity of Sa-MNPs to cutoff regional vascular supply under static magnetic field control suggest a possible biomedical application of these MNPs in targeted cancer therapy through magnetic controlled blood flow nanoblocking mechanism

  18. Cellular and molecular aspects of early bone development in the chick embryonic tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mid-diaphyseal periosteal collars and the corresponding cartilage core were micro-dissected free from chick tibias and separately digested with a trypsin-collagenase enzyme mixture. The released cell populations were cultivated in vitro and characterized by morphological analysis, histochemical localization, of alkaline phosphatase, alizarin red S staining for mineral deposition, growth rate ([3H]thymidine incorporation) and proteoglycan content. Results of these studies showed that periosteal collar cell cultures form nodule-like structures that stain positively with alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red S. Light and electron microscopic observation revealed cell and matrix morphologies similar to that of intact periosteum. The nodules were composed of plump cell types embedded within a mineralized matrix surrounded by a fibroblastic cell layer. Core cartilage cell cultures displayed typical characteristics of the hypertrophic state in their visual appearance and proteoglycan composition. The formation of osseous-like structures in periosteal collar cell cultures but not in core chondrocyte cell cultures demonstrates the relatively autonomous nature of periosteal ossification

  19. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1 alpha,25(OH)2D3]. The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA SOLUBILIDADE DAS PROTEÍNAS MIOFIBRILARES, CAPACIDADE DE EMULSIFICAÇÃO E PERDA POR COCÇÃO, EVAPORAÇÃO E GOTEJAMENTO DAS CARNES DE EMA, AVESTRUZ E FRANGO

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Cristina Costa e SILVA; Julyanna Andrade SILVA; Roger DARROS-BARBOSA; Pedro Fernando ROMANELLI

    2012-01-01

    Esse estudo determinou a solubilidade das proteínas miofibrilares, capacidade de emulsificação das proteínas totais e perda por cocção, evaporação e gotejamento das carnes de ema (Rhea americana), avestruz (Struthio camelus) e frango (Gallus domesticus). Foram utilizadas 30 aves (machos), sendo 10 emas, 10 avestruzes e 10 frangos. Quatro amostras de cada espécie foram obtidas do músculo iliotibialis lateralis para realização das análises. A análise de solubilidade das ...

  1. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.M. Mahrose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP levels (18, 21 and 24% on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01 with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%.

  2. 琪客文学特性与研究综述%A Review of the Features and Studies of Chick Lit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢迎如

    2015-01-01

    With love,marriage,consumerism and female development as the motifs,Chick Lit is a female literary genre,on which research has been conducted abroad. However,due to the controversy over the nature and value of Chick Lit as a genre of female writing,there is still a lack of heed paid by the academia. Revie-wing the development of Chick Lit, its distinguished features, motifs and relevant studies will facilitate a better understanding of Chick Lit per se,the research approach and its academic value so as to enable a fur-ther exploration of Chick Lit.%"琪客文学"是一种以婚恋、消费主义与女性成长为三大母题的女性文学类型.围绕这些母题,国外已有一定研究成果. 然而,学界对琪客文学作为女性书写的评价褒贬不一. 这导致了其研究没有得到普遍重视. 对琪客文学的发展历程、特点、母题以及相关研究的梳理将有益于促进学界对该文类特征、学术价值及研究视角的进一步认识.

  3. Effect of nicotine and preventive role of camellia sinensis on the histomorphology of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effect of nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea) on the developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Army medical college, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2012 to May 2012. Material and Method: Freshly laid fertilized eggs of Fayoumi breed chick eggs were selected at zero hour of incubation. Four groups were made, group G1 was control group treated with normal saline. Experimental group G2 was treated with camellia sinensis extract (green tea), group G3 was given nicotine whereas group G4 was injected with working solution nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea), in 0.1 ml quantity. Double exposure one at 48 hour of incubation and other at 48 hours after hatching of chicks. SPSS version 15 was used to analyze the data. Results: It was observed that the weight of chick at one month of age and weight of femur of chicks of nicotine treated groups G3 and group G4 were reduced in comparison to control group G1. Mean number of cells in hypertrophy zone of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone were reduced of nicotine treated groups in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Camellia sinensis (green tea) helped to reduce the harmful effects of nicotine treated group but cannot reverse the oxidative injury. (author)

  4. Studies on the mode of action of calciferol. XIII. Development of a radioimmunoassay for vitamin D-dependent chick intestinal calcium-binding protein and tissue distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A RIA for chick intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP) has been developed with a sensitivity of 1 ng. The antiserum was generated in rabbits injected with highly purified vitamin D-dependent chick intestinal CaBP. The assay employs the double antibody technique, and 125I-labeled CaBP was prepared using chloramine T. Low molecular weight peptide hormones and normal rabbit, rat, and human serum proteins show no cross-reactivity in the assay. Measurements of chick intestinal and kidney CaBP by RIA showed a good correlation with measurements of CaBP by the radial immunodiffusion method. The assay is reproducible (interassay variability, 16.3%) and precise (intraassay variability, 4.0%). The concentration of immunoreactive CaBP (iCaBP) in chick serum (2.7 ng/ml serum) can now be measured as early as 8 h after the administration of 6.5 nmol 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; a maximum of 11 ng/ml is reached at 20 h. The level of CaBP in chick serum was found to be dependent on the dose of vitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 administered to the animal

  5. Studies on the mode of action of calciferol. XIII. Development of a radioimmunoassay for vitamin D-dependent chick intestinal calcium-binding protein and tissue distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakos, S.; Friedlander, E.J.; Frandsen, B.R.; Norman, A.W.

    1979-05-01

    A RIA for chick intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP) has been developed with a sensitivity of 1 ng. The antiserum was generated in rabbits injected with highly purified vitamin D-dependent chick intestinal CaBP. The assay employs the double antibody technique, and /sup 125/I-labeled CaBP was prepared using chloramine T. Low molecular weight peptide hormones and normal rabbit, rat, and human serum proteins show no cross-reactivity in the assay. Measurements of chick intestinal and kidney CaBP by RIA showed a good correlation with measurements of CaBP by the radial immunodiffusion method. The assay is reproducible (interassay variability, 16.3%) and precise (intraassay variability, 4.0%). The concentration of immunoreactive CaBP (iCaBP) in chick serum (2.7 ng/ml serum) can now be measured as early as 8 h after the administration of 6.5 nmol 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/; a maximum of 11 ng/ml is reached at 20 h. The level of CaBP in chick serum was found to be dependent on the dose of vitamin D/sub 3/ or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ administered to the animal.

  6. Apical accumulation of MARCKS in neural plate cells during neurulation in the chick embryo

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    Arruti Cristina

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neural tube is formed by morphogenetic movements largely dependent on cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin and many of its associated proteins have been proposed as important mediators of neurulation. For instance, mice deficient in MARCKS, an actin cross-linking membrane-associated protein that is regulated by PKC and other kinases, present severe developmental defects, including failure of cranial neural tube closure. Results To determine the distribution of MARCKS, and its possible relationships with actin during neurulation, chick embryos were transversely sectioned and double labeled with an anti-MARCKS polyclonal antibody and phalloidin. In the neural plate, MARCKS was found ubiquitously distributed at the periphery of the cells, being conspicuously accumulated in the apical cell region, in close proximity to the apical actin meshwork. This asymmetric distribution was particularly noticeable during the bending process. After the closure of the neural tube, the apically accumulated MARCKS disappeared, and this cell region became analogous to the other peripheral cell zones in its MARCKS content. Actin did not display analogous variations, remaining highly concentrated at the cell subapical territory. The transient apical accumulation of MARCKS was found throughout the neural tube axis. The analysis of another epithelial bending movement, during the formation of the lens vesicle, revealed an identical phenomenon. Conclusions MARCKS is transiently accumulated at the apical region of neural plate and lens placode cells during processes of bending. This asymmetric subcellular distribution of MARCKS starts before the onset of neural plate bending. These results suggest possible upstream regulatory actions of MARCKS on some functions of the actin subapical meshwork.

  7. Behaviour of captive Ostrich chicks from 10 days to 5 months of age

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    Marina Freire Amado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of ostrich chicks bred in captivity was studied by using groups with 30 birds in five age groups: from 10 to 40 days of age; from 41 to 60 days of age; from 61 to 90 days of age; from 91 to 120 days of age and from 121 to 150 days of age. Six birds at each age were ringed around one of their feet and observed for four consecutive days for eight hours daily in three periods (in the morning, at noon and in the afternoon, following the "one-zero" method for sampling. The order for observation of behaviour of the six selected birds was performed randomly at every thirty minutes, totalling 16 periods or 80 minutes/bird/day. Fourteen types of behaviour were observed. There were differences among ages for behaviour like standing, walking, running, ingesting stones, ingesting feces, picking and attacking. Non-parametric-tests were used to analyse the behaviour according to age of the bird and to the periods of the day. There was a statistical difference between in the morning and at noon periods on behaviours standing, walking, eating ration and in litophagia, which were observed more frequently at the first hours of the day. When periods of the morning and afternoon were compared, the birds' age had a significant effect on behaviour sand bathing. When the periods noon/afternoon were compared, the behaviours which presented significant differences were walking, running, drinking water, eating ration, litophagia, coprophagia, dancing, sand bathing, whose occurrence was the highest during dusk. It was observed that the behaviour of young ostriches diverge according to the age and to day period.

  8. Correlating global gene regulation to angiogenesis in the developing chick extra-embryonic vascular system.

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    Sophie Javerzat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Formation of blood vessels requires the concerted regulation of an unknown number of genes in a spatial-, time- and dosage-dependent manner. Determining genes, which drive vascular maturation is crucial for the identification of new therapeutic targets against pathological angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: [corrected] We accessed global gene regulation throughout maturation of the chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM, a highly vascularized tissue, using pan genomic microarrays. Seven percent of analyzed genes showed a significant change in expression (>2-fold, FDR<5% with a peak occurring from E7 to E10, when key morphogenetic and angiogenic genes such as BMP4, SMO, HOXA3, EPAS1 and FGFR2 were upregulated, reflecting the state of an activated endothelium. At later stages, a general decrease in gene expression occurs, including genes encoding mitotic factors or angiogenic mediators such as CYR61, EPAS1, MDK and MYC. We identified putative human orthologs for 77% of significantly regulated genes and determined endothelial cell enrichment for 20% of the orthologs in silico. Vascular expression of several genes including ENC1, FSTL1, JAM2, LDB2, LIMS1, PARVB, PDE3A, PRCP, PTRF and ST6GAL1 was demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Up to 9% of the CAM genes were also overexpressed in human organs with related functions, such as placenta and lung or the thyroid. 21-66% of CAM genes enriched in endothelial cells were deregulated in several human cancer types (P<.0001. Interfering with PARVB (encoding parvin, beta function profoundly changed human endothelial cell shape, motility and tubulogenesis, suggesting an important role of this gene in the angiogenic process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study underlines the complexity of gene regulation in a highly vascularized organ during development. We identified a restricted number of novel genes enriched in the endothelium of different species and tissues, which may play crucial

  9. Aluminum effects on blood chemistry and long bone development in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firling, C E; Severson, A R; Hill, T A

    1994-01-01

    Body growth, blood chemistry, and long bone development of 10- to 16-day chick embryos (Gallus gallus) treated with aluminum (Al) citrate, sodium (Na) citrate, or sodium chloride (NaCl) were investigated. Two administration protocols were used. Acutely-treated embryos received 6.0 mumol Al citrate or Na citrate on day 8 of incubation. Chronically-treated embryos received a daily dose of 1.5 mumol Al citrate or Na citrate beginning on day 8 of incubation. For both protocols, Al citrate and Na citrate had no significant influence on viability or body weight. Al citrate-treated embryos had: (a) significantly shorter mean tibia lengths by day 16 of incubation, (b) a consistently lower ratio of tibia length: body weight on all days investigated, and (c) a persistent mid-diaphyseal malformation (angulation) of the femur and tibia. Spatially correlated with the malformation was a calcification defect detected by alizarin red S staining of intact tibias and the accumulation of aluminum as demonstrated by acid solochrome azurine staining of histological sections. Aluminum was localized at the mineralization front of the osteogenic collar surrounding the cartilage core of the tibia. Aluminum citrate or Na citrate had no significant effect on serum total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase activity, or creatinine, except for a transitory hypercalcemia (day 10) and phosphatemia (days 10 and 12) in Al citrate-treated embryos. The concomitant localization of Al and the early calcification defect in the region of tibial malformation implicate aluminum in the pathogenesis of the skeletal abnormality. PMID:7998819

  10. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

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    Homan Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histo- morphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate. At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days, feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24, one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW, drumstick weight (DW, and jejunum length (JL as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01. The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04 and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01 and total periods (p < 0.05. The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059 and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079 as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL and villi number (p < 0.05 and, VL/CD (p < 0.01 and, villus surface area (p < 0.02. The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05. The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01. In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry.

  11. Effect of hypoxia on thallium kinetics in cultured chick myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of hypoxia on cellular thallium-201 (201Tl) uptake and washout independent of coronary flow, we studied thallium kinetics during normoxia and hypoxia in cultured chick ventricular cells. Monolayers of contracting ventricular cells grown on coverslips were placed in a chamber and perfused to asymptote with media containing 201Tl. Perfusates were equilibrated with 5% CO2-95% air or 5% CO2-95% nitrogen for normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. Washout thallium kinetics were then observed during perfusion with unlabeled media. Twenty paired experiments were performed, randomly alternating the sequence of normoxia and hypoxia. Pharmacokinetics for thallium were determined by computer using standard formulae. Thallium uptake and washout were best described by assuming that intracellular thallium was contained within a single compartment. Cellular thallium uptake, as well as transfer rate constants for thallium uptake and for thallium washout during normoxia and hypoxia, were compared using paired t-tests. During normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, thallium uptake was 22 +/- 7% and 19 +/- 7% of asymptote (p less than 0.01); the compartmental rate constant for uptake by the cell was 0.16 +/- 0.07 min-1 and 0.15 +/- 0.06 min-1 (N.S.); and the transfer rate constant for washout from the cell was 0.26 +/- 0.06 min-1 and 0.23 +/- 0.05 min-1 (p less than 0.01). We conclude that there was a small (14%) decrease in thallium uptake during hypoxia. The rate of thallium uptake and washout was slightly less during hypoxia, although only the rate of washout was significantly less. These data show that cellular accumulation of thallium and the rate of washout of thallium were minimally decreased by hypoxia independent of blood flow

  12. Muscarinic signaling influences the patterning and phenotype of cholinergic amacrine cells in the developing chick retina

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    Fischer Andy J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies in the vertebrate retina have characterized the differentiation of amacrine cells as a homogenous class of neurons, but little is known about the genes and factors that regulate the development of distinct types of amacrine cells. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to characterize the development of the cholinergic amacrine cells and identify factors that influence their development. Cholinergic amacrine cells in the embryonic chick retina were identified by using antibodies to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. Results We found that as ChAT-immunoreactive cells differentiate they expressed the homeodomain transcription factors Pax6 and Islet1, and the cell-cycle inhibitor p27kip1. As differentiation proceeds, type-II cholinergic cells, displaced to the ganglion cell layer, transiently expressed high levels of cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP and neurofilament, while type-I cells in the inner nuclear layer did not. Although there is a 1:1 ratio of type-I to type-II cells in vivo, in dissociated cell cultures the type-I cells (ChAT-positive and CRABP-negative out-numbered the type-II cells (ChAT and CRABP-positive cells by 2:1. The relative abundance of type-I to type-II cells was not influenced by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh, but was affected by compounds that act at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In addition, the abundance and mosaic patterning of type-II cholinergic amacrine cells is disrupted by interfering with muscarinic signaling. Conclusion We conclude that: (1 during development type-I and type-II cholinergic amacrine cells are not homotypic, (2 the phenotypic differences between these subtypes of cells is controlled by the local microenvironment, and (3 appropriate levels of muscarinic signaling between the cholinergic amacrine cells are required for proper mosaic patterning.

  13. Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanya, Andrew Ndegwa; Dimova, Ivanka; Koller, Tobias; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Djonov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration PMID:27046154

  14. Coregulation of calcium channels and beta-adrenergic receptors in cultured chick embryo ventricular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine mechanisms whereby the abundance of functional Ca channels may be regulated in excitable tissue, Ca channel number was estimated by binding of the dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonist 3H (+)PN200-110 to monolayers of intact myocytes from chick embryo ventricle. Beta adrenergic receptor properties were studied in cultured myocytes using [3H]CGP12177, an antagonist ligand. Physiological correlates for alterations in DHP binding site number included 45Ca uptake and contractile response to (+)BAYk 8644, a specific L-type Ca channel activator. All binding and physiological determinations were performed in similar intact cell preparations under identical conditions. 4-h exposure to 1 microM isoproterenol reduced cell surface beta-adrenergic receptor number from 44 +/- 3 to 17 +/- 2 fmol/mg (P less than 0.05); DHP binding sites declined in number from 113 +/- 25 to 73 +/- 30 fmol/mg (P less than 0.03). When protein kinase A was activated by a non-receptor-dependent mechanism, DHP binding declined similarly to 68% of control. Exposure to diltiazem, a Ca channel antagonist, for 18-24 h had no effect on number of DHP binding sites. After 4-h isoproterenol exposure, 45Ca uptake stimulated by BAYk 8644 declined from 3.3 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg to 2.9 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg (P less than 0.01) and BAYk 8644-stimulated increase in amplitude of contraction declined from 168 +/- 7 to 134 +/- 11% (P = 0.02). Thus, elevation of [cAMP] in myocytes is associated with a time-dependent decline in Ca channel abundance as estimated by DHP binding and a decline in physiological responses that are in part dependent on abundance of Ca channels. Binding of a directly acting Ca channel antagonist for 18-24 h does not modulate the number of DHP binding sites

  15. Studies on novel drug development using developing chick embryo and its future aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the use of developing chick embryo (DCE), an advantageous alternative experimental animal, in studies on development of novel drugs like radio-sensitizer and on toxicological evaluation. Authors have established DCE transplanted with mouse mammary gland tumor EMT6/KU cells and have found that etanidazole, a radio-sensitizing nitroimidazole derivative, exerts the significant tumor shrinking activity in this tumor-bearing DCE when irradiated by 8 Gy X-ray. They are to test the sensitizing activity of their synthetic nitroimidazole derivatives and other structure-related sensitizers like clinically used (in Denmark) nimorazole. In addition, as the antioxidant activity in vivo can be hardly tested, authors are trying to make DCE system for it since they have studied the activity of derivatives of artepillin C, an active principle of propolis. They are also using DCE chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for testing the anti-angiogenic activity aiming to develop an antitumor agent from compounds related to fingolimod (FTY-720). For the test of anti-tumor activity in various cell types, their observation is that some of tumor cell types cannot take in DCE. Recently DCE has been used in toxicology for prediction of cardiovascular system like bradycardia and QT elongation, and for lethality test. Hen's egg test-CAM (HET-CAM) and cultured cell system to test irritation are reported to be more valid than other standard methods. DCE system is simple, inexpensive, and unnecessary for particular equipment and facility and desirably becomes an alternative experimental animal next to those like zebra-fish, rat and mouse. (author)

  16. Ethanol- and/or Taurine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chick Embryos

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    Emily J. Berning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because taurine alleviates ethanol- (EtOH- induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage in rats, we asked whether exogenous taurine could alleviate EtOH-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Exogenous EtOH (1.5 mmol/Kg egg or 3 mmol/Kg egg, taurine (4 μmol/Kg egg, or EtOH and taurine (1.5 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg or 3 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg were injected into fertile chicken eggs during the first three days of embryonic development (E0–2. At 11 days of development (midembryogenesis, serum taurine levels and brain caspase-3 activities, homocysteine (HoCys levels, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, membrane fatty acid composition, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO levels were measured. Early embryonic EtOH exposure caused increased brain apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress, as measured by decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Although taurine is reported to be an antioxidant, exogenous taurine was embryopathic and caused increased apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress (decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Combined EtOH and taurine treatments also caused increased apoptosis rates and oxidative stress.

  17. Neurochemical phenotype and birthdating of specific cell populations in the chick retina

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    Karin da Costa calaza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chick embryo is one of the most traditional models in developing neuroscience and its visual system has been one of the most exhaustively studied. The retina has been used as a model for studying the development of the nervous system. Here, we describe the morphological features that characterize each stage of the retina development and studies of the neurogenesis period of some specific neurochemical subpopulations of retinal cells by using a combination of immunohistochemistry and autoradiography of tritiated-thymidine. It could be concluded that the proliferation period of dopaminergic, GABAergic, cholinoceptive and GABAceptive cells does not follow a common rule of the neurogenesis. In addition, some specific neurochemical cell groups can have a restrict proliferation period when compared to the total cell population.O embrião de galinha é um dos mais tradicionais modelosde estudos da neurociência do desenvolvimento e seu sistema visual tem sido um dos mais exaustivamente estudado. Aretina tem sido utilizada como modelo para estudar o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso. Aqui, nós descrevemos as características morfológicas que caracterizam cada estádio da retina em desenvolvimento e os estudos do período de neurogênese de algumas subpopulações de células neuroquímicamente específicas da retina usando uma combinação de imunohistoquímica e autoradiografia de timidina-tritiada. Conclui-se que o período de proliferação das células dopaminérgicas, GABAérgicas, colinoceptivas e GABAceptivas não segue uma regra comum. Além disso, alguns grupos celulares neuroquimicamente distintos podem ter um período de proliferaçãomais restrito quando comparado ao da população total destas células.

  18. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells

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    L.F.S. Sampaio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of melatonin on the developmental pattern of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated in embryonic 8-day-old chick retinal cells in culture. The functional response to acetylcholine was measured in cultured retina cells by microphysiometry. The maximal functional response to acetylcholine increased 2.7 times between the 4th and 5th day in vitro (DIV4, DIV5, while the Bmax value for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin was reduced. Despite the presence of alpha8-like immunoreactivity at DIV4, functional responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were observed only at DIV5. Mecamylamine (100 µM was essentially without effect at DIV4 and DIV5, while dihydro-ß-erythroidine (10-100 µM blocked the response to acetylcholine (3.0 nM-2.0 µM only at DIV4, with no effect at DIV5. Inhibition of melatonin receptors with the antagonist luzindole, or melatonin synthesis by stimulation of D4 dopamine receptors blocked the appearance of the alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response at DIV5. Therefore, alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors were expressed in retinal cells as early as at DIV4, but they reacted to acetylcholine only after DIV5. The development of an alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response is dependent on the production of melatonin by the retinal culture. Melatonin, which is produced in a tonic manner by this culture, and is a key hormone in the temporal organization of vertebrates, also potentiates responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors in rat vas deferens and cerebellum. This common pattern of action on different cell models that express alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors probably reflects a more general mechanism of regulation of these receptors.

  19. Implementation of different histochemical methods in diagnostics of brain Aspergillosis in turkey chicks

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    Kureljušić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is a frequent fungal disease in different species of birds and mammals caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. It is characterized by inflammatory changes primarily in the respiratory system, even though it sometimes takes on a generalized form when several organ systems are affected. Mucotic-granulomatous meningoencephalitis with a predominant localization in the cerebellum has been described in turkeys, ducks and geese. Within this paper, examinations have been performed on a flock of broiler turkeys aged 12 days who had sustained evident neurological disorders in the form of ataxy, torticollis, paresis, and paralysis of the hind extremities and wings. In three of the ten autopsied chicks the macroscopic findings indicated granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebellum. A white-coloured granuloma, around 3mm in diameter, was situated cranioventrally and was clearly visible on the sagital section of the cerebellum. Mucological examinations of the cerebellum lesion resulted in the isolation of the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE, Grocott and PAS methods were used for the evaluation of histopathological changes and proving Aspergillus fumigatusa hyphae. The microscopic examination of brain tissue sections stained with the HE method revealed the existence of a granuloma with a centrally placed necrotic area. The necrotic area was infiltrated with heterophilic granulocytes and surrounded by macrophage, giant cells and lymphocytes. A connective tissue capsule was located on the periphery of the granuloma. The fungi hyphae, as integral parts of the granuloma, were difficult to observe, and in some samples stained using the HE method they could not be seen at all. On the other hand, sections stanied using the Grocott and PAS methods showed prominent septed and branched hyphae in different parts of the granuloma. With the objective of making an etiological diagnosis of mucotic diseases, it is necessary to apply several

  20. Tunicamycin inhibits biosynthesis of acid mucopolysaccharides in cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time course of the incorporation of 14C-glucosamine into extracellular mucopolysaccharides (MPS) and that of H235SO4 into intracellular and extracellular MPS were experimentally studied. The monolayer cultures of chick embrio fibroblasts in test tubes were prepared with modified Eagle's minimal essential medium supplemented with 5% calf serum. After confluence, the medium was replaced with the prewarmed fresh one containing 0.4 μCi/ml glucosamine-1-14C or 2 μCi/ml H235SO4. Tunicamycin (TM) was added at the same time as the radioactive compounds. At the appropriate time intervals of incubation at 370C, cultured cells were sampled, and the medium was withdrawn. The cell sheets were rinsed twice with 1 ml each of could distilled water. Acid MPS were precipitated with cetylpyridinium chloride. The precipitate was collected by centrifugation. Insoluble matter was collected on glass fiber filter. After drying, the radioactivity retained on the filter was counted with a scintillation counter. This fraction is of extracellular MPS. In the case of H235SO4 incorporation, the step of NaOH treatment was omitted. This fraction is of intracellular MPS. As a result, slight difference was observed in the degree of inhibition by 1.0 μg/ml TM between the two fractions. TM also inhibited the incorporation of H235SO4. The degree of inhibition of H235SO4 incorporation into intracellular MPS was similar to that of 14C-glucosamine. The inhibition of MPS biosynthesis by TM suggests the possibility of participation of lipid-linked intermediate in the biosynthesis of MPS. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Pineal melatonin acts as a circadian zeitgeber and growth factor in chick astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Jiffin K; Peters, Jennifer L; Karaganis, Stephen P; Cassone, Vincent M

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin is rhythmically synthesized and released by the avian pineal gland and retina during the night, targeting an array of tissues and affecting a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. Among these targets, astrocytes express two melatonin receptor subtypes in vitro, the Mel(1A) and Mel(1C) receptors, which play a role in regulating metabolic activity and calcium homeostasis in these cells. Molecular characterization of chick astrocytes has revealed the expression of orthologs of the mammalian clock genes including clock, cry1, cry2, per2, and per3. To test the hypothesis that pineal melatonin entrains molecular clockworks in downstream cells, we asked whether coculturing astrocytes with pinealocytes or administration of exogenous melatonin cycles would entrain metabolic rhythms of 2-deoxy [14C]-glucose (2DG] uptake and/or clock gene expression in cultured astrocytes. Rhythmic secretion of melatonin from light-entrained pinealocytes in coculture as well as cyclic administration of exogenous melatonin entrained rhythms of 2DG uptake and expression of Gallus per2 (gper2) and/or gper3, but not of gcry1 mRNA. Surprisingly, melatonin also caused a dose-dependent increase in mitotic activity of astrocytes, both in coculture and when administered exogenously. The observation that melatonin stimulates mitotic activity in diencephalic astrocytes suggests a trophic role of the hormone in brain development. The data suggest a dual role for melatonin in avian astrocytes: synchronization of rhythmic processes in these cells and regulation of growth and differentiation. These two processes may or may not be mutually exclusive. PMID:19196435

  2. Clock-Controlled Regulation of the Acute Effects of Norepinephrine on Chick Pineal Melatonin Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Cassone, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    The chicken pineal gland synthesizes and releases melatonin rhythmically in light/dark (LD) cycles, with high melatonin levels during the dark phase, and in constant darkness (DD) for several cycles before it gradually damps to arrhythmicity in DD. Daily administration of norepinephrine (NE) in vivo and in vitro prevents the damping and restores the melatonin rhythm. To investigate the role of the circadian clock on melatonin rhythm damping and of its restoration by NE, the effects of NE administration at different phases of the melatonin cycle revealed a robust rhythm in NE sensitivity in which NE efficacy in increasing melatonin amplitude peaked in late subjective night and early subjective day, suggesting a clock underlying NE sensitivity. However, NE itself had no effect on circadian phase or period of the melatonin rhythms. Transcriptional analyses indicated that even though the rhythm of melatonin output damped to arrhythmicity, messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding clock genes gper2, gper3, gBmal1, gclock, gcry1, and gcry2; enzymes associated with melatonin biosynthesis; and enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide signaling remained robustly rhythmic. Of these, only gADCY1 (adenylate cyclase 1) and gPDE4D (cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D) were affected by NE administration at the mRNA levels, and only ADCY1 was affected at the protein level. The data strongly suggest that damping of the melatonin rhythm in the chick pineal gland occurs at the posttranscriptional level and that a major role of the clock is to regulate pinealocytes' sensitivity to neuronal input from the brain. PMID:26446873

  3. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (pyellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability. PMID:26950872

  4. A shell-less chick embryo culturing technique, reproduced successfully under local circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate shell-less chick embryo culturing as a potential experimental model in the field of developmental anatomy. Freshly laid, fertilized chicken eggs of Egyptian Fayoumi breed were obtained from Poultry Research Institute Punjab, Rawalpindi. The fertilized chicken eggs were preincubated for 33 hours under standard conditions of 37.5 degree C and 65-75% humidity, to bring them to stage 9 (29-33 hours embryo, 7 somites) of Hamburger and Hamilton staging system. After this period, the eggs were taken out of the incubator, placed horizontally, wiped with 70% ethanol and permitted to air-dry for 10 minutes to reduce contamination from the egg surface and also to ensure that the embryo was properly positioned. The eggs contents were then transferred into the culture containers by cracking the undersides against an edge. The formation and growth of the embryonic membranes, the central nervous system - beginning from the vesicle stage, the circulatory system - including the heart, the eyes, beak, limbs, skin, feathers, wings and folding of the body were directly observed. Repeated successful culturing was attempted, tracing the developmental process of the embryo upto the 15th day of embryonic life at least after which the survivability period varied in different embryo cultures. The most advanced age reached in this project was day 19 of the embryonic life, which in researchers understanding is the latest developmental stage in shellless environment described as yet. The normal hatching time of this breed is 21-22 days. The size of these embryos was smaller as compared to the embryos of the same age that carried out their development inside their shells. (author)

  5. Comparative efficacy of different schedules of administration of medicinal plants infusion on hematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid ur Rehman,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different schedules of administration of medicinal plants infusion of aloe vera gel, barbery, garlic and ginger on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers chicks. For this purpose 240, day old broilers chick (A purchased were from a local dealer, divided in to four groups A, B, C and D and reared in separate pens for 35 days in an open sided house. These groups were divided into two vaccinated and non-vaccinated sub-groups for the different treatments. Each sub group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate. Group A was kept as control, while B, C and D were given infusion @ 10 ml/lit of water. The schedule was designated as the group B received infusion at alternate day, group C received infusion on alternate three days in a week and group D received infusion at alternate week. Relevant data was recorded throughout the experiment till the termination of experiment. Significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, PCV and total leukocyte count (TLC was observed in group C. Significant reduction was recorded in ALT and ALP in group B, while AST and serum glucose in group C and increased in serum protein was found in group B. Decreased (p<0.05 total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, and increased HDL (p<0.05 were experienced in group B. Comparing the values of risk ratio of, VLDL to HDL, Total cholesterol to HDL and LDL to HDL were found significantly lower in group B, while total cholesterol to VLDL was found significantly lower in group C. It is concluded that schedule on the basis receiving infusion three days in a week is more potent than other schedule of research study.

  6. Comparative study on immuno-modulatory effect of anticoccidial vaccines and a coccidiostat on nd vaccinated broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    105 day old broiler chicks were divided into 5 equal groups with 21 chicks in each i.e. A (non vaccinated, non medicated control), B (ND vaccinated control), C (administered with ND vaccine Lasota and Eimeria vaccine EV), D (NDV and immucox) and E (administered with NDV vaccine and coccidiostat). The comparative immunomodulatory effects of EV, immucox and Sacox were worked out on the basis of the GMT levels in Newcastle disease vaccinated birds along with the non-vaccinated and non-medicated control birds. These titres were evaluated by using HA and H1 tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, OPG, weight gain, FCR, Postmortem findings, Bursal/body weight ratio, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus and liver were also assessed. The birds that were kept as NDV vaccinated control (group B) had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds of unmedicated, unvaccinated control group (A) secured 2nd position regarding weight gain and FCR. Among the three experimental groups (C, D and E), the birds from group C (NDV + EV) had higher body weight than group D and E. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the birds of group C was also found to be better than the birds belonging to group D and E. The number of oocysts per gm of faeces showed gradual decrease and became nil on the observation of day 33 of the experiment, as the birds became solidly immune against Eimeria infection at this age. The birds belonging to group B (NDV vaccinated control) had shown the highest antibody titers while the birds of group A (unvaccinated unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titres. Among the three experimental groups (C, D and E) the birds from group C had the higher antibody titres as compared to other two groups (D and E) on day 49. (author)

  7. Ameliorative effect of mycofix plus 3.0 in reducing intensity of Eimeria tenella infection during aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Shareef; D. M. Taher

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and sixty male broiler chicks were fed at one day of age aflatoxin (AF) at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg alone, or with groups injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts (40000) at 14 days of age. Adsorbent (Mycofix® plus 3.0) was incorporated at a rate of 0.25% in the above mentioned groups from one day of age till the end of the experiment. The study was conducted to reveal the effect of a aforementioned different diets and treatments on live body weight, feed consumption, feed conv...

  8. Superior growth performance in broiler chicks fed chelated compared to inorganic zinc in presence of elevated dietary copper

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junmei; Shirley, Robert B.; Dibner, Julia J.; Wedekind, Karen J.; Yan, Frances; Fisher, Paula; Hampton, Thomas R.; Evans, Joseph L.; Vazquez-Añon, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to compare the antagonism of elevated dietary Cu (250 mg/kg) from CuSO4 on three different Zn sources (ZnSO4 · H2O; [Zn bis(−2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid)], Zn(HMTBa)2, a chelated Zn methionine hydroxy analogue; and Zn-Methionine), as measured using multiple indices of animal performance in ROSS 308 broilers. Methods Three experiments were conducted in broiler chicks fed a semi-purified diet. All birds were fed a Zn-deficient diet (8.5 mg/kg diet...

  9. Effects of pantethine on lipogenesis and CO2 production in the isolated hepatocytes of the chick (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J C; Tanaka, K; Inayama, I; Ohtani, S

    1992-07-01

    1. Isolated hepatocytes from chicks were used to study the effects of pantethine supplementation to incubation medium on in vitro lipogenesis, CO2 production and beta-oxidation of fatty acid. 2. In vitro lipogenesis, determined by the incorporation of 1-[14C]acetate into total lipid and various lipid fractions, as depressed in concordance with the increase of pantethine concentration in the medium. 3. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with pantethine resulted in a significant decrease (P pantethine addition to the medium at a low level. PMID:1359945

  10. Screening procedure using chicks infected with the sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum in an antimalarial drug development programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnamon, Kenneth E.; Davidson, David E.; Rane, Dora S.

    1985-01-01

    Of 10 000 compounds tested for tissue schizontocidal activity in a Plasmodium gallinaceum—chick model, 157 were also tested in a definitive mouse test (DMT) and 277 in a rhesus monkey test (RMT). The results in the avian model were 78% and 55% in agreement with those of the DMT and RMT, respectively. This result is not as good as that for a tissue schizontocidal mouse screen previously reported, which showed 93% and 80% agreement with DMT and RMT, respectively. More than three-quarters of the...

  11. Radioautographic visualization and biochemical identification of O- phosphoserine- and O-phosphothreonine-containing phosphoproteins in mineralizing embryonic chick bone

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    We injected NaH2(33)PO4 into normal 14-d-old embryonic chicks and examined the long bones by both radioautography and biochemical analyses from 10 to 240 min after the injection was completed. At 30 min, determination of the radiographic grain density revealed that 33P was concentrated principally in fibroblasts, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts. With time, there was a progressive increase in the density of silver grains located over both the osteogenic cells and the regions of uncalcified (os...

  12. A freeze-fracture study on the developing satellite cells of spinal ganglia in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available A freeze-fracture analysis of the satellite cells of spinal ganglia of the chick embryo was performed in 8 successive stages of development, from the 5th incubation day to hatching. The characteristic laminar disposition of the cells were first observed on the 7th day. Tight junctions were found at the 20th incubation day. Small groups or irregular aggregates of particles, but not gap junctions, were described on the 7th and 8th days. Pinocytotic vesicles were pointed out in the different stages considered.

  13. Small intestinal histology, production parameters, and meat quality as influenced by dietary supplementation of garlic (Allium sativum) in broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha I. Qudsieh; Basheer M. Nusairat; Kamel Z. Mahmoud; ABDULLAH, Abdullah Y.

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred day-old male hatchling chicks were obtained from the female line of Lohmman grandparent stock farms and fed rations supplemented with different levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0%) of dried garlic powder. Each treatment consists of 5 pens. Feed and water were provided as ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Production parameters measured were body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio. Final body weight and feed conversion ratio were not affected (P>0.05) by garlic su...

  14. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation to Corn or Wheat Based Diets Containing Low Energy and Protein on Broiler Chick Performance

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Ergün

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in order to determine the effect of corn-soybean meal or wheat-soybean meal based diets containing low energy (DE) and low energy-low protein (DEDP) supplemented with enzyme on the performance of broiler chicks between 0 and 21 days of age. In the first experiment, three diets, namely, control, low energy (DE) and low energy-protein (DEDP) based on corn-soybean meal, were formulated. In the second experiment, control and three diets containing 40% wheat which ...

  15. Isolation of chick retina cones and study of their diversity based on oil droplet colour and nucleus position

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, R.; LÓPEZ-GALLARDO, M.; Pérez-Álvarez, M. J.; Prada, C.

    2008-01-01

    The chick retina has four morphological cone types that differ not only in shape, but also in the visual pigment in the outer segment, in the colour of the oil droplet in the inner segment and in synaptic connectivity. Neither the type of droplet nor the visual pigment has been definitively established for the four cone types. The main aim of the present work has been the isolation of entire live photoreceptors in order to study the oil droplet colour in each cone type and to quantify each ty...

  16. A STUDY ON THE SEASONAL PREVALENCE OF RAILLIETINA TETRAGONA IN DOMESTIC CHICK (GALLUS DOMESTICUS FROM WARANGAL REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achaiah.N

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Raillietina tetragona, a helminth parasite was examined in domestic chick for a period of two annual cycles to determine the effects of seasonal variation on intensity and incidence of infection. The results show that the infection was more during summer followed by rainy and winter seasons. The infection was single or in association with other helminth parasites like Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina cesticillus and Ascardia galli. The results are discussed in relation to seasonal variation. The results were analysed by student t-test (P<0.05.

  17. A transactional analysis of changes in parent and chick behaviour prior to separation of Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus): A three-term contingency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil

    2015-09-01

    The effect of the passage of time on parent-offspring behaviour of urban Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus) was studied and analysed using a three-term contingency model. A behavioural sequence was initiated by the arrival of a parental adult gull, which would lead to feeding in the chick. However, with the passage of time, and approach of the separation period, this pattern changed. Chicks' begging became more intense, and parent gulls more often withheld food. However, the chicks' begging became directed at a wider range of adults over the observation period. These activities are placed within a three-term contingency model, which may have implications for understanding some behavioural processes involved in parent-offspring separation. PMID:26003136

  18. Experimental vaccination of chicks with Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites. I. Circumsporozoite proteins are expressed by sporozoites recovered from both salivary glands and midguts of mosquitoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daher, V.R.; Krettli, A.U.

    1987-08-01

    Immunogenicity of Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites for chicks and their in vitro reactivity with normal and specific immune sera were studied. Two sporozoite populations recovered from experimentally infected Aedes fluviatilis were used: sporozoites from salivary glands and sporozoites from midgut oocysts. Populations seven to nine days old of sporozoites recovered from salivary glands were infective for all chicks until the chicks were three weeks old; however, sporozoites recovered from midguts containing oocysts infected these chicks only if isolated on days 8-9, but not on day 7 after the mosquitoes' infective blood meal. Infectivity of the sporozoites was lost after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (30 min) or X-rays (13 krad). Inactivated sporozoites from both sources proved highly immunogenic to chicks that were immunized by several intravenous or intramuscular injections. These parasites elicited a strong humoral immune response in the chicks, as measured by the circumsporozoite precipitation (CSP) reaction. The levels of the CSP antibodies were similar with sporozoites from both sources, there being no detectable differences in the percentage of reactive sporozoites or the intensity of the CSP reaction with sera containing antibodies to either sporozoites from salivary glands or sporozoites from oocysts. These results provide the first evidence that avian malaria sporozoites express the circumsporozoite protein that has been extensively characterized in mammalian malaria (rodent, simian, human sporozoites). Furthermore, we observed that the yields of sporozoites obtained from mosquito midguts, on days 8 and 9 of the P. gallinaceum infection, were at least twice as great as those obtained by salivary gland dissection, even 20 days after a blood meal.

  19. Experimental vaccination of chicks with Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites. I. Circumsporozoite proteins are expressed by sporozoites recovered from both salivary glands and midguts of mosquitoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunogenicity of Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites for chicks and their in vitro reactivity with normal and specific immune sera were studied. Two sporozoite populations recovered from experimentally infected Aedes fluviatilis were used: sporozoites from salivary glands and sporozoites from midgut oocysts. Populations seven to nine days old of sporozoites recovered from salivary glands were infective for all chicks until the chicks were three weeks old; however, sporozoites recovered from midguts containing oocysts infected these chicks only if isolated on days 8-9, but not on day 7 after the mosquitoes' infective blood meal. Infectivity of the sporozoites was lost after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (30 min) or X-rays (13 krad). Inactivated sporozoites from both sources proved highly immunogenic to chicks that were immunized by several intravenous or intramuscular injections. These parasites elicited a strong humoral immune response in the chicks, as measured by the circumsporozoite precipitation (CSP) reaction. The levels of the CSP antibodies were similar with sporozoites from both sources, there being no detectable differences in the percentage of reactive sporozoites or the intensity of the CSP reaction with sera containing antibodies to either sporozoites from salivary glands or sporozoites from oocysts. These results provide the first evidence that avian malaria sporozoites express the circumsporozoite protein that has been extensively characterized in mammalian malaria (rodent, simian, human sporozoites). Furthermore, we observed that the yields of sporozoites obtained from mosquito midguts, on days 8 and 9 of the P. gallinaceum infection, were at least twice as great as those obtained by salivary gland dissection, even 20 days after a blood meal

  20. A comparison of the uptake of [1-14C]palmitate into cell fractions of the perfused toad, chick and guinea-pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, J; Achillea, M; Harris, P

    1977-01-01

    1. The incorporation and washout of [1-14C]palmitate in the subcellular fractions of toad, chick and guinea-pig hearts has been studied at warm and cold temperatures. 2. Maximal FFA radioactivity generally occurred in the microsomal fraction. Washout of radioactivity in chick and guinea-pig hearts virtually ceased in the cold, while in the toad it was only moderately affected. 3. The microsomal esterification process was temperature dependent. It was most active in the guinea-pig and least active in the toad. PMID:318436