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Sample records for chickpea nohutta mutasyon

  1. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  2. Development of Transgenics in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food crop in much of the developing world and ranks third in production among food legumes. Chickpea production is limited worldwide by drought, insect damage from Helicoverpa armigera, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis and disease pressure from ...

  3. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.;

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  4. Flow properties of acetylated chickpea protein dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li H; Hung, Tran V

    2010-06-01

    Chickpea protein concentrate was acetylated with acetic anhydride at 5 levels. Acetylated chickpea protein (ACP) dispersions at 3 levels (6%, 45%, and 49%) were chosen for this flow property study. Effects of protein concentration, temperature, concentrations of salt addition and particularly, degree of acetylation on these properties were examined. Compared with native chickpea proteins, the ACP dispersions exhibited a strong shear thinning behavior. Within measured temperature range (15 to 55 degrees C), the apparent viscosities of native chickpea protein dispersions were temperature independent; those of ACP dispersions were thermally affected. The flow index (n), consistency coefficient (m), apparent yield stress, and apparent viscosities of ACP dispersions increased progressively up to 45% acetylation but decreased at 49% acetylation level. Conformational studies by gel filtration suggested that chickpea proteins were associated or polymerized at up to 45% acetylation but the associated subunits gradually dissociated to smaller units at higher levels (49%) of acetylation.

  5. EFFECTIVE INCENTIVES AND CHICKPEA COMPETITIVENESS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Krishna D.; Kyle, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure the impact of government intervention in product and factor markets on chickpea competitiveness in India. This is done by estimating the nominal (NPC), effective (EPC) and effective subsidy (ESC) protection coefficients for chickpea and its main competing crops -wheat and mustard. Further, the Net Economic Benefit (NEB) in the production of these three crops is estimated to indicate where comparative advantage and production efficiency in production lie. In addi...

  6. Phylogenetic diversity of Mesorhizobium in chickpea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Hyun Kim; Mayank Kaashyap; Abhishek Rathore; Roma R Das; Swathi Parupalli; Hari D Upadhyaya; S Gopalakrishnan; Pooran M Gaur; Sarvjeet Singh; Jagmeet Kaur; Mohammad Yasin; Rajeev K Varshney

    2014-06-01

    Crop domestication, in general, has reduced genetic diversity in cultivated gene pool of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as compared with wild species (C. reticulatum, C. bijugum). To explore impact of domestication on symbiosis, 10 accessions of chickpeas, including 4 accessions of C. arietinum, and 3 accessions of each of C. reticulatum and C. bijugum species, were selected and DNAs were extracted from their nodules. To distinguish chickpea symbiont, preliminary sequences analysis was attempted with 9 genes (16S rRNA, atpD, dnaJ, glnA, gyrB, nifH, nifK, nodD and recA) of which 3 genes (gyrB, nifK and nodD) were selected based on sufficient sequence diversity for further phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence diversity for 3 genes demonstrated that sequences from C. reticulatum were more diverse. Nodule occupancy by dominant symbiont also indicated that C. reticulatum (60%) could have more various symbionts than cultivated chickpea (80%). The study demonstrated that wild chickpeas (C. reticulatum) could be used for selecting more diverse symbionts in the field conditions and it implies that chickpea domestication affected symbiosis negatively in addition to reducing genetic diversity.

  7. RHEOLOGY OF CHICKPEA PROTEIN CONCENTRATE DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Ionescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea proteins are used as ingredients in comminuted sausage products and many oriental textured foods. Rheological behaviour of chickpea protein concentrate was studied using a controlled stress rheometer. The protein dispersion prepared with phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 presented non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and rheological data well fitted to the Sisko, Carreau and Cross models. The viscoelastic properties of the chickpea protein suspensions were estimated by measuring the storage and loss moduli in oscillatory frequency conditions (0.1-10 Hz at 20°C. Moreover, thermally induced gelation of the chickpea proteins (16, 24 and 36% was studied at pH 7.0 and 4.5 in the temperature range 50 to 100oC and salt concentration ranging from 0 to 1 M. Gelling behaviour was quantified by means of dynamic rheological measurements. Gels formation was preceded by the decrease of storage modulus and loss moduli, coupled with the increase of the phase angle (delta. The beginning of thermal gelation was influenced by protein concentration, pH and salt level. In all studied cases, storage modulus increased rapidly in the temperature range 70-90°C. All rheological parameters measured at 90°C were significantly higher at pH 4.5 compared to pH 7.0.

  8. Conceptual design of a chickpea harvesting header

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Golpira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the development of stripper headers is growing owing to the excessive losses of combine harvesters and costs of manually harvesting for chickpeas. The design of a new concept can enhance the mechanized process for chickpea harvesting. A modified stripper platform was designed, in which passive fingers with V-shape slots removes the pods from the anchored plant. The floating platform was accompanied by a reel to complete the harvesting header. Black-box modeling was used to redesign the functional operators of the header followed by an investigation of the system behavior. Physical models of the platform and reel were modified to determine the crucial variables of the header arrangement during field trials. The slot width was fixed at 40 mm, finger length at 40 mm, keyhole diameter at 10 mm and entrance width at 6 mm; the batted reel at peripheral diameter of 700 mm and speed at 50 rpm. A tractor-mounted experimental harvester was built to evaluate the work quality of the stripper header. The performance of the prototype was tested with respect to losses and results confirmed the efficiency of the modified stripper header for chickpea harvesting. Furthermore, the header with a 1.4 m working width produced the spot work rates of 0.42 ha h-1.

  9. Impact of Genomic Technologies on Chickpea Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The major abiotic and biotic stresses that adversely affect yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. include drought, heat, fusarium wilt, ascochyta blight and pod borer. Excellent progress has been made in developing short-duration varieties with high resistance to fusarium wilt. The early maturity helps in escaping terminal drought and heat stresses and the adaptation of chickpea to short-season environments. Ascochyta blight continues to be a major challenge to chickpea productivity in areas where chickpea is exposed to cool and wet conditions. Limited variability for pod borer resistance has been a major bottleneck in the development of pod borer resistant cultivars. The use of genomics technologies in chickpea breeding programs has been limited, since available genomic resources were not adequate and limited polymorphism was observed in the cultivated chickpea for the available molecular markers. Remarkable progress has been made in the development of genetic and genomic resources in recent years and integration of genomic technologies in chickpea breeding has now started. Marker-assisted breeding is currently being used for improving drought tolerance and combining resistance to diseases. The integration of genomic technologies is expected to improve the precision and efficiency of chickpea breeding in the development of improved cultivars with enhanced resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, better adaptation to existing and evolving agro-ecologies and traits preferred by farmers, industries and consumers.

  10. Comparative analysis of kabuli chickpea transcriptome with desi and wild chickpea provides a rich resource for development of functional markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Agarwal

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important crop legume plant with high nutritional value. The transcriptomes of desi and wild chickpea have already been sequenced. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of kabuli chickpea, C. arietinum (genotype ICCV2, having higher commercial value, using GS-FLX Roche 454 and Illumina technologies. The assemblies of both Roche 454 and Illumina datasets were optimized using various assembly programs and parameters. The final optimized hybrid assembly generated 43,389 transcripts with an average length of 1065 bp and N50 length of 1653 bp representing 46.2 Mb of kabuli chickpea transcriptome. We identified a total of 5409 simple sequence repeats (SSRs in these transcript sequences. Among these, at least 130 and 493 SSRs were polymorphic with desi (ICC4958 and wild (PI489777 chickpea, respectively. In addition, a total of 1986 and 37,954 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted in kabuli/desi and kabuli/wild genotypes, respectively. The SNP frequency was 0.043 SNP per kb for kabuli/desi and 0.821 SNP per kb for kabuli/wild, reflecting very low genetic diversity in chickpea. Further, SSRs and SNPs present in tissue-specific and transcription factor encoding transcripts have been identified. The experimental validation of a selected set of polymorphic SSRs and SNPs exhibited high intra-specific polymorphism potential between desi and kabuli chickpea, suggesting their utility in large-scale genotyping applications. The kabuli chickpea gene index assembled, and SSRs and SNPs identified in this study will serve as useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of chickpea.

  11. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm(Ea)-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  13. EFFICACY OF BIOAGENTS AGAINST CHICKPEA WILT PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ranjitha Rani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L, wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri was first reported from India in 1918. ln the recent years, the biological control has received a worldwide attention and is being integrated effectively with other pesticides. The efficacy of two species of fungal bioagents such as Trichoderma viride, Trichodermo harzianum and two sps of bacterial bioagents such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri in vitro condition using Dual Culture Technique. The highest per cent growth of inhibition of observed Trichoderma harzianum (76.66% followed by Bacillus subtilis (63.14%. The lowest growth inhibition was observed in Pseudomonas fluorescens (53.52%.

  14. Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazib, Meriem; Garzon, Raquel; Zaidi, Farid; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-06-01

    The effect of processing (germination, toasting and cooking) of chickpea beans was investigated on the resulting flours characteristics and their potential for obtaining gluten free breads. Rheological properties of dough were recorded using Mixolab(®) and breads were analyzed for their instrumental quality, nutritional and sensory properties. Chickpea based doughs showed low consistency and their rheological behavior was defined by the starch gelatinization and gelification. The bread made with cooked chickpea flour exhibited the lowest specific volume (0.58 mL/g), brightest crumb (L* = 76.20) and the softest texture, but cooking decreased the content of carbohydrates, ash and protein, although increased the protein digestibility. The highest specific volume was obtained in bread made with toasted chickpea flour, although crumb hardness was higher. Overall, processing of chickpea beans, concretely toasting and cooking led to flours that could be used for obtaining gluten free breads with the nutritional characteristics of the legumes and acceptable sensory characteristics.

  15. Global transcriptome analysis of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema ePradhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding developmental processes, especially in non-model crop plants, is extremely important in order to unravel unique mechanisms regulating development. Chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds are especially valued for their high carbohydrate and protein content. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying seed development in chickpea, deep sequencing of transcriptomes from four developmental stages was undertaken. In this study, next generation sequencing platform was utilised to sequence the transcriptome of four distinct stages of seed development in chickpea. About 1.3 million reads were generated which were assembled into 51,099 unigenes by merging the de novo and reference assemblies. Functional annotation of the unigenes was carried out using the Uniprot, COG and KEGG databases. RPKM based digital expression analysis revealed specific gene activities at different stages of development which was validated using Real time PCR analysis. More than 90% of the unigenes were found to be expressed in at least one of the four seed tissues. DEGseq was used to determine differentially expressing genes which revealed that only 6.75% of the unigenes were differentially expressed at various stages. Homology based comparison revealed 17.5% of the unigenes to be putatively seed specific. Transcription factors were predicted based on HMM profiles built using TF sequences from five legume plants and analysed for their differential expression during progression of seed development. Expression analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of important secondary metabolites suggested that chickpea seeds can serve as a good source of antioxidants. Since transcriptomes are a valuable source of molecular markers like simple sequence repeats (SSRs, about 12,000 SSRs were mined in chickpea seed transcriptome and few of them were validated. In conclusion, this study will serve as a valuable resource for improved chickpea breeding.

  16. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A. [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)], E-mail: yazici@gantep.edu.tr; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Bozkurt, Hueseyin [University of Gaziantep, Department of Food Engineering, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by {sup 60}Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 degC. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), T{sub m}(E{sub a})-T{sub stop} and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  17. Developmental expansion of the hilum in chickpea seed coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful growth of seeds is dependent on the flow of nutrients from vegetative tissues to the developing ovule. In legumes like chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), the pathway for this nutrient flow includes the pod wall surrounding the seeds, and ultimately the funiculus, which is the structure conne...

  18. Chickpea rhizobia symbiosis genes are highly conserved across multiple Mesorhizobium species

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjo, Marta; Alexandre, Ana; Rivas, Raul; Velázquez, Encarna; Young, J. Peter W.; Oliveira, Solange

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chickpea has been considered as a restrictive host for nodulation by rhizobia. However, recent studies have reported that several Mesorhizobium species may effectively nodulate chickpea. With the purpose of investigating the evolutionary relationships between these different species with the ability of nodulating the same host, we analysed 21 Portuguese chickpea rhizobial isolates. Symbiosis genes nifH and nodC were sequenced and used for phylogenetic studies. Symbiotic effectiven...

  19. GROWTH, INSTABILITY AND FORECASTING OF PIGEON PEA, CHICKPEA AND FIELD PEA PULSE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Niaz Md. Farhat; Imam, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The study tried to find out the appropriate models using latest model selection criteria that could describe the best growth pattern of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The study also tried to measure the instability, growth rates of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production and to determine the efficient time series models, to forecast the future pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. Forecasting attempts have been made to achieve the...

  20. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  1. CTDB: An Integrated Chickpea Transcriptome Database for Functional and Applied Genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Verma

    Full Text Available Chickpea is an important grain legume used as a rich source of protein in human diet. The narrow genetic diversity and limited availability of genomic resources are the major constraints in implementing breeding strategies and biotechnological interventions for genetic enhancement of chickpea. We developed an integrated Chickpea Transcriptome Database (CTDB, which provides the comprehensive web interface for visualization and easy retrieval of transcriptome data in chickpea. The database features many tools for similarity search, functional annotation (putative function, PFAM domain and gene ontology search and comparative gene expression analysis. The current release of CTDB (v2.0 hosts transcriptome datasets with high quality functional annotation from cultivated (desi and kabuli types and wild chickpea. A catalog of transcription factor families and their expression profiles in chickpea are available in the database. The gene expression data have been integrated to study the expression profiles of chickpea transcripts in major tissues/organs and various stages of flower development. The utilities, such as similarity search, ortholog identification and comparative gene expression have also been implemented in the database to facilitate comparative genomic studies among different legumes and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the CTDB represents a resource for the discovery of functional molecular markers (microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms between different chickpea types. We anticipate that integrated information content of this database will accelerate the functional and applied genomic research for improvement of chickpea. The CTDB web service is freely available at http://nipgr.res.in/ctdb.html.

  2. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    OpenAIRE

    Bozdemir, S.; Güneṣer, O.; Yılmaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%), water activity (0.1833–0.5936), hardness (3243–4056 g), L (42.01–65.79), a* (10.56–19.24), b* (30.80–42.20), free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%), pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1), total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea), antioxidant capac...

  3. Fate and effects of lindane in a chickpea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lindane on non-target organisms and the concentrations of its residues in soil and the chickpea crop were investigated over three years. Lindane had adverse effects on some elements of the ecosystem. Ants (Formicidae), spiders (Aranae) and beetles (Carabidae), to a lesser extent, were more affected than Collembola. Organic matter, buried in non-degradable open-mesh bags in the plots, was slightly more degraded in the control plots than in the sprayed plots suggesting that the soil microflora and microfauna had been inhibited by the lindane. However, it was shown by chemical analyses that lindane was degraded in both soils and plants to one tenth of the original concentrations after application in 2 months and 1 month, respectively. Some concentrations (0.2-1.2 mg kg-1) of lindane were found in the harvested grain of the chickpea plants. (author). 1 ref., 6 tabs

  4. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  5. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  6. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT INORGANIC MOLECULES ON WILT PATHOGEN OF CHICKPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ranjitha Rani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is one of the most important legumes grown in Asia. Though the area under this crop is more, the average yield per hectare is low because of several biotic and abiotic factors. Among them, the wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri is most destructive seed and soil borne disease. (Haware et al., 1986 which threatens successful cultivation of chickpea and causes severe losses in chickpea growing areas. (Grewal et al.,1974b and Singh et al.,1977. Different insecticides and herbicides were tried under in vitro, the insecticides Emamectin benzoate 5% SG, Imidachloprid 75% WP, Quinalphos 25% EC, Entrust 80% WP were used in three different concentrations. Among these highest per cent growth of inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri was observed in Imidacloprid 0.3g (50.92% followed by Emamectin benzoate 0.05 mg (35.55%. The herbicides viz., Pendimethalin 30%EC, Imazathaphyr 10% SL, 2,4-D sodium salt 80%WP, Metsulfuron methyl 20% WG were used in three different concentrations, highest per cent growth of inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri was observed in Pendimethalin 0.5ml (73.33%, followed by Pendimethalin 0.4ml (65.55%.

  7. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  8. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  9. Nutritional value of raw and extruded chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) for growing chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenes, A.; Viveros, A.; Centeno, C.; Arija, I.; Marzo, F.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1) of raw and extruded chickpeas on performance, digestive organ sizes, and protein and fat digestibilities were studied in one experiment with growing broiler chickens (0 to 21 days of age). Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of chickpea with or without extrusion. A corn-soybean based diet was used as a positive control. Increasing chickpea content in the diet did not affect weight gain, feed consumption and feed to gain ratio. Relative pancreas and liver weights, and relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum and ceca were significantly (P<0.05) increased in response to increasing chickpea concentration in the diet. The inclusion of graded concentrations of chickpea increased (P<0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and apparent excreta digestibility (AED) of crude fat (CF) only in the case of the intermediate level of chickpea used (200 g kg-1). Extrusion improved weight gain and lowered relative pancreas weight (P< 0.05) respect to birds fed raw chickpea-based diets. AID of CP and AED of CF were improved (P<0.001) by extrusion. We concluded that the inclusion of up to 300 g kg-1 chickpea in chicken diets did not affect performance, and caused a negative effect on the relative weight of some digestive organs. (Author) 45 refs.

  10. Bioavailability of iron from a traditional Tunisian meal with chickpeas fed to healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M; Doghri, T; Tritar, B

    1992-01-01

    The influence of a diet of couscous with chickpeas, a traditional Tunisian meal, or one providing iron as ferrous sulfate, on the utilization of 59Fe was evaluated in studies with rats. The iron content of the couscous and chickpea preparation was 30 mg/kg dry weight. There was no difference in the relative absorption of iron from ferrous sulfate or couscous with chickpeas, suggesting that iron from this preparation may be a good dietary source of nonheme iron for rats. Couscous and chickpeas consumption in Tunisia are estimated at 13.3 and 3.2 kg per capita/year, respectively. Our results in rats indicate that these foods could contribute a large proportion of an individual's iron requirement. We conclude that the plant foods, especially the chickpeas, can be excellent sources of dietary-available iron. PMID:1530281

  11. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flour and plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits.

  12. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control. PMID:25190845

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT BEHAVIOR OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) STARCH IN GLICLAZIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Yee, Phung; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, there are number of researchers carrying out their research on the excipients derived from polysaccharides and some of these researches show that natural excipients are comparable and can serve as an alternative to the synthetic excipients. Hence, the objectives of this research are to characterize the naturally sourced chickpea starch powder and to study the pharmaceutical excipient behavior of chickpea starch in gliclazide immediate release (IR) tablets. In this research, the binding properties of chickpea starch were compared to that of povidone, whereas the disintegrant properties of chickpea starch were compared to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Flow property of chickpea starch was assessed with the measurement of bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose. Calibration curve for gliclazide in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was developed. Gliclazide IR tablets were then produced with direct compression method. Physicochemical characteristics of the tablets, including thickness, tablet weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and friability were evaluated. Then, in vitro dissolution studies were performed by following United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method. The dissolution results were analyzed and compared with t30, t50, dissolution efficiency (DE). Lastly, drug-excipient compatibility studies, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis were carried out. Fair flow property was observed in the chickpea starch powder. Furthermore, the tablets produced passed all the tests in physicochemical characteristics evaluation except hardness and disintegration test. Additionally, in vitro dissolution studies show that chickpea starch acted as a disintegrant instead of a binder in gliclazide IR tablets and its disintegrant properties were comparable to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT BEHAVIOR OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) STARCH IN GLICLAZIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Yee, Phung; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, there are number of researchers carrying out their research on the excipients derived from polysaccharides and some of these researches show that natural excipients are comparable and can serve as an alternative to the synthetic excipients. Hence, the objectives of this research are to characterize the naturally sourced chickpea starch powder and to study the pharmaceutical excipient behavior of chickpea starch in gliclazide immediate release (IR) tablets. In this research, the binding properties of chickpea starch were compared to that of povidone, whereas the disintegrant properties of chickpea starch were compared to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Flow property of chickpea starch was assessed with the measurement of bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose. Calibration curve for gliclazide in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was developed. Gliclazide IR tablets were then produced with direct compression method. Physicochemical characteristics of the tablets, including thickness, tablet weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and friability were evaluated. Then, in vitro dissolution studies were performed by following United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method. The dissolution results were analyzed and compared with t30, t50, dissolution efficiency (DE). Lastly, drug-excipient compatibility studies, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis were carried out. Fair flow property was observed in the chickpea starch powder. Furthermore, the tablets produced passed all the tests in physicochemical characteristics evaluation except hardness and disintegration test. Additionally, in vitro dissolution studies show that chickpea starch acted as a disintegrant instead of a binder in gliclazide IR tablets and its disintegrant properties were comparable to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose

  15. Development of an early maturing chickpea variety, BINASOLA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea has higher yield potential, more important nutrients and diversified use than all other pulse crops in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, farmers are not very interested in growing this crop because the varieties have a long maturity period, small seed size and poor seed yielding. For this reason huge amounts of chickpea seeds are imported every year in exchange for valuable foreign currency. A mutation-breeding program was undertaken at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) in 1989 to develop an early maturing, large seeded and high yielding variety of chickpea. Seeds of the two exotic lines G-97 (now Binasola-2) and G-319 were treated with gamma-rays, sodium azide and a combination of the two mutagens. The following doses of gamma rays: 0, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy, concentrations of sodium azide: 0.4 mM, and combined doses: 200 Gy+0.4 mM, 300 Gy+0.4 mM, 400 Gy+0.4 mM and 500 Gy+0.4 mM were used. In the first year, the treated seeds were grown dose-wise and raised as M1 generation during 1989. M2 seeds were harvested from 4,542 individual M1 plants. These were grown in plant- progeny- rows in M2 generation. Eighty-seven individual M2 plants were selected, from which 16 M4 lines were further selected and put into preliminary observation trials in M4. Among them, one elite mutant L-84, which was derived from a single plant in the population of the 200 Gy gamma-ray treated G-97 was tested in M5, M6 and M7 along with other mutants and its parent. Finally the mutant was evaluated in advanced, zonal yield trials and farmers field trials in the following generations from 1995-2001 along with two selected lines and three released varieties (Hyprosola, Binasola-2 and Barisola-3). All the selected lines were grown at different agro-ecological zones in Bangladesh to observe the yield and other potentiality. Mutant performance was evaluated under two management practices i.e., Research management and Farmers' management. In the research management practices, NPK

  16. Inhibition of chickpea seedling copper amine oxidases by tetraethylenepentamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Talaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper amine oxidases are important enzymes, which contribute to the regulation of mono- and polyamine levels. Each monomer contains one Cu(II ion and 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (TPQ as cofactors. They catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to aldehydes with a ping-pong mechanism consisting of a transamination. The mechanism is followed by the transfer of two electrons to molecular oxygen which is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibitors are important tools in the study of catalytic properties of copper amine oxidases and they also have a wide application in physiological research. In this study, purification of the chickpea seedling amine oxidase, was done via salting out by ammonium sulfate and dialysis, followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. By using the Lineweaver - Burk plot, the Km and Vm of the enzyme were found to be 3.3 mM and 0.95 mmol/min/mg, respectively. In this study, the interaction of chickpea diamino oxidase with tetraethylene- pentamine was studied. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that tetraethylenepentamine (with Ki=0.1 mM inhibits the enzyme by linear mixed inhibitory effect.

  17. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB 25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response.

  18. An Update on Genetic Resistance of Chickpea to Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. is an important and widespread disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. worldwide. The disease is particularly severe under cool and humid weather conditions. Breeding for host resistance is an efficient means to combat this disease. In this paper, attempts have been made to summarize the progress made in identifying resistance sources, genetics and breeding for resistance, and genetic variation among the pathogen population. The search for resistance to AB in chickpea germplasm, breeding lines and land races using various screening methods has been updated. Importance of the genotype × environment (GE interaction in elucidating the aggressiveness among isolates from different locations and the identification of pathotypes and stable sources of resistance have also been discussed. Current and modern breeding programs for AB resistance based on crossing resistant/multiple resistant and high-yielding cultivars, stability of the breeding lines through multi-location testing and molecular marker-assisted selection method have been discussed. Gene pyramiding and the use of resistant genes present in wild relatives can be useful methods in the future. Identification of additional sources of resistance genes, good characterization of the host–pathogen system, and identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes are suggested as the key areas for future study.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with -amylase inhibitor gene for insect resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ignacimuthu; S Prakash

    2006-09-01

    Chickpea is the world’s third most important pulse crop and India produces 75% of the world’s supply. Chickpea seeds are attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis which cause extensive damage. The -amylase inhibitor gene isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was introduced into chickpea cultivar K850 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 288 kanamycin resistant plants were regenerated. Only 0.3% of these were true transformants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of 4.9 kb -amylase inhibitor gene in the transformed plants. Western blot confirmed the presence of -amylase inhibitor protein. The results of bioassay study revealed a significant reduction in the survival rate of bruchid weevil C. maculatus reared on transgenic chickpea seeds. All the transgenic plants exhibited a segregation ratio of 3:1.

  20. Allelic Variation within Single Podded Gene Characterized by STMS Marker in Chickpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ali; M.A. Haq; N. Iqbal; A. Hameed; T.M. Shah; B.M. Atta

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume crop throughout the world especially in developing countries. However the average yield worldwide is considered to be lower than its potential yield (Singh et al.,1994).

  1. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  2. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Susan M Tosh; Farnworth, Edward R; Yolanda Brummer; Duncan, Alison M; Wright, Amanda J; Boye, Joyce I; Michèle Marcotte; Marzouk Benali

    2013-01-01

    Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because ...

  3. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected ...

  4. Plant growth-promoting traits of Pseudomonas geniculata isolated from chickpea nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Prakash, Bandikinda; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    A bacterium, isolated from nodules of chickpea grown in alluvial soils of Haryana state of India, designated as IC-76 was characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated under greenhouse, on-station and on-farm field conditions for PGP activity in chickpea. The isolate IC-76 produced indole acetic acid, siderophore, hydrocyanic acid, cellulase, protease, and β-1,3-glucanase. When the bacterium was evaluated individually for their PGP potential in the g...

  5. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p plantain and chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p plantain and chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits. PMID:23572843

  6. Hydration kinetics and physical properties of split chickpea as affected by soaking temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed M A; Khodaei, Diako

    2015-12-01

    In this study, some physical properties (principal dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, area, density and electrical conductivity) of split chickpea were measured as function of soaking time (up to 360 min) and temperature (25-65 °C). Initially, the water absorption rate was high and then it showed a progressive decrease at all temperatures, whereas solid loss exhibited a power function of temperature (P chickpea soaking. No significant difference (P chickpea at temperature of 25 °C. As temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C, the K1 value decreased from 0.04620 to 0.00945 g h(-1), whereas the K2 value increased from 0.08597 to 0.11320 g(-1). Plot for K1 exhibited a slope changes around 45 °C corresponding to gelatinization temperature of split chickpeas. The effect of temperature and time on physical properties of split chickpea during soaking was monitored by regression equations. It was concluded that physical properties of split chickpea affected by its water absorption especially at higher temperatures.

  7. Effect of chickpea aqueous extracts, organic extracts, and protein concentrates on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; del Mar Yust, María; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Millán, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Pulses should be part of a healthy diet, and it is also becoming clear that they have health-promoting effects. Nevertheless, most studies on the bioactive or health-promoting properties of pulses have been carried out using soybeans. We have studied cell growth-regulating properties, which may be responsible for anti-cancer properties, in chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds are a staple in the traditional diet of many Mediterranean, Asian, and South and Central American countries. In addition, chickpea seeds have industrial applications since they can be used for the preparation of protein concentrates and isolates. The cell lines Caco-2 (epithelial intestinal) and J774 (macrophages) have been exposed to chickpea seed extracts and protein preparations in order to screen the different chickpea fractions for effects on cell growth. Both cell growth-promoting and cell growth-inhibiting effects were found. Most interestingly, a fraction soluble in ethanol and acetone specifically and almost completely inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells exhibiting a cancerous phenotype. It is concluded that chickpea seeds are a source of bioactive components and deserve further study for their possible anti-cancer effect.

  8. New Lines of Chickpea Against Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Arvayo-Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mexico, 70 and 20% of chickpea is produced in Sinaloa and Sonora, respectively. In Sonora wilting by Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris (FOC causes losses of up to 60%, while in other parts of the world ranged from 12-15% annually. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of new lines of chickpea obtained through breeding programs against FOC wilt. Approach: In order to evaluate the resistance of new chickpea lines: Hoga-012, Hoga-490-2 and Hoga-508, including the two most important commercial cultivars in Mexico: Blanco Sinaloa-92 and Costa-2004 and as control two cultivars: JG-62 (susceptible and WR-315 (resistant, a pathogen city test was performed with races 0 and 5 of FOC. Plants were evaluated based on leaf and root damage during 50 days, using a hedonic scale of five levels (0-4. Results: New chickpea lines as well as commercial cultivars were susceptible to races 0 and 5 of FOC. Changes (PConclusion: New lines of chickpea and commercial cultivars did not show resistance to FOC races isolated in chickpea fields of Sonora. Thus, it should be continued in the search for resistant genotypes through breeding programs to assist in controlling the disease.

  9. Suppression of seed rot and preemergence of chickpea by seed treatments with fluorescent pseudomonads in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A

    2006-01-01

    Species of Pythium isolated from rotted chickpea seeds and damped-off seedlings and chickpea soils at experimental field of Agriculture faculty of Tehran University in Karaj area that caused seed rot and preemergence damping-off of chickpea were Pyhium ultimum var. ultimum. One of the most important of soilborne fungal pathogens of the chickpea in Iran is seed rot and preemergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum Trow. Consequently, growers can expect as much as > 80% reduction in stand and yield if measures are not taken to control Pythium. Currently, most commercial seeds of chickpea are treated with pesticides. Fluorescent pseudomonads applied to seed are known to reduce soilborne diseases of chickpea caused by Pythium spp. In this study rotted chickpea seeds and diseased seedlings and soil samples were collected from experimental field in Karaj. Soils and roots used as sources of bacteria were collected from field. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated by plating samples on S1 and King's Medium B (KMB). Bacteria were preserved in 0.1 M MgSO4 for long-term storage; and NAG (containing 2% glucose) slants and plates at 4 degrees C short-term storage. Of 20 fluorescent pseudomonads isolated on S1 medium, 2 isolates selected for next tests. All strains significantly increased emergence as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial; isolate Pf-4 consistently provided the best protection against Pythium. Seedling emergence from all bacteria seed treatments was statistically lower than the chemical treatments. All strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seed treatment with metalaxyl were statistically better than captan in sterilized soil. In nonsterilized soil collected from the field artificially infested with P. ultimum, all strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seedling emergence from seed treatment

  10. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdemir, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%, water activity (0.1833–0.5936, hardness (3243–4056 g, L (42.01–65.79, a* (10.56–19.24, b* (30.80–42.20, free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%, pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1, total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea, antioxidant capacity (6.53–31.61 mmol Trolox·100g−1 chickpea, absorbed fat (13.46–13.92%, and caloric value (453.17–488.49 kcal·100g−1 chickpea. Hexanal, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, nonanal, benzaldehyde, p-cymene, and carvacrol were the major volatile compounds determined. The color, hardness, moisture content, water activity, free fatty acids, and peroxide value of the products were monitored for three months at room temperature. Consumer acceptance tests were conducted to reveal the changes which occurred during the storage period. All the products developed and evaluated in this study show potential in the market and industry, with the plain type being the preferred product.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron el desarrollo de nuevos aperitivos elaborados mediante fritura de garbanzos enteros y la evaluación de las propiedades y estabilidad de los nuevos productos durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados mas destacados fueron: contenido de humedad (3,48–9,19%, actividad de agua (0,1833–0,5936, dureza (3243–4056 g, L (42,01 a 65,79, a* (10.56–19,24, b* (30,80–42,20, ácidos grasos libres (0,2195–0,3467%, índice de peróxido (3,167 a 5,25 meq O2·kg −1, fenoles total (22,34–37,34 mgGA·100g−1 garbanzo, capacidad antioxidante (6.53– 31.61 mmol Trolox·100 g−1 garbanzos, grasa absorbida (13,46–13,92%, y el valor calórico (453,17 a 488,49 kcal·100 g−1 de garbanzos. Además, los componentes volátiles más importantes

  11. Identification of resistant sources in chickpea against fusarium wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.Fr. f. sp. ciceris is a devastating disease of chickpea in Pakistan. In the present study 321 genotypes from different sources were evaluated under controlled condition to identify genetic sources of resistance against this disease at seedling and reproductive stage. Disease reaction at two stages revealed considerable variation among the genotypes. At seedling stage disease incidence varied from 0 to 29.3% whereas at reproductive stage ranged from 0 to 57%. At seedling stage 173 genotypes were resistant, 54 were tolerant and 94 were susceptible, whereas at reproductive stage, 102 genotypes were resistant, 36 were tolerant and 183 were susceptible. Eighty two genotypes showed steady resistance at both stages. These genotypes may be exploited for the development of resistant cultivars against wilt. (author

  12. A major gene for time of flowering in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; van Rheenen, H A

    2000-01-01

    A major gene for the number of days from sowing to appearance of the first flower (time of flowering) was identified in a cross between an extrashort duration chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) variety, ICCV 2, and a medium duration variety, JG 62. The F2 population was advanced through the single-seed-descent method to develop random recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Time of flowering was recorded for the parents and 66 F(6) RILs from this cross that were grown in a Vertisol field in the post-rainy season of 1996-1997. Similarly the parents, F(1) and F(10) RILs were evaluated in 1997-1998. The F(1) flowered along with JG 62. The time of flowering for the two sets of RILs showed bimodal distributions with nearly equal peaks. One peak corresponded with ICCV 2 and the other with JG 62. This suggests that a single gene controls the difference for the time of flowering between ICCV 2 and JG 62 and the allele carried by the latter parent is dominant. To our knowledge no gene has been identified for the time of flowering in chickpea. Therefore the allele carried by JG 62 is designated as Efl-1 and that by ICCV 2 as efl-1. The proposed genotype for ICCV 2 is efl-1 efl-1 and for JG 62 is Efl-1 Efl-1. The genotype efl-1 efl-1 reduces the time of flowering at ICRISAT by nearly 3 weeks. The significance of this gene for breeding for early maturity and genome mapping has been discussed.

  13. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  14. Production of fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by fermentation of chickpeas, with the evaluation of the anticoagulant and antioxidant properties of chickpeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yewei; Lin, Xing; Kong, Peng; Liu, Huizhou

    2011-04-27

    To develop safe and cheap thrombolytic agents, a fibrinolytic enzyme productive strain of LSSE-62 was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. This strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis showed that this fibrinolytic enzyme was identical to subtilisin DJ-4. Chickpeas were used as the substrate for fibrinolytic enzyme production from B. amyloliquefaciens in solid-state fermentation. Under the optimized conditions (34 °C and 50% initial moisture content), the fibrinolytic activity of fermented chickpeas reached 39.28 fibrin degradation units (FU)/g. Additionally, the fermented chickpeas showed anticoagulant activity, and the purified anticoagulant component showed higher anticoagulant activity than heparin sodium. After fermentation, the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents increased by 222 and 71%, respectively, and then the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This study provided a novel method for the preparation of multifunctional food of chickpeas or raw materials for the preparation of functional food additives and potential drugs.

  15. Nitrogen fixation by U.S. and Middle Eastern chickpeas with commercial and wild Middle Eastern inocula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) are native to the Middle East (ME), and must be inoculated with symbiotic bacteria in order to fix nitrogen (N) in North American soils. Commercial inocula for chickpea contain several strains of the known N-fixing symbiont Mesorhizobium ciceri. It is not known whethe...

  16. Multiple post-domestication origins of kabuli chickpea through allelic variation in a diversification-associated transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietieum) is a widely cultivated food legume and one of the Neolitic founder crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. Cultivated chickpea is classified into two types, a ‘desi’ type with smaller and darker seed coats, and a light-colored large-seeded ‘kabuli’ type, with the two t...

  17. EVALUATION OF WHEAT-CHICKPEA INTERCROPS AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN AND WEED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdulahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and chickpea are most important crops in dryland farming areas of Iran. Weeds have major impact on chickpea grain yield. This experiment was carried out to increase land use efficiency and weed suppression through intercropping in dryland agricultural research station-Sararood, Kermanshah, Iran during 2008-10. The experimental design layout was factorial split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots contained factorial plots of N fertilization with 3 levels (N1: no fertilization, N2: 60 kg.ha-1 urea for wheat and 20 kg.ha-1 for chickpea and N3: Nitragin as a biofertilizer + 30 kg.ha-1 urea for wheat and chickpea no urea; and weed conditions with 2 levels (weed infested and weed free. The third factor as sub-plots arranged in main plots was cropping patterns with 10 levels (1: wheat Sole Crop (wh.SC, 2: chickpea Sole Crop (ch.SC, 3: wh./ch. Mixed Intercropping (wh./ch.MIC in 1:1 ratio, 4: wh./ch. MIC in 2:1 ratio, Row Intercropping (RIC 1row wh.:1row ch., 6: Strip Intercropping (SIC 5wh.1ch.5wh.2ch, 7: SIC 7wh.:2ch., 8: SIC 2wh.:7ch., 9: SIC 9wh.:4ch. and 10: SIC 4wh.:9ch.. Weed and nitrogen factors didn’t have significant effect on wheat yield and patterns number 5, 8 and 10 produced highest wheat grain yield respectively. Chickpea yield was significantly reduced by wheat when intercropped, but high Land Equivalent Ratio (LER derived. Effect of weeds on chickpea Grain Yield (GY was significant and GY in weed infested was nearly half of GY in weed free condition. LER in weed infested condition in both years was higher than weed free condition. Weed dry matter in five intercropping patterns clearly decreased as compare to chickpea sole crop. It is concluded that intercropping can be used as a method to decrease the inputs of wheat and chickpea crops, especially for nitrogen fertilizing and weed control.

  18. An advanced draft genome assembly of a desi type chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Sabiha; Nawaz, Kashif; Roy, Riti; Pole, Anil K; Venkata Suresh, B; Misra, Gopal; Jain, Mukesh; Yadav, Gitanjali; Parida, Swarup K; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse legume crop. We previously reported a draft genome assembly of the desi chickpea cultivar ICC 4958. Here we report an advanced version of the ICC 4958 genome assembly (version 2.0) generated using additional sequence data and an improved genetic map. This resulted in 2.7-fold increase in the length of the pseudomolecules and substantial reduction of sequence gaps. The genome assembly covered more than 94% of the estimated gene space and predicted the presence of 30,257 protein-coding genes including 2230 and 133 genes encoding potential transcription factors (TF) and resistance gene homologs, respectively. Gene expression analysis identified several TF and chickpea-specific genes with tissue-specific expression and displayed functional diversification of the paralogous genes. Pairwise comparison of pseudomolecules in the desi (ICC 4958) and the earlier reported kabuli (CDC Frontier) chickpea assemblies showed an extensive local collinearity with incongruity in the placement of large sequence blocks along the linkage groups, apparently due to use of different genetic maps. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based mining of intra-specific polymorphism identified more than four thousand SNPs differentiating a desi group and a kabuli group of chickpea genotypes. PMID:26259924

  19. Gamma rays induced bold seeded high yielding mutant in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pulses especially in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), genetic variability has been exhausted due to natural selection and hence conventional breeding methods are not very fruitful. Mutation techniques are the best methods to enlarge the genetically conditioned variability of a species within a short time and have played a significant role in the development of many crop varieties. Investigations on the effects of ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens in induction of macro-mutations have received much attention owing to their utmost importance in plant breeding. The present study reports a bold seeded mutant in chickpea, the most dominating pulse crop on the Indian subcontinent. Fresh seeds of chickpea variety 'Pusa-212' were procured from IARI, New Delhi and treated with different doses/concentrations of gamma rays (60Co source at NBRI, Lucknow) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), individually as well as in combination, to raise the M1 generation. Seeds of M1 plants were sown to raise M2 plant progenies. A bold seeded mutant was isolated from 400 Gy gamma ray treatments. The mutant was confirmed as true bred, all the mutant seeds gave rise to morphologically similar plants in M3, which were quite distinct from the control. The bold seeded mutant showed 'gigas' characteristics and vigorous growth. The plant remained initially straight but later on attained a trailing habit due to heavy secondary branching. The leaves, petioles, flowers, pods and seeds were almost double that of the parent variety, in size. The flowering occurred 10 days later than the parent and maturity was also delayed accordingly. Observations were recorded on various quantitative traits. Plant height and number of primary branches showed a significant improvement over the parent. It is interesting to note that the number of pods and number of seeds per pod significantly decreased. However, the hundred seed weight (31.73±0.59g) in the mutant plants was more than double in the parent variety

  20. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0-10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27144024

  2. Expansion in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed during soaking and cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Sedat; Turhan, Mahir; Köksel, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    The linear and volumetric expansion of chickpea seeds during water absorption at 20, 30, 50, 70, 85 and 100°C was studied. Length, width and thickness of chickpea seeds linearly increased with the increase in moisture content at all temperatures studied, where the greatest increase was found in length. Two different mathematical approaches were used for the determination of the expansion coefficients. The plots of the both linear and volumetric expansion coefficients versus temperature exhibited two linear lines, the first one was through 20, 30 and 50ºC and the second one was trough 70, 85 and 100ºC. The crossing point (58ºC) of these lines was very close to the gelatinisation temperature (60ºC) of chickpea starch.

  3. Hydrolysis of chickpea proteins with Flavourzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose gels improves functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Yust, María; del Carmen Millán-Linares, María; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2013-06-01

    Chickpea protein isolate was hydrolyzed using Flavourzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose beads by multipoint covalent attachment. This Flavourzyme-glyoxyl derivative, produced after 1 h of immobilization at 4 °C followed by 5.5 h at room temperature, presented approximately 51% of the endoprotease activity of Flavourzyme but was around 700 times more stable than soluble enzyme. Chickpea protein hydrolysates ranging from 1% to 10% degree of hydrolysis were produced and their chemical composition was very close to that of protein isolate used as starting material. Solubility, oil absorption, emulsifying activity and stability, and foaming capacity and stability were determined. All protein hydrolysates showed higher solubility than intact proteins, especially at pHs near isoelectric point of native chickpea proteins. Moreover, all hydrolysates had better functional properties, except emulsifying activity, than the original protein isolate.

  4. UHT PROCESSED CHICKPEA LIQUID MEAL: A NOVEL CONCEPT OF A CONVENIENT LIQUID FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Hosken

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea liquid meal (CLM is a new concept of a convenient liquid food. It is a complex colloidal system, which is composed of dehulled chickpea flour as the major ingredient and with the addition of other ingredients (protein, fat, sucrose, dried glucose syrup, maltodextrin, vitamins, minerals, etc. The product is expected to have a balanced nutritional composition; acceptable flavor, taste and thickness; homogenous and smooth texture; stable colloid; and can be stored for a long of period (commercially sterile. This paper presents an overview of the literature information on the production, nutritional quality and functional properties of the chickpea, and the technology of liquid meal, which is applicable to CLM. It also outlines possible problems that influence consumer acceptability of the product. Some preliminary results of our study are also reported.

  5. Influence of thermal processing on IgE reactivity to lentil and chickpea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamón, Eva; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodriguez, Julia; Burbano, Carmen

    2009-11-01

    In the last years, legume proteins are gaining importance as food ingredients because of their nutraceutical properties. However, legumes are also considered relevant in the development of food allergies through ingestion. Peanuts and soybeans are important food allergens in Western countries, while lentil and chickpea allergy are more relevant in the Mediterranean area. Information about the effects of thermal-processing procedures at various temperatures and conditions is scarce; therefore, the effect of these procedures on legume allergenic properties is not defined so far. The SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting patterns of chickpeas and lentils were analyzed before and after boiling (up to 60 min) and autoclaving (1.2 and 2.6 atm, up to 30 min). The results indicated that some of these treatments reduce IgE binding to lentil and chickpea, the most important being harsh autoclaving. However, several extremely resistant immunoreactive proteins still remained in these legumes even after this extreme treatment.

  6. Evaluation of advanced chickpea genotypes for resistance to pod borer, helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative varietal resistance in thirteen advanced desi chickpea genotypes against chickpea pod borer (CPB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2007-2008. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of CPB in different genotypes ranged from 0.33 to 4.33 per meter row from first week of March to third week of April, where the pod damage varied from 7.4 to 14.2%. The results manifest that among the tested genotypes, B 8/02, showed the maximum resistant to CPB along with B 8/03, CH 4/02 and CH 9/02 with highest resistant to CPB, less larval population per plant, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield with increase of 256.8 to 285.7% with respect to check. Therefore, conclude that these genotypes can be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties. (author)

  7. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT DISEASE [MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA (TASSI. GOID] OF CHICKPEA THROUGH BOTANICALS AND OIL CAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. KANSARA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of root rot disease in chickpea has become a major constraint for cultivation of chickpea. Consideringthe fact, below investigation was carried out for this pathological problem. The efficacy of various botanicals andoil cakes were evaluated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi. Goid causing dry root rot of chickpea. Thephyto extracts of thirteen plant species were evaluated in vitro by poisoned food technique against M. phaseolina.The extract of garlic cloves (Allium sativum L. was proved excellent with maximum inhibiting (73 % mycelialgrowth and sclerotial formation followed by rhizome extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa L (63.98 %. The fourorganic extracts were tested against M. phaseolina by poisoned food technique in vitro. Significantly least growthof mycelium and maximum mycelium inhibition was recorded in extracts of neem cake (59.40 % followed byfarm yard manure (42.56 %. Next best in order of merit were castor cake and mustard cake.

  8. Potential impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saurav; Chakraborty, Debashis; Sehgal, Vinay K; Pal, Madan

    2015-11-15

    Experiments were conducted in open-top chambers to assess the effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment (E-CO2) on the quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crop. Physical attributes of the grains was not affected, but the hydration and swelling capacities of the flour increased. Increase in carbohydrates and reduction in protein made the grains more carbonaceous (higher C:N) under E-CO2. Among other mineral nutrients, K, Ca and Zn concentrations decreased, while P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and B concentrations did not change. The pH, bulk density and cooking time of chickpea flour remained unaffected, although the water absorption capacity of flour increased and oil absorption reduced. Results suggest that E-CO2 could affect the grain quality adversely and nutritional imbalance in grains of chickpea might occur.

  9. The Effect of Salinity Stress on Germination of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Land Race of Tigray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major stresses especially in arid and semiarid regions, which severely limit crop production. It impairs seed germination, reduces nodule formation, retards plant development and reduce crop yield. Salinity affects germination and physiology of crops due to osmotic potential which prevents water up take and by toxic effect of ions on embryo viability. This study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. in the laboratory of Mekelle University by using NaCl and Na2So4 to simulate salinity and tape water as control group. The seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum landraces were collected from Hagereselam and Samre. Then 10 seeds of chickpea from both sites were treated in each salt concentration in 3 replications designed by using complete random block design. The result of the experiment showed that the concentrations of salt have a negative impact on the germination and growth of chickpea, as a result when the concentration of salt increases, the germination, water uptake and length of root and shoot decreases. Furthermore we found that different salinity simulated having different impacts on germination. Our result clearly indicated that NaCl highly affects germination and growth of chickpea than Na2SO4. Meanwhile, the effect of salinity for both land race have significance difference in parameters of water up take, % of germination, length of root and shoot (t-test n = 25 p<0.05. Our result further indicated that there is a difference in sanity tolerance level between the 2 land races of chickpea.

  10. Saponins from Soy and Chickpea: Stability during Beadmaking and in Vitro Bioaccessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Serventi, Luca; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; RIEDL, KEN M.; Kerem, Zohar; Berhow, Mark A.; Vodovotz, Yael; Schwartz, Steven J.; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy–chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy–chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was greater than for type E and DDMP saponins. Simulated digestion of breads resulted in greater relative losses of type A and DDMP saponins than type B and E saponins due in part to conversion of DDMP. Bioa...

  11. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ritika B.; Yadav, Baljeet S.; Dhull, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144....

  12. EFFECT OF CHICKPEA AND PEA FLOUR ADDITION ON THE QUALITATIVE AND SENSORY PARAMETERS OF BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kuchtová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine chemical composition and functional properties of legume flours (chickpea, pea and fine wheat flour. The effect of chickpea and pea flour incorporation at different levels (10, 20, 30 % w/w on the qualitative parameters and sensory characteristics of bakery product was also investigated. It can be concluded, that incorporation of leguminous flours led to changes of the investigated qualitative and sensory parameters, especially in samples with higher amount of leguminous flour (20 and 30 %. Results showed, that a proper alternative to standard bakery products  are products with 10 % portion of leguminous flour.doi:10.5219/185

  13. Weed species in chickpea in Southeast Anatolian Region and their distribution and densities.

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, A.; TEPE, I.; Erman, M

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify some important weeds in chickpea growing areas in Adıyaman, Diyarbakır, Mardin and Şanlıurfa provinces where chickpea is one of the most important agricultural crop in 2000. For this aim, a survey was performed in these provinces. According to survey results, 30 species belong to 3 different families in Monocotyledons and 125 species belong to 30 different in Dicotyledons, totally 155 species were identified. 91 species in Adıyaman, 123 species in...

  14. Stability Analysis of some Winter Sown Chickpea Cultivars in East Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Saim

    1998-01-01

    In this experiment, yield stabilty of 10 winter growth chickpea genotypes were investigated in Adana, Kahramanmaraş and Hatay Yayladağ. Experiments were located Çukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, Crop Science Department Experimental area in Adana, and farmers field in Kahramanmaraş and Hatay-Yayladağ. Chickpea variety that newly registered for winter crop ILC 482 (Güney Sarısı)), ILC-195, FLIP 85-14C (Menemen 92), FLIP 85-135C( Taşova 89) and promissing line FLIP 84-17C, FLIP 85-4C, F...

  15. Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-05-16

    Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals.

  16. Multiple post-domestication origins of kabuli chickpea through allelic variation in a diversification-associated transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma Penmetsa, R; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Bergmann, Emily M; Vance, Lisa; Castro, Brenna; Kassa, Mulualem T; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Farmer, Andrew D; Baek, Jong-Min; Coyne, Clarice J; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2016-09-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is among the founder crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. One of two major forms of chickpea, the so-called kabuli type, has white flowers and light-colored seed coats, properties not known to exist in the wild progenitor. The origin of the kabuli form has been enigmatic. We genotyped a collection of wild and cultivated chickpea genotypes with 538 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and examined patterns of molecular diversity relative to geographical sources and market types. In addition, we examined sequence and expression variation in candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes. A reduction in genetic diversity and extensive genetic admixture distinguish cultivated chickpea from its wild progenitor species. Among germplasm, the kabuli form is polyphyletic. We identified a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor at chickpea's B locus that conditions flower and seed colors, orthologous to Mendel's A gene of garden pea, whose loss of function is associated invariantly with the kabuli type of chickpea. From the polyphyletic distribution of the kabuli form in germplasm, an absence of nested variation within the bHLH gene and invariant association of loss of function of bHLH among the kabuli type, we conclude that the kabuli form arose multiple times during the phase of phenotypic diversification after initial domestication of cultivated chickpea. PMID:27193699

  17. Transmembrane START domain proteins: in silico identification, characterization and expression analysis under stress conditions in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, Viswanathan; Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tejkumar; Kumar, Vajinder; Jain, Pradeep K.; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bhat, Shripad R.; Srinivasan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory related transfer (StART) proteins that are involved in transport of lipid molecules, play a myriad of functions in insects, mammals and plants. These proteins consist of a modular START domain of approximately 200 amino acids which binds and transfers the lipids. In the present study we have performed a genome-wide search for all START domain proteins in chickpea. The search identified 36 chickpea genes belonging to the START domain family. Through a phylogenetic tree reconstructed with Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean START proteins, we were able to identify four transmembrane START (TM-START) proteins in chickpea. These four proteins are homologous to the highly conserved mammalian phosphatidylcholine transfer proteins. Multiple sequence alignment of all the transmembrane containing START proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean revealed that the amino acid residues to which phosphatidylcholine binds in mammals, is also conserved in all these plant species, implying an important functional role and a very similar mode of action of all these proteins across dicots and monocots. This study characterizes a few of the not so well studied transmembrane START superfamily genes that may be involved in stress signaling. Expression analysis in various tissues showed that these genes are predominantly expressed in flowers and roots of chickpea. Three of the chickpea TM-START genes showed induced expression in response to drought, salt, wound and heat stress, suggesting their role in stress response. PMID:26445326

  18. Multiple post-domestication origins of kabuli chickpea through allelic variation in a diversification-associated transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma Penmetsa, R; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Bergmann, Emily M; Vance, Lisa; Castro, Brenna; Kassa, Mulualem T; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Farmer, Andrew D; Baek, Jong-Min; Coyne, Clarice J; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2016-09-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is among the founder crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. One of two major forms of chickpea, the so-called kabuli type, has white flowers and light-colored seed coats, properties not known to exist in the wild progenitor. The origin of the kabuli form has been enigmatic. We genotyped a collection of wild and cultivated chickpea genotypes with 538 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and examined patterns of molecular diversity relative to geographical sources and market types. In addition, we examined sequence and expression variation in candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes. A reduction in genetic diversity and extensive genetic admixture distinguish cultivated chickpea from its wild progenitor species. Among germplasm, the kabuli form is polyphyletic. We identified a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor at chickpea's B locus that conditions flower and seed colors, orthologous to Mendel's A gene of garden pea, whose loss of function is associated invariantly with the kabuli type of chickpea. From the polyphyletic distribution of the kabuli form in germplasm, an absence of nested variation within the bHLH gene and invariant association of loss of function of bHLH among the kabuli type, we conclude that the kabuli form arose multiple times during the phase of phenotypic diversification after initial domestication of cultivated chickpea.

  19. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of beet western yellows virus on chickpea in Morocco.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.; Wilk, van der F.; Heuvel, van de J.F.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A luteovirus isolate infecting chickpea in Morocco was experimentally transmitted by Myzus persicae to Physalis floridana, on which it produced mild symptoms. When tested in western blots against antisera to known legume luteoviruses, this isolate reacted strongly to beet western yellows virus (BWYV

  20. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  1. The Improvement of TAEK-Sagel Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Mutant Variety in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is aimed to improve chickpea varieties that are well-adapted to chickpea growing areas, resistant to cold, suitable to machinery harvest type, exhibit high yield and high protein content, bigger seed size, resistance to antracnose and other diseases and pests, and improved quality characteristics. This chickpea breeding project was started with ILC 482, Akcin-91 and AK 71114 parental varieties and eight different gamma radiation dose rates between 50-400Gy were used. After following mutation breeding steps, location experiments started for testing yield and quality characteristics in 2004. According to the results of these experiments two outstanding mutant lines were given for registration. One of them was registrated TAEK Sagel in 2006. In this paper, the yield and quality characteristics of 'TAEK-Sagel' mutant chickpea variety are discussed. It was found that this mutant has 186 kg/da average yield with 23% seed protein content. In addition, its cooking time was shorter than the others (37 minutes). (author)

  2. Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Adawy, Tarek A

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cooking treatments (boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking) and germination on the nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas were studied. Cooking treatments and/or germination caused significant (p effective than cooking treatments in reducing trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin activity, tannins and saponins; it was more effective in reducing phytic acid, stachyose and raffinose. Cooking treatments and germination decreased the concentrations of lysine, tryptophan, total aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids. However, cooked and germinated chickpeas were still higher in lysine, isoleucine and total aromatic amino acid contents than the FAO/WHO reference. The losses in B-vitamins and minerals in chickpeas cooked by microwaving were smaller than in those cooked by boiling and autoclaving. Germination resulted in greater retention of all minerals and B-vitamins compared to cooking treatments. In vitro protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio and essential amino acid index were improved by all treatments. The chemical score and limiting amino acid of chickpeas subjected to the various treatments varied considerably, depending on the type of treatment. Based on these results, microwave cooking appears to be the best alternative for legume preparation in households and restaurants.

  3. Inhibitory effects of chickpea and Tribulus terrestris on lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Pınar; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-15

    The total saponin content and its in vitro bioaccessibilities in Tribulus terrestris and chickpea were determined by a static in vitro digestion method (COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST). Also, in vitro inhibitory effects of the chosen food samples on lipid and starch digestive enzymes were determined by evaluating the lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. The tested T. terrestris and chickpea showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 6967 ± 343 and 2885 ± 85.4 μg/ml, respectively) and α-amylase (IC50 343 ± 26.2 and 167 ± 6.12 μg/ml, respectively). The inhibitory activities of T. terrestris and chickpea against lipase were 15.3 ± 2.03 and 9.74 ± 1.09 μg/ml, respectively. The present study provides the first evidence that these food samples (T. terrestris, chickpea) are potent inhibitors of key enzymes in digestion of carbohydrates and lipids in vitro. PMID:27006227

  4. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum straw using nylon bag technique in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Straw a by-product from grain legume crops is produced in large quantities in Iran. Straw is constant component of ruminant diets on small holder farms; however, there is little information about its nutritive value. Accordingly experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP degradability of chickpea straw using nylon bags (in situ technique. Replicated samples were incubated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in three rumen canulated Ghezel rams with 50±3 kg body weight. Dry matter (DM, CP, ether extract (EE, OM, crude fiber (CF and nitrogen free extract (NFE content of chickpea straws were 92.2, 6.1, 5.5, 92.0, 34.3 and 46.2%, respectively. The soluble fraction (a of the OM and CP of chickpea straw was 17.5 and 40.8% and potential degradability (a+b of OM and CP was 56.7 and 72.0%, respectively. Effective degradability at different passage rates (2, 5 and 8% per hours for OM was 51.0 44.9 and 40.7% and for CP were 68.4, 64.3 and 61.3%, respectively. In conclusion, based on chemical composition and degradation characteristics, chickpea straw could have moderate nutritive value for ruminants.

  5. Biological control of chickpea wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in an attempt to control chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, using antagonistic properties of soil microorganisms. It also aimed at avoiding problems resulting from the use of chemical fungicides. A trichoderma sp. was isolated from the rhizosphere of a resistant chickpea variety (ICCV-2) and a bacillus sp. from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of the same variety. Both microorganisms proved to be effective in controlling the disease. In addition, trichoderma harzianum, which was obtained from Giza Research Station in Egypt, was also antagonistic to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Wilt incidence was significantly reduced when chickpea was grown in posts containing soil mixed with any of the three antagonists or when chickpea seeds were initially treated with the seed-dressing fungicide vincit at 2 ml/kg seeds. Trichoderma harzianum proved to be the best bioagent as it gave the lowest disease incidence. In the field, the two trichoderma spp. were as effective as vincit in causing reduction in the wilt incidence. At the higher concentration of 140 g/m''2, the two antagonists were effective throughout the growth period, but they were less effective at the lower concentration of 70 g/m''2 particularly at the seedling stage.(Author)

  6. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  7. Variation in the Agronomic and Morphological Traits of Iranian Chickpea Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI; Mohammad Reza JAHANSOUZ

    2005-01-01

    Landraces of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Iran have not been adequately characterized for their agronomic and morphological traits. Such characterization would be helpful in the development of improved cultivars, so in this study 362 chickpea accessions, collected from the major chickpea growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity. High coefficients of variation (CVs)were recorded in pods/branch, seeds/pod, yield/plant, seeds/plant, pods/plant and branches/plant. Using principal component (PC) analysis, the first four PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 84.10% of the variability among accessions, whereas PC5 to PC10 were less than unity. PC1 was positively related to days to first maturity, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% maturity. The characters with the greatest weight on PC2 were seeds/plant and yield/plant, whereas PC3 was mainly related to pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight, and PC4 was positively related to pods/branch and negatively to branches/plant. The germplasm was grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from clusters Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. These accessions are an important resource for the establishment of a core collection of chickpeas in the world.

  8. The chickpea, summer cropping, and a new model for pulse domestication in the ancient near east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

    2003-12-01

    The widely accepted models describing the emergence of domesticated grain crops from their wild type ancestors are mostly based upon selection (conscious or unconscious) of major features related either to seed dispersal (nonbrittle ear, indehiscent pod) or free germination (nondormant seeds, soft seed coat). Based on the breeding systems (self-pollination) and dominance relations between the allelomorphs of seed dispersal mode and seed dormancy, it was postulated that establishment of the domesticated forms and replacement of the wild ancestral populations occurred in the Near East within a relatively short time. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), however, appears as an exception among all other "founder crops" of Old World agriculture because of its ancient conversion into a summer crop. The chickpea is also exceptional because its major domestication trait appears to be vernalization insensitivity rather than pod indehiscence or free germination. Moreover, the genetic basis of vernalization response in wild chickpea (Cicer reticulatum Ladiz.) is polygenic, suggesting that a long domestication process was imperative due to the elusive phenotype of vernalization nonresponsiveness. There is also a gap in chickpea remains in the archaeological record between the Late Prepottery Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. Contrary to the common view that Levantine summer cropping was introduced relatively late (Early Bronze Age), we argue for an earlier (Neolithic) Levantine origin of summer cropping because chickpea, when grown as a common winter crop, was vulnerable to the devastating pathogen Didymella rabiei, the causal agent of Ascochyta blight. The ancient (Neolithic) conversion of chickpea into a summer crop required seasonal differentiation of agronomic operation from the early phases of the Neolithic revolution. This topic is difficult to deal with, as direct data on seasonality in prehistoric Old World field crop husbandry are practically nonexistent. Consequently

  9. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  10. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreevidya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20 °C to 40 °C, pH range of 7–11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40 but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40, hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40, indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  11. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  12. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  13. Plant water relations and photosynthetic activity in three Tunisian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes subjected to drought

    OpenAIRE

    KROUMA, Abdelmajid

    2010-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food crop grown under rainfed conditions in Mediterranean regions in which drought is a major limiting factor for production. In these areas little attention is given to legumes, and efforts to identify drought-tolerant genotypes are primarily focused on major cereal crops. In the current study a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of drought stress on plant growth, photosynthesis, and water relations in 3 Tunisian chickpea g...

  14. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, M. H.; M. Ashraf Hossain; Kashem, M. A.; Shiv Kumar; Rafii, M. Y.; M. A. Latif

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for...

  15. In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index, and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Warkentin, Tom D; Vandenberg, Bert

    2008-11-15

    In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index (eGI), and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea grown in Canada under identical environmental conditions were investigated. The protein content and gelatinization transition temperatures of lentil flour were higher than those of pea and chickpea flours. Chickpea flour showed a lower amylose content (10.8-13.5%) but higher free lipid content (6.5-7.1%) and amylose-lipid complex melting enthalpy (0.7-0.8J/g). Significant differences among cultivars within the same species were observed with respect to swelling power, gelatinization properties, pasting properties and in vitro starch digestibility, especially chickpea flour from desi (Myles) and kabuli type (FLIP 97-101C and 97-Indian2-11). Lentil flour was hydrolyzed more slowly and to a lesser extent than pea and chickpea flours. The amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in chickpea flour was the highest among the pulse flours, but the resistant starch (RS) content was the lowest. The eGI of lentil flour was the lowest among the pulse flours.

  16. Sources of resistance in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) land races against ascochyta rabiei causal agent of ascochyta blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascochyta blight disease, caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei, is a major yield limiting factor of chickpea in Turkey and around the world. This study was conducted to identify sources of genetic resistance against chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei. For this purpose, 68 chickpea land races of different origins were evaluated in both field and growth chamber conditions during 2008-2009 growing seassons. Two standard cultivars were used as a reference, Inci (resistant) and Canitez (susceptible). Disease severity scoring was conducted on a 1-9 rating scale 21 days after inoculation in growth chamber test and at flowering and pot filling stages in field tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed a significant difference among the chickpea landraces in ascochyta blight resistance at p<0.05. None of the chickpea land races was highly resistant to the pathogen in growth chamber and field conditions. Only two landraces (10A and 28B) were moderately resistant to the disease. Some of the landraces resulted in a particular plant to exhibit no disease symptoms, indicating that the variation within chickpea land races was high. Therefore, seeds of this plant were harvested separately and preserved for further evaluations. (author)

  17. Control of root rot of chickpea caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by different agents and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotium rolfsii causes root rot disease in several crops including chickpea that result in low yield. Artificial infection of chickpea seedlings by S. rolfsii in vitro demonstrated that different tissues of the plant completely disintegrated by fungal infection. In vitro and green house pot experiments demonstrated that inducers in combination with fungicides, oils and bio agents resulted in about 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Treatments have no phyto toxic effect on chickpea seedlings at low doses. Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens were effective as biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii. The percent of survival plants, fresh weight, dry weight and plant height of chickpea plants increased with different treatments with inducers compared with the control. Chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll amounts increased to the maximum values. The activity of two plant enzymes, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase increased. In this study, gamma irradiation of chickpea seeds at doses 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy have negative effect on survival, plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of chickpea. The effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the antagonistic effect of Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increase the antagonistic effect of Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens against S. rolfsii . Effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 5 kGy on the mycelial growth and pathogenicity of S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation at doses 0.25 up to 3.0 kGy increase the pathogenicity of S. rolfsii but gamma irradiation at dose 5.0 kGy completely inhibited the growth of S. rolfsii. Extracellular polygalacturonase was characterized and purified by precipitation with 70 % ammonium sulfate, dialysis and gel filtration through Sephadex 75

  18. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.;

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids...... with the application of multiple stress pre-treatments such as centrifugation and osmotic shock for genotypes of interest in chickpea for their direct use in breeding programs. Four genotypes, ICC 4958, WR315, ICCV 95423 and Arearti were tested for anther culture experiments. The yield was shown to be consistent...... with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an attempt...

  19. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DEFATTED CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM, L. FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY THERMOPLASTIC EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Claret Fernandes de Aguiar VALIM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Defatted chickpea (Cicer arietinum, L flour was submitted to thermoplastic extrusion at three feed moisture levels (13%, 18% and 27%. The functional properties of raw and extruded flours were investigated. The nitrogen solubility index of raw chickpea flour was minimum at pH 4.0 but increased at both lower and higher pHs. Extrusion reduced nitrogen solubility drastically for all feed moisture levels. Water and oil absorption capacity were significantly (p O < 05 increased after extrusion treatment. Foam stability could be improved by extrusion and was positively influenced by alkaline pH. It was also verified that extrusion cooking increased significantly (p O < 05 the emulsifying capacity of the extruded flour with 13% moisture level in water.

  20. The improvement of TAEK-SAGEL chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) mutant variety in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, because of it's high carbohydrate content, it is also energy source. It is very rich some vitamin and minerals basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea varieties with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Seeds of the Ak-71114 and Akcin chickpea varieties were irradiated with 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy of gamma rays by using60Cosource. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth, mutants of the desired traits (earliness, yield per plant, first pot height and Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabie) resistance) were identified an isolated. 2520 desirable M2 mutants were selected and grown in progeny rows as the M3 generation. The protein content was analyzed for the M3-M4 seeds. In M5 generation, preliminary yield trials had been conducted and based on field observations, quality criteria (grain size

  1. JAZ repressors: Possible Involvement in Nutrients Deficiency Response in Rice and Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonates (JA are well-known phytohormones which play important roles in plant development and defence against pathogens. Jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ proteins are plant-specific proteins and act as transcriptional repressors of JA-responsive genes. JA regulates both biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants; however, its role in nutrient deficiency responses is very elusive. Although, JA is well-known for root growth inhibition, little is known about behaviour of JAZ genes in response to nutrient deficiencies, under which root architectural alteration is an important adaptation. Using protein sequence homology and a conserved-domains approach, here we identify ten novel JAZ genes from the recently sequenced Chickpea genome, which is one of the most nutrient efficient crops. Both rice and chickpea JAZ genes express in tissue- and stimuli-specific manners. Many of which are preferentially expressed in root. Our analysis further showed differential expression of JAZ genes under macro (NPK and micronutrients (Zn, Fe deficiency in rice and chickpea roots. While both rice and chickpea JAZ genes showed a certain level of specificity towards type of nutrient deficiency, generally majority of them showed induction under K deficiency. Generally, JAZ genes showed an induction at early stages of stress and expression declined at later stages of macro-nutrient deficiency. Our results suggest that JAZ genes might play a role in early nutrient deficiency response both in monocot and dicot roots, and information generated here can be further used for understanding the possible roles of JA in root architectural alterations for nutrient deficiency adaptations

  2. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-solublepolysaccharides from chickpea flours

    OpenAIRE

    Mokni Ghribi, abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-01-01

    tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemicalcharacteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (waterholding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity...

  3. Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y. (Yahya)

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of drought stress on proline content, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and yield characteristics in three varieties of chickpea (drought tolerant Bivaniej and ILC482 and drought sensitive Pirouz). A field experiment with four irrigation regimes was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications....

  4. Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris for the management of chickpea wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Jahanshir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, about 112 isolates of Streptomyces were isolated from chickpea rhizospheric soils. Among the isolated strains, five showed strong inhibitory effects against chickpea Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in vitro using plate assay and selected for further studies. The selected strains were identified as Streptomyces spp. based on morphological and biochemical characterization as well as 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Our results assigned them to strains related to genus of Streptomyces. In vitro, antagonistic effects of Streptomyces strains against the disease were evaluated through the dual-culture method, volatile and non-volatile metabolites, siderophore, protease and chitinase production. All bacterial strains inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen ranging from 26 to 44.2% in dual culture assay. The non-volatile extract of five of the Streptomyces strains inhibited more than 50% growth of the pathogen, whereas volatile compounds were less effective on mycelial growth inhibition (20.2 to 33.4%. The ability of the biocontrol agents to produce siderophore and protease were varied, whereas, production of chitinase was detected for all strains. Results of the greenhouse assay indicated that all biocontrol agents reduced disease severity (ranging from 38.7 to 54.8%. Accordingly, strain KS62 showed higher control efficacy (54.8%. In addition, the biomass of chickpea plants (plant height and dry weight significantly increased in plants treated with Streptomyces strains compared to non-bacterized control. The results of this study showed that it may be possible to manage chickpea Fusarium wilt disease effectively by using Streptomyces species, as biocontrol agents. Therefore, evaluating their efficiency under field conditions is needed.

  5. Study on Effect of Supplementary Irrigation on Rainfed Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nav Raj Acharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea is one of the important winter legumes in Nepal. It is grown after rice or maize either as sole or mixed crop. In Nepal, chickpea is mostly grown as rainfed crop on residual soil moisture or sometimes under irrigation. Lack of irrigation results drought and heat stress which affects crop growth and development. Irrigation at proper time is one of the most important factors for achieving higher crop yield. The experiment regarding use of supplementary irrigation time on chickpea was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Khajura, Banke, Nepal during the winter season of the year 2011 and 2012. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Seven different time intervals of irrigation was applied in the experiment for both years. Treatments differed significantly in terms of grain yield but showed non -significant difference in days to flowering and maturity over the years. The combined analysis of the experiments showed that the highest grain yield (2318 kg/ha was produced when irrigation was supplied at vegetative stage followed by irrigation supplied at flowering stage (2298 kg/ha and pod fill stage (2104 kg/ha respectively.

  6. DNA polymorphisms in chickpea accessions as revealed by PCR-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, P; Koul, K K; Shrivastava, N; Mendaki, M J; Bhagyawant, S S

    2015-01-01

    Chickpea is a food legume which is alleged to be a preferred source of protein next only to milk. Germplasm of cultivated chickpea available is deficient in desired genetic variation. Genetic manipulations therefore, necessitate the genetic exploitation of its related annual and wild species. 42 RAPD and 41 ISSR markers were employed to ascertain polymorphism across 20 genotypes which were collected from 10 different geographical areas of the world. RAPD marker detected 51% genetic polymorphisms while ISSR marker detected 54 %. With an average of 6.5 each RAPD primer amplified 5—8 bands. Similarly with an average of 7.9 each ISSR primer amplified 4—12 bands. The cluster dendrogram demonstrated a similarity coefficient range from 0.80 to 0.92 due to RAPD markers, whereas with ISSR primers the cluster dendrogram showed similarity coefficient of 0.60 to 1.00. Accessions from same geographical area seem to be genetically similar than those from geographically distant and isolated ones. When however compared, interestingly the ISSR dendrogram showed more correlation with pedigree data than the RAPD dendrogram. The variability index worked out in the present study ranges from 0.79 to 0.96. Since the ultimate reason for such studies is selection of diverse genetic accessions for their recommendation to breeding programmers, the accessions like ICC6263, ICC6306 and ICC17160 can be recommended as parents. Further breeding programmes can therefore be planned to procure additional variation complexes in chickpea genetic stocks. PMID:26516116

  7. Influence of dehydration process in Castellano chickpea: changes in bioactive carbohydrates and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Esteban, Rosa M; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2011-11-01

    Changes in bioactive carbohydrates, functional, and microstructural characteristics that occurred in chickpea under soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration processing were evaluated. Raw chickpea exhibited important levels of raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), resistant starch (RS) and total dietary fibre (TDF), being insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) the main fraction (94%). The dehydration process increased RFOs (43%), RS (47%) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (59%) levels significantly. In addition, a noticeable increase in both fibre fractions was observed, being higher in soluble fibre in (SDF) (59%). The minimum nitrogen solubility of raw flours was at pH 4, and a high degree of protein insolubilization (80%) was observed in dehydrated flours. The raw and processed flours exhibited low oil-holding capacities (1.10 mg/ml), and did not show any change by thermal processing, whereas water-holding capacities rose to 5.50 mg/ml of sample. Cooking and industrial dehydration process reduced emulsifying activity and foaming capacity of chickpea flour. The microstructural observations were consistent with the chemical results. Thus, the significant occurrence of these bioactive carbohydrate compounds along with the interesting functional properties of the dehydrated flours could be considered useful as functional ingredients for food formulation.

  8. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Related to Chickpea Ingestion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Chet G

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s. Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  9. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. A. Jadhav; S. J. Rayate; L. B. Mhase; M. Thudi; A. Chitikineni; P. N. Harer; A. S. Jadhav; R. K. Varshney; P. L. Kulwal

    2015-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding $Q$ values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  10. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tosh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.

  11. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha L Upasani

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62 and wilt-resistant (Digvijay chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar.

  12. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Medha L; Gurjar, Gayatri S; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62) and wilt-resistant (Digvijay) chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar. PMID:27227745

  13. Trichoderma inoculation augments grain amino acids and mineral nutrients by modulating arsenic speciation and accumulation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2015-07-01

    Trichoderma reesei is an industrially important fungi which also imparts stress tolerance and plant growth promotion in various crops. Arsenic (As) contamination of field soils is one of the challenging problems in agriculture, posing potential threats for both human health and the environment. Plants in association with microbes are a liable method to improve metal tolerance and enhance crop productivity. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume providing cheap source of protein in semi-arid regions including As affected areas. In this study we report the role of T. reesei NBRI 0716 (NBRI 0716) in supporting chickpea growth and improving soil quality in As simulated conditions. NBRI 0716 modulated the As speciation and its availability to improve grain yield and quality (amino acids and mineral content) in chickpea (C. arietinum L.) plants grown in As spiked soil (100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Arsenic accumulation and speciation results indicate that arsenate [As(V)] was the dominant species in chickpea seeds and rhizosphere soil. The Trichoderma reduced total grain inorganic As (Asi) by 66% and enhanced dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsinic acid (MMA) content of seed and rhizosphere soil. The results indicate a probable role of NBRI 0716 in As methylation as the possible mechanism for maneuvering As stress in chickpea. Analysis of functional diversity using carbon source utilization (Biolog) showed significant difference in diversity and evenness indices among the soil microbial rhizosphere communities. Microbial diversity loss caused by As were prevented in the presence of Trichoderma NBRI 0716.

  14. EFFECT OF DIETARY RAW CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L. SEEDS REPLACEMENT GROUNDNUT MEAL, SESAME MEAL ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD CONSTITUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Algam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chickpea seeds on performance and blood constituents of broilers. One hundred and twenty eight unsexed one day old (Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (F0 containing 0% chickpea (control diet, diet (F1 10% chickpea substitute same levels of sesame meal and groundnuts meal, diet (F2 10% chickpea substitute from groundnuts meal only and diet (F3 10% chickpea substitute from sesame meal only. Each treatment had four replicates with 8 birds/ replicate. The study lasted for 8 weeks. Parameters Measured were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, pre –slaughter weight, dressing percentage, protein efficiency, some blood parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, calcium, and phosphorus and profitability. The results showed significant decrease (P0.05 effect on serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels. Broiler chicks received diet F3 recorded the highest profitability than other groups.

  15. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 μM) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The sho...

  16. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-08-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)-chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)-chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9-chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31-chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31-inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  17. 丽江鹰嘴豆异黄酮的含量测定%Lijiang chickpea Isoflavones Content determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永会; 张翠香

    2012-01-01

    This study Lijiang chickpea seed as raw material extraction isoflavone genistein, at the same time as control products Determination of Lijiang chickpea Isoflavones Content, for Lijiang the development and application of chicken beans provide some experimental data.%本实验拟丽江鹰嘴豆种子为原料提取异黄酮,同时以染料木素为对照品测定丽江鹰嘴豆异黄酮的含量,为丽江的鸡豆的开发应用提供一定的实验数据。

  18. Fertilizer-N uptake by Chickpea and Wheat Crops under Intercropping System using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea inter cropping. The Objective of this current work is to study Organic matter decomposition under clean agriculture system in sandy soil using nuclear technique. The lowest portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer was resulted from application of compost and chickpea straw treatments. It is worthy to mention that full recommend dos of fertilizer (20 kg N fed-1) was efficiently used by shoots of chickpea plants. Portion of nitrogen derived from fertilizer by seeds of chickpea was lower than those recorded with shoots. Generally, there was no big significant difference between nitrogen gained by shoots and seeds from the organic materials. This holds true with all treatments. More declines in nitrogen derived from soil percentages were resulted from application of cow manure and compost treatments under different rate of mineral fertilizer, the application 100% MF treatment induced higher nitrogen derived from soil pool as compared to the other treatments. The best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general, nitrogen derived from air by shoots lower than those up taken by seeds of chickpea plant. Application of wheat straw and compost treatments were enhanced the nitrogen derived from fertilizer by straw of wheat plant as compared to caw manure, maize stalk, chickpea straw, but Ndff% in grains of wheat , cow manure and maize stalk increased as compared to the other treatment. Application of organic materials, chickpea straw and cow manure achieved the highest value of Ndfo% by straw of wheat plant as compared to maize stalk, compost and wheat straw. But values of nitrogen derived from organic in grains of wheat plants, the application of chickpea straw and wheat straw

  19. Studies on the development of infant foods from plant protein sources. Part II. Effect of processing conditions on the chemical and nutritive properties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, A; Elías, L G; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1985-09-01

    In order to improve the taste, flavor and nutritional quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), various processing conditions were studied. The decorticated samples were processed under various conditions, either by presoaking or non-soaking in water or sodium carbonate solution. The proteins were also isolated from water or carbonate-presoaked chickpea and subjected to various processing. Carbonate-presoaked samples gave slightly lower protein and ash values. No major changes in other constituents were observed. Subjective analysis of the intensity of characteristic chickpea flavor in processed samples was carried out, indicating some improvement in the carbonate-presoaked samples. Carbonate-treated samples exhibited a lighter color. The carbonate presoaking procedure had no adverse effect on the availability of lysine and nitrogen solubility index (NSI), as compared to the water-presoaking procedure. The time required to inactivate trypsin inhibitors in carbonate-presoaked chickpea at boiling temperature, was half that required in the case of water-presoaked ones. Under the conditions used in treating chickpea with sodium carbonate, no beneficial effect was observed in reducing the tannin content. No significant differences were observed in net protein ratio (NPR) among the various processed chickpea samples, even though in some cases isolated protein gave significantly lower NPR values. Digestibility values were higher for isolated protein than for whole chickpea samples.

  20. Development of ESTs from chickpea roots and their use in diversity analysis of the Cicer genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwar K

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea is a major crop in many drier regions of the world where it is an important protein-rich food and an increasingly valuable traded commodity. The wild annual Cicer species are known to possess unique sources of resistance to pests and diseases, and tolerance to environmental stresses. However, there has been limited utilization of these wild species by chickpea breeding programs due to interspecific crossing barriers and deleterious linkage drag. Molecular genetic diversity analysis may help predict which accessions are most likely to produce fertile progeny when crossed with chickpea cultivars. While, trait-markers may provide an effective tool for breaking linkage drag. Although SSR markers are the assay of choice for marker-assisted selection of specific traits in conventional breeding populations, they may not provide reliable estimates of interspecific diversity, and may lose selective power in backcross programs based on interspecific introgressions. Thus, we have pursued the development of gene-based markers to resolve these problems and to provide candidate gene markers for QTL mapping of important agronomic traits. Results An EST library was constructed after subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH of root tissue from two very closely related chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum. A total of 106 EST-based markers were designed from 477 sequences with functional annotations and these were tested on C. arietinum. Forty-four EST markers were polymorphic when screened across nine Cicer species (including the cultigen. Parsimony and PCoA analysis of the resultant EST-marker dataset indicated that most accessions cluster in accordance with the previously defined classification of primary (C. arietinum, C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum, secondary (C. pinnatifidum, C. bijugum and C. judaicum, and tertiary (C. yamashitae, C. chrossanicum and C. cuneatum gene-pools. A large proportion of EST alleles (45% were only

  1. Critical period of weed control in chickpea under non-irrigated conditions

    OpenAIRE

    TEPE, Işık; Erman, Murat; YERGİN, Reyyan; BÜKÜN, Bekir

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted during the growing seasons of 2005, 2006, and 2007 to determine the critical period of weed control (CPWC) in chickpea (cv. Aziziye 94). In order to evaluate the beginning of CPWC, weeds were allowed to compete at weekly intervals for 1 to 8 weeks after emergence (WAE) and, at the end of CPWC, plots were kept weed-free at weekly intervals for 1 to 8 WAE by periodic hand hoeing. The beginning and the end of CPWC were based on 5% acceptable yield loss (AYL) level...

  2. Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M.; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein ...

  3. Heat and mass transfer analysis of convective drying of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the modelling and simulation of the dehydration of chickpea in a complex drying system process, using COMSOL Multiphysics Program. A model, based on mass and energy balances, was developed for the simulation of unsteady convective drying with air (3.0 m/s and 60 °C). The program predicted an 8 hours-dehydration time, with an effective moisture diffusivity of 3.1 *10- 10 which was experimentally obtained. The empirical model that best represented the process was the exponential one.

  4. Purification and characterization of a poly(A)-binding protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyath, V; Balasubrahmanyam, A; Kapoor, H C

    2000-04-01

    A poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with mol wt 72,000 has been purified from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyls by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Cibacron blue F3-GA and poly(A) agarose chromatography. The binding properties and the specificity of binding show that the purified protein is an analogue of PABPs in other eukaryotes. This PABP is highly susceptible to proteolysis and upon degradation forms a polypeptide fragment of mol wt 21,000 which has an independent poly(A) binding activity.

  5. Assessment of Response to Drought Stress of Chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.) Lines Under Rainfed Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    TOKER, Cengiz; ÇAĞIRGAN, M. İlhan

    1998-01-01

    Totally sixty four chickpea lines were grown for assesment of response to drought stress in the stress and non-stress environments under rainfed conditions. The seed yield of the lines when grown under the non-stress condition increased at a rate of 53% over the in stress condition. The line, FLIP 92-154C, was determinated as the best tolerant line to drought stress environment under the field condition. Also, seed yield strongly correlated with biological yield, harvest index, mean produc...

  6. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into organic acid and sugar fractions was enhanced.

  7. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man-Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  8. Cicer L., a monograph of the genus, with special reference to the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), its ecology and cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    1972-01-01

    1. The history of the chickpea or gram, Cicer arietinum L., has been described from Homer's time and the earliest finds, 5450 B.C. in Hacilar, Turkey, up to the present day. The crop was first domesticated in Asia Minor and was introduced in India either from Central Asia or Asia Minor, the two mai

  9. Technological properties, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of pigmented chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2013-02-01

    Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

  10. Consumer perceptions, descriptive profile, and mechanical properties of a novel product with chickpea flour: Effect of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, María José; Tárrega, Amparo; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao; Álvarez, María Dolores

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly popular in the West is hummus, a spread that is made with pureed chickpeas and other healthful ingredients. The changes in texture measurements and sensory properties in a novel chickpea flour-based product occurring when water is partially replaced by common ingredients of hummus were investigated. Eleven chickpea gels containing different amounts of minced garlic, lemon juice, curry powder, and inulin were prepared and compared with two control gels. These ingredients were chosen to make the product tastier, appealing, and similar to hummus. Instrumental texture tests were carried out: uniaxial compression, stress relaxation, and texture profile analysis. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to describe differences in sensory properties perceived by a trained panel, whereas repertory grid method combined with free choice profile was used to determine differences perceived by untrained consumers. Gels with higher curry powder content presented lower force to breakdown, whereas increasing inulin content led to gels with higher hardness. Principal component analysis was applied to instrumental parameters and quantitative descriptive analysis data, whereas generalized Procrustes analysis was applied to free choice profile data. This newly developed chickpea gel may make a nutrition claim with respect to protein ("high in protein," or at least a "source of protein").

  11. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  12. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Plett, Krista L; Bithell, Sean L; Mitchell, Chris; Moore, Kevin; Powell, Jeff R; Anderson, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Breeding disease-resistant varieties is one of the most effective and economical means to combat soilborne diseases in pulse crops. Commonalities between pathogenic and mutualistic microbe colonization strategies, however, raises the concern that reduced susceptibility to pathogens may simultaneously reduce colonization by beneficial microbes. We investigate here the degree of overlap in the transcriptional response of the Phytophthora medicaginis susceptible chickpea variety 'Sonali' to the early colonization stages of either Phytophthora, rhizobial bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. From a total of 6476 genes differentially expressed in Sonali roots during colonization by any of the microbes tested, 10.2% were regulated in a similar manner regardless of whether it was the pathogenic oomycete or a mutualistic microbe colonizing the roots. Of these genes, 49.7% were oppositely regulated under the same conditions in the moderately Phytophthora resistant chickpea variety 'PBA HatTrick'. Chickpea varieties with improved resistance to Phytophthora also displayed lower colonization by rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi leading to an increased reliance on N and P from soil. Together, our results suggest that marker-based breeding in crops such as chickpea should be further investigated such that plant disease resistance can be tailored to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions.

  13. Transcriptome landscape of perennial wild Cicer microphyllum uncovers functionally relevant molecular tags regulating agronomic traits in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Malik, Ayushi; Singh, Mohar; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-sequencing followed by de-novo transcriptome assembly identified 11621 genes differentially xpressed in roots vs. shoots of a wild perennial Cicer microphyllum. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes between microphyllum and cultivated desi cv. ICC4958 detected 12772 including 3242 root- and 1639 shoot-specific microphyllum genes with 85% expression validation success rate. Transcriptional reprogramming of microphyllum root-specific genes implicates their possible role in regulating differential natural adaptive characteristics between wild and cultivated chickpea. The transcript-derived 5698 including 282 in-silico polymorphic SSR and 127038 SNP markers annotated at a genome-wide scale exhibited high amplification and polymorphic potential among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild accessions suggesting their utility in chickpea genomics-assisted breeding applications. The functional significance of markers was assessed based on their localization in non-synonymous coding and regulatory regions of microphyllum root-specific genes differentially expressed predominantly in ICC 4958 roots under drought stress. A high-density 490 genic SSR- and SNP markers-anchored genetic linkage map identified six major QTLs regulating drought tolerance-related traits, yield per plant and harvest-index in chickpea. The integration of high-resolution QTL mapping with comparative transcriptome profiling delineated five microphyllum root-specific genes with non-synonymous and regulatory SNPs governing drought-responsive yield traits. Multiple potential key regulators and functionally relevant molecular tags delineated can drive translational research and drought tolerance-mediated chickpea genetic enhancement. PMID:27680662

  14. Development of a phosphomannose isomerase-based Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Deokar, Amit; Jain, P K; Thengane, R J; Srinivasan, R

    2009-11-01

    To develop an alternative genetic transformation system that is not dependent on an antibiotic selection strategy, the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) system was evaluated for producing transgenic plants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). A shoot morphogenesis protocol based on the thidiazuron (TDZ)-induced shoot morphogenesis system was combined with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the pmi gene and selection of transgenic plants on mannose. Embryo axis explants of chickpea cv. C-235 were grown on a TDZ-supplemented medium for shoot proliferation. Embryo axis explants from which the first and second flush of shoots were removed were transformed using Agrobacterium carrying the pmi gene, and emerging shoots were allowed to regenerate on a zeatin-supplemented medium with an initial selection pressure of 20 g l(-1) mannose. Rooting was induced in the selected shoots on an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-supplemented medium with a selection pressure of 15 g l(-1) mannose. PCR with marker gene-specific primers and chlorophenol red (CPR) assay of the shoots indicated that shoots had been transformed. RT-PCR and Southern analysis of selected regenerated plants further confirmed integration of the transgene into the chickpea genome. These positive results suggest that the pmi/mannose selection system can be used to produce transgenic plants of chickpea that are free from antibiotic resistance marker genes.

  15. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himabindu Kudapa

    Full Text Available A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201, comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8% of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%. The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and intron spanning regions (ISRs for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding

  16. Response of vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea to pre- or post-emergence applied herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vasilakoglou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad-leaved weeds constitute a serious problem in the production of winter legumes, but few selective herbicides controlling these weeds have been registered in Europe. Four field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and repeated in 2010/11 in Greece to study the response of common vetch (Vicia sativa L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and red pea (Lathyrus cicera L. to several rates of the herbicides pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine and flumioxazin applied pre-emergence, as well as imazamox applied post-emergence. Phytotoxicity, crop height, total weight and seed yield were evaluated during the experiments. The results of this study suggest that common vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea differed in their responses to the herbicides tested. Pendimethalin at 1.30 kg ha-1, S-metolachlor at 0.96 kg ha-1 and flumioxazine at 0.11 kg ha-1 used as pre-emergence applied herbicides provided the least phytotoxicity to legumes. Pendimethalin at 1.98 kg ha-1 and both rates of S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine provided the greatest common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. control. Imazamox at 0.03 to 0.04 kg ha-1 could also be used as early post-emergence applied herbicide in common vetch and red pea without any significant detrimental effect.

  17. Early selection of kabuli chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L. tolerant to osmotic water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Ben Mbarek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight " kabuli " chickpea genotypes Beja1, Amdoun1, Nayer, Kasseb, Bochra, FLP96-114C, FLP88-42C and Chetoui were germinated, in two in vitro culture media, particularly, agar and filter paper Watman n°2 and under tree osmotic water pressures (OWP: -0,33; -4 and -8 bars induced by PEG8000. On filter paper, germination appeared more accelerated with a higher rate compared to the agar media. Osmotic water stress has negatively affected the seeds germination and the seedlings vegetative development parameters. Osmotic water pressure - 8 bars completely inhibited seeds germination on filter paper media. On the other hand, on agar media, it caused a feeble germination rate and a stunting of the seedlings. A broad genotypic variability of the chickpea cultivars was revealed toward the osmotic water stress. Tolerance index to osmotic water stress revealed three groups of cultivars: (1 Nayer and Kasseb are tolerant, (2 Bochra, FLIP88-42C and Chetoui are fairly tolerant and (3 Amdoun1, Beja1 and FLIP96-114C are sensitive to this abiotic stress.

  18. Thermoluminescence studies of calcite extracted from natural sand used in making roasted chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the calcite extracted from natural sand which is used in making roasted chickpeas were investigated. And also the effects of different thermal treatments on thermoluminescence glow curve were observed. Two distinct TL peaks were observed at ∼130 °C and ∼230 °C. The annealing of sample, especially at 900 °C, causes a huge enhancement in sensitization of TL. Linearity in dose response is observed for the values up to 0.6 kGy and above 0.6 kGy linearity is not preserved and dose response becomes sublinear. The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400°C and 600 °C. - Highlights: • The natural sand sample used in making roasted chickpea shows thermoluminescence properties. • Annealing at 900 °C for about 15 min gives best TL output. • A good sensitization of about 70 factor was observed in annealed samples when they were compared with no annealed samples. • At doses lower than 0.6 kGy, dose response is linear and sublinear at doses higher than 0.6 kGy. • The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400 °C and 600 °C

  19. Activity of the Recommended and Optimized Rates of Pyridate on Chickpea - Mesorhizobium mediterraneum Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi PARSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop-rhizobium symbiosis can be influenced by leaching of herbicides which is unavoidable after their application. Due to an adjuvant which might help to develop the low-use-rate of herbicide, an experiment was carried out to compare the impact of the recommended rate (1200 g active ingredient ha-1 and the optimized rate (282.15 g active ingredient ha-1 of pyridate on the biological properties of eight chickpea cultivars inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, grown in pots. Based on the required rate of herbicide to give 95% control of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. value, the efficacy of pyridate improved up to 3.87-fold by adding methylated rapeseed oil to spray solution. The ‘Desi’ cultivar had significantly higher nodulation than ‘Kabuli’ cultivar. In general, toxicity of the recommended rate was higher than the optimized rate. With the exception of root dry weight, all of the measured parameters were significantly affected by the recommended rate of pyridate in varying degrees. The symbiotic properties of chickpea cultivars were affected more than 10% at the recommended dose. The reduced nodulation ranged from 29% to 73% among cultivars exposed to pyridate at the recommended dose. The ‘Desi’ cultivar was more sensitive than the ‘Kabuli’ to the recommended rate of pyridate. We may conclude that effective low-use-rate of pyridate via applying of activator adjuvants should be noted.

  20. Thermoluminescence studies of calcite extracted from natural sand used in making roasted chickpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toktamiş, Hüseyin, E-mail: toktamis@gantep.edu.tr; Toktamiş, Dilek; Necmeddin Yazici, A.

    2014-09-15

    In this study, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the calcite extracted from natural sand which is used in making roasted chickpeas were investigated. And also the effects of different thermal treatments on thermoluminescence glow curve were observed. Two distinct TL peaks were observed at ∼130 °C and ∼230 °C. The annealing of sample, especially at 900 °C, causes a huge enhancement in sensitization of TL. Linearity in dose response is observed for the values up to 0.6 kGy and above 0.6 kGy linearity is not preserved and dose response becomes sublinear. The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400°C and 600 °C. - Highlights: • The natural sand sample used in making roasted chickpea shows thermoluminescence properties. • Annealing at 900 °C for about 15 min gives best TL output. • A good sensitization of about 70 factor was observed in annealed samples when they were compared with no annealed samples. • At doses lower than 0.6 kGy, dose response is linear and sublinear at doses higher than 0.6 kGy. • The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400 °C and 600 °C.

  1. The estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HaiRong, Ma; HuaBo, Wei; Zhen, Chen; Yi, Yang; ZhengHua, Wang; Madina, Habasi; Xu, Cao; Akber, Aisa Haji

    2013-08-01

    Isoflavones have drawn attention due to their potential therapeutic use. Isoflavones are the important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpea and higher isoflavones in sprouts than in seeds. However, there have been no previous reports of the estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts (ICS) in vitro. In this study, which incorporated several in vitro bioassays methods, we systematically evaluated the estrogenic properties of ICS. MTT assay showed that ICS at the low concentration ranges (10(-3)-1 mg/L) promoted MCF-7 cell growth, while at high concentrations, (>1 mg/L) inhibited cell proliferation, indicating ICS worked at a diphasic mechanism. Flow cytometric analysis further calculated the proliferation rate of ICS at low concentration (1 mg/L). ERα/Luc trans-activation assay and then semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICS at low concentrations induced ERα-mediated luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells and promoted the ER downstream target gene pS2 and PR trans-activation. These effects were inhibited by ICI 182,780, a special antagonist of ER, indicating that an ER-mediating pathway was involved. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in Ishikawa cells showed that ICS at low concentrations stimulated AP expression. Our current study is the first to demonstrate that ICS has significant estrogenic activity in vitro. ICS may be useful as a supplement to hormone replacement therapy and in dietary supplements.

  2. Starch, functional properties, and microstructural characteristics in chickpea and lentil as affected by thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Esteban, Rosa M; Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2009-11-25

    Changes in starch, functional, and microstructural characteristics that occurred in chickpea and lentil under soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration processing were evaluated. Available starch in raw legumes represented 57-64%, and resistant starch (RS) is a significant component. As a result of cooking, available starch contents of soaked chickpea and lentil were significantly increased (21 and 12%, respectively) and RS decreased (65 and 49%, respectively) compared to raw flours. A similar trend was exhibited by dehydration, being more relevant in lentil (73% of RS decrease). The minimum nitrogen solubility of raw flours was at pH 3, and a high degree of protein insolubilization (80%) was observed in dehydrated flours. The raw legume flours exhibited low oil-holding capacities, 0.95-1.10 mL/g, and did not show any change by thermal processing, whereas water-holding capacities rose to 4.80-4.90 mL/g of sample. Emulsifying activity and foam capacity exhibited reductions as a result of cooking and industrial dehydration processing. The microstructural observations were consistent with the chemical results. Thus, the obtained cooked and dehydrated legume flours could be considered as functional ingredients for food formulation.

  3. Screening of ten advanced chickpea lines for blight and wilt resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten advanced chickpea lines developed at NIAB were screened for resistance to Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt diseases in different sets of experiments conducted under controlled environment. Inoculation of plants by spore suspension of virulent strains of Ascochyta rabiei revealed that one line (97313) was resistant tolerant, two lines (97305, 97392) were tolerant, six lines (97306, 97310, 97311, 97303, 97302, 97393) were tolerant/susceptible and one line (97301) was susceptible. Screening of the same lines against Fusarium wilt by water culture method showed that two lines (97301, 97313) were moderately resistant, four lines (97302, 97303, 97306, 97393) were tolerant and the remaining four lines were susceptible. Screening through phytotoxic culture filtrates revealed that two lines (97302, 97313) were less sensitive to culture filtrates of Ascochyta rabiei and Fusarium oxysporum than the resistant check (CM88). These lines were also analyzed spectrophotometrically for peroxidase enzyme activity. Maximum enzyme activity was detected after 48 hours of inoculation with A. rabiei in three lines (97305, 97311, 97313) and resistant check (CM88) while enzyme activity in the remaining lines reached its maximum after 72 hours of inoculation which was comparable to the susceptible check (Pb-1). These studies lead to the conclusion that one line (97313) exhibited resistance against both the diseases and can be used as a source of resistance for further improvement of chickpea germplasm. (author)

  4. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  5. In planta and soil quantification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and evaluation of Fusarium wilt resistance in chickpea with a newly developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris can be managed by risk assessment and use of resistant cultivars. A reliable method for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in soil and chickpea tissues would contribute much to implementation of those disease management strategies. In this study, we developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) protocol that allows quantifying F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris DNA down to 1 pg in soil, as well as in the plant root and stem. Use of the q-PCR protocol allowed quantifying as low as 45 colony forming units of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris per gram of dry soil from a field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Moreover, the q-PCR protocol clearly differentiated susceptible from resistant chickpea reactions to the pathogen at 15 days after sowing in artificially infested soil, as well as the degree of virulence between two F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Also, the protocol detected early asymptomatic root infections and distinguished significant differences in the level of resistance of 12 chickpea cultivars that grew in that same field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Use of this protocol for fast, reliable, and cost-effective quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in asymptomatic chickpea tissues at early stages of the infection process can be of great value for chickpea breeders and for epidemiological studies in growth chambers, greenhouses and field-scale plots.

  6. Solid-state bioconversion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by Rhizopus oligosporus to improve total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Magaña, Luis Martin; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Ayala-Rodríguez, Ana Edith; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of time during solid state bioconversion (SSB) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of chickpea. Chickpea cotyledons were inoculated with a suspension of Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 35 °C for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 108 h. The best time to produce bioprocessed chickpea (added with seed coats) flour with the highest AoxA was 108 h. SSB substantially increased TPC and AoxA of chickpea extracts in 2.78 and 1.80-1.94 times, respectively. At 36 and 96 h of fermentation, the SSB process improved in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (AI and GI indexes) activities of chickpea extracts in 83 and 370%, respectively. SSB is a good strategy to enhance health-linked functionality of chickpea, due to improved TPC, AoxA and content of strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes.

  7. Genetic enhancement for grain yield in chickpea – accomplishments and resetting research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Chaturvedi and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., commonly known as ‘gram’ is one of the major pulse crops of India covering 7.97 m ha areaproducing 7.06 m t of the grains and registering all time productivity of 885 kg/ha during 2008-09. This has become possible due todevelopment and popularization of high yielding varieties insulated well against various biotic and abiotic stresses for various partsof the country. Some of these high yielding are GNG 158, Vijay, DCP 92-3, Rajas, Digvijay, KWR 108, H 82-2, RSG 888, JG 315,Vijay, JG 16, ICCV 10, JG 11, KGD 1168, GNG 469, Pusa 372, KPG 59, ICCV 2, Shubhra (IPCK 2002-29, BGD 128, PusaChamatkar (BG 1053, JGK 1 and Pusa kabuli 1003 which have stable resistance against wilt. Similarly PBG 5, GNG 469, PBG 1,Pusa 413, Pusa 408, Pusa 417 and Himachal chana 1 have resistance against ascochyta blight besides high yield potential. Littleefforts have been made in vast variability present among germplasm accessions, which are available with several International andNational Institutes. Inter-mating between accessions/elite lines of same origin or inter-varietal crosses led varieties development hasresulted in narrow genetic base of existing cultivars. Little efforts have been made in exploitation of wild Cicer and exoticcollections also. Concerted and systematic efforts are required to harness the potential of this vast variability. In view of the changingclimatic and global scenario there is urgent need to reorient breeding programme so that desired level of genetic enhancement can beachieved. Genetic options for mitigating terminal soil moisture stress and high temperature, both at reproductive and vegetativestage, development of genotypes with high nutrient efficiency need care in breeding programmes. Besides, biotic and abiotic stressesnow trade has become more important. Ttherefore development varieties possessing consumers’ preferred traits like seed size inkabuli and milling quality in desi chickpea need special

  8. Antifungal activity of Syzygium cumini against Ascochyta rabiei-the cause of chickpea blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Khajista; Javaid, Arshad

    2010-07-01

    Aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane extracts from leaves, fruit, root-bark and stem-bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels were tested for their antifungal activity against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of blight disease of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Different concentrations, namely 1, 2, ..., 5% of both aqueous and the two organic solvent extracts were used in this study. Aqueous extracts of all the four test plant parts, namely leaves, fruit, stem-bark and root-bark, showed significant antifungal activity resulting in 7-30%, 22-59%, 23-39% and 21-64% reduction in fungal growth, respectively. Similarly, n-hexane stem-bark extract, and ethanol root- and stem-bark extracts also significantly suppressed the growth of target fungal species, resulting in 17-39%, 24-30% and 12-32% suppression in fungal growth. PMID:19588279

  9. Traditional Turkish Fermented Cereal Based Products: Tarhana, Boza and Chickpea Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tangüler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.

  10. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  11. First genome analysis and molecular characterization of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus Egyptian isolate infecting squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Inas Farouk; Taha, Omnia; El-Ashry, Abdel Nasser

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identifying and characterizing some molecular properties of geminiviruses co-infection in squash field crop cultivated in Egypt. Squash crops observed to be heavily infected with several insect vectors, also severe chlorosis and stunting was observed. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed geminate capsid particles which indicate the infection of Geminiviruses, especially SqLCV which represent an economic problem to squash filed crop in Egypt. We have investigated possible mixed infections with different plant viruses associated with chlorotic stunt diseases and or other genus groups of geminiviruses. The main objective of this study is to investigate the recombination events, possible recombinants and variants among these genera in the same family differing in vector transmission. This is the first report of the molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and putative recombination events of the full length genome of the Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Mastrevirus in Egypt. And the first report of co-infection with another begomovirus infecting squash plants. A full length clone of both viruses were isolated and characterized at the molecular level. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined (2,572 bp) and submitted to the genbank under accession no. KF692356. The isolate from Egypt has about 97.8 % homology with the Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) isolate from Syria DNA-A isolate FR687959, a 83.2 % homology with the Sudan isolate AM933134 and a 82.7 % homology with Pakistan isolate FR687960. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CpCDV that infect squash plants in Egypt and worldwide.

  12. Rhizobium pusense sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Digvijay; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2011-11-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated NRCPB10(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Pusa, New Delhi, India. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NRCPB10(T) showed highest similarity (98.9 %) to that of Rhizobium radiobacter NCPPB 2437(T), followed by Rhizobium larrymoorei AF3-10(T) (97.7 %) and Rhizobium rubi IFO 13261(T) (97.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis of strain NRCPB10(T) based on the housekeeping genes recA and atpD confirmed its position as distinct from recognized Rhizobium species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NRCPB10(T) and R. radiobacter ICMP 5785(T), R. larrymoorei LMG 21410(T) and R. rubi ICMP 6428(T) were 51.0, 32.6 and 27.3 %, respectively. Cellular fatty acids of strain NRCPB10(T) were C(18 : 1)ω7c (58.9 %), C(16 : 0) (15.5 %), C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c (11.5 %), iso-C(16 : 1) (5.8 %), C(16 : 0) 3-OH (4.5 %), C(16 : 1)ω7c (2.1 %) and C(18 : 0) (1.3 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain NRCPB10(T) was 59.0 mol%. Strain NRCPB10(T) did not nodulate chickpea plants or induce tumours in tobacco plants. Phenotypic and physiological properties along with SDS-PAGE of whole-cell soluble proteins differentiated strain NRCPB10(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study, strain NRCPB10(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium pusense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRCPB10(T) ( = LMG 25623(T) = JCM 16209(T) = NCIMB 14639(T)).

  13. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value. PMID:26880215

  14. Growth and Nitrogen Fixation in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed Chickpeas Grown under Drought and Well Watered Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Kurdali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si and/or potassium (K on plant growth, nitrogen uptake and N2-fixation in water stressed (FC1 and well watered (FC2 chickpea plants using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200 and one fertilizer rate of K were used. For most of the growth parameters, it was found that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of almost all studied parameters. The Si100K+ (FC1 and Si50K+ (FC2 treatments gave high enough amounts of N2-fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N2-fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leave’s dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si50K- and Si100K- is associated with lower Δ13C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE. Hence, Δ13C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be also considered an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that the synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.

  15. Suitable gamma ray dose determination in order to induce genetic variation in kaboli chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of chickpea's use in Iran and its ability of being replaced to adjust the shortage of protein in dietary habits, yield production is very low. One of the main reasons for chickpea's low yield production is its sensitiveness to some diseases, pest and environmental stresses. Genetic variation in chickpea is very low, because of its self pollination. In breeding programs, genetic variation plays an essential role so that the induction of genetic variation in plant population is very important for the plant breeders. The induced mutation through different kinds of mutagens is one of the important ways of genetic variation. In this research, first the sensitiveness of four cultivars (ILC.486, Philip86, Bivinich, Jam) were assessed to different gamma ray doses (100, 200, 300, 400 Gy). The results showed that with an increase in gamma ray dose, the growth rate of chickpea's genotypes decreases. In this respect, the decrease of growth rate has a linear relationship with the gamma ray dose and it is independent from the genotypes. The root length is more sensitive to gamma ray doses than its shoot, and it was observed that at the low doses the root growth decreases, comparing to the shoot growth. On the other hand, in high doses of gamma ray growth abrasion (Ageotropism, Albinism and etc.) were observed. Some traits variation (such as leaf shape, leaf size, leaf color, Albinism, etc.) were seen in M2 generation, and finally to continue the project, three doses of gamma ray (150,200,250) were selected for the next year

  16. Purification and characterization of a 29 kDa poly(A)-binding protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyath, V; Balasubrahmanyam, A; Kapoor, H C

    2001-08-01

    A poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with mol wt 29,000 has been purified from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyl by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Cibacron blue F3-GA chromatography, making a complex with poly(A) and elution of PABP-poly(A) complex at 45 degrees C from oligo d(T)-cellulose. The elution pattern and binding properties show that the purified protein is different from the PABP (mol. wt 72,000) reported earlier from our laboratory.

  17. Variability in the distribution of phenolic compounds in milled fractions of chickpea and horse gram: evaluation of their antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M

    2010-07-28

    Seed coat, cotyledon and embryonic axe fractions of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum L.) were evaluated for their phenolic composition in relation to antioxidant activities. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed a wide variation in the distribution of flavonols, isoflavones, phenolic acids and anthocyanins among these legume fractions. Although cotyledon fractions of both the legumes were rich in phenolic acids, the concentrations of flavonols such as quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin were significantly (p chickpea, it was present exclusively in the embryonic axe fraction of horse gram at levels greater than daidzein. Furthermore, cyanidin, petunidin, and delphinidin were detected in seed coat and embryonic axe fractions but not in cotyledons. In addition to these three anthocyanins, malvidin was found only in the horse gram seed coat fraction. Seed coat fractions having higher total phenolic indexes were found to be the most active 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers (IC(50) 13.1 to 18.6 microg/mL) followed by embryonic axe and cotyledon fractions (IC(50) 15.4 to 34.2 microg/mL). Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging capacities of cotyledons, embryonic axe and seed coats were 12.3, 34.1 and 78.6% for chickpea and 15.1, 56.8 and 92.6% for horse gram, respectively. The multiple antioxidant activity of horse gram and chickpea fractions was evident, as they also possessed reducing power and ferrous ion-chelating potency. These results contributed to the understanding of the relationships between major phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of legumes and provided useful information for effective utilization of legume-milled fractions as functional food ingredients for promoting health.

  18. Salicylic acid is a modulator of catalase isozymes in chickpea plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between salicylic acid level catalases isoforms chickpea cv. ICCV-10 infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was investigated. Pathogen-treated chickpea plants showed high levels of SA compared with the control. Two isoforms of catalases in shoot extract (CAT-IS and CAT-IIS) and single isoform in root extract (CAT-R) were detected in chickpea. CAT-IS and CAT-R activities were inhibited in respective extracts treated with pathogen whereas, CAT-IIS activity was not inhibited. These isoforms were purified and their kinetic properties studied in the presence or absence of SA. The molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE of CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R was found to be 97, 40 and 66 kDa respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that Km and V(max) of CAT-IS were 0.2 mM and 300 U/mg, 0.53 mM and 180 U/mg for CAT-IIS and 0.25 mM and 280 U/mg for CAT-R, respectively. CAT-IS and CAT-R were found to be more sensitive to SA and 50% of their activities were inhibited at 6 and 4 μM respectively, whereas CAT-IIS was insensitive to SA up to 100 μM. Quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of purified catalases were used to quantitate SA binding; the estimated K(d) value for CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R found to be 2.3 μM, 3.1 mM and 2.8 μM respectively. SA is a modulator of catalase isozymes activity, supports its role in establishment of SAR in chickpea plants infected with the pathogen.

  19. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Arun K.; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorp...

  20. Galactinol synthase enzyme activity influences raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulation in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangola, Manu P; Jaiswal, Sarita; Kannan, Udhaya; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2016-05-01

    To understand raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) metabolism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO accumulation and corresponding biosynthetic enzymes activities were determined during seed development of chickpea genotypes with contrasting RFO concentrations. RFO concentration in mature seeds was found as a facilitator rather than a regulating step of seed germination. In mature seeds, raffinose concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 0.68 and 0.75 to 0.99 g/100 g, whereas stachyose concentrations varied from 0.79 to 1.26 and 1.70 to 1.87 g/100 g indicating significant differences between low and high RFO genotypes, respectively. Chickpea genotypes with high RFO concentration accumulated higher concentrations of myo-inositol and sucrose during early seed developmental stages suggesting that initial substrate concentrations may influence RFO concentration in mature seeds. High RFO genotypes showed about two to three-fold higher activity for all RFO biosynthetic enzymes compared to those with low RFO concentrations. RFO biosynthetic enzymes activities correspond with accumulation of individual RFO during seed development. PMID:26953100

  1. Morphological Variability and Races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris Associated with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Arvayo-Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mexico is the third largest producer and exporter of chickpea (Cicer arietinum, with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora accounting for 70 and 20% of Mexicos production, respectively. The most damaging disease affecting this species is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Ciceris (FOC, which causes losses of up to 60% in Sonora. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the phenotype and genetics of FOC collected from affected chickpea plants in northwestern Mexico and to identify the abiotic factors that allow it to develop. Approach: Sampling focused on affected plants from 12 crops in Sonora and Sinaloa. Based on 355 isolated strains, using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR 161 were positive for FOC. Results: Of the 161 strains, 91 were identified as races previously recorded for the Americas: Yellowing (R0 (41%, R1B/C (15% and wilting (R5 (14% and R6 (28% reflecting the symptoms observed in the areas sampled. The other 70 isolates could be nonpathogenic, or could be races yet to be recorded for the Americas. Conclusion: Morphological variability in FOC was high in the main chickpea producing regions in northwestern Mexico and was not a function of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, nor of the geographic location of the cropfields. This is the first report of races of FOC in Mexico.

  2. Physiological variability and in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosen, M. I.; Ahmed, A. U.; Islam, M. R.

    2010-07-01

    Physiological variability was studied in 10 isolates of Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea, collected from diverse agro climatic areas in Bangladesh. The optimum temperature and pH for the best mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea were 20 degree centigrade and 4.5, respectively. The mycelial radial growth increased with the temperature up to 20 degree centigrade thereafter it decreased gradually up to 30 degree centigrade and no growth was observed at 35 degree centigrade. Chickpea dextrose agar (CDA) medium supported the highest mycelial radial growth (79.17 mm). The quickest (in 5 days) sclerotia initiation was recorded on chickpea destrose agar and lentil dextrose agar (LDA) culture media while the highest number of spores (2.5104 mL{sup -}1) were recorded on LDA medium. The antagonist Trichoderma harzianum was found to be a good bio-control agent against B. cinerea. Among the seven fungicides Bavistin 50 WP (Carbendazim), CP-Zim 50 WP (Carbendazim), Sunphanate 70 WP (Thiophanate methyl) and Rovral 50 WP (Iprodione) were the most effective to inhibit the mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea at 500 mg L{sup -}1 concentration. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Efficacy of combined formulations of fungicides with different modes of action in controlling botrytis gray mold disease in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M H; Hossain, M Ashraf; Kashem, M A; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1-9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  4. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  5. The role of abscisic acid and low temperature in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cold tolerance. II. Effects on plasma membrane structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakht, Jehan; Bano, Asghari; Dominy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The frost hardiness of many plants such as chickpea can be increased by exposure to low non-freezing temperatures and/or the application of abscisic acid (ABA), a process known as frost acclimation. Experiments were conducted to study the response over a 14 d period of enriched plasma membrane fractions isolated from chickpea plants exposed to low temperature and sprayed with exogenous ABA. Measurement of the temperatures inducing 50% foliar cell death (LT50), and subsequent statistical analysis suggest that, like many plants, exposure to low temperatures (5/-2 degrees C; day/night) induces a significant level (P chickpea when compared with control plants (20/7 degrees C; day/night). Spraying plants with exogenous ABA also increased frost tolerance (P chickpea plants to low temperatures increased the DBI by 15% at day 4 and 19% at day 14 when compared with untreated control plants. Application of ABA alone did not increase the DBI by more than 6% at any time; the effects of both treatments applied together was more than additive, inducing a DBI increase of 27% at day 14 when compared with controls. There was a good correlation (P properties of the plasma membrane other than fluidity are involved in frost acclimation in chickpea.

  6. mQTL-seq delineates functionally relevant candidate gene harbouring a major QTL regulating pod number in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shouvik; Singh, Mohar; Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Rana, Jai C; Bansal, Kailash C; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-02-01

    The present study used a whole-genome, NGS resequencing-based mQTL-seq (multiple QTL-seq) strategy in two inter-specific mapping populations (Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46 and Pusa 256 × ILWC 46) to scan the major genomic region(s) underlying QTL(s) governing pod number trait in chickpea. Essentially, the whole-genome resequencing of low and high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals (constituting bulks) from each of these two mapping populations discovered >8 million high-quality homozygous SNPs with respect to the reference kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of the physically mapped SNPs was apparent from the identified 2,264 non-synonymous and 23,550 regulatory SNPs, with 8-10% of these SNPs-carrying genes corresponding to transcription factors and disease resistance-related proteins. The utilization of these mined SNPs in Δ (SNP index)-led QTL-seq analysis and their correlation between two mapping populations based on mQTL-seq, narrowed down two (Caq(a)PN4.1: 867.8 kb and Caq(a)PN4.2: 1.8 Mb) major genomic regions harbouring robust pod number QTLs into the high-resolution short QTL intervals (Caq(b)PN4.1: 637.5 kb and Caq(b)PN4.2: 1.28 Mb) on chickpea chromosome 4. The integration of mQTL-seq-derived one novel robust QTL with QTL region-specific association analysis delineated the regulatory (C/T) and coding (C/A) SNPs-containing one pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene at a major QTL region regulating pod number in chickpea. This target gene exhibited anther, mature pollen and pod-specific expression, including pronounced higher up-regulated (∼3.5-folds) transcript expression in high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two mapping populations especially during pollen and pod development. The proposed mQTL-seq-driven combinatorial strategy has profound efficacy in rapid genome-wide scanning of potential candidate gene(s) underlying trait-associated high-resolution robust QTL(s), thereby

  7. Assessment of the estrogenic activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) sprout isoflavone extract in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong MA; Jie WANG; Hong-xue QI; Yan-hua GAO; Li-juan PANG; Yi YANG; Zhen-hua WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is a traditional Uighur herb.In this study we investigated the estrogenic activities of the isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) in ovariectomized rats.Methods:Ten-week-old virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX).The rats were administered via intragastric gavage 3 different doses of ICS (20,50,or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) for 5 weeks.Their uterine weight and serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured.The epithelial height,number of glands in the uterus,and number of osteoclasts in the femur were histologically quantified,and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was assessed immunohistochemically.Bone structural parameters,including bone mineral density (BMD),bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV),trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured using Micro-CT scanning.Results:Treatments of OVX rats with ICS (50 or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced significant estrogenic effects on the uteruses,including the increases in uterine weight,epithelial height and gland number,as well as in the expression of the cell proliferation marker PCNA.The treatments changed the secretory profile of ovarian hormones and pituitary gonadotropins:serum E2 level was significantly increased,while serum LH and FSH levels were decreased compared with the vehicle-treated OVX rats.Furthermore,the treatments significantly attenuated the bone loss,increased BMD,BV/TV and Tb.Th and decreased Tb.Sp and the number of osteoclasts.Treatment of OVX rats with the positive control drug E2 (0.25 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced similar,but more prominent effects.Conclusion:ICS exhibits moderate estrogenic activities as compared to E2 in ovariectomized rats,suggesting the potential use of ICS for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the CaNAC family members in chickpea during development, dehydration and ABA treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Van Ha

    Full Text Available The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control, dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought.

  9. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability. PMID:26990186

  10. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability.

  11. Integrated Management of Damping-off, Root and/or Stem Rot Diseases of Chickpea and Efficacy of the Suggested Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-01-01

    Eleven fungal isolates were isolated from naturally infected chickpea roots collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate (Egypt). The isolated fungi were purified and identified as Rhizoctonia solani (5 isolates), Fusarium solani (4 isolates) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2 isolates). The isolated fungi proved their pathogenicity on cv. �Giza 3�. Response of chickpea cvs. �Giza 1�, �Giza 2�, �Giza 3�, �Giza 4�, �Giza 88�, �Giza 195�, �Giza 531� to infection by the tested fungi...

  12. Production of indole acetic acid by Pseudomonas sp.: effect of coinoculation with Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer on nodulation and plant growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Deepak K.; Sindhu, Satyavir S.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and green gram (Vigna radiata) were found to produce significant amount of indole acetic acid (IAA) when grown in a LB medium broth supplemented with L-tryptophan. Seed bacterization of chickpea cultivar C235 with different Pseudomonas isolates showed stunting effect on the development of root and shoot at 5 and 10 days of seedling growth except the strains MPS79 and MPS90 that showed stimulation of root growt...

  13. Physicochemical and structural evaluation of alkali extracted chickpea starch as affected by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-08-01

    In this study, starch isolated from chickpea was exposed to gamma-irradiation at 0, 4, 8 and 12kGy doses. The irradiated starches were evaluated for their physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties. The results revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in apparent amylose content, swelling power, turbidity, syneresis, L (lightness) value, and pasting parameters whereas solubility and b (yellowness) value increased with increase in irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction showed C-type of crystallographic pattern. Relative crystallinity (RC) of irradiated starches was different at different irradiation doses. Prominent changes were recorded in the FT-IR spectra of irradiated starch samples with respect to intensity and shifting of major bands in specific regions. Analysis of O - H and C - H stretches, bending mode of water and glycoside bonds of irradiated starches revealed marked decrease in their absorbance intensities. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracking and clumping of starch granules at elevated doses of gamma-irradiation. Radiation doses were negatively correlated to swelling power, pasting parameters (peak viscosity, hold viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity and pasting temperature), turbidity, syneresis and apparent amylose content except solubility.

  14. Natural incidence of aflatoxins, mycological profile and molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic strains in chickpea flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mycological profile of retail chickpea flour (locall called Baisan), sold in the markets in the Rawalpindi district was studied. All the samples were tested for the contamination with aflatoxins. A total of 13 fungal species isolated from the flour and out of which, Aspergillus flavus was recorded the most common species (100%), followed by Rhizopus oryzea (50%), Aspergillus niger (40%), Penicilium digitatum (30%), Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporium, Mucor recemosus, M. petrinsularis and Rhizopus arrhizus (20% each), Aspergillus oryzea, Botritus cinerea, Mucor circineloides and Penicillium sp. (10% each). Aflatoxin B1 was found in only 20% of the samples ranging from 3.03-4.24ppb. The molecular characterization was carried out by using PCR using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers. The SSR amplification pattern clearly showed the genetic variability among the 10 strains of A. flavus. A dendrogram was generated through MVSP software program. Genotype AF04 was most diverse among all genotypes. The similarity value was ranged between 0.538 (53.8%)-0.938 (93.8%). (author)

  15. Screening for Pseudomonas and Bacillus antagonistic rhizobacteria strains for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannane Abed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the ability of several isolates belonging to Rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas and Bacillus collected from several chickpea growing areas in Algeria, to control the mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Interesting isolates were characterized for their morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical activities as potential bio-control agent. Fungal inhibition tests were performed using plate assay and each isolate were tested for the production of protease, cyanide hydrogen, indole acetic acid, antifungal volatile and extracellular compound. According to API 50 CH, we are able to identify six Bacillus species (B. subtilis, B. circulans, B. lentus, B. aneurinilyticus, B. firmus, B. licheniformis; and with API 20NE test we have identified three Pseudomonas species (P. aeruginosa, P. luteola, P. fluorescens. The ability of bacterial isolates was varied in production of Protease, Gelatinase, Amylase, Cellulase, Acid Indole acetic, Lipase, Catalase and Cyanid Hydrogen. This is traduced in different rate of inhibition growth due to various extracellular compounds, where B61 (Bacillus aneurinilyticus and P39 (Pseudomonas luteola and P70 (Pseudomonas fluorescens were the most efficient with 77 and 55.5% respectively, while B39 (Bacillus firmus and P41 (Pseudomonas luteola were the most efficient by volatile compounds with 70.5 and 77.5% respectively. Our results indicate that these bacteria isolates can be used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris.

  16. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaâd; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-11-15

    The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface characteristics of CPI and their hydrolysates (CPH) according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were also determined. These parameters were then related to the changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability (ESI). The enzymatic hydrolysis was found to improve protein recovery and solubility, leading to a reduction in the molecular weight bands with a concomitant increase in the intensity and appearance of protein bands having apparent molecular mass below 20 kDa. The interfacial tension decreased from ∼ 66.5 mN m(-1) for CPI to ∼ 59.1 m Nm(-1) for CPH. A similar trend was observed for the surface charge which declined from -27.55 mV to -16.4 mV for the CPI and CPH, respectively. These changes were found to have a detrimental effect on the EAI and ESI values. PMID:25977033

  17. Physicochemical and structural evaluation of alkali extracted chickpea starch as affected by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-08-01

    In this study, starch isolated from chickpea was exposed to gamma-irradiation at 0, 4, 8 and 12kGy doses. The irradiated starches were evaluated for their physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties. The results revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in apparent amylose content, swelling power, turbidity, syneresis, L (lightness) value, and pasting parameters whereas solubility and b (yellowness) value increased with increase in irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction showed C-type of crystallographic pattern. Relative crystallinity (RC) of irradiated starches was different at different irradiation doses. Prominent changes were recorded in the FT-IR spectra of irradiated starch samples with respect to intensity and shifting of major bands in specific regions. Analysis of O - H and C - H stretches, bending mode of water and glycoside bonds of irradiated starches revealed marked decrease in their absorbance intensities. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracking and clumping of starch granules at elevated doses of gamma-irradiation. Radiation doses were negatively correlated to swelling power, pasting parameters (peak viscosity, hold viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity and pasting temperature), turbidity, syneresis and apparent amylose content except solubility. PMID:27132882

  18. Response of rainfed chickpea (cicer arietnum L.) to tween row spatial arrangement at multiple densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant density and arrangement are important factors affecting rainfed chickpea yield. A field experiment was conducted under the Eastern Mediterranean conditions for two consecutive growing seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011) to evaluate the effects of plant density (20, 25, 35 and 55 plants per m 2) and spatial configuration (conventional single 36-cm row width vs 18-cm twin rows spaced 72-cm between paired-rows). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Light interception (LI) and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly affected by plant density. Twin-row arrangement had higher light interception efficiency (LIE) than the single-row. Plants grown in the higher plant densities had greater LAI and LI; however, they had inefficient use of incident solar radiation. The number of primary branches was significantly affected by both planting patterns and plant densities, but the number of secondary branches was significantly affected only by the plant densities. The number of pods and seeds/plant decreased with the increasing plant density. The highest seed weight/plant was recorded at the lowest density (20 plants/m2) while the lowest one was recorded at the highest plant density (55 plants/m2). Seed weight and harvest index in the twin row were significantly higher in tween row than in the single row. (author)

  19. Purification and Properties of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Immature Pods of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, H R; Singh, R

    1986-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) was purified to homogeneity with about 29% recovery from immature pods of chickpea using ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme with molecular weight of about 200,000 daltons was a tetramer of four identical subunits and exhibited maximum activity at pH 8.1. Mg(2+) ions were specifically required for the enzyme activity. The enzyme showed typical hyperbolic kinetics with phosphoenolpyruvate with a K(m) of 0.74 millimolar, whereas sigmoidal response was observed with increasing concentrations of HCO(3) (-) with S(0.5) value as 7.6 millimolar. The enzyme was activated by inorganic phosphate and phosphate esters like glucose-6-phosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and inhibited by nucleotide triphosphates, organic acids, and divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mn(2+). Oxaloacetate and malate inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively. Glucose-6-phosphate reversed the inhibitory effects of oxaloacetate and malate.

  20. Infant food from quality protein maize and chickpea: optimization for preparing and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Valdez, C; Milán-Carrillo, J; Cárdenas-Valenzuela, O G; Mora-Escobedo, R; Bello-Pérez, L A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2005-06-01

    The present study had two objectives: to determine the best combination of nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from quality protein maize and extruded chickpea flour (ECF) for producing an infant food, and to evaluate the nutritional properties of the optimized NMF/ECF mixture and the infant food. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the best combination of NMF/ECF; the experimental design (Lattice simplex) generated 11 assays. Mixtures from each assay were evaluated for true protein and available lysine. Each one of 11 mixtures was used for preparing 11 infant foods that were sensory evaluated for acceptability. A common optimum value for the three response variables was obtained utilizing the desirability method. The best combination of NMF/ECF for producing an infant food was NMF = 26.7%/ECF = 73.3%; this optimized mixture had a global desirability of 0.87; it contained 19.72% dry matter (DM) proteins, 6.10% (DM) lipids, 71.45% (DM) carbohydrates, and 2.83% (DM) minerals; its essential amino acids profile covered the amino acids requirements for children 10-12 years old. The infant food prepared from optimized mixture had an in vitro protein digestibility of 87.9%, and a calculated protein efficiency ratio of 1.86. Infant food could be used to support the growth of infants in developing countries.

  1. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations.

  2. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaâd; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-11-15

    The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface characteristics of CPI and their hydrolysates (CPH) according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were also determined. These parameters were then related to the changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability (ESI). The enzymatic hydrolysis was found to improve protein recovery and solubility, leading to a reduction in the molecular weight bands with a concomitant increase in the intensity and appearance of protein bands having apparent molecular mass below 20 kDa. The interfacial tension decreased from ∼ 66.5 mN m(-1) for CPI to ∼ 59.1 m Nm(-1) for CPH. A similar trend was observed for the surface charge which declined from -27.55 mV to -16.4 mV for the CPI and CPH, respectively. These changes were found to have a detrimental effect on the EAI and ESI values.

  3. Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides metabolism in developing chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides (RFOs) have anti-nutritional properties where phytic acid chelates minerals and reduces their bioavailability to humans and other animals, and RFOs cause flatulence. Both phytic acid and RFOs cannot be digested by monogastric animals and are released as pollutant-wastes. Efforts are being made to reduce the contents of these factors without affecting the viability of seeds. This will require a thorough understanding of their metabolism in different crops. Biosynthetic pathways of both metabolites though are interlinked but not well described. This study was made on metabolism of these two contents in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L cv GL 769) seeds. In this study, deposition of RFOs was found to occur before deposition of phytic acid. A decline in inorganic phosphorus and increase in phospholipid phosphorus and phytic acid was observed in seeds during development. Acid phosphatase was the major phosphatase in seed as well as podwall and its activity was highest at early stage of development, thereafter it decreased. Partitioning of (14) C label from (14) C-glucose and (14) C-sucrose into RFOs and phytic acid was studied in seeds in presence of inositol, galactose and iositol and galactose, which favored the view that galactinol synthase is not the key enzyme in RFOs synthesis.

  4. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25643994

  5. Evaluation and biochemical characterization of a distinctive pyoverdin from a pseudomonas isolated from chickpea rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Tank

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial siderophores confiscate the available ferric ions around the roots and trigger a reaction resulting in plant growth promotion. In our study, a high level of siderophore production was observed from a newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. from the rhizosphere of Chickpea plants. Under an iron depleted condition in Standard Succinic acid medium a 1000 µgmL-1 of siderophore production was achieved. Increasing the concentration of iron showed an inverse relationship between growth and siderophore production. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the purified crystals, its UV spectral analysis and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC revealed the identity of the siderophore as similar to that of pyoverdin with distinctive characters. Electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESIMS shows presence of abundance of A1 ions (419 m/z and branching of amino acids from B1-B5. This pyoverdin contains a cyclic tetra peptide but Serine and Arginine are missing. Based on our analysis and deviations from the reported structure of pyoverdin it is suggested that this pseudomonas produces distinctly characterized pyoverdin siderophore.

  6. IAA-producing rhizobacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) induce changes in root architecture and increase root biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Coronado, Rosario Alicia; Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco Roberto; García-Pérez, Luz María; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobacteria promote and have beneficial effects on plant growth, making them useful to agriculture. Nevertheless, the rhizosphere of the chickpea plant has not been extensively examined. The aim of the present study was to select indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing rhizobacteria from the rhizosphere of chickpea plants for their potential use as biofertilizers. After obtaining a collection of 864 bacterial isolates, we performed a screen using the Salkowski reaction for the presence of auxin compounds (such as IAA) in bacterial Luria-Bertani supernatant (BLBS). Our results demonstrate that the Salkowski reaction has a greater specificity for detecting IAA than other tested auxins. Ten bacterial isolates displaying a wide range of auxin accumulation were selected, producing IAA levels of 5 to 90 μmol/L (according to the Salkowski reaction). Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of 16S rDNA partial sequences: 9 isolates belonged to Enterobacter, and 1 isolate was classified as Serratia. The effect of BLBS on root morphology was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana. IAA production by rhizobacteria was confirmed by means of a DR5::GFP construct that is responsive to IAA, and also by HPLC-GC/MS. Finally, we observed that IAA secreted by rhizobacteria (i) modified the root architecture of A. thaliana, (ii) caused an increase in chickpea root biomass, and (iii) activated the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by the DR5 promoter. These findings provide evidence that these novel bacterial isolates may be considered as putative plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria modifying root architecture and increasing root biomass. PMID:25231840

  7. Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Microbial Biomass N in the Rhizosphere of Chickpea as Estimated by 15N Isotope Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiment was carried out with chickpea that cultivated in virgin sandy soil and inoculated with Rhizobium (Rh), mycorrhizea (VAM) and mixture of both. The objective of this work is the estimation of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and microbial biomass N (MBN) contribution as affected by inoculation and N and P fertilizers levels under chickpea plants. Nitrogen gained from air (Ndf A) was determined using 15N isotope dilution technique, while the MBN was detected through the fumigation-extraction method. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied at three levels, 0; 10 ppm N and 3.3 ppm P and 20 ppm Nand 6.6 ppm P in the form of (15NH4)2SO4 and super-phosphate, respectively. The effect of inoculation and chemical fertilizers on dry matter (DM), N and P uptake (shoot and grain), BNF and MBN were traced. The obtained data revealed that the highest DM and N uptake by chickpea shoot were recorded with the dual inoculation (Rh + VAM) at the moderate level of N and P fertilizers, while the highest DM, N and P uptake by grain were recorded with Rh solely at the same rate of fertilizers. It was clear that inoculation with Rh either alone or in combination with VAM substituted considerable amounts of N via BNF process. In this respect, dual inoculation is still superior over single inoculation. Percentages of N2-fixed was ranged from 45% to 73% in shoot while it was 27% to 69% in grain according to inoculation and fertilization treatments. Fixed N utilized by shoot was positively affected by increasing the N fertilizer rate while that derived by grain was not affected. The fluctuation in the soil microbial biomass N did not gave us a chance to recognize, exactly, the impact of inoculation and/or fertilization levels. (Authors)

  8. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the watershed.

  9. Allelopathic potential of Euphorbia helioscopia L. against wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.)

    OpenAIRE

    TANVEER, Asif; REHMAN, Aqeel; JAVAID, Muhammad Mansoor; ABBAS, Rana Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating the allelopathic effect of root, stem, leaf, and fruit water extracts and infested soil of Euphorbia helioscopia L. on the seed germination and seedling growth of wheat, chickpea, and lentil were conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. Water extracts of root, stem, leaf, and fruit were prepared by soaking dried plant parts of E. helioscopia in water (1:20 w/v) for a period of 24 h. Seedling emergence, seedling vigor index, and total dry weight of...

  10. PATHOGENICITY TESTS AND EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES AGAINST RHIZOCTONIA BATATICOLA, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF DRY ROOT ROT OF CHICKPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Amrutha Veena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathogen was identified based on its mycelial and sclerotial characters and pathogenicity test was proved by soil inoculation method. Efficacy of two non systemic fungicides (copper oxychloride and captan, two systemic fungicides (hexaconazole and tebuconazole and one antifungal antibiotic validamycin each at different concentrations were tested against Rhizoctonia bataticola, incitant of dry root rot of chickpea under in vitro conditions. The fungicides copper oxychloride, captan, hexaconazole and tebuconazole were found to be highly effective (100% in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the highly virulent pathogen at all the concentrations tested.

  11. Changes in the levels of phytochelatins and related metal-binding peptides in chickpea seedlings exposed to arsenic and different heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dharmendra K; Tohoyama, Hiroshi; Joho, Masanori; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2004-06-01

    Phytochelatin-related peptides were analyzed in chickpea plants exposed to six different heavy-metal ions. Cadmium and arsenic stimulated phytochelatin and homophytochelatin synthesis in roots but other metals did not. These metals, however, caused an overall increase in the precursors, glutathione, homoglutathione and cysteine. These changes may be different biochemical indexes for heavy-metal contamination.

  12. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with ace

  13. Large-scale transcriptome analysis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an orphan legume crop of the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop in the semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa. Gains in crop productivity have been low however, particularly due to biotic and abiotic stresses. To help enhance crop productivity using molecular breeding techniques, next generation sequencing ...

  14. 鹰嘴豆营养保健价值及其应用%Nutrients and Health Function of Chickpea and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯婷

    2011-01-01

    通过分析鹰嘴豆的营养成分,对其营养功能及保健作用进行了评价,并对鹰嘴豆的研究与开发进行了展望.%Nutrients of chickpea was analyzed, its health function was evaluated, and its study and development were prospected.

  15. Effect of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate contents, catalase and peroxidase activities in three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate content, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) activities in three varieties of chickpea (drought tole

  16. Optimization of energy consumption and environmental impacts of chickpea production using data envelopment analysis (DEA and multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Elhami

    2016-09-01

    In this study, optimization of energy consumption and environmental impacts of chickpea production was conducted using data envelopment analysis (DEA and multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA techniques. Data were collected from 110 chickpea production enterprises using a face to face questionnaire in the cropping season of 2014–2015. The results of optimization revealed that, when applying MOGA, optimum energy requirement for chickpea production was significantly lower compared to application of DEA technique; so that, total energy requirement in optimum situation was found to be 31511.72 and 27570.61 MJ ha−1 by using DEA and MOGA techniques, respectively; showing a reduction by 5.11% and 17% relative to current situation of energy consumption. Optimization of environmental impacts by application of MOGA resulted in reduction of acidification potential (ACP, eutrophication potential (EUP, global warming potential (GWP, human toxicity potential (HTP and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential (TEP by 29%, 23%, 10%, 6% and 36%, respectively. MOGA was capable of reducing the energy consumption from machinery, farmyard manure (FYM diesel fuel and nitrogen fertilizer (the mostly contributed inputs to the environmental emissions by 59%, 28.5%, 24.58% and 11.24%, respectively. Overall, the MOGA technique showed a superior performance relative to DEA approach for optimizing energy inputs and reducing environmental impacts of chickpea production system.

  17. Nutritional properties of quality protein maize and chickpea extruded based weaning food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Valdéz-Alarcón, C; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cárdenas-Valenzuela, O G; Mora-Escobedo, R; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2007-03-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in most of the developing countries. To minimize the adversities of malnutrition, low-cost infant supplementary foods have been developed and are being supplied to the needy through state-sponsored nutrition intervention programmers. The present study had two objectives: to determine the best combination of nixtamalized extruded quality protein maize (NEMF) and extruded chickpea (ECF) flours for producing a weaning food, and to evaluate the nutritional properties of the optimized NEMF/ECF mixture and the weaning food. The NEMF and ECF were produced applying combinations of extrusion temperature/screw speed of 79.4 degrees C/73.5 rpm, and 150.5 degrees C/190.5 rpm, respectively. Response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimum combination NEMF/ECF; the experimental design generated 11 assays. Mixtures from each assay were evaluated for true protein (TP) and available lysine (AL). Each one of 11 mixtures were used for preparing 11 weaning foods which were sensory evaluated for acceptability (A). The best combination of NEMF/ECF for producing a weaning food was NEMF = 21.2%/ ECF = 78.8 %. This mixture had a global desirability (D) of 0.93; it contained 20.07% proteins (DM), 5.70% lipids (DM), and 71.14% carbohydrates (DM); its essential amino acids (EAA) profile satisfactorily covered the EAA requirements for children 2-5 years old, except for Trp. The weaning food prepared with the optimized mixture had high protein quality and digestibility and could be used to support the growth of infants.

  18. Mutation breeding for resistance to downy mildew and ergot in Pennisetum and to Ascochyta in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutational rectification of the susceptible male steriles of otherwise food yield, and the pollen parents in pearl millet of the released hybrids has been completed successfully. The reconstituted hybrids were tested in National Coordination trials and one of them (NHB5) has been released for All-India cultivation during 1975. They were also tested in more than 2000 trials all over India in farmers' fields. The yield level of the released hybrid (NHB5) based on trials during the past four seasons is 19.2 Q/ha in 232 trials as compared to 14.5 Q/ha of HB-3 (old) based on 221 trials. Biochemical analysis of seedlings of the mutant male steriles resistant to downy mildew and their normal counterparts indicated larger peroxidase activity of high electrophoretic mobility in the resistant ones. In the trials of the reconstituted hybrids along with their normal counterparts the new hybrids proved at least as good in yield even in the absence of the disease in virulent form. Mutational rectification of the male sterile lines and pollen parents could be shown to provide resistance with wide adaptation. Nearly 400 tons of hybrid seed from mutational rectified parents has replaced the earlier hybrids and will cover an area of 80,000 ha in 1976 alone. The low incidence of downy mildew in the male sterile developed from the mutation breeding is likely to be horizontal resistance of greater stability. The M2 generation of chickpea showed appropriate skewed distribution of means for several of the 17 characters studied, including flowering time and yield

  19. Prebiotic Function of Alpha-Galactooligosaccharides from Chickpea Seeds%鹰嘴豆α-低聚半乳糖的肠道益生功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晋艳; 张芸; 李伟; 孙怡; 曾晓雄

    2011-01-01

    Crude chickpea extract was obtained from chickpea seeds by extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution by shaking and purified by medium-pressure activated carbon-diatomite column chromatography to obtain chickpea α-galactooligosacchardies(α-GOS) with different purities.The prebiotic function of α-GOS was evaluated by anaerobic fermentation method in vitro against human fecal bacteria and fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH).The results demonstrated that α-GOS in chickpea was an efficient proliferation factor to beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp.and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.,and an inhibitory factor to harmful bacteria such as Bacteroides prevotella group and Clostridium histolyticum group.During the anaerobic fermentation in vitro,the bacterial composition was affected by the addition of chickpea α-GOS.However,total bacterial number had no difference.In addition,the sample with the highest content of α-GOS(90%) showed the highest prebiotic index(PI,2.00).The PI of samples containingα-GOS at the content of 70%—80% and 80%—90% and crude chickpea extract were 1.39,1.73 and 0.89,respectively,while the PI of the control sample without saccharide addition was-0.29.Therefore,α-GOS in chickpea had an excellent prebiotic function.%以鹰嘴豆为材料,通过提取与活性炭-硅藻土柱层析分离纯化,制备鹰嘴豆粗提物和不同纯化程度的鹰嘴豆α-低聚半乳糖(α-GOS)样品。采用体外厌氧粪样混合培养与荧光原位杂交技术,评价鹰嘴豆α-GOS的益生功能。结果表明:鹰嘴豆α-GOS对肠道有益菌(双歧杆菌、乳酸菌)有较好的增殖作用,而对有害菌(拟杆菌、梭状菌)的生长有一定的抑制作用;鹰嘴豆α-GOS只是改变了肠道内菌体的组成,而对总体菌群的数量基本没有影响;α-GOS含量高于90%的鹰嘴豆α-GOS样品的益生指数(PI)最高(2.00),α-GOS含量为70

  20. Potential of recycling gamma-irradiated sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer: a study on chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, G A; Sachidanand, S; Modi, V V

    1989-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated sludge were found to be significantly reduced. This inhibition in growth was found to be nullified when plants were grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge, suggesting that gamma radiation induced inactivation of toxic substance(s) in sludge. The protein content of plants grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge was also found to be significantly increased compared to those grown with unirradiated or no sludge, after 45 days. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiated sludge on shoot length, total soluble sugars, starch content and yield of chickpea plants. The results obtained suggest that the sludge tested, and obtained from the digester of a conventional domestic sewage treatment plant, is inhibitory to several growth parameters. Gamma irradiation of sewage resulted in removal of this inhibition. This suggests a possibility of beneficial and safe recycling of gamma-irradiated sludge for agricultural uses.

  1. Preparation of the Sugar Free Chickpea Yoghurt%无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅樱花

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to prepare the sugar free chickpea yoghurt.The results showed that the product of sugar free chickpea yoghurt was good in color,smell and flavor under the conditions of the inoculation size dose 7%,the fermentation time 10 h at 42 ℃ and the addition 0.05% aspartame.%以鹰嘴豆、复原乳为主要原料,将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为发酵剂,按质量分数为7%进行接种,在发酵时间为10 h、发酵温度为42℃的条件下,添加不同水平的甜味剂进行无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶发酵研究。结果表明:阿斯巴甜在甜味和口感上较柔和,适合作为无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的甜味剂使用,按质量分数0.05%水平进行添加得到的酸奶口感及风味较好。

  2. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. PMID:25866197

  3. Change in morphological properties of root and aerial parts of chickpea under drought stress, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices and Mesorhizobium Ciceri bacteria at three soil moisture levels [28% (field capacity, FC, 15% (-5 bar suction and 9% (-10 bar tension by weight] on morphological properties of root and aerial parts of chickpea, a greenhouse factorial experiment, arranged as a complete randomized design, was conducted in a sterilized soil. Results showed that moisture treatment had significance effect on number of pods, number of seeds, fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts, plant height and root length and volume. Application of Mesorhizobium was effective on number of nodes, number of pods, number of seeds, fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts, plant height, root length and volume. Glomus mosseae had significant effect on plant height. Interaction of moisture and AM fungi was significant on fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts. Interaction effect of Mesorhizobium and soil moisture was only significant on number of nodes. In general, the highest fresh and dry weight of aerial parts (44.6 and 10.53 grams, respectively was obtained by inoculation of chickpea by rhizobium bacteria and Glomus mosseae at FC moisture level, and AM fungi Glomus mosseae was more efficient compared to Glomus intraradices in both drought stress and without stress conditions.

  4. Potential of recycling gamma-irradiated sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer: a study on chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated sludge were found to be significantly reduced. This inhibition in growth was found to be nullified when plants were grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge, suggesting that gamma radiation induced inactivation of toxic substance(s) in sludge. The protein content of plants grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge was also found to be significantly increased compared to those grown with unirradiated or no sludge, after 45 days. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiated sludge on shoot length, total soluble sugars, starch content and yield of chickpea plants. The results obtained suggest that the sludge tested, and obtained from the digester of a conventional domestic sewage treatment plant, is inhibitory to several growth parameters. Gamma irradiation of sewage resulted in removal of this inhibition. This suggests a possibility of beneficial and safe recycling of gamma-irradiated sludge for agricultural uses. (author)

  5. The CarERF genes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and the identification of CarERF116 as abiotic stress responsive transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Amit A; Kondawar, Vishwajith; Kohli, Deshika; Aslam, Mohammad; Jain, Pradeep K; Karuppayil, S Mohan; Varshney, Rajeev K; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor gene families that are involved in various plant processes, especially in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Complete genome sequences of one of the world's most important pulse crops chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), has provided an important opportunity to identify and characterize genome-wide ERF genes. In this study, we identified 120 putative ERF genes from chickpea. The genomic organization of the chickpea ERF genes suggested that the gene family might have been expanded through the segmental duplications. The 120 member ERF family was classified into eleven distinct groups (I-X and VI-L). Transcriptional factor CarERF116, which is differentially expressed between drought tolerant and susceptible chickpea cultivar under terminal drought stress has been identified and functionally characterized. The CarERF116 encodes a putative protein of 241 amino acids and classified into group IX of ERF family. An in vitro CarERF116 protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that CarERF116 protein specifically interacts with GCC box. We demonstrate that CarERF116 is capable of transactivation activity of and show that the functional transcriptional domain lies at the C-terminal region of the CarERF116. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CarERF116, significant up-regulation of several stress related genes were observed. These plants also exhibit resistance to osmotic stress and reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Based on these findings, we conclude that CarERF116 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which plays an important role in stress tolerance. In addition, the present study leads to genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of chickpea ERF gene family, which will facilitate further research on this important group of genes and provides valuable resources for comparative genomics among the grain legumes. PMID:25274312

  6. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paço

    Full Text Available The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials. The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants

  7. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli

  8. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli-type chickpeas, which are

  9. Field evaluation of cutter and feeder mechanism of chickpea harvester for lentil harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kamgar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main producers of lentil are Canada, India, Nepal and China, respectively and Iran is the ninth producer in the world. The hand pulling is the usual method of lentil harvesting. Use of conventional combine because of short leg varieties, wide combine head in dry land and grain losses by cutter bar vibrations is impossible. So a mechanism should be designed to harvest the lentil plants with minimum damage. This mechanism should be evaluated under different tests of crop and machines such as forward speed (FS, grain moisture content (GMC, different varieties and other parameters. Some researchers studied the effects of GMC (Andrews and et al., 1993; Huitink, 2005; Adisa, 2009; Abdi and Jalali, 2013 and FS on grain losses (Geng et al., 1984; Swapan et al., 2001; Mostafavand and Kamgar, 2014; Hunt, 1995. Field tests were conducted at three levels of FS 1.5, 3 and 4.5 km.h-1; three levels of cutting height (CH 4, 8 and 13 cm and two levels of GMC, 8 and 14% on two varieties of lentils including Flip and Shiraz with three replications. Materials and Methods The feeder and cutter mechanism for chickpea harvesting that was the base design of device which is notched wheel and counter shear, was used. The other components of device were dividers, slat and chain feeders, belt and pulleys, chassis, elevator conveyor and storage. Two split plot design based on a randomized complete design was used to determine the effects of above treatments on lentil losses. Results and Discussion The ANOVA results indicated that the all studied factors; FS of feeder and cutter mechanism, CH and GMC had significant effect on losses of Shiraz variety (P0.05. The ranges of losses of Flip variety at 8% GMC were 8.6 to 10% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 9.1 to 10.4% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 10.4 to 11.4% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. These ranges at 14% GMC were 7.9 to 8.9% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 8.4 to 9.2% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 8.5 to 10% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. The ranges of

  10. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) physiological, chemical and growth responses to irrigation with saline water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Omari, Halima El; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik;

    2014-01-01

    water salinity has negatively affected growth and biomass accumulation and led to reduced grain yield, water uptake and water productivity. In contrast, proline, soluble sugars, Na+ and Na+: K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity. The findings highlighted the role of proline...... was carried out on pot experiments. Differences in water uptake and plant growth; as well as proline, soluble sugar, and Na+ and K+ contents of the plant were quantified. The results showed a negative relationship between increasing water salinity and most of the measured plant growth parameters. Irrigation...... and soluble sugars as osmolytes produced by chickpea to mitigate the effect of salinity stress. The added value of these results is that the crop's responses to salinity are quantified. The obtained values can be used to determine 'threshold values'; should the salinity of the irrigation water go above...

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro. PMID:26516115

  12. Twin screw extrusion of kodo millet-chickpea blend: process parameter optimization, physico-chemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, R; Mishra, H N; Srivastav, P P

    2014-11-01

    Kodo millet-chickpea flour blend (70:30) was explored for development of directly expanded snack by twin-screw extrusion. Effect of process parameters like temperature (80-150 °C), screw speed (250-300 rpm) and feeder speed (15-30 rpm) on physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, crispiness) of extrudates were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Desirable crispy extrudates were obtained at higher screw speed 293 rpm, lower feeder speed 19 rpm, and medium to high temperature of 123 °C. Effect of extreme and intermediate process conditions on functional, proximate quality and colour of the extrudates were also evaluated.

  13. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  14. Plant growth promoting potential of the fungus Discosia sp. FIHB 571 from tea rhizosphere tested on chickpea, maize and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, P; Vyas, P; Sharma, S; Gulati, Ashu; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-06-01

    The ITS region sequence of a phosphate-solubilizing fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of tea growing in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh showed 96% identity with Discosia sp. strain HKUCC 6626 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2 complete sequence, and 28S rRNA gene partial sequence. The fungus exhibited the multiple plant growth promoting attributes of solubilization of inorganic phosphate substrates, production of phytase and siderophores, and biosynthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA)-like auxins. The fungal inoculum significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry matter in the test plants of maize, pea and chickpea over the uninoculated control under the controlled environment. The plant growth promoting attributes have not been previously studied for the fungus. The fungal strain with its multiple plant growth promoting activities appears attractive towards the development of microbial inoculants. PMID:23100761

  15. Study of fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris resistance in recombinant inbred line population of chickpea

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    Sidramappa, S. A. Patil, Shobharani.M and P. M. Salimath

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is a devastating disease of chickpea in India. One hundred and 26 RecombinantInbred Lines (RILs derived from a cross ICCV-2 x JG 62 along with six checks were evaluated for wilt resistance underunprotected natural infestation to identify the genetic sources for resistance. The genotypes were classified as highly resistant,moderately resistant, intermediate, susceptible and highly susceptible based on per cent plants wilted. Some of genotypesshowed high resistance to fusarium wilt. The per cent plants wilted in different lines ranged from O to 100 per cent. A total of45, 31, 25, 11 and 20 genotypes fell into highly resistant, moderately resistant, intermediate, susceptible and highly susceptibleclasses respectively. Less proportion of highly resistant genotypes were observed and it may be due to the fact that the wiltresistance was governed by recessive alleles. The resistant genotypes may be exploited for the development of resistant cultivarsagainst wilt.

  16. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum steep liquor as a leavening agent: Effect on dough rheology and sensory properties of bread

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    Saad Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough fermentation is one of the oldest process in food technologies. It has been recently intensively studied for its impact on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked products. The goals of this work were to investigate chickpea steep liquor (CSL as a dough-leavening agent and to study the effect of CSL on the dough rheology and sensory properties of leavened bread. CSL was prepared by submerging chickpea seeds in boiled distilled water (1:2, w/v for 24 h at 37оC, and then obtained liquor was filtered and freeze-dried to obtain CSL. The addition of CSL to wheat flour (WF brought changes in the dough mixing behavior as measured by the farinograph. An increase in the farinograph water absorption of WF dough was observed when 4.5% CSL and 1.5% yeast was added, while arrival time was not affected. Addition of CSL to the dough at a content of 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 g CSL/300 g WF caused an increase in dough stability. The CSL addition also increased mechanical tolerance index, dough weakening and mixing time. Dough development time for all blends was higher than the control (1.2-1.5 min, while between the CSL samples no significant difference was observed. The loaf weight slightly increased from 146.2 g for control to 152.2 g for CSL fermented bread, whereas the loaf volume and specific volume of CSL-fermented bread were lower than the control. The combination of yeast and CSL increased the acceptability of bread with the increasing level of both leavening agents’. The results show that CSL could be used as an alternative to yeast for syngas fermentation. On the other hand, CLS is rich in nutrients and lower in cost compared to yeast.

  17. Induced mutations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) I. comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of physical & chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic effectiveness usually means the rate of mutation as related to dose. Mutagenic efficiency refers to the mutation rate in relation to damage. Studies on comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of two physical (gamma rays and fast neutrons) and two chemical mutagens (NMU and EMS) on two desi (G 130 & H 214), one kabuli (C 104) and one green seeded (L 345) chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been reported. The treatments included three doses each of gamma rays (400, 500 and 600 Gy) and fast neutrons (5, 10 and 15 Gy) and two concentrations with two different durations of two chemical mutagens, NMU 0.01% 20h and 0.02% 8h) and EMS (0.1% 20h and 0.2% 8h). Results indicated that chemical mutagens, particularly NMU are not only more effective but also efficient than physical mutagens in inducing mutations in chickpea. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency showed differential behaviour depending upon mutagen and varietal type. Chemical mutagens were more efficient than physical in inducing cholorophyll as well as viable and total number of mutations. Among the mutagens NMU was the most potent, while in the physical, gamma rays were more effective. Out of four mutagens, NMU was the most effective and efficient in inducing a high frequency and wide spectrum of chlorophyll mutations in the M2 followed by fast neutrons. While gamma rays showed least effectiveness, EMS was least efficient mutagens. Major differences in the mutagenic response of the four cultivars were observed. The varieties of desi type were more resistant towards mutagenic treatment than kabuli and green seeded type

  18. Investigation of genes encoding calcineurin B-like protein family in legumes and their expression analyses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

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    Mukesh Kumar Meena

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants' response process. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic Ca2+-concentration for response process. A search in four leguminous plant (soybean, Medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode CBL proteins. Sequence analyses of CBL peptides and coding sequences (CDS suggested that there are nine original CBL genes in these legumes and some of them were multiplied during whole genome or local gene duplication. Coding sequences of chickpea CBL genes (CaCBL were cloned from their cDNAs and sequenced, and their annotations in the genome assemblies were corrected accordingly. Analyses of protein sequences and gene structures of CBL family in plant kingdom indicated its diverse origin but showed a remarkable conservation in overall protein structure with appearance of complex gene structure in the course of evolution. Expression of CaCBL genes in different tissues and in response to different stress and hormone treatment were studied. Most of the CaCBL genes exhibited high expression in flowers. Expression profile of CaCBL genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormones related to development and stresses (ABA, auxin, cytokinin, SA and JA at different time intervals suggests their diverse roles in development and plant defence in addition to abiotic stress tolerance. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of chickpea CBL gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in chickpea functional genomics.

  19. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  20. Electrophoretic Analysis on the Enzyme Hydrolysis of Chickpea Protein%鹰嘴豆分离蛋白酶解过程的电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we determined the degree of hydrolysis(DH) of the chickpea protein with three proteolytic enzymes of alcalase,papain and bromelain(domestic)at different times,and analysed the electrophoretic pattern of the hydrolytic products. The result shows that after treated with the proteases for three hours,the chickpea proteins were mostly hydrolysed into oligopeptides,and the DH value(35.42%)of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases above-mentioned under each optimum conditions respectively in order was much higher than that of the DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases simultaneously.%  对国产碱性蛋白酶降解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解过程及酶解产物的水解度和电泳结果进行了分析研究.结果表明,国产蛋白酶可有效降解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白为小分子蛋白肽;使用碱性蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、菠萝蛋白酶顺序酶解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白3 h 时的水解度可达到35.42%以上,此时绝大多数鹰嘴豆分离蛋白被降解为小分子肽.实验结果为鹰嘴豆蛋白的开发利用与鹰嘴豆的精深加工提供了科学依据.

  1. A conservative pattern of water use, rather than deep or profuse rooting, is critical for the terminal drought tolerance of chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Jenkinson, David M.; Vadez, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is mostly grown on stored soil moisture, and deep/profuse rooting has been hypothesized for almost three decades to be critical for improving chickpea tolerance to terminal drought. However, temporal patterns of water use that leave water available for reproduction and grain filling could be equally critical. Therefore, variation in water use pattern and root depth/density were measured, and their relationships to yield tested under fully irrigated and terminal drought stress, using lysimeters that provided soil volumes equivalent to field conditions. Twenty chickpea genotypes having similar plant phenology but contrasting for a field-derived terminal drought-tolerance index based on yield were used. The pattern of water extraction clearly discriminated tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Tolerant genotypes had a lower water uptake and a lower index of stomatal conductance at the vegetative stage than sensitive ones, while tolerant genotypes extracted more water than sensitive genotypes after flowering. The magnitude of the variation in root growth components (depth, length density, RLD, dry weight, RDW) did not distinguish tolerant from sensitive genotypes. The seed yield was not significantly correlated with the root length density (RLD) in any soil layers, whereas seed yield was both negatively related to water uptake between 23–38 DAS, and positively related to water uptake between 48–61 DAS. Under these conditions of terminal drought, the most critical component of tolerance in chickpea was the conservative use of water early in the cropping cycle, explained partly by a lower canopy conductance, which resulted in more water available in the soil profile during reproduction leading to higher reproductive success. PMID:21610017

  2. Promoter of CaZF, a chickpea gene that positively regulates growth and stress tolerance, is activated by an AP2-family transcription factor CAP2.

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    Deepti Jain

    Full Text Available Plants respond to different forms of stresses by inducing transcription of a common and distinct set of genes by concerted actions of a cascade of transcription regulators. We previously reported that a gene, CaZF encoding a C2H2-zinc finger family protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum imparted high salinity tolerance when expressed in tobacco plants. We report here that in addition to promoting tolerance against dehydration, salinity and high temperature, the CaZF overexpressing plants exhibited similar phenotype of growth and development like the plants overexpressing CAP2, encoding an AP2-family transcription factor from chickpea. To investigate any relationship between these two genes, we performed gene expression analysis in the overexpressing plants, promoter-reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A number of transcripts that exhibited enhanced accumulation upon expression of CAP2 or CaZF in tobacco plants were found common. Transient expression of CAP2 in chickpea leaves resulted in increased accumulation of CaZF transcript. Gel mobility shift and transient promoter-reporter assays suggested that CAP2 activates CaZF promoter by interacting with C-repeat elements (CRTs in CaZF promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay demonstrated an in vivo interaction of CAP2 protein with CaZF promoter.

  3. Pre-sowing static magnetic field treatment for improving water and radiation use efficiency in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under soil moisture stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Nilimesh; Chattaraj, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Debashis; Anand, Anjali; Aggarwal, Pramila; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2016-09-01

    Soil moisture stress during pod filling is a major constraint in production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a fundamentally dry land crop. We investigated effect of pre-sowing seed priming with static magnetic field (SMF) on alleviation of stress through improvement in radiation and water use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted under greenhouse and open field conditions with desi and kabuli genotypes. Seeds exposed to SMF (strength: 100 mT, exposure: 1 h) led to increase in root volume and surface area by 70% and 65%, respectively. This enabled the crop to utilize 60% higher moisture during the active growth period (78-118 days after sowing), when soil moisture became limiting. Both genotypes from treated seeds had better water utilization, biomass, and radiation use efficiencies (17%, 40%, and 26% over control). Seed pre-treatment with SMF could, therefore, be a viable option for chickpea to alleviate soil moisture stress in arid and semi-arid regions, helping in augmenting its production. It could be a viable option to improve growth and yield of chickpea under deficit soil moisture condition, as the selection and breeding program takes a decade before a tolerant variety is released. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:400-408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27442612

  4. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations.

  5. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations. PMID:26338202

  6. Interrelationships and genetic analysis of seed yield and morphological traits in mini core collection of Iranian landrace, breeding lines and improved chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars

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    Mohammadi Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the association between genetic parameters and morphological traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes, a field experiment was conducted with 49 different landrace, breeding lines and cultivated chickpea genotypes using a 7×7 lattice square design with 2 replications in the 2012-2013 growing season. Genetic parameters including genetic, environmental and phenotypic variances; coefficients of variation; heritability; correlation coefficients; factor analysis and path coefficients were estimated, and cluster analysis was performed. High heritability values observed in measured traits indicating that these traits are controlled mainly by additive genes and that selection of such traits may be effective for improving seed yield. Number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight and plant biomass had a positive direct effect on seed yield. These traits also had positive and highly significant phenotypic correlations with seed yield. Using principal component (PC analysis, the first three PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 70.94% of the variability among accessions. The germplasm were grouped into 3 clusters. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from cluster II and III. Overall the results, it can be concluded that seed yield in chickpea can be improved by selecting an ideotype having greater number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight and plant biomass.

  7. Differential Sensitivity of Macrocarpa and Microcarpa Types of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to Water Stress: Association of Contrasting Stress Response with Oxidative Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harsh Nayyar; Smita Singh; Satwinder Kaur; Sanjeev Kumar; Hari D. Upadhyaya

    2006-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is particularly sensitive to water stress at its reproductive phase and, under conditions of water stress, will abort flowers and pods, thus reducing yield potential. There are two types of chickpea: (i) Macrocarpa ("Kabuli"), which has large, rams head-shaped, light brown seeds; and (ii)Microcarpa ("Desi"), which has small, angular and dark-brown seeds. Relatively speaking, "Kabuli" has been reported to be more sensitive to water stress than "Desi". The underlying mechanisms associated with contrasting sensitivity to water stress at the metabolic level are not well understood. We hypothesized that one of the reasons for contrasting water stress sensitivity in the two types of chickpea may be a variation in oxidative injury. In the present study, plants of both types were water stressed at the reproductive stage for 14 d. As a result of the stress, the "Kabuli" type exhibited an 80% reduction in seed yield over control compared with a 64% reduction observed for the "Desi" type. The decrease in leaf water potential (Ψw) was faster in the "Kabuli" compared with the "Desi" type. At the end of the water stress period, Ψ was reduced to -2.9 and -3.1 MPa in the "Desi" and "Kabuli" types, respectively, without any significant difference between them. On the last day of stress, "Kabuli" experienced 20% more membrane injury than "Desi". The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate were significantly greater in "Desi"compared with "Kabuli". The malondialdehyde and H2O2 content were markedly higher at the end of the water stress in "Kabuli" compared with "Desi", indicating greater oxidative stress in the former. Levels of anti-oxidants, such as ascorbic acid and glutathione, were significantly higher in "Desi" than "Kabuli".Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ significantly between the two types of chickpea,whereas on the 10th day, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione

  8. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

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    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  9. A High-Resolution InDel (Insertion–Deletion) Markers-Anchored Consensus Genetic Map Identifies Major QTLs Governing Pod Number and Seed Yield in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Singh, Mohar; Bajaj, Deepak; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    Development and large-scale genotyping of user-friendly informative genome/gene-derived InDel markers in natural and mapping populations is vital for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding applications of chickpea with minimal resource expenses. The present investigation employed a high-throughput whole genome next-generation resequencing strategy in low and high pod number parental accessions and homozygous individuals constituting the bulks from each of two inter-specific mapping populations [(Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46) and (Pusa 256 × ILWC 46)] to develop non-erroneous InDel markers at a genome-wide scale. Comparing these high-quality genomic sequences, 82,360 InDel markers with reference to kabuli genome and 13,891 InDel markers exhibiting differentiation between low and high pod number parental accessions and bulks of aforementioned mapping populations were developed. These informative markers were structurally and functionally annotated in diverse coding and non-coding sequence components of genome/genes of kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of regulatory and coding (frameshift and large-effect mutations) InDel markers for establishing marker-trait linkages through association/genetic mapping was apparent. The markers detected a greater amplification (97%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (58–87%) among a diverse panel of cultivated desi, kabuli, and wild accessions even by using a simpler cost-efficient agarose gel-based assay implicating their utility in large-scale genetic analysis especially in domesticated chickpea with narrow genetic base. Two high-density inter-specific genetic linkage maps generated using aforesaid mapping populations were integrated to construct a consensus 1479 InDel markers-anchored high-resolution (inter-marker distance: 0.66 cM) genetic map for efficient molecular mapping of major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield per plant in chickpea. Utilizing these high-density genetic maps as anchors, three major

  10. Integrated Management of Damping-off, Root and/or Stem Rot Diseases of Chickpea and Efficacy of the Suggested Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal isolates were isolated from naturally infected chickpea roots collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate (Egypt. The isolated fungi were purified and identified as Rhizoctonia solani (5 isolates, Fusarium solani (4 isolates and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2 isolates. The isolated fungi proved their pathogenicity on cv. �Giza 3�. Response of chickpea cvs. �Giza 1�, �Giza 2�, �Giza 3�, �Giza 4�, �Giza 88�, �Giza 195�, �Giza 531� to infection by the tested fungi was significantly varied. �Giza 1� was the most resistant one followed by �Giza 531�, while the other tested cvs. were highly susceptible. Seven biocontrol agents, namely Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. cereus, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. isolated from chickpea rhizosphere, were tested for their antagonistic action against the tested pathogens. B. subtilis isolate BSM1, B. megaterium isolate TVM5, T. viride isolate TVM2 and T. harzianum isolate THM4 were the most antagonistic ones to the tested fungi in vitro, while the other isolates were moderate or weak antagonists. The most antagonistic isolates as well as the commercial biocide Rhizo-N were applied as seed treatment for controlling damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases caused by the tested fungi under greenhouse conditions. The obtained data showed that all tested antagonistic isolates were able to cause significant reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases in chickpea plants. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 proved to be the most effective isolates for controlling the diseases. Under field condition, the obtained data indicated that all the tested antagonistic isolates significantly reduced damping-off, root and/or stem rot. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 recorded the highest reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot in all sowing dates. Sowing of

  11. Genetic structure, diversity, and allelic richness in composite collection and reference set in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

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    Gowda Cholenahalli LL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant genetic resources (PGR are the basic raw materials for future genetic progress and an insurance against unforeseen threats to agricultural production. An extensive characterization of PGR provides an opportunity to dissect structure, mine allelic variations, and identify diverse accessions for crop improvement. The Generation Challenge Program http://www.generationcp.org conceptualized the development of "composite collections" and extraction of "reference sets" from these for more efficient tapping of global crop-related genetic resources. In this study, we report the genetic structure, diversity and allelic richness in a composite collection of chickpea using SSR markers, and formation of a reference set of 300 accessions. Results The 48 SSR markers detected 1683 alleles in 2915 accessions, of which, 935 were considered rare, 720 common and 28 most frequent. The alleles per locus ranged from 14 to 67, averaged 35, and the polymorphic information content was from 0.467 to 0.974, averaged 0.854. Marker polymorphism varied between groups of accessions in the composite collection and reference set. A number of group-specific alleles were detected: 104 in Kabuli, 297 in desi, and 69 in wild Cicer; 114 each in Mediterranean and West Asia (WA, 117 in South and South East Asia (SSEA, and 10 in African region accessions. Desi and kabuli shared 436 alleles, while wild Cicer shared 17 and 16 alleles with desi and kabuli, respectively. The accessions from SSEA and WA shared 74 alleles, while those from Mediterranean 38 and 33 alleles with WA and SSEA, respectively. Desi chickpea contained a higher proportion of rare alleles (53% than kabuli (46%, while wild Cicer accessions were devoid of rare alleles. A genotype-based reference set captured 1315 (78% of the 1683 composite collection alleles of which 463 were rare, 826 common, and 26 the most frequent alleles. The neighbour-joining tree diagram of this reference set represents

  12. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B D

    2012-02-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  13. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, temperature (T, and treatment time (t at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min. In order to investigate the effect of storage (S, half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order. Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements.

  14. Determination of nutritional and bioactive properties of peptides in enzymatic pea, chickpea, and mung bean protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Rotimi E

    2008-01-01

    Within the primary structure of many pea and mung bean proteins are peptide sequences that can potentially be used in the formulation of therapeutic products for the treatment and prevention of human diseases. However, these peptide sequences need protease treatments before they can be released free of the parent proteins. Unlike chemical hydrolysis, enzymatic treatment enables more efficient tailoring of peptide products without formation of toxic by-products or destruction of amino acids. This review provides information on current methods that have been used to convert inactive pea and mung bean proteins into bioactive peptides. It focuses on 3 main bioactive properties, such as inhibitions of (1) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity; (2) calmodulin (CaM)-dependent enzymes; and (3) copper-chelating activity. ACE is an established marker for hypertension, high levels of some CaM-dependent enzymes are risk factors for various human diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease, and high vascular copper concentrations may potentiate atherosclerosis. Also reviewed are the production and evaluation of activity of hypoallergenic peptides that may offer protection against anaphylactic reactions. The 3 main proteins discussed are chickpea, mung bean, and field pea.

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics, water absorption, soaking and cooking properties of some Sicilian populations of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Cristina; Iacoponi, Elisa; Raccuia, Salvatore A

    2004-11-01

    The physical and physico-chemical properties of several Kabuli chickpeas originating from Sicily (South Italy) were determined. Twelve genotypes in all, including two controls (ILC484, of the ICARDA genebank, and 'Calia', a traditional Italian cultivar), were analysed. A large variability among genotypes was ascertained for swelling capacity (coefficient of variation [CV] = 27.9%), swelling index (CV = 30.5%) and calcium content (CV = 39.3%). The lowest variability was observed for seed coat (CV = 8.6%) and seed weight (CV = 9.6%). Genotype statistically affected all traits, whose mean values were: seed weight, 0.340 +/- 0.03 g; seed coat, 4.47 +/- 0.38%; seed volume, 0.292 +/- 0.04 ml; seed density, 1.18 +/- 0.15 g/ml; hydration capacity, 0.361 +/- 0.09 g/seed; hydration index, 1.05 +/- 0.21; swelling capacity, 0.346 +/- 0.10 ml/seed; swelling index, 1.21 +/- 0.37; cooking texture, 2.61 +/- 0.38 kg/cm(2); and calcium, 109.6 +/- 43.11 mg/100 g dry weight. Correlation coefficients among characteristics were also estimated. The genotype '44M33' was found to be interesting having good seed weight and low seed coat incidence and calcium content, all important attributes affecting cooking quality.

  16. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  17. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and other plant-derived protease inhibitor concentrates inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela J; Owusu-Apenten, Richard; McCann, Mark J; Gill, Chris I; Rowland, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    The soybean-derived protease inhibitor, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), is currently showing great promise as a novel cancer chemopreventive agent. In contrast to the wealth of research conducted on this compound, the anticancer effects of protease inhibitors isolated from other leguminous sources have received limited attention. In the current study, 7 protease inhibitor concentrates (PICs) were isolated from various leguminous sources (including soybean) and characterized. The effects of PICs on the proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cells were investigated in vitro. Chickpea PIC significantly inhibited the viability of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells at all concentrations tested (25-400 μg/ml). In addition, kidney bean (200, 400 μg/ml), soybean (50, 100 μg/ml), and mungbean (100, 200 μg/ml) PICs inhibited LNCaP cell viability. These findings suggest that leguminous PICs may possess similar anticancer properties to that of soybean BBI and deserve further study as possible chemopreventive agents.

  18. Microcapsule production employing chickpea or lentil protein isolates and maltodextrin: physicochemical properties and oxidative protection of encapsulated flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Asli Can; Nickerson, Michael; Low, Nicholas H

    2013-08-15

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated, employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin, followed by freeze-drying. Effects of oil concentration (5.3-21.0%), protein source (CPI vs. LPI) and maltodextrin type (DE 9 and 18) and concentration (25.0-40.7%), on both the physicochemical characteristics and microstructure of the microcapsules, were investigated. It was found that an increase in emulsion oil concentration resulted in a concomitant increase in oil droplet diameter and microcapsule surface oil content, and a decrease in oil encapsulation efficiency. Optimum flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiency (∼83.5%), minimum surface oil content (∼2.8%) and acceptable mean droplet diameter (3.0 μm) were afforded with 35.5% maltodextrin-DE 9 and 10.5% oil. Microcapsules, formed by employing these experimental conditions, showed a protective effect against oxidation versus free oil over a storage period of 25 d at room temperature.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with an insecticidal protein gene: optimisation of different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indurker, Shivani; Misra, Hari S; Eapen, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chickpea was developed using strain LBA4404 carrying nptII, uidA and cryIAc genes and transformants selected on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium supplemented with benzyladenine, kinetin and kanamycin. Integration of transgenes was demonstrated using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot hybridization of T0 plants. The expression of CryIAc delta endotoxin and GUS enzyme was shown by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and histochemical assay respectively. The transgenic plants (T0) showed more tolerance to infection by Helicoverpa armigera compared to control plants. Various factors such as explant source, cultivar type, different preculture treatment period of explants, co-cultivation period, acetosyringone supplementation, Agrobacterium harboring different plasmids, vacuum infiltration and sonication treatment were tested to study the influence on transformation frequency. The results indicated that use of epicotyl as explant, cultivar ICCC37, Agrobacterium harboring plasmid pHS102 as vector, preculture of explant for 48 h, co-cultivation period of 2 days at 25°C and vacuum infiltration for 15 min produced the best transformation results. Sonication treatment of explants with Agrobacteria for 80 s was found to increase the frequency of transformation.

  20. 鹰嘴豆淀粉与玉米淀粉性质的比较%Comparative Study on Properties of Chickpea Starch and Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾楠; 刘美艳; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    研究了新疆产鹰嘴豆淀粉的一些基本性质,并与玉米淀粉进行比较,发现鹰嘴豆淀粉中直链淀粉质量分数为31.8%,高于玉米淀粉的直链淀粉质量分数(26.6%);通过电镜扫描发现鹰嘴豆淀粉颗粒表面光滑,形状多数为椭圆形、鹅卵石状,少数为圆形,而玉米淀粉颗粒多为圆形,呈多角状;粒度分析表明鹰嘴豆淀粉的粒径范围是6.39 ~41.80 μm,体积平均粒径是16.77 μn,而玉米淀粉粒径范围是4.02~33.35 μm,体积平均粒径是14.60 μm;鹰嘴豆淀粉持水力、溶解度优于玉米淀粉,透光率低于玉米淀粉;差示扫描量热( DSC)分析发现鹰嘴豆淀粉糊化温度为60.6 ~71.8℃,相变热焓值为7.12 J/g;玉米淀粉糊化温度为65.4~75.1℃,相变热焓值为10.61 J/g.%In this paper, some basic properties of Xinjiang chickpea starch was researched, and then compared with those of corn starch. It has been found that the mass fraction of amylose starch in chickpea starch was 31. 8% , which was higher than that (26.6% ) of the corn starch; by scanning starch granules with an electron microscopy,it was found that chickpea starch grain was smooth in surface, mainly in the form of oval and cobblestone and rarely in round,while the corn starch grain was mainly round with multiple angles. The particle size analysis showed that the particle size of chickpeas starch ranged from 6.39 to 41.80μm,and the volume average particle size was 14.60μm, while those of the corn starch were from 4.02 ~ 33.35μm and 14.60μm respectively. Besides,the water holding capacity and solubility of chickpea starch were better than those of the corn starch, of which the light transmittance was lower than that of the corn starch. The differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) analysis showed that the gelatinization temperature of the chickpea starch was between 60. 6℃ and 71. 8 ℃,and the phase transition enthalpy value was 7. 12 J/g, while those of the corn starch was

  1. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Gaur, Pooran Mal; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Gangarao, N V P R; Fikre, Asnake; Kimurto, Paul; Sharma, Prakash C; Sheshashayee, M S; Tobita, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Ito, Osamu; Killian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions) for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore) and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia). Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20) was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs), both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70) was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP) were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance. PMID:24801366

  2. Purfication and properties of a specific isoflavone 7-O-glucoside-6''-malonate malonyestrase from roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, W; Köster, J; Barz, W

    1986-08-01

    Protein extracts from roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants contained high esterase activity hydrolyzing malonate hemiesters of isoflavone 7-O-glucosides. Using 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (biochanin A) 7-O-glucoside-6"-malonate as a substrate, a specific malonylesterase was purified about 700-fold to near homogeneity. The purified enzyme possesses an extremely low enzyme activity with synthetic esterase substrates. Various putative nonspecific esterases, as tested with alpha-naphthylacetate, were removed during enzyme purification. The malonylesterase demonstrated a very high molecular mass in gel chromatography and in sedimentation analyses with sucrose gradients (greater than or equal to 2 X 10(6)). Analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pointed to a single subunit of 32,000. The catalyzed reaction showed a pH optimum at 7.5 and a temperature optimum between 30 and 35 degrees C. The apparent Km for biochanin A 7-O-glucoside-6"-malonate was (4.2 +/- 1.2) X 10(-4) M. The malonylesterase was insensitive to the esterase inhibitors eserine and neostigmine (10(-3) M) as well as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, paraoxon, and diisopropylfluorophosphate (10(-4) M). On the other hand enzyme activity was totally inhibited by Hg2+ ions (10(-5) M) and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (10(-4) M), whereas iodoacetamide (10(-6)-10(-4) M) inhibited only partially. Di- and tricarboxylic acids strongly stimulated enzyme activity at 10(-2) M. These properties indicate that the malonylesterase from chickpea roots greatly differs from other known esterases. The possible biological function of the specific malonylesterase is discussed in relation to isoflavone conjugate metabolism in chickpea.

  3. Isolation, identification of antagonistic rhizobacterial strains obtained from chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) field and their in-vitro evaluation against fungal root pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), are associated with roots, found in the rhizosphere and can directly or indirectly enhance the plant growth. In this study soil was collected from rhizosphere of chickpea fields of different areas of Rawalpindi division of Pakistan. PGPR were isolated, screened and characterized. Eight isolates of rhizobacteria (RHA, RPG, RFJ, RC, RTR, RT and RK) were isolated from Rawalpindi division and were characterized. The antagonistic activity of these PGPR isolates against root infecting fungi (Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium spp.,) was done and production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and P-solubilization was evaluated. The isolates RHA, RPG, RFJ, RC, RRD and RT were found to be positive in producing siderophore, IAA and P-solubilization. Furthermore, most of the isolates showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, and Verticillium spp. The rhizobacterial isolates RHA, RPG, RFJ, RC, RRD, RTR, RT and RK were used as bio-inoculants that might be beneficial for chickpea cultivation as the rhizobacterial isolates possessed the plant growth promoting characters i.e. siderophore, IAA production, phosphate solubilization. In in vitro tests, Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus spp. inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungal root pathogens. The isolates (RHA and RPG) also significantly increased (60-70%) seed germination, shoot length, root length of the chickpea. The incidence of fungi was reduced by the colonization of RHA and RPG which enhanced the seedling vigor index and seed germination. The observations revealed that isolates RHA and RPG is quite effective to reduce the fungal root infection in greenhouse, and also increases seed yields significantly. These rhizobacterial isolates appear to be efficient yield increasing as well as effective biocontrol agent against fungal root pathogen. (author)

  4. Interaction between seed size and NaCl on germination and early seedling growth of some Turkish cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muharrem KAYA; Gamze KAYA; Mehmet Demir KAYA; Mehmet ATAK; Sevil SAGLAM; Khalid Mahmood KHAWAR; Cemalettin Yasar CIFTCI

    2008-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop of Turkey and is largely grown for human consumption on low moisture or salt-affected soils.The objective of the study was to find the effects of NaCl stress at electrical conductivities of 4.5,8.6,12.7 and 16.3 dS/m and seed sizes (7,8 and 9 mm) on germination and early seedling growth of three popular chickpea cultivars (AKN-97,Gokce and Uzunlu-99).Mean frequency of germination,germination time,germination index,root length,shoot length and seedling fresh weight showed seed size-dependent responses of cultivars to salt stress.In general,small seeds germinated and grew more rapidly compared to medium and large seeds of the same cultivars against all levels of salt stress,with the best results in cultivar Uzunlu-99.No effect of NaCl treatments was observed on frequency of germination; however,a drastic decrease in early seedling growth was recorded at increased NaCl concentrations.Regression analysis results showed a significantly positive rela-tionship (P<0.01) between seed size and mean germination time,whereas a significantly negative relationship was recorded between seed size and germination index,root length,shoot length.Moreover,linear regression values apparently confirmed that increased seed size in each cultivar affected decreased germination index,root and shoot lengths with enhanced mean germination time.Thus,it was concluded that the use of small seeds could considerably reduce the production costs of chickpea in salt-affected soils.

  5. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia. Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20 was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs, both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs] and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70 was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance.

  6. 鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解工艺研究%Study on the Enzyme Hydrolysis of Chickpea Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓飞; 李锋; 周伏忠; 孙玉飞; 陈国参

    2013-01-01

    To increase the DH of chickpea protein, and provide the basis for industrialization of the enzymatic production of chickpea producing oligopeptides, the optimal condition for alcalase hydrolysis of chickpea protein was studied. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined according to the pH-state method. Through a single-factor test and an orthogonal designed experiment, the alcalase hydrolysis of chickpea protein was systematically studied. Then, the three proteases of alcalase,papain and bromelain commonly hydrolyzing chickpea protein was carried out to increase the DH of chickpea protein. The results showed that the obtained optimum hydrolysis with alcalase condition was pH 8.5, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%. Under this condition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 27.86%. Under each optimum conditions of the three proteases respectively (The obtained optimum hydrolysis condition of alcalase was pH 8.5, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%. The obtained optimum hydrolysis condition of papain and bromelain was pH 7.2, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%), the chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the alcalase, papain and bromelain in turn was carried out, and the DH could reach 34.64%. The DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases above-mentioned under each optimum condition respectively in turn was much higher than that of the DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases simultaneously. Furthermore, the yield of oligopeptides was significantly improved.%研究鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解工艺,提高鹰嘴豆蛋白水解度,为鹰嘴豆酶解生产短肽的产业化提供依据。用pH-state法计算蛋白水解度,首先通过单因素试验和正交试验,得出碱性蛋白酶水解鹰嘴豆蛋白的最佳反应条件,

  7. The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth-promoting broad-spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Prakash, Bandikinda; Kudapa, Himabindu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular responses of five strains of Streptomyces sp. (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26 and KAI-27), with their proven potential for charcoal rot disease control in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in sorghum and rice, were studied to understand the mechanisms causing the beneficial effects. In this investigation, those five strains were evaluated for their PGP capabilities in chickpea in the 2012–13 and 2013–14 post-rainy seasons. All of the Streptomyces sp. str...

  8. Evaluation of some chemical and technological properties of induced erect chickpea mutant lines developed under drought stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the chickpea variety Flip 99-47 C were treated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 50 and 75 Gy and sown in the winter season of 2004/2005 to raise M1 generation under ordinary (normal) irrigation conditions. Bulked seeds from each treatment were planted in the subsequent growing seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 to advance M2 and M3 generations, respectively under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stress condition. In the third generation, three erect mutant lines were derived from 75 Gy mutagenic treatment under drought stress compared to semi spreading growth habit of the initiated variety Flip 99-47 C. In the winter season of 2007/2008, M4 bulked seeds from the three erect lines as well as unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation (2152.5 m3/fad.) or drought (1159.2 m3/fad.) conditions were analyzed for the chemical composition and nutritional values. Obtained results indicated that there were slight decreases in protein and fat contents accompanied with marginal increases in both ash and carbohydrates in seed samples of the erect mutant developed under drought stress as compared to unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation treatment. An opposite trend was noticed between seed samples derived from the erect lines compared to seeds of the parent variety developed under drought condition. Negligible changes in levels of the minerals (iron, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus) were detected between seeds of the erect lines and the original variety that grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought conditions. Cooking time (min) and hydration coefficient values did not much differ between the three tested seed samples. Marginal differences in essential and non-essential amino acids were detected between seeds of the erect mutants and those of the initial variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stressed conditions

  9. From chickpeas to oil. The keys to fifteen years of hispanic-mexican economic relations (1977-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Forcada

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyse the evolution of economic relations between Spain and Mexico from the reestablishment of diplomatic relations taking into account both the keys to this evolution and its changes. The authors highlight three distinct periods : a boom between 1977 and 1981 ; a relapse between 1982 and 1986 and a recovery between 1987 and 1992. This division into periods takes note of an initial spectacular increase in which bilateral exchanges were multiplied up to 33 times. A five year period in which oil replaced chickpeas as the main product bought in Mexico (up to four-fifths of the total volume and in which Spanish exports multiplied themselves ten times over. Already from this first phase, the commercial balance was clearly in favour of Mexico, a fact more striking during the second period, during which Spanish imports fell up to 50% but whileher exports were reduced by two-thirds. The key was the fall in the price of oil. The continuity of Spanish oil buying in Mexico however precipitated the recovery of the third period which coincided with the signing of the General Friendship and Cooperation Agreement between both countries. In 1992 Spain regained second place as a customer of Mexico behind the United States while the joint political policies coincide in pointing out that these are two reciprocal pathways to both the EC and US markets. The authors however, sustain that the global evolution of economic blocks does not favour this vision bearing in mind that the composition of and leadership in trade between such blocks will be governed, basically, by the strategies deployed by transnational companies.

  10. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  11. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

  12. Effect of Allelochemicals from Leaf Leachates of Gmelina arborea on Inhibition of Some Essential Seed Germination Enzymes in Green Gram, Red Gram, Black Gram, and Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Shankar, Ramakrishnan; Veeralakshmi, Shanmugham; Sirajunnisa, Abdul Razack; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    The present work focused on identification of allelochemicals from the leaf leachates of Gmelina arborea and analyzing its influence on the germination of red gram, green gram, black gram, and chickpea in terms of the levels of some important germination enzymes like acid phosphatase, catalase, peroxidase, and amylase. The study showed that allelopathic effects were more predominant in chickpea with 80% followed by red gram, green gram, and black gram where the inhibition ranged between 26% and 75%. The vigor index in the seed lots is also considerably reduced. Total chlorophyll content was also reduced by allelopathic effect in all treated seeds ranging between 0.7 and 7.5 μg/g dry weight. The effect of allelochemicals drastically reduced the relative water content in red gram followed by the other seed lots. The total protein content varied considerably in the control and the treated seed lots. Allelochemicals inhibited the expression and activity of the enzymes required for efficient germination. The present study also threw limelight on the effective use of this tree, wherein planting this tree amidst pulse related herb plantations could affect the growth of the economically viable plants, but this tree can very well adapt to diversified soil conditions and rainfall zones. PMID:27350959

  13. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase1 (CaPIMT1) from chickpea mitigates oxidative stress-induced growth inhibition of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pooja; Singh, Ajeet; Kaur, Harmeet; Majee, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) repairs deleterious L-isoaspartyl residues synthesized spontaneously in proteins due to aging or stressful environments and is widespread in living organisms including plants. Even though PIMT activity has been detected from various plant sources, detailed studies are limited to a few species. Our present study on a chickpea (Cicer arietinum) PIMT reveals that apart from seed, PIMT activity is present in other organs and noticeably enhanced during stressful conditions. Using degenerate oligonucleotides and RACE strategy, a full length cDNA (CaPIMT1) was cloned and sequenced. The cDNA is 920 bp in length and contains only one open reading frame of 690 bp encoding 229 amino acids. Genomic structure reveals that the CaPIMT1 gene spans about 2,050 bp in length and contains four exons and three introns. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrate that the transcript of CaPIMT1 is distributed across the organs with maximum levels in seed and is also enhanced under various environmental stress conditions. Purified bacterially expressed protein is further characterized for its catalytic properties. The activity is found to be elevated towards high temperature and pH conditions. Escherichia coli expressing CaPIMT1 show greater tolerance to oxidative stress than E. coli without CaPIMT1. Taken together, our results suggest that PIMT from chickpea shows a distinct pattern of expression and may have a specific role in stress adaptation apart from seed.

  14. Development and application of sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), banana (Musa spp.) and their major pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA markers of various kinds have found widespread application in many facets of plant breeding and plant pathogen control. Yet another marker type, sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers, provides the markers of choice for nearly every crop because of their co-dominant nature, reliability, ease of application and high polymorphic information content. We report here on the development of a whole set of STMS markers and the respective, selected primer sequences for two important crops, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and banana (Musa acuminata), and for their most devastating fungal pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, respectively. These markers were generated either by direct screening of size-selected genomic libraries with microsatellite-complementary oligonucleotides, or by enrichment of DNA fragments containing microsatellite sequences. A total of 69 markers for chickpea, 15 markers for M. acuminata, 19 markers for A rabiei and 11 markers for M. fijiensis, selected on the basis of their high information content and ease of use are presented here. These can be applied for mapping of the respective genomes, for various population studies, and cultivar and isolate identification. We further demonstrate that several of these markers can potentially be applied across species boundaries and thus could increase the marker repertoire also for other species of the genus Cicer, Musa and for Ascochyta-type pathogens of bean, and potentially also of lentil and pea. (author)

  15. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si100K+ (FC1) and Si50K+ (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N2-fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N2-fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si50K- and Si100K-) is associated with lower Δ13C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ13C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si100) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing higher spike's N yield. Solely

  16. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  17. Time-Independent and Time-Dependent Rheological Characterization of Dispersions with Varying Contents of Chickpea Flour and Gum Arabic Employing the Multiple Loop Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Shanthilal; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2016-08-01

    The chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour dispersions as the model system with different contents of flour (37% to 43%) and gum arabic (0% to 5%) were subjected to multiple loop experiments for simultaneous determination of the time-independent and time-dependent rheological characteristics. The Herschel-Bulkley model was suitable (0.993 ≤ r ≤ 0.999) to relate the time-independent characteristics linking shear stress and shear rate data for the individual upward and downward curves. The yield stress, consistency index, and apparent viscosity increased with the increasing flour and/or gum contents while flow behavior index (n) decreased. The yield stress generally decreased with the number of loops but n increased. In the individual loop tests, the n values for the decreasing shear stress/shear rate curves were always higher than corresponding increasing curves meaning a shift toward Newtonian characteristics. The time-independent properties (yield stress, apparent viscosity, consistency index, and n), the time-dependent characteristics like the area of the loop, and liquid characteristics like pourability and the nonoral sensory attributes (viscosity, spreadability, and tackiness) were individually predicted by artificial neural networks wherein the root mean square errors were between 3.6% and 17.2%. The sensory assessment indicated that the desirable parameters for a free-flowing and easily pourable spherical chickpea batter droplets occurred when the average pourability and spreadability values were 6.9 and 5.9, respectively. The normalized indices for these 2 parameters indicated that the batter having 40% flour and 2% gum contents was most suitable exhibiting a deviation of only 10% from the ideal sensory scores; these values were 40% and 0% to 3%, and 43% and 0%, respectively exhibiting up to 20% deviation.

  18. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of two calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms CaCPK1 and CaCPK2 from chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam Prakash, S R; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2006-11-01

    In plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) constitute a unique family of enzymes consisting of a protein kinase catalytic domain fused to carboxy-terminal autoregulatory and calmodulin-like domains. We isolated two cDNAs encoding calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms (CaCPK1 and CaCPK2) from chickpea. Both isoforms were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analyses have identified CaCPK1 and CaCPK2 as Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases since both enzymes phosphorylated themselves and histone III-S as substrate only in the presence of Ca(2+). The kinase activity of the recombinant enzymes was calmodulin independent and sensitive to CaM antagonists W7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulphonamide] and calmidazoilum. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that the isoforms transferred the gamma-phosphate of ATP only to serine residues of histone III-S and their autophosphorylation occurred on serine and threonine residues. These two isoforms showed considerable variations with respect to their biochemical and kinetic properties including Ca(2+) sensitivities. The recombinant CaCPK1 has a pH and temperature optimum of pH 6.8-8.6 and 35-42 degrees C, respectively, whereas CaCPK2 has a pH and temperature optimum of pH 7.2-9 and 35-42 degrees C, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that CaCPK1 and CaCPK2 are functional serine/threonine kinases and may play different roles in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling in chickpea plants.

  19. The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth-promoting broad-spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Prakash, Bandikinda; Kudapa, Himabindu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular responses of five strains of Streptomyces sp. (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26 and KAI-27), with their proven potential for charcoal rot disease control in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in sorghum and rice, were studied to understand the mechanisms causing the beneficial effects. In this investigation, those five strains were evaluated for their PGP capabilities in chickpea in the 2012-13 and 2013-14 post-rainy seasons. All of the Streptomyces sp. strains exhibited enhanced nodule number, nodule weight, root weight and shoot weight at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and pod number, pod weight, leaf area, leaf weight and stem weight at 60 DAS in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. At crop maturity, the Streptomyces strains had enhanced stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter and seed number plant(-1) in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the Streptomyces sp. also significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and organic carbon in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. Of the five strains of Streptomyces sp., CAI-17, CAI-68 and CAI-78 were superior to KAI-26 and KAI-27 in terms of their effects on root and shoot development, nodule formation and crop productivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs had revealed the success in colonization of the chickpea roots by all five strains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected PGP genes of actinomycetes revealed the selective up-regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-related and siderophore-related genes by CAI-68 and of β-1,3-glucanase genes by KAI-26. PMID:25646153

  20. Correlation between differential drought tolerability of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea cultivars and differential expression of a subset of CaNAC genes under normal and dehydration conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Van Ha, Chien; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Nguyen, Dong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Drought causes detrimental effect to growth and productivity of many plants, including crops. NAC transcription factors have been reported to play important role in drought tolerance. In this study, we assessed the expression profiles of 19 dehydration-responsive CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea varieties treated with water (control) and dehydration to examine the correlation between the differential expression levels of the CaNAC genes and the di...

  1. Novel SSR markers from BAC-end sequences, DArT arrays and a comprehensive genetic map with 1,291 marker loci for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is the third most important cool season food legume, cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The goal of this study was to develop novel molecular markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-end sequences (BESs and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers, and to construct a high-density genetic map based on recombinant inbred line (RIL population ICC 4958 (C. arietinum×PI 489777 (C. reticulatum. A BAC-library comprising 55,680 clones was constructed and 46,270 BESs were generated. Mining of these BESs provided 6,845 SSRs, and primer pairs were designed for 1,344 SSRs. In parallel, DArT arrays with ca. 15,000 clones were developed, and 5,397 clones were found polymorphic among 94 genotypes tested. Screening of newly developed BES-SSR markers and DArT arrays on the parental genotypes of the RIL mapping population showed polymorphism with 253 BES-SSR markers and 675 DArT markers. Segregation data obtained for these polymorphic markers and 494 markers data compiled from published reports or collaborators were used for constructing the genetic map. As a result, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 1,291 markers on eight linkage groups (LGs spanning a total of 845.56 cM distance was developed (http://cmap.icrisat.ac.in/cmap/sm/cp/thudi/. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 68 (LG 8 to 218 (LG 3 with an average inter-marker distance of 0.65 cM. While the developed resource of molecular markers will be useful for genetic diversity, genetic mapping and molecular breeding applications, the comprehensive genetic map with integrated BES-SSR markers will facilitate its anchoring to the physical map (under construction to accelerate map-based cloning of genes in chickpea and comparative genome evolution studies in legumes.

  2. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  3. The effect of solanapyrone a produced by Ascochyta rabiei on seed germination and the elongation of radicles and hypocotyls of chickpea (Cicer areitinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerroug, M M; Bouznad, Z; Larous, L; Strange, R N

    2004-01-01

    Three Algerian isolates of A. rabiei (72, Mat 1.2 and 9216) were grown on Czapek Dox medium supplemented with cations and incubated for 14 days. After incubation, the mycelium of the fungus was removed by filtration through four layers of muslin cloth and spores were removed from the filtrate by centrifugation at 10,000 g for 20 min. Solanapyrone A was partially purified by liquid phase extraction into ethyl acetate and, after removal of the ethyl acetate, the toxin samples were dissolved in methanol and quantified by analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Solanapyrone A was identified by superimposition of its UV spectrum, obtained from the diode array detector of the HPLC, on the spectrum of an authentic sample. The action of solanapyrone A solution on seed germination and elongation of radicles and hypocotyls was tested using a concentration of 18.2 microg/ml and a two-fold dilution series of this solution in distilled water. The three Isolates, 72, Mat1.2 and 9216 produced solanapyrone A at concentrations of 37.2, 14.2 and 11.09 microg/ml, respectively. When probit % inhibition of seed germination was plotted against log2 of solanapyrone A concentration, there was a linear relationship and the EC50 concentration was determined as 7.2 microg/ml. Similarly, when radicle and hypocotyl elongation was plotted against log2 of solanapyrone A concentration, both gave linear relationships and the EC50 concentrations were determined as 5.37 and 6.02 microg/ml, respectively. It was concluded that solanapyrone A has a considerable inhibition of chickpea. However radicles and hypocotyls were susceptible than seed germination.

  4. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  5. A linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. based on population from ILC3279×ILC588 crosses: Location of genes for time to flowering, seed size and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Ezzat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative traits of seed size, plant height and days to flowering were studied in a chickpea intraspecific F3:4 lines population derived from a ILC3279×ILC588 cross. The lines were genotyped with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, universal rice primer (URP and sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS markers, and a genetic map composed of 7 linkage groups (LGs covering 285.3 cM was constructed. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for the three characters were detected in LG2, LG3 and LG4. Two QTLs for days to flowering were detected on LG2 and LG3. These two QTLs accounted for 58% of the total phenotypic variation for days to flowering. A QTL for plant height was located in LG3 explaining around 42% of the variation. This trait was shown to be under a major gene control. For 100-seed weight, a QTL located in LG4 explained around 37% of the phenotypic variations. This information can be used to formulate the an efficient breeding strategy for improvement of time to flowering in short-season temperate environments, plant height with more reproductive biomass and improved yield with bigger seed size in chickpea.

  6. Physicochemical Properties Comparison of Oil in Chickpea and Its Industrial Waste%鹰嘴豆及其工业下脚料油脂理化特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴元; 孙凤华

    2015-01-01

    Taking chickpea and its industrial waste as objects, physicochemical properties of their oils (saponification val-ue, acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, vitamin E (VE) content, fatty acid composition, oxidation stability and freeze stability) were compared. Results showed that:saponification value of chickpea and industrial waste oil were 89.67 mg/g and 91.52 mg/g, iodine value were 145.2 g/100g and 140.9 g/100g, acid value were 1.56 mg/g and 2.14 mg/g, peroxide values were0.56 mmol/kg and 0.72 mmol/kg, content of VEwere 0.122%and 0.097%. Main fatty acids compositions of two oils were oleic acid and linoleic acid.Compared with chickpeas, polyunsaturated fatty acid relative content of its industrial waste oil was low. Induction period of two kinds of oxidation stability of oil were 5.44 h and 5.81 h. Freezing test results showed that two kinds of fat frozen time met national standard. Comprehensive comparison of various indicators, chickpea industrial waste could be developed as a new oil source.%以鹰嘴豆及其工业下脚料为对象,进行了二者油脂理化特性(皂化值、酸值、过氧化值、碘值、维生素E (VE)含量、脂肪酸组成、氧化稳定性和冷冻稳定性)的比较研究。结果表明:鹰嘴豆油及其工业下脚料油脂的皂化值分别为89.67和91.52mg/g,碘值分别为145.2和140.9g/100g,酸值分别为1.56和2.14(KOH)/(mg/g),过氧化值分别为0.56和0.72mmol/kg, VE含量分别为0.122%和0.097%。两种油脂的脂肪酸主要成分均为油酸和亚油酸,与鹰嘴豆相比,其工业下脚料油脂的多不饱和脂肪酸相对含量较低。两种油脂氧化稳定性的诱导期分别为5.44和5.81h。冷冻试验结果表明:两种油脂的冷冻时间均符合国标要求。综合比较各个指标,鹰嘴豆工业下脚料可以作为一种新型油料来源进行开发。

  7. Comparison of Starch Properties of Chickpea,Mung Bean and Rice Bean%鹰嘴豆、饭豆、绿豆淀粉性质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任顺成; 李翠翠; 邓颖颖

    2011-01-01

    Starch properties of chickpea, rice bean and mung bean were studied, such as paste properties,swelling power and solubility, absorption spectra of compounds of starch with iodine, transparency, freeze - thaw stability,degree of retrogradation and sedimentation volume of starch paste, et al.Results:The pasting temperature and final viscosity of mung bean starch are the highest, but the paste stability of chickpea starch is the best.The swelling power and solubility of the three kinds of legume starch are enhanced with temperature rising and all the compounds of starch and iodine have maximal absorbance at 620 nm.The transparency,freeze -thaw stability and degree of retrogradation of mung bean starch are the best, and its sedimentation volume is the largest.%以鹰嘴豆、饭豆、绿豆淀粉为对象,研究了不同豆类淀粉的糊化性、膨胀度、溶解度、淀粉-碘复合物的可见光谱、淀粉糊的透明度、冻融稳定性、凝沉性以及沉降体积等性质.结果表明:绿豆淀粉的成糊温度和峰黏度最高,而鹰嘴豆淀粉的热糊稳定性和冷糊稳定性最好;3种淀粉的膨胀度和溶解度均随温度的升高而增加,并且淀粉碘复合物可见光光谱的最大吸收波长都在620 nm左右.绿豆淀粉糊的透明度、冻融稳定性和凝沉性最好,沉降体积最大.

  8. KASTAMONU SARIMSAĞININ (Allium sativum L.) SELEKSİYON YOLUYLA ISLAHI VE SEÇİLEN KLONDA IŞINLAMA YOLUYLA MUTASYON YARATMA

    OpenAIRE

    BEŞİRLİ, Gülay

    2005-01-01

    Bu çalışma, Kastamonu sarımsağından, klon seleksiyonu yoluyla çeşit geliştirmek ve çeşit adayında ışınlama yoluyla genetik değişim yaratmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma, 1995-2000 yılları arasında Yalova koşullarında yürütülmüştür. Üç yıllık seleksiyon çalışmasında toplam 3 163 klon incelenmiştir. Yapılan incelemeler sonucunda bitki boyu, yaprak açısı, yaprak sayısı, yaprak eni, baş çapı, baş yüksekliği, baş ağırlığı, kabuk sayısı, diş sayısı, diş ağırlığı ve iri diş oranı özellikleri yönü...

  9. Alterações químicas e nutricionais do grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L. cru irradiado e submetido à cocção Nutritional and chemical alteration of raw, irradiated and cooked chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina Penati Ferreira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivos analisar, em grãos não submetidos à irradiação, a composição centesimal e mineral, para verificar as alterações provocadas pela cocção. Em grãos crus e cozidos, não irradiados (controle e irradiados (doses de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 kGy, foram realizadas também as análises de: disponibilidade de ferro in vitro, digestibilidade da proteína in vitro e perfil de aminoácidos. Os resultados das análises dos minerais demonstraram que ocorreu diminuição significativa (pThe work objective was analyzing, in chickpea seeds not irradiated, the centesimal and mineral composition to verifying the alterations on the nutritional characteristics caused by the cooking process. Also were carried out analysis of the iron availability in vitro, protein digestibility in vitro and the profile of amino acids in the raw and cooked in the control and irradiated seeds (doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. The results of the mineral analysis showed that only phosphorus decrease significantly (p<0.05 with cooking process. At the centesimal composition, ash and carbohydrates available decreased significantly (p<0,05. In the control and in the doses of 4 and 6 kGy the cooking hasn't influenced the digestibility of the protein, but the treatments that received radiation doses of 2, 8 and 10 kGy were influenced. The cooked chickpea has shown better digestibility in higher doses of radiation although the treatments have shown low digestibility. The raw chickpea presented a better dialysis of iron in the control and in the doses 2 and 4 kGy and the cooked chickpea presented improvement according to the increase of radiation doses. In relation to essential amino acids, chickpea has presented an adequate nutritional value, except for methionine.

  10. 不同处理方式对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白乳化性质的影响%Effects of different treatments on emulsifying properties of chickpea protein isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾楠; 张子沛; 吴锦波; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    Different treatments which included microwave treatment,ultrasonic wave treatment,ultra-high pressure treatment,different oil content,different pH value and different NaCl concentration had influence on emulsifying properties of chickpea protein isolates. When microwave processing time was 60s,the emulsifying activity and stability achieved to minimum value. When ultrasound processing time was 4min,the emulsifying activity and stability achieved to maximum value. When the ultra-high pressure was 400MPa,the emulsifying activity and stability achieved to maximum value. When pH value was 5. 0,the emulsifying activity achieved to minimum value and the emulsifying stability achieved to maximum. When NaCl concentration was 0. 2mol/L,the emulsifying activity was the lowest but the emulsifying stability was the highest. When oil content was between 10mL and 30mL,the emulsifying activity increased gradually but the emulsifying stability decreased gradually.%研究发现微波、超声波、超高压、不同的pH、不同的油含量和不同的离子浓度等都能够影响鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的乳化性质:当微波处理时间为60s,其乳化活性和乳化稳定性都达到最大值;当超声波处理时间为4min时,其乳化活性和乳化稳定性达到最大值;当压力为400MPa时,其乳化活性和乳化稳定性达到最大值;当pH在5.0时,鹰嘴豆蛋白的乳化活力最小,乳化稳定性最高;当NaCl浓度在0.2mol/L时,乳化活性最小,乳化稳定性最高;当加油量在10~30mL范围内,乳化活性逐渐增加,乳化稳定性逐渐降低。

  11. Abundancia y riqueza específica de pulgones (Hemiptera: Aphididae y sus parasitoides en diferentes genotipos y estados fenologicos del garbanzo Species richness and abundance of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae and their parasitoids in different genotypes and at different growth stages of chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Mazzuferi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los áfidos son insectos perjudiciales tanto por la succión de savia como por la transmisión de enfermedades. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron conocer las especies de áfidos y sus parasitoides presentes en diferentes genotipos de garbanzo, calcular la incidencia del parasitismo e informar sobre las fluctuaciones poblacionales de pulgones y parasitoides en relación a los estados fenológicos del cultivo. El estudio se realizó durante 2006 y 2007 en San Marcos Sierras (Córdoba. Se evaluaron siete líneas y dos cultivares sembrados en un diseño en bloques completamente aleatorizados con tres repeticiones. Cada 15 días se colectaron manualmente áfidos y "momias" presentes en 10 plantas seleccionadas al azar, de cada genotipo y bloque. Se determinaron 13 especies de áfidos. En 2006 se observó mayor abundancia y riqueza de especies que en 2007. Las especies numéricamente dominantes fueron: Acyrthosiphon pisum y A. kondoi. Solamente cinco especies colonizaron el cultivo. El cultivar Chañaritos presentó la mayor abundancia de insectos en los dos años agrícolas, y los genotipos M60 y M75 mostraron la mayor riqueza de especies. En ambos años, los pulgones estuvieron presentes durante la etapa reproductiva del cultivo. Se registraron tres especies de parasitoides y se estimó un 35% de parasitismo total.Aphids may damage plants by sucking plant juices or by transmitting diseases. The aim of this study was to obtain further information about aphid species and their parasitoids in different genotypes of chickpea, calculate the incidence of parasitism and report on fluctuating populations (from aphids and parasitoid in relation to plant phenology. The study was undertaken during 2006 and 2007 in San Marcos Sierras (Cordoba. Seven lines and two cultivars of chickpea were evaluated. Crop plots were planted following a completely randomized design block with 3 replicates. Every two weeks different developmental stages of aphids and "mummies

  12. Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat Efectos alelopáticos de fracciones acuosas y orgánicas de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de garbanzo y trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Tanveer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of weed species with allelopathic potential and characterization of their adverse effects against associated crops is required for better understanding of weed-crop interactions. Phytotoxic activity of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was investigated under controlled conditions. Two separate studies were done with each of four organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, 1-butanol and crude aqueous (1:10 and 1:20 whole plant fractions of E. dracunculoides using distilled water and 0.05% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as control. Different aqueous and organic fractions of E. dracunculoides had a significant bearing on germination attributes and seedling growth that varied among tested species. The final germination percentage of wheat remained unaffected; nevertheless, root and shoot elongation and biomass accumulation in these parts were significantly retarded. Aqueous fractions appeared more phytotoxic than organic fractions and suppressed chickpea germination by 35-53%. These aqueous fractions also reduced root (64-75% and 33-34% and shoot (18-62% and 21% length and root (32-33% and 42-46% and shoot (7-32% and 80-84% dry weight of wheat and chickpea, respectively. Among organic fractions, n-hexane was more suppressive to test species. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of four phytotoxins, furoic, p-coumaric, syringic, and caffeic acids, in aqueous whole plant (1:10 fractions. This study determined the phytotoxic allelopathic activity of E. dracunculoides against wheat and chickpea.Se requiere la identificación de especies de malezas con potencial alelopático y la caracterización de sus efectos adversos en contra de los cultivos asociados para una mejor comprensión de las interacciones cultivos-malezas. Se investigó la actividad fitotóxica de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. en la germinación y

  13. Induction of resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. against Ascochyta rabiei by applying chemicals and plant extracts Inducción de resistencia en garbanzo (Cicer arietinum L. contra Ascochyta rabiei por la aplicación de productos químicos y extractos vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Usman Ghazanfar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since new fungicides are scarce in the market and because of environmental problems, researchers are now emphasizing other alternatives, such as the genetic potential of plants, resistance against pathogens, and the use of biotic and abiotic agents to develop induced or acquired resistance. We investigated the role of resistance-inducing substances (chemicals and plant extracts in three chickpea cvs. C-44, Pb-91, and Bittle-98 in field experiments against Ascochyta blight disease. These cultivars were selected on the basis of better yield potential shown in previous experiments. Aqueous solution of salicylic acid (SA at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM; acibenzolar-S-methyl (Bion®, ASM at 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mM; and KOH at 25, 50, and 75 mM were applied, whereas Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Datura metel L., and Allium sativum L. plant extracts were applied at 5, 10, and 15%. Disease reduction data was recorded at different intervals from 4 to 14 d after being induced and inoculated with the pathogen. Overall results revealed that significant disease reduction (79.3% was provided by ASM in the cv. C-44 at 1.2 mM compared with SA, whereas the least significant was KOH. Maximum disease reduction (43.5% against disease in the plant extracts was observed by applying A. indica leaf extract, but D. metel and A. sativum extracts were not effective. Our findings suggest that enhancing resistance before infecting chickpea plants could be an innovative control method for Ascochyta blight of chickpea.Debido a la escasez de nuevos fungicidas en el mercado y problemas ambientales, los investigadores están ahora enfatizando otras alternativas, tales como potencial genético de las plantas, resistencia contra patógenos y uso de agentes bióticos y abióticos para el desarrollo de resistencia inducida y adquirida. Investigamos el rol de sustancias inductoras de resistencia (químicos y extractos vegetales en tres cultivares de garbanzo ‘C-44’, ‘Pb-91’,

  14. Caracterização e hidrólise in vitro da globulina principal de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L., var. IAC-Marrocos Characterization and in vitro tryptic hydrolysis of the major globulin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Neves

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo procedeu-se ao isolamento e caracterização da fração globulina majoritária (11 S de grão-de-bico, var. IAC-Marrocos. A globulina majoritária extraída foi isolada por cromatografia de filtração em gel e de troca-iônica mostrando apenas uma banda de proteína na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. A globulina majoritária, após passagem em coluna de Sephadex, revelou duas bandas protéicas de 55 e 52,5kDa e três bandas menores em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio. Na presença de 2-mercaptoetanol 6 polipeptídios na faixa de 18 a 42kDa foram revelados na eletroforese. A globulina isolada foi submetida à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina onde a forma nativa mostrou-se resistente à ação enzimática enquanto o aquecimento (96 e 121°C/15min não foi suficiente para aumentar a susceptibilidade à hidrólise, significativamente. Adição de NaCl 0,3M levou a um aumento da estabilidade estrutural com menor susceptibilidade à digestão proteolítica, fato em parte perdido com o aquecimento. As hidrólises foram acompanhadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio.The isolation and characterization of the major globulin fraction (11 S from Chickpea, vc IAC-Marrocos, were evaluated. The major globulin was extracted, isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography showing only one protein band on PAGE. The globulin, after Sephadex elution, revealed two protein bands of 55 and 52.5kDa and three minor bands on SDS-PAGE. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol six polypeptides were revealed on SDS-PAGE in the range of 18 to 42kDa. The isolated native globulin shown to be resistant to trypsin and chymotrypsin however heating at 96 and 121ºC/15min was not sufficient to increase the hydrolysis significantly. The proteolytic susceptibility of the enzymes was reduced by 0.3M NaCl addition at the assay. The salt concentration was sufficient to stabilize the native protein

  15. 鹰嘴豆中3种异黄酮及其乙氧基化衍生物体外协同降糖活性研究*%Study on Synergistic Hypoglycemic ActivityIn Vitroof Three Kinds of Isoflavone in Chickpea and Its Derivatives of Ethoxylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朋收; 魏颖; 时晓娟; 李博; 王东超; 徐暾海; 刘铜华

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对鹰嘴豆中3种异黄酮类化合物染料木素、鹰嘴豆芽素A、刺芒柄花素进行乙氧基化结构修饰,研究其降糖活性及协同降糖活性。方法:对上述3种异黄酮类化合物进行乙氧基化结构修饰,并研究该3种异黄酮类化合物及其衍生物降糖活性,并对化合物进行组合给药,研究其之间存在的协同降糖活性,选择胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞作为降糖活性筛选模型。结果:获得4个乙氧基化产物,3个母体异黄酮衍生物中染料木素的降糖活性优于鹰嘴豆芽素A和刺芒柄花素,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05),化合物b和c降糖效果均不如化合物a和d,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:本研究发现,通过化合物组合,化合物之间可以起到协同作用,发挥更好的降糖效果,为开发具有自主知识产权的降糖药物提供一定的基础。%Through the ethoxylation structure modification of three isoflavones which were genistein, biochanin A and formononetin in chickpea, the hypoglycemic activity and the synergistic hypoglycemic activity were studied. Ethoxylation structure modification was given on three kinds of isoflavones. The hypoglycemic activity of three kinds of isoflavones and their derivatives were studied. The synergistic hypoglycemic activity of the compounds was also studied. The insulin-resistance HepG2 cell was selected as the model of hypoglycemic activity screening. The results showed that four ethoxylation products were synthesized. And the hypoglycemic activity of genistein was better than biochanin A and formononetin with significant difference (P 0.05). Effects of the compound b and compound c were not as good as the compound a and compound d. There was statistical difference (P 0.05). It was concluded that the combinations of compounds played synergistic effects with better hypoglycemic effect. It provided a basis for developing hypoglycemic agents with

  16. Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of drought stress on proline content, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and yield characteristics in three varieties of chickpe

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a lectin from Cicer arietinum (chickpea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization and characterization of a lectin isolated and purified from C. arietinum and possessing complex sugar specificity is reported. The lectin isolated from mature seeds of Cicer arietinum (CAL) agglutinates pronase-treated rabbit and human erythrocytes and its haemagglutination activity is inhibited by fetuin and desialated fetuin but not by simple monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. The purified lectin is a dimer of molecular weight 43 000 Da composed of two identical subunits (MW 21 500), as confirmed by SDS–PAGE. The lectin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K over a well solution containing 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and 14%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000. The triangular prism-shaped crystals belong to space group R3 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 81.2, c = 69.4 Å. The diffraction data are 93.8% complete to 2.3 Å Bragg spacing with an Rmerge of 0.103

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a lectin from Cicer arietinum (chickpea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Uma V; Gaikwad, S M; Bhagyawant, S S; Deshpande, U D; Khan, M I; Suresh, C G

    2005-01-01

    The lectin isolated from mature seeds of Cicer arietinum (CAL) agglutinates pronase-treated rabbit and human erythrocytes and its haemagglutination activity is inhibited by fetuin and desialated fetuin but not by simple monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. The purified lectin is a dimer of molecular weight 43,000 Da composed of two identical subunits (MW 21,500), as confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The lectin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K over a well solution containing 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and 14%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000. The triangular prism-shaped crystals belong to space group R3 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 81.2, c = 69.4 A. The diffraction data are 93.8% complete to 2.3 A Bragg spacing with an Rmerge of 0.103. PMID:16508116

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a lectin from Cicer arietinum (chickpea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katre, Uma V.; Gaikwad, S. M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Bhagyawant, S. S.; Deshpande, U. D. [School of Life Sciences, S. R. T. M. University, Nanded 431606 (India); Khan, M. I.; Suresh, C. G., E-mail: suresh@ems.ncl.res.in [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization and characterization of a lectin isolated and purified from C. arietinum and possessing complex sugar specificity is reported. The lectin isolated from mature seeds of Cicer arietinum (CAL) agglutinates pronase-treated rabbit and human erythrocytes and its haemagglutination activity is inhibited by fetuin and desialated fetuin but not by simple monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. The purified lectin is a dimer of molecular weight 43 000 Da composed of two identical subunits (MW 21 500), as confirmed by SDS–PAGE. The lectin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K over a well solution containing 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and 14%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000. The triangular prism-shaped crystals belong to space group R3 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 81.2, c = 69.4 Å. The diffraction data are 93.8% complete to 2.3 Å Bragg spacing with an R{sub merge} of 0.103.

  20. Fly-ash induced synthesis of phytochelatins in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Sinha, S; Rai, P; Inouhe, M

    2005-07-01

    Phytochelatins and related metabolites (cysteine and GSH) were found to be induced in the shoots of two varieties of Cicer arietinum viz., CSG-8962 and C-235 grown under different amendments of fly-ash with garden soil and press mud. Cysteine, GSH, PCs and its speciation were found in higher concentrations in amended fly-ash than in the control 100% soil. Two species of metal binding peptides i.e., PC2 and PC4 were found in both varieties and in amendments, however, their concentration varied depending upon the fly-ash concentrations in both amendments. Further, var. CSG-8962 was found more tolerant than var. C-235 because of higher concentrations of PCs and related metabolites.

  1. Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides metabolism in developing chickpea seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides (RFOs) have anti-nutritional properties where phytic acid chelates minerals and reduces their bioavailability to humans and other animals, and RFOs cause flatulence. Both phytic acid and RFOs cannot be digested by monogastric animals and are released as pollutant-wastes. Efforts are being made to reduce the contents of these factors without affecting the viability of seeds. This will require a thorough understanding of their metabolism in diff...

  2. Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Aisha Waheed Qurashi; Anjum Nasim Sabri

    2012-01-01

    To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developi...

  3. Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Waheed Qurashi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98 growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity.

  4. Gluten-free spaghetti made with chickpea, unripe plantain, and maize flours: functional and chemical properties and starch digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten containing pasta has a primary role in human nutrition and is a traditional food that it is easy to store, cook and handle. The worldwide increased in genetically susceptible individuals to gluten and related cereal proteins, demand the development of gluten-free food products. The use of dif...

  5. 鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的胶凝性%Gelation Properties of Chickpea Protein Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 江波; 王璋

    2006-01-01

    研究了蛋白质浓度、pH、NaCl及CaCl2对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白胶凝性的影响.pH3.0、无盐加入时,蛋白质分散液以溶液状存在;pH3,0、0.1mol/L NaCl与pH7.0、高离子强度(NaCl:0.5~1.0mol/L)条件下,蛋白质分散液表现出半溶液状性质.pH3.0、高离子强度(NaCl:0.5~1.0mol/L)与pH7.0、低离子强度(NaCl:0~0.1mol/L)条件下,蛋白质分散液以凝胶状存在.pH3.0、NaCl浓度0.5~1.0mol/L与pH7.0、NaCl浓度0~0.1mol/L时具有相似的胶凝动力学.CaCl2对蛋白质的胶凝性影响与NaCl基本相同.pH3.0时,CaCl2的浓度为0.1和0.3mol/L时的凝胶强度分别为24和26.4g;NaCl浓度为0.1、0.5、1.0mol/L时的凝胶强度分别为7.6、8.4和9.3g.

  6. Functional properties of chickpea protein%鹰嘴豆分离蛋白质的功能性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 江波; 王璋

    2005-01-01

    碱溶酸沉法制备鹰嘴豆分离蛋白质,其蛋白质含量为91.53%.研究各种外部条件如温度、pH、离子强度、离子种类对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白质溶解性的影响以及pH、离子强度对乳化能力及乳化稳定性的影响.

  7. Acceptability and effectiveness of chickpea sesame-based ready-to-use therapeutic food in malnourished HIV-positive adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluku Bahwere

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Paluku Bahwere, Kate Sadler, Steve CollinsValid International, Oxford, United KingdomObjective: A prospective descriptive study to assess acceptability and effectiveness of a locally made ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF in HIV-infected chronically sick adults (CSA with mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC <210 mm or pitting edema. Methods: Sixty-three wasted AIDS adults were prescribed 500 g representing ~2600 kcal/day of locally made RUTF for three months and routine cotrimoxazole. Weight, height, MUAC, Karnofsky score and morbidity were measured at admission and at monthly intervals. The amount of RUTF intake and acceptability were assessed monthly.Results: Ninety-five percent (60/63 of the CSA that were invited to join the study agreed to participate. Mean daily intake in these 60 patients was 300 g/person/day (~1590 Kcal and 40 g of protein. Overall, 73.3% (44/60 gained weight, BMI, and MUAC. The median weight, MUAC and BMI gains after three months were 3.0 kg, 25.4 mm, and 1.1 kg/m2, respectively. The intervention improved the physical activity performance of participants and 78.3% (47/60 regained sufficient strength to walk to the nearest health facility. Mortality at three months was 18.3% (11/60.Conclusion: Locally made RUTF was acceptable to patients and was associated with a rapid weight gain and physical activity performance. The intervention is likely to be more cost effective than nutritional support using usual food-aid commodities.Keywords: ready-to-use therapeutic food, community-based intervention, adult, supplementation, HIV, Malawi

  8. Plant growth promoting potential of the fungus Discosia sp. FIHB 571 from tea rhizosphere tested on chickpea, maize and pea

    OpenAIRE

    Rahi, P.; Vyas, P.; Sharma, S.; Gulati, Ashu; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    The ITS region sequence of a phosphate-solubilizing fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of tea growing in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh showed 96% identity with Discosia sp. strain HKUCC 6626 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2 complete sequence, and 28S rRNA gene partial sequence. The fungus exhibited the multiple plant growth promoting attributes of solubilization of inorganic phosphate substrates, production of phytase and siderophores, and biosynthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA)-like au...

  9. Study on accumulating vanadium by chickpea sprout%鹰嘴豆芽富钒培育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 夏作理

    2008-01-01

    研究了鹰嘴豆芽富钒的可行性,结果表明,800 mg/L的偏钒酸钠水溶液是培育富钒鹰嘴豆芽的适宜浓度.同时,当偏钒酸钠浓度为1 200 mg/L时,鹰嘴豆芽粉中的钒含量达到最高值1 520 mg/kg,且该浓度偏钒酸钠水溶液所培养的鹰嘴豆芽富钒率最高,为589.44%.

  10. Adaptación y rendimiento de grano de diez cultivares de garbanzo (Cicer arietinum L en Barva de Heredia (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin R. Rojas A.

    2016-03-01

    The result suggest that the location were the study was conducted has good agrecological conditions for growth yield of chickpeas. Also, average cooking time was similar to a sample of chickpeas from the local market.

  11. Farklı Test Sistemleri ile Somatik Hücrelerde Profenofos Genotoksisitesine Karşı Kuşburnu (Rosa canina L. Ekstrelerinin Doğal Bir Antigenotoksik Ajan Olarak Kullanılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner KASIMOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, profenofos insektisitinin genotoksik etkileri, Drosophila melanogaster’de somatik mutasyon ve rekombinasyon testi (SMART ve insan periferal lenfosit hücrelerinde mikronükleus (MN testi ile araştırılmıştır. Bu maddenin olası genotoksik etkilerinin giderilebilmesi için de kuşburnu (Rosa canina bitkisine ait su ve etanol ekstreleri kullanılmıştır. SMART için D.melanogaster’in kanat preparatları incelendiği zaman, profenofosun artan konsantrasyonuna (0,025, 0,05, 0,075 ve 0,1ppm bağlı olarak normal kanat fenotipinde mutasyon frekansının arttığı özellikle en yüksek uygulama grubunda (0,1 ppm bu artışın pozitif etkili (+ olduğu gözlenmiştir (P0,05. Kuşburnu bitkisinin su (RCsu ve etanol (RCeta ekstreleri, profenofosun en yüksek konsantrasyonu (0,1 ppm ile birlikte uygulandığı zaman (profenofos+ RCsu/RCeta mutasyon frekansındaki artışın azaldığı ve bunun da istatistiksel olarak önemli olduğu gözlenmiştir (P<0,05. Bu çalışmada, farklı konsantrasyonlarda in vitro profenofos uygulaması (0,25, 0,5, 0,75 ve 1ppm ile insan periferal lenfosit hücrelerinde mikronükleus frekansının arttığı ve nükleer bölünme indeksinin (NBİ azaldığı da görülmüştür (P<0,05. Ancak profenofos+RCsu ve RCeta uygulamaları ile mikronükleus frekansı düşerken NBİ değeri de kontrol grubuna yaklaşmıştır (P<0,05.

  12. Determining radio frequency heating uniformity of mixed beans during disinfestation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since chickpeas and lentils are difficulty to artificially infest with live insects for radio frequency (RF) treatment validation, black-eyed peas and mung beans were selected to infest with insects before mixing with chickpeas and lentils. Temperature difference between black-eyed pea and chickpea ...

  13. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores-Chávez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The sample added whit oat an increase of crust in 21.25 to 49.25 % compared to the base. On the other hand, samples added whit prickle pear increase relative was 32.25 %. The combined treatment (Microwave (MW –convection oven, the best result is the samples with fiber oats, increased more than the negative control (51 to 63 % of difference; besides the employment of mucilage of prickle pear provides a green color to the final product.

  14. Strains of Mesorhizobium amorphae and M. tianshanense carrying symbiotic genes of common chickpea endosymbiotic species constitute a novel biovar (ciceri) able to nodulate Cicer arietinum

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Raul; Laranjo, Marta; Mateos, Pedro; Oliveira, Solange; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To identify several strains of Mesorhizobium amorphae and Mesorhizobium tianshanense nodulating Cicer arietinum in Spain and Portugal, and to study the symbiotic genes carried by these strains. Methods and Results: The sequences of 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS), 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes nodC and nifH were analysed. According to their 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequences, the strains from this study were identified as M. amorphae and M. tianshanense. The type stra...

  15. 不同品种鹰嘴豆淀粉糊与凝胶特性研究%Paste and Gel Properties of Starches from Different Chickpea Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 缪铭; 江波

    2007-01-01

    以不同品种的鹰嘴豆Kabuli和Desi为原料,采用快速黏度仪、质构仪和流变仪研究淀粉糊与凝胶特性的差异.研究表明:Kabuli淀粉在糊化过程中的峰值、谷值、最终黏度等特征值均高于Desi淀粉,而降落值、回值及成糊温度却低于Desi淀粉.Kabuli淀粉的品质优于Desi淀粉,但这2种鹰嘴豆淀粉糊的糊丝均属于短糊系列.在不同热过程中Desi淀粉形成凝胶速度快,强度大;Kabuli淀粉的凝胶强度随温度的变化是可逆的.Kabuli淀粉凝胶破裂强度、弹性模量均小于Desi淀粉凝胶.

  16. Functional properties of soybean peptides and chickpea peptides%鹰嘴豆肽、大豆肽功能性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔竹梅; 王金梅; 郝小燕; 张巨松; 麻浩

    2007-01-01

    研究对比了鹰嘴豆肽和大豆肽的水解度、抗氧化性、吸油性、吸湿及保湿性等功能特性的差异,以及蛋白酶种类对肽产物功能性质的影响.结果表明,①酶Ⅱ(Protease from Bacillus sp.)制备的蛋白肽抗氧化性和吸油能力最好,且在低湿度下的吸湿性和高湿度下的保湿性也最好:酶Ⅲ(Papain from papaya latex)制备的蛋白肽水解度最高;酶Ⅰ(Protease from Aspergillus melleus)制备的蛋白肤在不同湿度条件下都有较好的吸湿性能.②大豆肽的水解度和抗氧化能力比鹰嘴豆肽好.③Desi肽吸油能力最强,在抗氧化性上仅次于大豆肽,高低湿度环境下都有很好的保湿能力,其中Desi肽Ⅱ这些特征最为明显.④Kabuli肽在不同湿度条件下的吸湿和保湿能力都较好.

  17. Kabuli和Desi品种鹰嘴豆淀粉结构及功能性质%Structure and functional properties of chickpea starches of Kabuli and Desi varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪铭; 江波; 张涛

    2008-01-01

    采用扫描电镜、高效液相色谱、X射线衍射、差示扫描量热仪、红外光谱等现代分析手段探讨了Kabuli与Desi品种鹰嘴豆淀粉的颗粒形貌与大小、分子量分布、结晶结构、热焓性质、结构特征、消化性能及血糖生成指数.研究结果表明:鹰嘴豆淀粉的颗粒表面十分光滑,多数呈鹅卵石状,少数呈圆形.分子量分布图呈单一峰且其高分子量部分占的比例大,Cc-型结晶图谱,含有伯、仲醇羟基的a-D-吡喃环等结构特征,糊化起始温度高于60℃,是一种低GI淀粉.

  18. The Antioxidant Properties of Chickpea Protein Hydrolyzed Fractions%鹰嘴豆蛋白降解产物的抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓飞; 孙玉飞; 冯菲; 王雪妍; 周伏忠

    2015-01-01

    旨在分析鹰嘴豆分离蛋白(CPI)及其不同分子量短肽的抗氧化活性。用碱性蛋白酶(Alcalase)处理CPI,得到其降解产物,该降解产物经超滤离心,得到分子量分别为10 kD的短肽。结果表明,与其它大分子肽段相比,10 kD, respectively, using membrane ultrafiltration. Results showed that, the <3 kD peptides exhibited better ferric reducing power and radicals scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. CPI and its peptide fractions had significant ability to chelate metal ions compared to glutathione(GSH), and also had some ferric reducing powers. The remarkable antioxidant properties indicate that CPI and its peptide fractions have the potential to be used in manufacturing antioxidant functional foods and healthy foods.

  19. Relationship between Structure and Emulsifying Properties of Chickpea Protein Isolates%鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的乳化性及结构关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 江波; 王璋

    2004-01-01

    研究了蛋白质浓度、加油量、pH及离子强度对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的乳化活力及乳化稳定性的影响.在蛋白质的等电点pH 5.0时,乳化活力最小,乳化稳定性最高;离子强度增加,乳化活力呈现先降后升,而乳化稳定性表现为先升后降的趋势,当离子强度为0.2时,乳化活力最低而乳化稳定性最高.为了解释这一现象,研究了pH及离子强度对蛋白质的二级结构及表面疏水性的影响.结果表明,蛋白质的二级结构及表面疏水性随溶液的pH及离子强度的变化而变化,在蛋白质的等电点或离子强度较低(如0.1)时,蛋白质的二级结构主要以α-螺旋形式存在,且当离子强度为0.1时,蛋白质的表面疏水性最低.

  20. Chickpeas—composition, nutritional value, health benefits, application to bread and snacks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwa-Rosiak, Danuta; Nebesny, Ewa; Budryn, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Chickpea is grain legumes grown mainly in areas with temperate and semiarid climate. It is characterized by a high content of protein, fat, vitamins, fiber, and a lower content of carbohydrates than flour of wheat. Chickpeas may contain antinutritional compounds that can impair utilization of the nutrients by people. Heat treatment is an effective method to increase the amount of protein available for intestinal digestibility. Adding chickpeas to a foodstuff can increase their nutritional value and reduce the acrylamide content. Acrylamide is an antinutritional substance present in foods, such as bread, snacks, and chips. Chickpea flour and protein may be new way to a reduce the content of acrylamide in products of this type. The addition of chickpea flour affects the sensory and textural properties.

  1. 酶法改性对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白功能性的影响%Effect of Enzyme Modifications on Functional Properties of Chickpea Protein Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 江波; 沐万孟

    2007-01-01

    研究了Alcalase及转谷氨酰胺酶(Tgase)酶法改性对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白(CPI)的溶解性及乳化性的影响.CPI经Alcalase水解60 min(DH 5.91%),低离子强度对溶解性不再有负面影响;CPI水解30 min(DH5.80%),无盐或0.1 mol/L NaCI条件下,蛋白质的乳化活力分别是未改性前的1.22和2.78倍.Tgase对CPI在0.1 mol/L NaCI条件下的溶解性及乳化活力不能起到良好的改善作用.

  2. 超高压对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白起泡性能的影响%Effects of Ultra-High Pressure on Foaming Property of Chickpea Protein Isolated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坚; 江波; 李艳红; 张涛; 沐万孟

    2007-01-01

    研究超高压(100~600 MPa)对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白起泡性能的影响.结果表明:在磷酸盐和Tris-HCl缓冲体系中.超高压处理均能显著提高鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的起泡能力.在磷酸盐缓冲体系和Tris-HCl缓冲体系pH范围内(pH值为6.0~8.0),升高处理压力(大于300 MPa)和延长保压时间(大于5 min)都会使鹰嘴豆分离蛋白起泡能力显著提高.在起泡能力提高的同时,磷酸盐缓冲体系中CPI泡沫稳定性下降,而在Tris-HCl缓冲体系中泡沫稳定性提高.

  3. Research on antioxidant properties of α-amylase inhibitor in chickpea%鹰嘴豆中α-淀粉酶抑制剂抗氧化特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小燕; 崔竹梅; 麻浩; 顾爱星

    2014-01-01

    研究了从粗提取、硫酸铵分级沉淀、离子交换和反相液相三步纯化步骤获得的鹰嘴豆α-淀粉酶抑制剂的DPPH、·OH和·O2-自由基清除能力和还原力特性.结果表明:反应体系中,在一定浓度范围内,α-淀粉酶抑制剂的抑制活力、自由基清除能力和还原力不仅随浓度增加而增加,也随纯度增加而增强.

  4. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  5. Effect of Heat-moisture Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Chickpea Starch%湿热处理对鹰嘴豆淀粉理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新涛; 董强; 郑晓莹; 杜双奎

    2013-01-01

    以鹰嘴豆淀粉为材料,研究湿度(20%、30%)、温度(80℃、100℃、120℃)以及时间(2h、6 h)对其理化特性的影响.结果表明:经湿热处理后鹰嘴豆淀粉的颗粒形态没有明显变化,溶解度和膨胀度小于原淀粉,随着处理湿度增大、温度升高及时间延长,淀粉溶解度和膨胀度降低幅度增大;湿热处理后淀粉糊的冻融稳定性增强,较低的湿度及较高的温度有利于改善冻融稳定性;湿热处理后,淀粉更难糊化,随着湿热处理湿度的增大、处理温度的升高以及处理时间的延长,淀粉糊的黏度值降低越明显,起糊温度升高越多,峰值黏度、崩解值、回生值等黏度特征值下降幅度越大,热糊稳定性、冷糊稳定性越强.

  6. Physico-chemical Properties of Starch from Kabuli and Desi Chickpea Cultivars%不同品种鹰嘴豆淀粉的理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪铭; 江波; 张涛; 刘坚

    2008-01-01

    本实验系统研究了不同品种鹰嘴豆淀粉的各种理化性质.结果表明,实验室碱法提取Kabuli和Desi鹰嘴豆淀粉中直链淀粉含量分别为31.8和35.2,蓝值为5.8和6.8.淀粉颗粒多呈椭圆的卵形,少数圆形,且偏光十字明显.淀粉的膨胀度和溶解度均随着温度升高而增加,淀粉碘复合物可见光吸收光谱的最大吸收波长为625nm.两种淀粉的酸解和酶解过程基本相似,Kabuli淀粉糊的透明度、冻融稳定性、凝沉性优于Desi淀粉糊,但沉降体积却小于Desi淀粉糊.

  7. Effect of Ultra High Pressure on the Functional Properties of Chickpea Protein Isolate%超高压对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白功能性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坚; 江波; 张涛; 沐万孟

    2006-01-01

    研究了超高压(100~600 MPa)对鹰嘴豆分离蛋白功能性质的影响.结果表明:随着压力的增大和处理时间的延长,鹰嘴豆分离蛋白(CPI)的溶解性不同程度的下降,而表面疏水性、乳化性和起泡性都显著提高.当压力大于400 MPa(乳化性)、500 MPa(起泡性、表面疏水性),或者处理时间大于10 min时,反而导致功能性质的下降.

  8. 7 CFR 1412.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., lentils, and dry edible peas: July 1-June 30; (3) Upland cotton, peanuts, and rice: August 1-July 31; and... crops mentioned in § 1412.48. Pulse crop means dry peas, lentils, small chickpeas, and large...

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  10. European marketable grain legume seeds: Further insight into phenolic compounds profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Sara C Q; Taveira, Marcos; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2017-01-15

    Twenty-nine mature raw varieties of grain legume seeds (chickpeas, field peas, faba beans, common vetch and lupins) produced in Europe were investigated for their phenolic profile by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). To the best of our knowledge, this study reported for the first time the phenolic composition of mature raw seeds of chickpea type Desi, field pea and common vetch. Phenolic acids were predominant compounds in chickpeas, field peas and common vetch compared to flavonoids, whereas the opposite was observed for lupin seeds. Yellow lupins presented the highest levels of total phenolic compounds followed by narrow-leafed lupins (in average 960 and 679mg/kg, dry basis, respectively), whereas Kabuli chickpeas got the lowest ones (in average 47mg/kg, dry basis). Principal component analysis revealed that flavones and total levels of phenolic compounds were responsible for nearly 51% of total data variability. PMID:27542465

  11. How Is Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chickpeas Dried fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and apricots Prune juice Iron-fortified cereals and breads You ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Medicines Your doctor may prescribe medicines to help your ...

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on cooking time and associated physicochemical properties of two legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation (0.25-5.00 kGy) on physical properties (seed size and density), water uptake (swelling and hydration capacities and indices), cooking time and phytic acid content was studied for five varieties each of chickpea and mungbean. Up to 5 kgy irradiation had no significant effect on physical and water uptake properties of these legumes, but cooking time and phytic acid content were drastically reduced. Irradiation caused more reduction in cooking time of chickpea than of mungbeans

  13. Analysis of the sequence of a dicot-infecting mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) originating from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Huma; Kumari, Safaa G; Mansoor, Shahid; Martin, Darren P; Briddon, Rob W

    2011-06-01

    Chickpea stunt disease (CSD) across southern Asia, the Middle East and North Africa is caused by a number of viruses that include single-stranded DNA viruses of the genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae). Despite the importance of CSD in reducing chickpea and lentil production, until recently little was known of the nature of the pathogens causing the disease. Sequence characterisation of virus isolates from Sudan and Pakistan showed the viruses concerned to potentially be new mastrevirus species related to Bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV), a virus known to occur in both southern Africa and southern Asia. Here we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a mastrevirus associated with CSD in Syria. This virus represents a proposed new species, closely related to the recently characterised Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Sudan virus and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus but with the highest sequence identity to BeYDV, for which we propose the name Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Syria virus. In addition the biological integrity of the clone was confirmed by infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

  14. Modeling for Growth and Forecasting of Pulse Production in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Md. FarhatRahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to estimate growth pattern and examine the best ARIMA model to efficiently forecasting pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. It appeared that the time series data for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea were 1st order homogenous stationary. Two types of models namely Box-Jenkins type Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA and deterministic type growth models, are examined to identify the best forecasting models for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. The study revealed that the best models were ARIMA (1, 1 and 1, ARIMA (0, 1 and 0 and ARIMA (1, 1 and 3 for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production, respectively. Among the deterministic type growth models, the cubic model is best for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The analysis indicated that short-term forecasts were more efficient for ARIMA models compared to the deterministic models. The production uncertainty of pulse could be minimized if production were forecasted well and necessary steps were taken against losses. The findings of this study would be more useful for policy makers, researchers as well as producers in order to forecast future national pulse production more accurately in the short run.

  15. 白虎人参鹰嘴豆合剂对2型糖尿病大鼠血糖调节作用的实验研究%Experimental study on regulation of white tiger chickpea mixture of ginseng in type 2 blood glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀艳; 王存芬

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨白虎人参鹰嘴豆合剂对2型糖尿病大鼠血糖的调节作用.方法:每组17只,分别给予白虎人参汤煎荆,鹰嘴豆煎剂及白虎人参鹰嘴豆合剂进行治疗3周,检测血糖的变化.结果:白虎人参鹰嘴豆合剂降血糖的效果明显优于单独应用中药白虎人参汤或单独应用维药鹰嘴豆煎剂.结论:鹰嘴豆原药水煎剂具有降血糖的作用.

  16. Caracterização e hidrólise in vitro da globulina principal de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L.), var. IAC-Marrocos Characterization and in vitro tryptic hydrolysis of the major globulin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    NEVES Valdir A.; Maraiza A. da Silva; LOURENÇO Euclides J.

    2004-01-01

    No presente estudo procedeu-se ao isolamento e caracterização da fração globulina majoritária (11 S) de grão-de-bico, var. IAC-Marrocos. A globulina majoritária extraída foi isolada por cromatografia de filtração em gel e de troca-iônica mostrando apenas uma banda de proteína na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. A globulina majoritária, após passagem em coluna de Sephadex, revelou duas bandas protéicas de 55 e 52,5kDa e três bandas menores em gel de poliacrilamida dodecilsulfato de sódio...

  17. Ecological Risk Assessment of EDTA-Assisted Phytoremediation of Cd Under Different Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Gu, X W Sophie; Hou, Tao; Lin, Lihong

    2016-02-01

    A long-term field experiment was designed to assess remediation efficiency and ecological risk of phytoremediation of Cd under different cultivation systems with or without ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA can significantly improve the phytoremediation effectiveness of a historically polluted e-waste dismantling site through enhancing Cd uptake by plants in all cultivation systems along with higher ecological risks to different receptors especially in the presence of Cicer arietinum (chickpea). Moisture content at each layer of soil profile under Eucalyptus globules L. cultivated sites was consistently lower than under chickpea monoculture as a result of E. globules' high water use efficiency. Besides low soil moisture, E. globules can intercept more Cd-rich leachate than chickpea regardless of the presence of EDTA. E. globules could be used for Cd phytoremediation as they can take full advantage of EDTA and decrease ecological risk caused by the chelator.

  18. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes. PMID:27570282

  19. Validation of multivariate screening methodology. Case study: detection of food fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M Isabel; Colomer, Núria; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Callao, M Pilar

    2014-05-27

    Multivariate screening methods are increasingly being implemented but there is no worldwide harmonized criterion for their validation. This study contributes to establish protocols for validating these methodologies. We propose the following strategy: (1) Establish the multivariate classification model and use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to optimize the significance level (α) for setting the model's boundaries. (2) Evaluate the performance parameter from the contingency table results and performance characteristic curves (PCC curves). The adulteration of hazelnut paste with almond paste and chickpea flour has been used as a case study. Samples were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and the multivariate classification technique used was soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). The ROC study showed that the optimal α value for setting the SIMCA boundaries was 0.03 in both cases. The sensitivity value was 93%, specificity 100% for almond and 98% for chickpea, and efficiency 97% for almond and 93% for chickpea.

  20. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes and Their Impact on Normalized Gene Expression Studies across Cultivated and Wild Cicer Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Sri Cindhuri, Katamreddy; Sivaji Ganesh, Adusumalli; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses. PMID:26863232

  1. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeev K Varshney; Himabindu Kudapa; Manish Roorkiwal; Mahendar Thudi; Manish K Pandey; Rachit K Saxena; Siva K Chamarthi; Murali Mohan S; Nalini Mallikarjuna; Hari Upadhyaya; Pooran M Gaur; L Krishnamurthy; K B Saxena; Shyam N Nigam; Suresh Pande

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided > 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these trait-associated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance to

  2. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Kudapa, Himabindu; Roorkiwal, Manish; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K; Saxena, Rachit K; Chamarthi, Siva K; Mohan, S Murali; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Upadhyaya, Hari; Gaur, Pooran M; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, K B; Nigam, Shyam N; Pande, Suresh

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided more than 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these traitassociated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance

  3. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Dalaram S. Ismael; Alena Vollmannová; Mária Timoracká; Ľuboš Harangozo

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas) and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a tr...

  4. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p < 0.05). Following the meal, BG was lower after lentils and chickpeas at 150 and 165 min, and AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05). PMID:24797207

  5. Microsatellite markers discriminating accessions within collections of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraic, Ján; Gregová, Edita; Jomová, Klaudia; Hudcovicová, Martina

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of microsatellite analyses for discriminating between plant accessions maintained in collections of genetic resources was tested for 53 accessions of barley, 65 of soybean, 49 of chickpea, and 19 of alfalfa. The specific primer pairs used in this study were based on microsatellite DNA sequences surrounded by perfect dinucleotide and imperfect trinucleotide tandem repeat units. The evaluated polymorphic information content, diversity index, and probabilities of identity indicate that there is value in the application of SSR analyses in barley, soybean, and chickpea genetic resource management. Variation between alfalfa genotypes was not revealed at the five analyzed microsatellite loci. PMID:12378234

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on cooking time and associated physiochemical properties of two legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation (0.25-5.00 kGy) on physical properties (seed size and density), water uptake (swelling and hydration capacities and indices), cooking time and phytic acid content was studied for five varieties each of chickpea and mungbean. Up to 5 kGy irradiation had no significant effect on physical and water uptake properties of these legumes, but cooking time and phytic acid content were drastically reduces. Irradiation caused more reduction in cooking time of chickpea than of mungbeans

  7. Strategic double cropping on Vertisols: A viable rainfed cropping option in the Indian SAT to increase productivity and reduce risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nageswara Rao, V.; Meinke, H.B.; Craufurd, P.Q.; Parsons, D.; Kropff, M.J.; Anten, N.P.R.; Wani, S.P.; Rego, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Our study suggests the possibility for transformational change in the productivity and risk profile of someof India’s rainfed cropping systems. In the semi-arid regions of Southern India, farmers traditionally cropsorghum or chickpea on Vertisols during the post-rainy season, keeping the fields fall

  8. A study of starch gelatinisation behaviour in hydrothermally-processed plant food tissues and implications for in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Campbell, Grant M; Gaisford, Simon; Royall, Paul G; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the plant food matrix in influencing the extent of starch gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing, and its implications for starch digestibility. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to provide a detailed examination of the gelatinisation behaviour of five distinct size fractions (diameters food materials. We observed clear differences in the gelatinisation behaviour of matched size-fractions of chickpeas and durum wheat. In chickpea materials, the TEG values (34-100%) were inversely related to particle size, whereas in durum wheat, no size-dependent limitations on TEG were observed. The TEG values were completely consistent with the extent of starch amylolysis in all size fractions of both durum wheat and chickpea. Microstructural analysis following hydrothermal processing confirmed the presence of some partially gelatinised birefringent starch within intact chickpea cells. Birefringent starch granules were not present in any of the processed fractions of durum wheat. The differences in gelatinisation behaviour of these plant species seem to reflect the individual cell wall properties of these materials. These findings demonstrate the applicability of DSC to real food materials to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the food matrix (particularly the plant cell walls) influences gelatinisation, and consequently, starch amylolysis.

  9. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  10. Function-structure relationships of acetylated pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches were studied and the results showed that their properties were strongly related to the chemical fine structures of the starches. Furthermore, granular starches were modified using two types of chemical acetylation reagents and then separated into different si

  11. Bacterial endophytes mediate positive feedback effects of early legume termination times on the yield of subsequent durum wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Field crops influence the biotic properties of the soil, impacting the health and productivity of subsequent crops. Polymerase chain reaction and 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing of amplicons were used to clarify the legacy of chickpea and pea crops on the quality of the bacterial community colonizing the root endosphere of subsequent crops of wheat, in a replicated field study. Similar communities of root endosphere bacteria were formed in durum wheat grown after pea and chickpea crops when chickpea crops were terminated as early as pea (July). Termination of the chickpea crops in September led to the domination of Firmicutes in wheat root endosphere; Actinobacteria dominated the wheat root endosphere following early pulse crop termination. The architecture of wheat plants was correlated with the composition of its root endosphere community. High grain yield was associated with the production of fewer but larger wheat heads, the abundance of endospheric Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria, and the scarcity of endospheric Firmicutes. Pulse termination time affected wheat root endosphere colonization strongly in 2009 but weakly in 2010, an abnormally wet year. This study improved our understanding of the so-called "crop rotation effect" in pulse-wheat systems and showed how this system can be manipulated through agronomic decisions.

  12. Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to establish milling settings that optimally separate starch granules from protein bodies and cell wall fibres for starch-rich legumes. Optimal separation was obtained for pea, bean, lentil and chickpea when the particle size distribution curve of flour and isolated sta

  13. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts ofCupressus lusitanica and threeEucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisanework N.; Michelsen, Anders

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf ex...

  14. In-vitro regeneration studies of an important legume, Cicer arietinum: Hurdles and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several economically important grain legumes including chickpea that play significant role in nutrition of the rural and urban poor in developing world. Plants are subjected to a large number of stresses that may interfere with the normal growth and development. The model legumes are being developed as experimental systems to study a number of key biological questions using molecular tools including genomics and proteomics. Most of the functional genomics approaches rely upon the highthroughput transformation system useful for studying various gene identification strategies. The difficulty to transform a plant varies from species to species in legumes. There is limited success in exchange of the desirable characters by the classical and modern breeding technologies, in important pulse crop chickpea and biotechnological tools like plant tissue culture and genetic transformation techniques have emerged as a potential supplement. The major bottleneck is requirement of an in vitro manipulation of leguminosae members and the availability of reproducible, efficient and better plant regeneration methods. The regeneration and transformation of legumes particularly chickpea suffers due to recalcitrant nature towards rooting and transplantation of the in vitro regenerated plants. This becomes a limiting factor for the application of this technology towards designated mandate of crop improvement programs. This article discusses the hurdles and strategies for transformation of legumes in general and chickpea in particular.

  15. Principales maladies fongiques de trois légumineuses alimentaires dans la région du Kef (Tunisie)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasraoui, B.

    1991-01-01

    The most important fungal diseases of pulses in Kef area (Tunisia). Ascochyta disease and rust of faba beans, powdery mildew of peas and Ascochyta blight of chickpeas are the most important fungal diseases of these crops in the Kef area (North-West of Tunisia).

  16. Rheological and textural properties of pulse starch gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The properties of starch gels from black beans, chickpeas, lentils and navy beans were investigated. Differences were shown between starch sources, and effect of starch concentration was studied. Navy bean starch had the highest peak and final viscosities in pasting tests, while black bean starch h...

  17. Problems and Solutions of Pulses Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybegün Ton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, Chickpea is in the first rank in pulses and it is followed by lentil, bean and faba bean respectively. In the world, Turkey is one of the most important producer and exporting countries especially for chickpea and lentil. In recent years, Turkey’s chickpea and lentil production are in downvard trend. Our country has diverse ecological regions for growing many pulses species. Our production potential of pulses must be evaluated and a great importance must be given to the production of cultivars with high yield potential, quality and standart bigness seed. On the other hand, in Turkey, winter chickpea production in coastal region and winter lentil production in central Anatolion region must be widened. Pulses production must be done by using proper growing techniques. Sowing and harvesting should be done by machine. At the same time good war should be made against disease and insect for increasing yield potential of pulses. So, in Turkey, pulses plantation can be increased much more than nowdays.

  18. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M. Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E.; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M. Inés; Villagrán, M. Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R.; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon. Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. PMID:27324588

  19. Pseudomonas putida attunes morphophysiological, biochemical and molecular responses in Cicer arietinum L. during drought stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shalini; Lata, Charu; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-02-01

    Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely affect plant growth and yield potential. However, some drought resistant rhizosphere competent bacteria are known to improve plant health and promote growth during abiotic stresses. Present study showed the role of Pseudomonas putida MTCC5279 (RA) in ameliorating drought stress on cv. BG-362 (desi) and cv. BG-1003 (kabuli) chickpea cultivars under in vitro and green house conditions. Polyethylene glycol-induced drought stress severely affected seed germination in both cultivars which was considerably improved on RA-inoculation. Drought stress significantly affected various growth parameters, water status, membrane integrity, osmolyte accumulation, ROS scavenging ability and stress-responsive gene expressions, which were positively modulated upon application of RA in both chickpea cultivars. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR analysis showed differential expression of genes involved in transcription activation (DREB1A and NAC1), stress response (LEA and DHN), ROS scavenging (CAT, APX, GST), ethylene biosynthesis (ACO and ACS), salicylic acid (PR1) and jasmonate (MYC2) signalling in both chickpea cultivars exposed to drought stress and recovery in the presence or absence of RA. The observations imply that RA confers drought tolerance in chickpea by altering various physical, physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as by modulating differential expression of at least 11 stress-responsive genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation in one month old desi and kabuli chickpea subjected to drought stress for 0, 1, 3 and 7 days and recovery in the presence of a PGPR.

  20. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M Inés; Villagrán, M Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. PMID:27324588

  1. The acute effects of a pulse-containing meal on glycaemic responses and measures of satiety and satiation within and at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, R C; Zykus, A; Luhovyy, B L; Nunez, M F; Wong, C L; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low glycaemic foods; however, their effect on satiation is unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of an ad libitum pulse meal on food intake (FI), appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after a test meal (4 h later) and on FI at the test meal. Males (n 24, 22·8 kg/m2) received one of four treatments or control. The pulse treatments contained pasta and tomato sauce and 44 % of energy from: (1) chickpeas, (2) lentils, (3) navy beans or (4) yellow peas. The control was pasta and tomato sauce (pasta and sauce). FI (satiation) was measured at the treatment meal (0-20 min) and at an ad libitum pizza meal 4 h later. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. At the treatment meal, lentils led to lower FI compared to chickpeas and pasta and sauce, whereas navy beans led to lower FI compared to chickpeas. Also, lentils led to lower cumulative FI compared to pasta and sauce. All pulses led to lower BG peak and cumulative area under the curve (AUC; 0-340 min); however, only chickpeas, lentils and navy beans reduced pre-pizza meal BG AUC (0-260 min) relative to pasta and sauce. Chickpeas led to lower post-pizza meal BG AUC (260-340 min) compared to navy beans and yellow peas. Consumption of pulses in a high-glycaemic meal contributes to earlier satiation, lower BG following the meal and after a later meal, but these effects are specific to pulse type and cannot be explained by their glycaemic properties alone. PMID:22054112

  2. Criblage et performances agronomiques de 45 génotypes de pois chiche (Cicer arietinum L. soumis à un régime hydrique limité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mbarek K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening and agronomic performances of 45 chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L. submitted to a limited hydrous pattern. In Tunisia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is one of the most important legume grain crops. It is conducted during two periods of the year either as winter crop or as spring crop. The last type has the advantage to occupy the soil in a short period of time (February to June. However, it exposes plants to water stress. Consequently, vegetative development and grain yield are negatively affected in quantity and quality. In order to study plant reactions to drought conditions, 45 genotypes of chickpea (C. arietinum were tested in delayed spring culture under a water stressed treatment. A field trial was carried out in the region of Chott Mariem belonging to the semi-arid superior. The drought stress is established at the beginning of flowering stage and was accentuated during the grain filling and the seed maturity phases. To evaluate the chickpea genotypes stress tolerance, parameters related to the vegetative development, the seed yield, the water use efficiency and the thermal duration were measured. The analysis of the grain yield and its components revealed that there is a biological diversity among the genotypes tested. The 45 accessions can be divided into three groups. The first one is composed of ‘Kabuli’ chickpea genotypes which are sensitive to drought stress. They are not appropriate for spring crop in semi-arid regions. The second group is composed of genotypes, of which two are of ‘Dési’ type, that are tolerant to drought stress and can be recommended for a spring crop in the superior semi-arid zones. The last group of genotypes is moderately sensitive to drought stress. They can be led as spring crop in the semi-arid superior zones with complementary irrigations.

  3. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M Inés; Villagrán, M Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina.

  4. Scenario of Entomological Research in Legume Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Neupane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper highlights scenario of entomological research in grain legumes in Nepal into headings of the monitoring, survey and surveillance, insect pest management, existing problem and future strategies. A survey study on yield loss assessment of chickpea due to Helicoverpa pod borer under field condition has been recorded up to 75% in the year 1996-1998 at Banke and Bardiya district. While monitored Helicoverpa armigera through pheromone trap, during the 2nd week of March, peak catches of 91 male moths were recorded at Rampur, while it was the maximum (42 male moths during the 3rd week of March. Synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and cypermethrin used at 0.01% concentration (a.i., were effective in controlling the chickpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Genotypes NCH-18, NCH -31, NCH-138 and ICC 3075 WR were found resistant. Ripcord 10%@0.05% was found to be superior and effective chemical insecticides to control stem fly and soybean hairy caterpillar. The late sowing date December, 10 showed significantly higher percentage of chickpea pod borer damage with lower grain yield. Inter crops combinations of Chickpea +wheat (2:1 ratio was found effective against Helicoverpa armigera damage (1.2% followed by chickpea+barley (2.36% and Chickpea+linseed (2:1 ratio (3.7%. Bakaino (Melia azederach L. was identified as the best indigenous pesticides to check the normal growth of hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia casigneta kollar under laboratory condition. Metarhizium anisopliae was found effective for the management of Helicoverpa armigera that caused maximum mortality (94.67%, infection (45.33% within 7.49 days (LT50. Similarly, Beauveria bassiana caused maximum mortality (98.67%, infection (80.00% with the least LT50 value (5 days. Crop sprayed with HaNPV had the lowest pod damage (0.3% and the highest in Racer (2.2%. This review work provided a lot of information to conduct entomological research activity conducted in grain

  5. Water Diffusion Coefficients of Selected Legumes Grown in Turkey As Affected by Temperature and Variety

    OpenAIRE

    SEYHAN-GÜRTAŞ, Ferda; AK, M. Mehmet; Evranuz, E. Özgül

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of water absorption by chickpeas (Koçbaşı, Kuşbaşı), lentils (green Pul) and beans (Battal, Dermason, Horoz, Şeker) grown in Turkey were studied by a gravimetric method during soaking at 15, 25 and 40ºC to determine moisture diffusivity of these selected legumes. The water diffusion coefficients of the legumes were in the range 9.71x10-11 - 5.98x10-10 m2/s for the chickpeas, 3.53x10-10 - 1.33x10-9 m2/s for the lentils and 4.35x10-11 - 3.79x10-9 m2/s for the beans. An Arrhenius-t...

  6. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose.

  7. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops.

  8. A Novel Pectin Material: Extraction, Characterization and Gelling Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Rascón-Chu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel pectin was acid extracted from chickpea husk (CHP. CHP presented a 67% (w/w of galacturonic acid, an intrinsic viscosity of 374 mL/g and a viscosimetric molecular weight of 110 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of CHP indicated a degree of esterification of about 10%. The CHP-calcium system formed ionic gels with a storage (G’ modulus of 40 Pa and gel set time (G’ > G’’ of 3 min at 1% (w/v, and a G’ of 131 Pa and gel set time of 1 min at 2% (w/v. The G’ of CHP gels was not greatly affected by temperature. The results attained suggest that chickpea husk can be a potential source of a gelling pectin material.

  9. A novel pectin material: extraction, characterization and gelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urias-Orona, Vania; Rascón-Chu, Agustin; Lizardi-Mendoza, Jaime; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Gardea, Alfonso A; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2010-09-28

    A novel pectin was acid extracted from chickpea husk (CHP). CHP presented a 67% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, an intrinsic viscosity of 374 mL/g and a viscosimetric molecular weight of 110 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of CHP indicated a degree of esterification of about 10%. The CHP-calcium system formed ionic gels with a storage (G') modulus of 40 Pa and gel set time (G' > G″) of 3 min at 1% (w/v), and a G' of 131 Pa and gel set time of 1 min at 2% (w/v). The G' of CHP gels was not greatly affected by temperature. The results attained suggest that chickpea husk can be a potential source of a gelling pectin material.

  10. A germination test: an easy approach to know the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is an evolving preserving technique that provides a shield against the spoilage and might have a potential to ensure the food safety and security world wide. In the present study, feasibility to apply germination test to distinguish an un-irradiated and irradiated samples of wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans was checked. Samples were irradiated to the absorbed doses ranging from 0-10 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator and were germinated in plant growth chamber. Root and shoot lengths were measured at 7th day after gamma radiation treatment. In all the irradiated samples root and shoot lengths were decreased with the increase in radiation absorbed doses. The seeds irradiated to the absorbed doses more than 2 kGy were not germinated. Germination test proved as an easy and simple method to detect irradiation in wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans irradiated even at low absorbed doses. (author)

  11. bio fertilizers and their effect on the microbial biomass in the rhizosphere of certain crops using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pot experiments were carried out with chickpea and wheat plants that cultivated in virgin sandy soil. the plants were inoculated with rhizobium and/or arbuscular mycorrhizae. nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied in three different levels. shoot dry matter accumulation, seeds and grains yields, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were positively affected by inoculation and fertilization levels. N15-isotope dilution technique were used to determine the contribution of fertilizer,soil and atmospheric N uptake by shoot and seed or grain of both plants . soil microbial biomass C, N and P under chickpea and wheat at each treatment were investigated . Best results were mostly obtained in response to dual inoculation with highest experimental levels of N and P fertilizers

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TRACTOR FRONT MOUNTED PIGEON PEA STEM CUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    Atul R. Dange; S.K.Thakare

    2010-01-01

    Pigeon pea or tur (Cajanus cajan L. Mills.) is one of the important pulse crops of India and ranks second to chickpea in area and production. Traditionally the harvesting of pigeon pea is done manually by sickle, which demands considerable amount of labour, drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. In view of this a tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was developed and being front mounted implement it facilitated better visibil...

  13. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis Lars G; Gao Lingling; Singh Karam B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australia...

  14. Radio frequency treatments for insect disinfestation of dried legumes

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Johnson; Wang, S.; Tang, J

    2010-01-01

    Dried legumes (chickpeas, green peas or lentils) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. A major problem in the marketing of these products is infestation by insect pests. Typically, chemical fumigants are used to disinfest product, but regulatory issues, insect resistance, environmental concerns and the increase of the organic market have forced the industry to explore non-chemical alternatives. One possible alternative is the use of radio frequency (RF) energy to rapidl...

  15. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, Lars G.; Gao, Lingling; Singh, Karam B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Researc...

  16. Application of DNA comet assay for detection of radiation treatment of grams and pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hasan M.; Ashfaq A Khan; Khan, Sanaullah

    2010-01-01

    Several types of whole pulses (green lentils, red lentils, yellow lentils, chickpeas, green peas, cowpeas and yellow peas) and grams (black grams, red grams and white grams) have been investigated for the identification of radiation treatment using microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay). Pulses and grams were exposed to the radiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 5 kGy covering the legalized commercial dose range for protection from insect/pest infestations. All irradiated samples...

  17. Biodosažitelné formy vybraných nutrientů v luštěninách

    OpenAIRE

    Landauf, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the quantitative determination of bioaccessible contents of selected elements (Cu, Fe, Zn) in legumes: chickpeas, pea, lentil, soybean, bean. The UBM in-vitro test was used for the study of bioaccessible forms. This method simulates human digestion using synthetic gastric juices. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the determination of the total content of selected elements in legumes and their bioaccessible contents in gastric and gastro-intestinal human tract....

  18. Pulse Consumption, Satiety, and Weight Management1

    OpenAIRE

    McCrory, Megan A.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show...

  19. SOLUTION OF RESIDUE SUSPICION IN ORGANIC CUMIN AND ANISEED

    OpenAIRE

    Nemli, Yildiz; Kaynar, Ahmet; Kayandan, Akın; Er, Tülin

    2014-01-01

    BIRLIK produce and export mostly organic aniseed, cumin and fennel. Other than these products, the company also produce poppy seed, gorund oregano, thyme, sage, rosemary and chickpea in 7 different project areas. A research project is prepared beetween EU Agricultural Faculty Plant Protection Department and BIRLIK to solve the suspicions occured due to linuron and isoproturon herbicide metabolites formation in organic cumin and linuron formation in aniseed. This project was started in 2009 an...

  20. Food Allergy--Lessons from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Gerez, Irvin Francis A; Soh, Shu E.; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2008-01-01

    Objective This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. Methods PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. Results There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have result...

  1. Interaction between soil mineralogy and the application of crop residues on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, M.; Kiptoon, R.; Bar-Tal, A.; Wakindiki, I. I. C.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main goals of modern agriculture is to achieve sustainability by maintaining crop productivity while avoiding soil degradation. Intensive cultivation could lead to a reduction in soil organic matter that could affect the structure stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Moreover, crops extract nutrients from the soil that are taken away from the field when harvested, and as a consequence, the addition of fertilizers to the soil is necessary to maintain crop productivity. One way to deal with these problems is to incorporate crop residues into the soil after harvest. Crop residues are a source of organic matter that could improve soil physical properties, such as aggregate stability and soil hydraulic conductivity. However, this effect could vary according to other soil properties, such as clay content, clay mineralogy, and the presence of other cementing materials in the soil (mainly carbonates and aluminum and iron oxides). In the present work, the interaction between the addition of chickpea crop residues to the soil and clay mineralogy on aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity were studied. Chickpea plant residues were added at a rate of 0.5% (w/w) to smectitic, kaolinitic, illitic and non-phyllosilicate soils from different regions. The soils without (control) and with chickpea residues were incubated for 0, 3, 7 and 30 days, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils was measured in columns after each incubation time. The response of hydraulic conductivity to the addition of residues and incubation time was different in the soils with various mineralogies, although in general, the addition of chickpea residues increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity as compared with the control soils. This positive effect of crop residues on hydraulic conductivity was mainly a result of improved aggregate stability and resistance to slaking during wetting.

  2. Isolation of Aspergillus flavus from stored food commodities and Thymus vulgaris (L.) essential oil used as a safe plant based preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar Singh; Chandrabhan Seniya; Shriram Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Grain samples of Cicer arietinum (Chickpea), Zea mays (Maize), Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea), Hordeum vulgare (Barley), Oryza sativa (Rice) and Sorghum vulgare (Millet) were procured from various retailers of market were subjected to their mould profile. During mycoflora analysis, 1297 fungal isolates were recorded from the food commodities. The least number of fungal isolates (189) were detected from H. vulgare while highest (244) from Z. mays. The genus Aspergillus was found to be most dominan...

  3. Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase distribution and their relation to proton release in five nodulated grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X H; Tang, C; Rengel, Z

    2002-09-01

    Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and net proton release were compared in five grain legumes grown at 0.2 and 2 mM nitrate in nutrient solution. Nitrate treatments, imposed on 22-d-old, fully nodulated plants, lasted for 21 d. Increasing nitrate supply did not significantly influence the growth of any of the species during the treatment, but yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) had a higher growth rate than the other species examined. At 0.2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake rates ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: yellow lupin > field pea (Pisum sativum) > chickpea (Cicer arietinum) > narrow-leafed lupin (L angustifolius) > white lupin (L albus). At 2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake ranged from 1.7 to 8.2 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: field pea > chickpea > white lupin > yellow lupin > narrow-leafed lupin. Nitrate reductase activity increased with increased nitrate supply, with the majority of NRA being present in shoots. Field pea and chickpea had much higher shoot NRA than the three lupin species. When 0.2 mM nitrate was supplied, narrow-leafed lupinreleased the most H+ per unit root biomass per day, followed by yellow lupin, white lupin, field pea and chickpea. At 2 mM nitrate, narrow-leafed lupin and yellow lupin showed net proton release, whereas the other species, especially field pea, showed net OH- release. Irrespective of legume species and nitrate supply, proton release was negatively correlated with nitrate uptake and NRA in shoots, but not with NRA in roots. PMID:12234143

  4. Function-structure relationships of acetylated pea starches

    OpenAIRE

    J. Huang

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches were studied and the results showed that their properties were strongly related to the chemical fine structures of the starches. Furthermore, granular starches were modified using two types of chemical acetylation reagents and then separated into different size fractions. The amount of introduced acetyl groups was found to depend on the size of the granules for the reaction with rapidly reacting reagent acetic acid anhydride, whereas the amount of intr...

  5. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). Postpizza meal BG AUC was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type. PMID:21957874

  6. Lead, Cadmium and Cobalt (Pb, Cd, and Co) Leaching of Glass-Clay Containers by pH Effect of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Diego García-Paredes; María Teresa Sumaya-Martínez; José Roberto Villagómez-Ibarra; Eduardo Madrigal-Santillán; Morales-González, José A.; Clara Zúñiga-Pérez; Samuel Quintanar-Gómez; Carmen Valadez-Vega

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that handcrafted glass-clay containers are a health risk because they can be contaminated by heavy metals, which can be transferred to food, thus reaching the human body to potentially cause illness. Therefore, in the present work, we evaluate the leaching of lead, cadmium, and cobalt from glass-clay containers into two types of food: tomato sauce (salsa), and chickpea puree. The containers were obtained from four regions in the Mexican state of Hidalgo. Repetitive e...

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F1 sterility technique. (author)

  9. Genetically Modified α-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rui-Yun Lee; Daniela Reiner; Gerhard Dekan; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity ...

  10. CHICK PEAS EFFICIENCY IN HENS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev S. I.; Karapetyan A. K.; Kornilova E. V.; Struk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of the chick peas use instead of sunflower cake, in feeding young and adult livestock hens-layers of the cross "Hajseks brown". The researches were carried out in the JSC "Agrofirm Vostok" of the Nikolayevskiy district in the Volgograd region. The sunflower cake replacement with legumes - chickpeas as the part of the experimental animal fodder for young and adult livestock hens-layers had a positive influence on productivity, physiological state of the birds,...

  11. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars

    OpenAIRE

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph p...

  12. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  13. Exploring germplasm diversity to understand the domestication process in Cicer spp. using SNP and DArT markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Roorkiwal

    Full Text Available To estimate genetic diversity within and between 10 interfertile Cicer species (94 genotypes from the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pool, we analysed 5,257 DArT markers and 651 KASPar SNP markers. Based on successful allele calling in the tertiary gene pool, 2,763 DArT and 624 SNP markers that are polymorphic between genotypes from the gene pools were analyzed further. STRUCTURE analyses were consistent with 3 cultivated populations, representing kabuli, desi and pea-shaped seed types, with substantial admixture among these groups, while two wild populations were observed using DArT markers. AMOVA was used to partition variance among hierarchical sets of landraces and wild species at both the geographical and species level, with 61% of the variation found between species, and 39% within species. Molecular variance among the wild species was high (39% compared to the variation present in cultivated material (10%. Observed heterozygosity was higher in wild species than the cultivated species for each linkage group. Our results support the Fertile Crescent both as the center of domestication and diversification of chickpea. The collection used in the present study covers all the three regions of historical chickpea cultivation, with the highest diversity in the Fertile Crescent region. Shared alleles between different gene pools suggest the possibility of gene flow among these species or incomplete lineage sorting and could indicate complicated patterns of divergence and fusion of wild chickpea taxa in the past.

  14. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH. PMID:27101777

  15. A seedling specific vegetative lectin gene is related to development in Cicer arietinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Rocío; Dopico, Berta; Muñoz, Francisco J; Romo, Silvia; Labrador, Emilia

    2002-04-01

    Plant lectins are a group of glycoproteins with the ability to recognize and bind carbohydrate ligands. Seed lectins function as storage and defense proteins, but the specific function of vegetative lectins is uncertain. In this paper we describe the characterization of a clone, CanVLEC, encoding a vegetative lectin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Castellana). The expression of the CanVLEC gene was specific in seedlings, mostly in hooks and elongating epicotyls, and no expression was detected in adult plants. The level of chickpea vegetative lectin transcripts in epicotyls decreased through the epicotyl growth suggesting a relationship to development. Treatment with indoleacetic acid (IAA) and brassinolides (BR), hormones that promoted elongation in chickpea epicotyl, increased the level of CanVLEC mRNA, supporting a relationship to growth. CanVLEC is drastically down regulated by water deficit ruling out its possible involvement in plant response to water stress, unlike other vegetative lectins. CanVLEC protein may be targeted to an extracellular location owing to the presence of a signal peptide.

  16. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN COMMONLY UTILIZED LEGUME CULTIVARS FROM IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content as well as total antioxidant capacity in three chickpea, four fababean and four lentil cultivars from regions of Iraq with different environmental growth conditions were investigated in the work. The total polyphenol content (TP was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of legume extracts was measured using the DPPH spectrophotometrically. The obtained results confirmed that the polyphenols content in the tested legume cultivars was influenced by locality. From tested legumes the highest polyphenol content was measured in fababean (1220 – 6286 mg GAE.kg-1. In lentil (2351 – 3011 mgGAE.kg-1 the average TP value was slightly lower (by 1,6%, while in chickpea (549 – 978 mg GAE.kg-1 it was dramatically (by 71,5% lower in comparison to fababean. The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest average TAC value was determined in fababean (15.2 – 25.6% DPPH, in lentil (14.2 – 28.9% DPPH the TAC value was by 2% and in chickpea (1.9 – 4.5% DPPH by 83,6% lower in comparison to fababean. Only in lentil a statistically strong correlation (P-value 2.391E-06; R = 0.802 was found. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition.

  17. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH.

  18. Effets de la fertilisation azotée, de l'inoculation par Rhizobium sp. et du régime des pluies sur la production de la biomasse et la teneur en azote du pois chiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachaâl M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of nitrogen fertilization, inoculation with Rhizobium sp. and precipitation on the biomass production and nitrogen content of chickpea. Water availability and soil fertility (especially soil N content are the major factors affecting chickpea yield in Mediterranean regions, characterized by low rainfall, poorly distributed and rapid mineralization of organic matter. In order to study the effect of N-fertilization and inoculation with Rhizobium on chickpea biomass production and N-content, field experiment were carried out at two stations of INRAT in northern Tunisia during two consecutive years, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002. Results showed that N-fertilization significantly increased shoot biomass and N-content while decreasing nodule mass. Inoculation with both the two Rhizobium strains resulted in nodule mass increase but the shoot N-content was not significantly affected. Regardless of the stations and treatments, rainfall decrease between the two years of the experiment significantly reduced shoot and root biomass while improving nodulation, especially at Oued Beja. However, the nodule developed under water deficit conditions was correlated with a very high decrease of the nitrogen fixed. Nevertheless, the mineral nitrogen apply in soil improved the N-content of aerial parts in the two stations, especially in waterless season.

  19. Host preference of the bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira; Angel Roberto Barchuk; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    2008-01-01

    It is largely known that the range of an insect diet is mostly determined by oviposition behavior, mainly in species with endophytic larvae such as Zabrotes subfasciatus.However, the proximate factors determining host choice and the subsequent steps leading to the expansion or reduction of the host number and occasional host shifts are largelyun known. We analyzed various factors determining host preference of Z. subfasciatus through the evaluation of: (i) oviposition preference of a wild population of Z. subfasciatus on the usual host (bean) and unusual hosts (lentil, chickpea and soy), and the performance of the offspring; (ii) artificial selection for increasing preference for hosts initially less frequently chosen; (iii) comparison of oviposition behavior between two different popula-tions (reared for~30 generations in beans or chickpeas, respectively); (iv) oviposition timing on usual and unusual hosts; and (v) identification of preference hierarchies. We found that when using unusual hosts, there is no correlation between performance and preference and that the preference hierarchy changes only slightly when the population passes through several generations on the less frequently accepted host. We also found a positive response to artificial selection for increasing oviposition on the less preferred host; however, when the host-choice experiment involved two varieties of the usual host, the response was faster than when the choice involved usual and unusual hosts. Finally, beetles reared on an unusual host (chickpea) for 26 generations showed similar good fitness on both usual and unusual hosts,indicating that the use of a new host does not necessarily result in the loss of performance on the original host. Nevertheless, this population showed lower fitness on the usual host than that of the original population, suggesting an underlying partial trade-off phenomenon which may contribute to a broadening of diet of this insect species.

  20. Insecticide residues in stored grains in Sonora, Mexico: quantification and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Madrid, M L; Valdez-Hurtado, S; Vargas-Valdez, N D; Salazar-Lopez, N J; Silveira-Gramont, M I; Loarca-Piña, F G; Rodríguez-Olibarria, G; Wong-Corral, F J; Borboa-Flores, J; Burgos-Hernández, A

    2008-02-01

    Food safety has acquired great attention by food importer and exporters. Food rejection or acceptance across international borders is based on the compliance with international food regulations. Due to the lack of recent data on pesticide residues in Mexican grains, this study focused on detecting and quantifying insecticide residues in stored wheat, corn, chickpeas, and beans, as well as to determine their mutagenic potential. Grains were sampled from primary storage sites in Sonora, Mexico. Malathion, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD and 4,4-DDT were analyzed in 135 samples. Grain samples were not mutagenic and most pesticide levels were within regulation limits.

  1. The physicochemical properties of legume protein isolates and their ability to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with and without genipin

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Stuart P.; Nickerson, Michael T.; Low, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical and emulsifying properties of legume protein isolates prepared from chickpea (CPI), faba bean (FPI), lentil (LPI) and soy (SPI) were investigated in the presence and absence of genipin. Solubility was highest for CPI (~94 %), followed by LPI (~90 %), FPI (~85 %) and SPI (~50 %). Surface characteristics revealed similar zeta potentials (~ − 47 mV) for CPI, LPI and FPI, but lower for SPI (~ − 44 mV). Contrastingly, surface hydrophobicity was greatest for CPI (~137 arbitrary ...

  2. Effects of Marketing Loans on U.S. Dry Peas and Lentils: Supply Response and World Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, William W.; Lucier, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The 2002 Farm Act required USDA to implement marketing loans for the 2002-07 crops of dry peas, lentils, and small chickpeas. This provision led to expanded acreage for dry peas and lentils, crops analyzed in this study. The analysis found that marketing loans played a role in expansion for dry peas in 2003-05 and for lentils in 2003. For dry peas and lentils, marketing loans contributed to acreage expansion in North Dakota and Montana. Simulation model results suggest that marketing loans ha...

  3. Marketing Assistance Loans, Loan Deficiency Payments and Marketing Loan Gains for Minor Oilseed and Pulse Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Marketing assistance loans are available to Montana producers of minor oilseed and pulse crops. The USDA differentiates county-level loan rates from national rates for minor oilseeds and dry peas . County-level lentil and small chickpea loan rates for all pertinent counties throughout the United States are differentiated at the multi-state, regional level from the national loan rates. Montana county-level rates for the 2003 crop year are shown in Appendix A: Figures 1 through 7 for canola, cr...

  4. Acid-Base Buffering Properties of Five Legumes and Selected Food in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maher M. Al-Dabbas; Khalid Al-Ismail; Ruba A. Taleb; Salam Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: in vitro acid-Buffering Capacity (BC) values of 5% (dry matter) aqueous homogenized suspension of five legumes (broad bean, lentils, chickpea, kidney bean and lupine) and of selected antacid home preparations (cow's milk, almond, peanut, licorice, carob and lettuce stem) were investigated within and among samples from their respective initial pH until pH was decreased to 1.5. BC was the highest for cow's milk, carob, licorice and lettuce stem (BC values 1.65-1.97), intermed...

  5. Glycemic index: effect of food storage under low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Cassab Carreira; Franco Maria Lajolo; Elizabete Wenzel de Menezes

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of food storage under low temperature (-20ºC) and the resistant starch formation, both on the glycemic index (GI). The GI of only cooked and cooked and stored foods under -20ºC for 30 days was evaluated in short-term tests with humans. Significant increase on the RS content was evidenced for all the stored foods. The food storage resulted in a significant decrease on the GI of beans and chick-peas; the GI of pasta remained the same and the ...

  6. The Effect of Several Miscellaneous Grain Noodles on the Postprandial Blood Glucose of Diabetic Rats%几种杂粮面条对糖尿病大白鼠餐后血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁长河; 韩小存; 周林秀

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different formula noodles,such as buckwheat noodles,oat noodles,chickpea noodles and traditional wheat noodles,on the postprandial blood glucose of diabetic rats were studied.The results showed that the areas under curve (AUC) of postprandial blood glucose of buckwheat noodles (buckwheat flour 40 g and wheat flour 60 g),oat noodles (oat flour 40 g and wheat flour 60 g) and chickpea noodles (chickpea 90 g and wheat gluten 9 g) were 6.23 (mmol/L) × h,6.56 (mmol/L) × h and 6.60 (mmol/L) × h,respectively.The values were significantly lower than that of pure wheat flour noodle 14.07 (mmol/L) × h and the significance was P < 0.05.This indicated that the noodles made with buckwheat,oats and chickpea as the main raw materials are more suitable for diabetes as the staple food than the traditional pure wheat noodles.%研究了不同配方的荞麦面条、燕麦面条和鹰嘴豆面条以及传统的小麦面条对糖尿病大白鼠餐后血糖的影响.大白鼠血糖试验结果如下:荞麦面条(荞麦40 g、小麦粉60 g)、燕麦面条(燕麦粉40 g、小麦粉60g)和鹰嘴豆面条(鹰嘴豆粉90 g、谷朊粉9 g)的餐后血糖曲线下面积(AUC)分别是6.23 (mmol/L)·h、6.56(mmol/L)·h和6.60(mmol/L)h.其值明显低于纯小麦面条的对应值[14.07(mmol/L)·h],显著性P <0.05.这表明以荞麦、燕麦和鹰嘴豆为主要原料加工而成的面条比纯小麦面条更适合作为糖尿病人的主食.

  7. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  8. Effects of alternative legume seeds on Barbaresca lamb meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a renewed interest towards the use of local legume seeds in animal nutrition was raising in Mediterranean areas. Conventional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean and animal by-products, the former widely diffused as genetically modified organisms (GMO and the latter related to “mad cow disease” produced significative changes in public perceptions, justifying a dramatic increase of the use of alternative protein and energy sources such as legume seeds (peas, faba beans, chickpeas (Hanbury et al., 2000...

  9. Lead, Cadmium and Cobalt (Pb, Cd, and Co Leaching of Glass-Clay Containers by pH Effect of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego García-Paredes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that handcrafted glass-clay containers are a health risk because they can be contaminated by heavy metals, which can be transferred to food, thus reaching the human body to potentially cause illness. Therefore, in the present work, we evaluate the leaching of lead, cadmium, and cobalt from glass-clay containers into two types of food: tomato sauce (salsa, and chickpea puree. The containers were obtained from four regions in the Mexican state of Hidalgo. Repetitive extractions from the containers were carried out to quantify the leaching of the heavy metals into the salsa, the chickpea puree, and acetic acid using the technique proposed by the USFDA. The results show that greater use of the containers leads to more leaching of heavy metals into both types of food and into the acetic acid, with the greatest metal extraction recorded for the Ixmiquilpan vessels. These results indicate that the metals present in the glass-clay containers leach into the food and that increased reuse increases the risk to the people who use them in food preparation.

  10. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

  11. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation.

  12. Comparative study of the growth parameters of legumes grown in fipronil-stressed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern agronomy, insecticides of the diverse chemical families are repeatedly used to control various plant growth limiting insect pests and to improve plant productivity. However, the intensive application of these plant protecting agrochemicals results in their accumulation in soils in substantial concentration and deteriorates the soil fertility. Previous studies concerning the effect of insecticides are commonly confined to a specific legume and reports about the concurrent impact of any specific insecticide on more than one legume in parallel are rare. The present study was therefore, designed to assess the effect of insecticide fipronil simultaneously on common food legumes (chickpea, pea, lentil and green gram. In this study, fipronil displayed a varying degree of toxicity to the tested legumes. The highest toxicity of fipronil was observed in the shoot dry biomass, leghaemoglobin and chlorophyll content, and the seed protein in chickpea, nodule numbers and nodule biomass in pea, root dry biomass and shoot N in green gram, and nodule biomass, root N, root P, shoot P, and seed yield in lentil. Generally, the most toxic effect of fipronil was observed on the growth parameters of lentil plants.

  13. Determination of Physical Properties of Some Agricultural Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gürsoy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the purpose of determining physical and aerodynamic properties, some varieties of wheat, barley, chickpea and lentil were used. The length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, equivalent sphere diam eter, sphericity, seed mass, bulk density, true density, projected area, terminal velocity, drag coefficient of each grain variety were determined. The theoretical terminal velocities of those grains were calculated by using equations corrected with the shape factor. For all the grains, theoretical terminal velocities were lower than the experimental values. The average experimental terminal velocity was found to be in the range of 7.52 to 8.14 m/s for wheat varieties, 7.04 to 7.07 m /s for barley varieties, 7.72 to 7.78 m/s for lentil varieties and 11.15 to 12.01 m/s for chickpea varieties. The drag coefficients of seeds according to projected areas in different positions and equivalent spheres were calculated. The drag coefficient in the position of the lowest projected area for all the grain varieties was higher than that in the other position.

  14. Lentils (Lens culinaris L.), a rich source of folates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Debjyoti; Thavarajah, Dil; Knutson, Phil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; McGee, Rebecca J; Coyne, Clarice J; Kumar, Shiv

    2013-08-14

    The potential for genetic biofortification of U.S.-grown lentils ( Lens culinaris L.) with bioavailable folate has not been widely studied. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the folate concentration of 10 commercial lentil cultivars grown in Minot and McLean counties, North Dakota, USA, in 2010 and 2011, (2) to determine the genotype (G) × environmental (E) interactions for folate concentration in lentil cultivars, and (3) to compare the folate concentration of other pulses [field peas ( Pisum sativum L.) and chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)] grown in the United States. Folate concentration in lentil cultivars ranged from 216 to 290 μg/100 g with a mean of 255 μg/100 g. In addition, lentil showed higher folate concentration compared to chickpea (42-125 μg/100 g), yellow field pea (41-55 μg/100 g), and green field pea (50-202 μg/100 g). A 100 g serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of dietary folates (54-73%) for adults. A significant year × location interaction on lentil folate concentration was observed; this indicates that possible location sourcing may be required for future lentil folate research. PMID:23865478

  15. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  16. Molecular and functional diversity of PGPR fluorescent Pseudomonads based on 16S rDNA-RFLP and RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-09-01

    The genetic and functional diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) fluorescent pseudomonads associated with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) rhizosphere was analyzed. In total, 34 isolates along with two reference isolates were screened for various plant growth promoting traits (phosphorous solubilization, ACC deaminase, HCN, IAA and siderophore productions) and antagonist activity against four fungal phytopathogens and three bacterial pathogens. Most of the isolates, that showed PGPR activity, also showed antagonistic activity against all the three fungal pathogens. The genetic relationship was assessed by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (16S rDNA-RFLP). Relationship between both the markers was analyzed based on mantel test and a negative correlation was observed. The study concluded that PGPR traits appeared to be strain specific rather than specific to any phylogenetic group. The study also reported that 16S rDNA based profiling differentiated PGPR fluorescent Pseudomonas on the basis of location rather than biological trait. RAPD profiling could be useful to differentiate among the closely related isolates. The genetic and functional diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads, associated with the chickpea rhizosphere, has useful ecological role and potential utilization in sustainable agriculture.

  17. Feasibility of integrating radiation-induced F1 sterility and biological control for population suppression of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution of casein and wheat germ with locally available ingredients (chickpea flour, soybean flour, wheat husk and sawdust) in the specified casein-wheat germ diet affected various biological parameters of pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella. The diet containing chickpea flour performed significantly better and is more economical than the other diets tested. The highest PBW field populations were recorded in the month of October when large numbers of fruiting bodies were present in the cotton. Field behavioural observations revealed that mating and other sexual activities of treated and native moths varied significantly with time of night and peak activity was during 03:00-04:00 hours. Male moths treated with 100 Gy as mature pupae responded well to gossyplure baited traps. The attraction of male moths to irradiated virgin females decreased significantly with increasing doses of radiation. Male moths responded more readily to virgin untreated females than to irradiated females. Field-cage studies demonstrated that irradiated moths (100 Gy) released at a 50:1 treated to normal ratio at three week intervals reduced larval infestations inside the cages to subeconomic level. Studies suggested that there is a great potential for integrating the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis, with the sterile insect technique to control cotton bollworms. (author)

  18. Assessment of Cation Exchange Membrane Method and Estimation of Potassium Critical Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJIANBO; J.J.SCHOENAU; 等

    1996-01-01

    Soil and tissue analyses are usually used in identifying potassium(K) deficiencies and predicting K fertilizer requirements of crops.The critical levels of both soil and fresh leaf tissue at seventh leaf stage were developed and assessed for canola,chickpea and sunflower grown on two saskatchewan,soils,with six rates of K fertilizer supply.in a growth chamber experiment.The available potassium in soils was detemined by two methods:1)resin strip extraction,and 2)NH4OAC extraction.The potassium in fresh leaves was determined at seventh leaf stage by a simple procedure using a common garlic press and injector to extract the plant sap and testing the sap with a handheld ion selection electrode meter,The results showed significant relationships between the resin strip extractable K and NH4OAC extractable K,and between the plant uptake of total K and the supple of available K in the soils determined by the two methods.Good relationships were also found between the potassium in fresh leaves and the plant uptake of totak K for canola,chickpea and sunflower.The resin strip extraction for K was calibrated using common NH4OAC extraction,and recommended for routine analyses because of its simplicity and sensitivity.

  19. Quantifying below-ground nitrogen of legumes: Optimizing procedures for 15N shoot-labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying below-ground nitrogen (N) of legumes is fundamental to understanding their effects on soil mineral N fertility and on the N economies of following or companion crops in legume-based rotations. Methodologies based on 15N-labelling of whole plants with subsequent measurement of 15N in recovered plant parts and in the root-zone soil have proved promising. We report four glasshouse experiments with objectives to develop appropriate protocols for in situ 15N labelling of four pulses, faba bean (Vicia faba), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), mung bean (Vigna radiata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Treatments included 15N-urea concentration, feeding technique, leaflet/petiole position, and frequency of feeding. Nitrogen-15-labelling via the leaf-flap was best for faba bean, mung and pigeon pea, whilst petiole feeding was best for chickpea, in all cases using 0.2-mL volumes of 0.5% urea (98 atom% 15N excess). The implications of uneven enrichment of the nodulated roots because of effects of the 15N-depleted nodules when calculating root-derived N in soil are discussed. (author)

  20. Determination of 106Ru, 134/137Cs, and 241Am concentrations and Action Level in the Foodstuffs Consumed by Inhabitants of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. N. Majeed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The specific activity concentrations of (106Ru, 134/137Cs, and 241Am nuclides in 40 imported foodstuffs which collected randomly in January 2012 from all Iraqi cities markets were studied. The rang of specific activity concentrations of 106Ru varies from (37.930±6.16 Bq kg-1 (S No. :17: Turkey Kidney bean to 99.735±9.99 Bq kg-1 (S No.:32: Egypt Broad bean, with average value 71.667±8.47 Bq kg-1. For 134Cs varies from 0.200±0.45 Bq kg-1 (S No. :19 : Ukraine Chick-pea to 2.365±1.54 Bq kg-1 (S No. :33 : Peru Broad bean with average value (0.988±0.99 Bq kg-1.The activity concentrations of 137Cs varies from 0.164±0.40 Bq kg-1 (S No.:19 : Ukraine Chick-pea to 5.291±2.30 Bq kg-1 ( S No.: 39: Uzbekistan Mung bean with average value 1.460±1.21, then for 241Am the activity concentrations varies from 0.029±0.17 Bq kg-1 (S No.:23 : Iran Chick-pea to 1.248±1.12 Bq kg-1 (S No.:40: Canada Green peas with average value 0.399±0.63. All the values were less than the World average concentrations [15,17]. The high contributor for 106Ru, 134/137Cs, and 241Am radionuclides were in Broad bean and other foodstuffs (which contained Brown grit, White grit, Mung bean and Green peas as a 12%, Broad bean as 14%, corn as a 19% and other foodstuffs with 15% respectively The lowest contributor of 106Ru, 134/137Cs, and 241Am radionuclides in the studied foodstuffs were 6% in cowpea, 7% in semolina, 5% in lentil and 4% in lentil respectively. The action level of the 106Ru, 134/137Cs, and 241Am radionuclide’s for three age groups have been calculated and the foodstuffs were within the range permitted and free of any radiation and thus there was no seriousness in dealing with.

  1. Plant mutation research at akdeniz university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant mutation research project at Akdeniz University aims at developing plant types and cultivars suited to environment friendly agriculture. Barley, chickpea and sesame are the main crops on which the mutation techniques are efficiently applied for practical breeding purposes and germplasm development for basic studies. The project originally started in 1984 with barley aiming at selecting proanthocyanidins-free mutants and other useful mutated traits such as genetic male-sterility, earliness, and short height. The barley mutants were successfully used in cross-breeding to generate transgressive variability and heterosis facilitated by genetic male sterile mutants as a tool. The barley mutant collection were also screened for physiological traits basically in terms of drought tolerance, i.e. yielding stability and capacity under dry-land, photosynthetic rate, salt tolerance, wax content, droplet contact angles, etc. A fast germinating ABA-insensitive mutant, Akdeniz-M-Q-54 was registered by Crop Science Society of America in 1998 as a useful tool for basic studies and a germplasm for drought tolerance with its faster growing habit. The second sub-project in chickpea, started in 1994, focuses on selecting mutants suited to winter growing such as cold tolerant and resistant to Aschochyta blight in order take advantage of winter rainfalls, mechanized harvesting, reducing soil erosion, more nitrogen fixation and more residues via fall-sowing of the crop. Certain mutants with improved cold tolerance and with acceptable seed size have already been confirmed in replicated trials of three years. Recently, we are interested in selecting root mutants in morphology and function in barley and chickpea as part of a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Last but not least, sesame sub-project handed us over the first induced non shattering sesame mutants of the world in the frame of another IAEA CRP, showing the effectiveness of

  2. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  3. Effect of dietary fiber in lowering serum glucose and body weight in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Chohan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The present study evaluated the hypoglycemic perspectives and weight loss significance of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber was supplemented in commercial wheat flour (atta for the preparation of chapaties, a staple diet of South Asia. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 100 were randomly divided into 4 diet groups (n = 25 per group. The control group was fed basal diet that included commercial wheat flour chapati, cornstarch, corn oil, salt and vitamin mixture in such a way that 10% of the protein was available from the final diet. To the basal diet of other 3 groups, chapaties supplemented with 2% guar gum (GG 2%, 3% guar gum (GG 3% and 5% chickpea + 1% guar gum (CP5%+GG1% were added, respectively. All diets were fed to the rats for a period of 8 weeks to perceive the impact of respective compositions. Rats fed on CP 5% + GG1%, showed maximum glucose reduction (14.57% followed by GG 3% (11.64% and GG 2% (9.60% as compared to control diet. Likewise, rats fed on 3% GG showed maximum decline (7.90% in body weight. It was concluded that chapaties prepared from selected treatments provide an additional dietary fiber that could be supportive for diabetic and obese individuals.Results:The results indicated that addition of dietary fiber influenced the physical characteristics of chapati non-significantly. Maximum glucose concentration was found to be 112.50 mg/dL in control group followed by 101.70 and 99.41 mg/dL in groups fed on guar gum 2% and guar gum 3%, respectively. Lowest glucose concentration (96.11 mg/dL was observed in rats fed on the combination of chickpea 5 %+ guar gum 1%. Maximum serum protein concentration was found to be 6.39 g/dL in rats fed on combination of chickpea 5 % + guar gum 1% whilst the remaining three groups showed non significant variations with respect to each other. Means for serum Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:261-278 protein were 6.33, 6.30 and 6.32 g/dL for control, guar gum 3%, and guar gum 2

  4. Biological preparation of chitosan nanoparticles and its in vitro antifungal efficacy against some phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabama, M; Parthasarathy, R

    2016-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to prepare Chitosan nanoparticles through biological method with high antifungal activities. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the addition of anionic proteins isolated from Penicillium oxalicum culture to chitosan solutions. The formation of chitosan nanoparticles was preliminary confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The physico-chemical properties of the chitosan nanoparticles were determined by size and zeta potential analysis, FTIR analysis, HRTEM and XRD pattern. The chitosan nanoparticles were evaluated for its potential to inhibit the growth of phytopathogens viz., Pyricularia grisea, Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum. It is evident from our results that chitosan nanoparticles inhibit the growth of phytopathogens tested. Chitosan nanoparticle treated chickpea seeds showed positive morphological effects such as enhanced germination%, seed vigor index and vegetative biomass of seedlings. All these results indicate that chitosan nanoparticle can be used further under field condition to protect various crops from the devastating fungal pathogens as well as growth promoters. PMID:27474573

  5. The effect of colloidal solution of molybdenum nanoparticles on the microbial composition in rhizosphere of Cicer arietinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Natalia Yu; Gonchar, Olena M.; Lopatko, Kostyantyn G.; Batsmanova, Lyudmila M.; Patyka, Mykola V.; Volkogon, Mykola V.

    2014-06-01

    The use of colloidal solutions of metals as micronutrients enhances plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions and ensures high yields of food crops due to the active penetration of nanoelements into the plant cells. Microbiological examination of rhizosphere soil have revealed that combined use of colloidal solution of nanoparticles of molybdenum (CSNM, 8 mg/l), and microbial preparation for pre-sowing inoculation of chickpea seeds stimulates the development of `agronomically valuable' microflora. It was shown that combined seed treatment with colloidal solution of Mo nanoparticles with microbial preparation have stimulated nodule formation per plant by four times compared to controls. Single treatment with CSNM increased the number of nodules by two times, while the treatment of microbial preparation have not significantly affected the number of nodules per plant.

  6. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Restuccia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  7. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  8. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  9. Incorporation of sulfide ions into the cadmium(II) thiolate cluster of Cicer arietinum metallothionein2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoqiong; Freisinger, Eva

    2013-01-18

    The plant metallothionein2 from Cicer arietinum (chickpea), cic-MT2, is known to coordinate five divalent metal ions such as Zn(II) or Cd(II), which are arranged in a single metal thiolate cluster. When the Zn(II) form of the protein is titrated with Cd(II) ions in the presence of sulfide ions, an increased Cd(II) binding capacity and concomitant incorporation of sulfide ions into the cluster are observed. The exact stoichiometry of this novel cluster, its spectroscopic properties, and the significantly increased pH stability are analyzed with different techniques, including UV and circular dichroism spectroscopy and colorimetric assays. Limited proteolytic digestion provides information about the spacial arrangement of the cluster within the protein. Increasing the Cd(II) scavenging properties of a metallothionein by additionally recruiting sulfide ions might be an economic and very efficient detoxification strategy for plants.

  10. Effect of soaking, boiling, and steaming on total phenolic contentand antioxidant activities of cool season food legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-09-01

    The effects of soaking, boiling and steaming processes on the total phenolic components and antioxidant activity in commonly consumed cool season food legumes (CSFL's), including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea and lentil were investigated. As compared to original unprocessed legumes, all processing steps caused significant (pyellow pea. However, TPC and DPPH in cooked lentils differed significantly between atmospheric and pressure boiling. As compared to atmospheric processes, pressure processes significantly increased ORAC values in both boiled and steamed CSFL's. Greater TPC, DPPH and ORAC values were detected in boiling water than that in soaking and steaming water. Boiling also caused more solid loss than steaming. Steam processing exhibited several advantages in retaining the integrity of the legume appearance and texture of the cooked product, shortening process time, and greater retention of antioxidant components and activities. PMID:26050159

  11. Application of DNA comet assay for detection of radiation treatment of grams and pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hasan M; Khan, Ashfaq A; Khan, Sanaullah

    2011-12-01

    Several types of whole pulses (green lentils, red lentils, yellow lentils, chickpeas, green peas, cowpeas and yellow peas) and grams (black grams, red grams and white grams) have been investigated for the identification of radiation treatment using microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay). Pulses and grams were exposed to the radiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 5 kGy covering the legalized commercial dose range for protection from insect/pest infestations. All irradiated samples showed comet like stretching of fragmented DNA toward anode, which is expected for irradiated samples. Unirradiated samples showed many intact cells/nuclei in form of round stains or with short faint tails, which is typical for unirradiated food samples. The study shows that DNA comet assay can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and highly effective screening test for the detection of radiation treatment of foods, like pulses and grams. PMID:23572810

  12. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTEN-FREE DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Burešová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillation rheometry was used to determine the viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough prepared from amaranth, chickpea, millet, corn, quinoa, buckwheat and rice flours. The viscoelastic properties was described by storage modulus G´, loss modulus G´´ and phase angle tg(δ. The relationship between viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough and bread-making quality was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that dynamic oscillation rheometry may be used to differentiate the bread-making quality of gluten-free flour. Bread-making quality of gluten-free flour is the best characterised by curve slope of storage modulus G´and phase angle tg(δ while bread made from the flour with storage modulus and phase angle with non-linear slope in low deformation frequencies 0.01–0.10 Hz achieved the largest volume.

  13. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively.

  14. Plant growth-promoting and rhizosphere-competent Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 from the cold deserts of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Arvind; Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Kasana, Ramesh Chand

    2009-04-01

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain BIHB 723 isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippophae rhamnoides was identified as Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of inorganic and organic phosphate solubilization, auxin production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, ammonia generation, and siderophore production. A significant increase in the growth of pea, chickpea, maize, and barley was recorded for inoculations under controlled conditions. Field testing with the pea also showed a significant increment in plant growth and yield. The rifampicin mutant of the bacterial strain effectively colonized the pea rhizosphere without adversely affecting the resident microbial populations. PMID:19137371

  15. Characterisation of a pea hsp70 gene which is both developmentally and stress-regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankher, O P; Drew, J E; Gatehouse, J A

    1997-05-01

    A pea pod cDNA library was screened for sequences specific to lignifying tissue. A cDNA clone (pLP19) encoding the C-terminal region of a hsp70 heat shock protein hybridised only to pod mRNA from pea lines where pod lignification occurred. Expression of pLP19 was induced by heat shock in leaves, stems and roots of pea and chickpea plants. Four different poly(A) addition sites were observed in cDNAs derived from the same gene as pLP19. This gene was fully sequenced; unlike most hsp70 genes, it contains no introns. The 5'-flanking sequence contains heat shock elements and other potential regulatory sequences.

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean, have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr annotation, gene ontology (GO classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies.

  17. Insect attack and nutritional losses in stored dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried fruits and nuts were assessed for insect and nutritional losses, during 3-12 months storage, under controlled laboratory conditions. Losses were generally storage and commodity dependant. The insect progeny production and percent weight loss, caused by Tribolium castaneum (herbs), in all the commodities, varied from 10 - 120.75 and 0.78 -28.34, respectively. In nutritional aspect, colour, acidity and ascorbic acid decreased while reducing sugars increased during storage. The results based on all parameters showed that during 12 months storage, almond, groundnut, pine nut, walnut and chickpea suffered significantly higher P< 0.05) losses (9.01 - 28.34%) as compared to fig, apricot, date, raisin and mulberry (1.09 - 1.81%). (author)

  18. UAV-based high-throughput phenotyping in legume crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Khot, Lav R.; Quirós, Juan; Vandemark, George J.; McGee, Rebecca J.

    2016-05-01

    In plant breeding, one of the biggest obstacles in genetic improvement is the lack of proven rapid methods for measuring plant responses in field conditions. Therefore, the major objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-throughput remote sensing technology for rapid measurement of phenotyping traits in legume crops. The plant responses of several chickpea and peas varieties to the environment were assessed with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) integrated with multispectral imaging sensors. Our preliminary assessment showed that the vegetation indices are strongly correlated (p<0.05) with seed yield of legume crops. Results endorse the potential of UAS-based sensing technology to rapidly measure those phenotyping traits.

  19. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively. PMID:25892802

  20. Reconsidering domestication of legumes versus cereals in the ancient near east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua; Peleg, Zvi; Kerem, Zohar; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss, from both biological and cultural perspectives, the ancient human-plant liaison that gave rise to Near Eastern agriculture. We explain the biological aspects of Near Eastern plant domestication by a comparative analysis of legume vs. cereal crop evolution. This comparison is illustrated by the natural distribution, ecological affinity, physiology, population structure, floral biology, growth habit, plant stature, seed dispersal mode, and seed dormancy of both wild and domesticated plants of these crop groups. We discuss the differences between Near Eastern legumes and cereals with regard to each of the above aspects, and we highlight the relevance of these differences with regard to Neolithic decision-making, adoption for farming, and subsequent evolution under domestication. We reached the following conclusions: (1) Near Eastern legumes underwent different evolutionary trajectories under domestication as compared with their companion cereals, despite apparent similarities between selection under domestication of both crop groups. (2) Careful comparison of pea, lentil, and chickpea shows that each of the Near Eastern legume crops has a unique evolutionary history in its own right, and this also holds true for the cereal crops. (3) The evolutionary history of each of the Near Eastern crops, prior to as well as after domestication, is well-reflected in its adaptation profile in present-day cropping systems, which determines each crop's relative economic importance in different world regions (e.g., chickpea is a major pulse in the Indian subcontinent, and pea is a more important crop in temperate regions, while barley has the widest adaptation, extending from high-latitude temperate regions to semi-arid Mediterranean systems). (4) Ancient choice-making as reflected in the founder crops repertoire, involved nutritional considerations that may have outweighed grain yield per area and/or time unit criteria.

  1. Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 μg/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

  2. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  3. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  4. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  5. Achievements and prospects of genomics-assisted breeding in three legume crops of the semi-arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Mohan, S Murali; Gaur, Pooran M; Gangarao, N V P R; Pandey, Manish K; Bohra, Abhishek; Sawargaonkar, Shrikant L; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kimurto, Paul K; Janila, Pasupuleti; Saxena, K B; Fikre, Asnake; Sharma, Mamta; Rathore, Abhishek; Pratap, Aditya; Tripathi, Shailesh; Datta, Subhojit; Chaturvedi, S K; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Anuradha, G; Babbar, Anita; Choudhary, Arbind K; Mhase, M B; Bharadwaj, Ch; Mannur, D M; Harer, P N; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Nadarajan, N; Gowda, C L L

    2013-12-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled generation of large-scale genomic resources such as molecular markers, transcript reads and BAC-end sequences (BESs) in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, three major legume crops of the semi-arid tropics. Comprehensive transcriptome assemblies and genome sequences have either been developed or underway in these crops. Based on these resources, dense genetic maps, QTL maps as well as physical maps for these legume species have also been developed. As a result, these crops have graduated from 'orphan' or 'less-studied' crops to 'genomic resources rich' crops. This article summarizes the above-mentioned advances in genomics and genomics-assisted breeding applications in the form of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for hybrid purity assessment in pigeonpea; marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) for introgressing QTL region for drought-tolerance related traits, Fusarium wilt (FW) resistance and Ascochyta blight (AB) resistance in chickpea; late leaf spot (LLS), leaf rust and nematode resistance in groundnut. We critically present the case of use of other modern breeding approaches like marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) to utilize the full potential of genomics-assisted breeding for developing superior cultivars with enhanced tolerance to various environmental stresses. In addition, this article recommends the use of advanced-backcross (AB-backcross) breeding and development of specialized populations such as multi-parents advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) for creating new variations that will help in developing superior lines with broadened genetic base. In summary, we propose the use of integrated genomics and breeding approach in these legume crops to enhance crop productivity in marginal environments ensuring food security in developing countries.

  6. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: a Simulation Study in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Marie Godde

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage and residue management in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model’s outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66%, 18% and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (Queensland on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils

  7. Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year and 2012 (the 4th year the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully

  8. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  9. Breeding of improved grain legume genotypes for Bangladesh through nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain legumes are important in Bangladesh for human diet, as cattle feed, for cropping pattern and soil fertility. But their production has been steadily declining owing to severe competition from cereals. Development of improved genotypes is problematic because of the lack of adequate genetic variability in these legumes. Mutation breeding programmes on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) and blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were therefore attempted in order to create adequate variability and later selection of mutans. Adaptability studies with exotic genotypes were also carried out. In chick-pea, one high yielding, high protein variety named Hyprosola, with 20% higher yield and 4% increased protein per unit seed weight, has been released from the gamma irradiated material. Three mutants and one exotic germplasm with higher yield and desirable agronomic characters are in advanced stages of development. Sodium azide treatment has resulted in isolation and development of genotypes with an increased number of pods/plant and higher seed yield. Gamma irradiation of mungbean has yielded mutants with 15-17% higher yield and resistance/tolerance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Cercospora leaf spot diseases. These are ready for release. Mutants with erect growth habit and synchrony in pod maturity were selected from the sodium azide treated population. Adaptation studies of the exotic and local germplasm have resulted in identification of genotypes suitable for growing during various seasons of the year. It has been possible to isolate and develop one blackgram mutant through irradiation with 15% higher seed yield and tolerance/resistance to Cercospora leaf spot disease and yellow mosaic virus (YMV). 41 refs, 1 fig., 17 tabs

  10. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  11. Different pairs of male and female of Campoletis chlorideae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitised the chick pea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Myanmar, chickpea is of great importance not only for the export but also for local consumption. In 1999-2000, the total area of chickpea was 323,000 acres, with an annual production of 83,000 tons of which 352 metric tons were exported. Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a solitary larval parasitoid that parasitises the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Myanmar. H. armigera is the major insect pest causing damage to the chickpea crop and significantly reducing yields. The attack of pods seeds varies from 3 to 50%. Conservation of the parasitoid C. chlorideae is important to minimise damage by H. armigera during the reproductive stage of chickpea. Laboratory (potted plants) and field experiments were conducted at the Biological Control Laboratory, Paleik, Singaing Township during the 2002-2003 winter season. Results - Laboratory experiments: The number of C. chlorideae (2 pairs, 3 pairs, 4 pairs and 5 pairs / 30 larvae of H. armigera of 1st stage, 2nd stage, and 3rd stage) significantly and differently affected the survival of different stages of H. armigera larvae (p=0.0001 each R2 = 0.963, C. V 10.98) Replication effects of the experiment were not significant (p=0.1718). Different pairs of C. chlorideae significantly affected the mean survival of larvae H. armigera when the results of four different pairs of parasitoid C. chlorideae were compared (Tukey's studentized range test). The largest difference between the means was observed between 5 pairs and 2 pairs of parasitoids released and the smallest was between 4 and 3 pairs of parasitoids. The results from Tukey's studentised range test showed that 2 pairs of parasitoid C. chlorideae significantly affected the 30 larvae of H. armigera. Different pairs of the parasitoid C. chlorideae also significantly affected the mean parasitism when the results of three different stages of larvae of H. armigera were compared (Tukey's studentised test was used). The

  12. STUDY ON DIGESTIVE PROPERTIES OF CARBOHYDRATES OF SEVERAL BEANS%几种豆类的碳水化合物消化特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向向; 丁长河; 韩小存; 周林秀; 胡玉琪; 张慧茹

    2012-01-01

    通过体外模拟健康人的胃肠道环境,得出几种常见豆类中碳水化合物的消化特性,从而为糖尿病食品生产提供依据.以红小豆作为参考标准,利用含1 g可利用碳水化合物的豆粉,加入胃蛋白酶,α-淀粉酶后定时取样,采用DNS法测定还原糖含量,计算得到血糖生成指数(GI).将红小豆的血糖生成指数设定为100%,几种豆类的血糖生成指数分别为:黄豆32.60±1.21,黑小豆37.80±0.90,鹰嘴豆67.77±3.82,蚕豆74.01±3.21,豇豆78.51±5.16,绿豆88.25±2.80.黄豆、黑小豆的血糖生成指数显著低于其他几种豆类的血糖生成指数(P<0.05),鹰嘴豆的血糖生成指数显著低于绿豆和红小豆的血糖生成指数(P<0.05).可见,黄豆、黑小豆、鹰嘴豆是适合于糖尿病人食用的食品原料.%In this paper,we studied the digestive properties of carbohydrates in several common beans by simulating the gastrointestinal tract environment of healthy people so as to provide reference for the production of diabetic foods. We selected red beans as reference, measured the content of reducing sugar in bean powder containing 1 g available carbohydrate hydrolyzed by pepsin and α-amylase by DNS method,and calculated the glycemic index (GI). The results showed that: setting the GI of red beans as 100%, the GIs of other beans were respectively as follows: soybean 32.60±1.21,black-bean 37.80 ± 0.90,chickpea 67.77±3.82,horse bean 74.01± 3.21,cowpea 78.51±5.16,and mung bean 88.25%± 2.80%. The GIs of soybean and black bean were significantly lower than those of other beans (P<0.05) ,the GI of chickpea was much lower than those of mung bean and red bean (p<0.05). Therefore,soybean,black bean and chickpea were more suitable for diabetic people.

  13. Neutral hydrolysable sugars, OC and N content across soil aggregate size fractions, as an effect of two different crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Carlo; Giannetta, Beatrice; Kölbl, Angelika; Monaci, Elga; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Vischetti, Costantino

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results regarding the effects of two 13 years long crop rotations, on the composition of mineral associated neutral sugars, organic carbon (OC) and N concentration, across different aggregate size fractions. The two cropping sequences were characterized by different levels of N input from plant residues and tillage frequency. We also analysed the changes that occurred in soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition following the cultivation in the two soils of winter wheat and chickpea on the same soils. The analysis of OC and N content across soil aggregate fractions allowed getting an insight into the role played by SOM chemical composition in the formation of organo-mineral associations, while neutral sugars composition provided information on mineral associated SOM origin and decomposition processes, as pentoses derive mostly from plant tissues and hexoses are prevalently of microbial origin. Soil samples were collected from two adjacent fields, from the 0-10 cm layer, in November 2011 (T0). For 13 years before the beginning of the experiment, one soil was cultivated mostly with alfalfa (ALF), while a conventional cereal-sunflower-legume rotation (CON) was carried out on the other. Winter wheat and chickpea were sown on the two soils during the following 2 growing seasons and the sampling was repeated after 18 months (T1). A combination of aggregates size and density fractionation was used to isolate OM associated with mineral particles in: macro-aggregates (>212 μm), micro-aggregates ( 63 μm) and silt and clay size particles (fucose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, glucose. OC and N contents were higher in ALF as compared to CON for every aggregate fraction, both at T0 and T1. During the 18-months cultivation experiment macro aggregates OC concentration increased in ALF while decreasing in CON. During the same period silt and clay size particles OC concentration decreased in ALF while increasing in CON. N content

  14. Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2016-06-01

    Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to

  15. Metal uptake via phosphate fertilizer and city sewage in cereal and legume crops in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, G; Javed, W; Hussain, A; Wahid, A; Murtaza, B; Owens, G

    2015-06-01

    Crop irrigation with heavy metal-contaminated effluents is increasingly common worldwide and necessitates management strategies for safe crop production on contaminated soils. This field study examined the phytoavailability of three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in two cereal (wheat, maize) and legume (chickpea, mungbean) crops in response to the application of either phosphatic fertilizer or sewage-derived water irrigation over two successive years. Five fertilizer treatments, i.e. control, recommended nitrogen (N) applied alone and in combination of three levels of phosphorus (P), half, full and 1.5 times of recommended P designated as N0P0, N1P0, N1P0.5, N1P1.0, and N1P1.5, respectively. Tissue concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, and P were determined in various plant parts, i.e., root, straw, and grains. On the calcareous soils studied while maximum biomass production was obtained with application of P at half the recommended dose, the concentrations of metals in the crops generally decreased with increasing P levels. Tissue metal concentrations increased with the application of N alone. Translocation and accumulation of Zn and Cu were consistently higher than Cd. And the pattern of Cd accumulation differed among plant species; more Cd being accumulated by dicots than monocots, especially in their grains. The order of Cd accumulation in grains was maize > chickpea > mungbean > wheat. Mungbean and chickpea straws also had higher tissue Cd concentration above permissible limits. The two legume species behaved similarly, while cereal species differed from each other in their Cd accumulation. Metal ion concentrations were markedly higher in roots followed by straw and grains. Increasing soil-applied P also increased the extractable metal and P concentrations in the post-harvest soil. Despite a considerable addition of metals by P fertilizer, all levels of applied P effectively decreased metal phytoavailability in sewage-irrigated soils, and applying half of the

  16. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be

  17. The observed evapotranspiration combining the energy and water balance for different land use under semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitouna Chebbi, Rim; Mekki, Insaf; Jacob, Frédéric; Masmoudi, Moncef; Prévot, Laurent; Ben Mechlia, Netij; Voltz, Marc; Albergel, Jean

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean semiarid cultivated catchments are affected by global and climate change and are characterized by very complex hydrological systems. The improvement of their management requires a best understanding of the hydrological processes and developing reliable means for characterizing the temporal dynamics of soil water balance in a spatially distributed manner. The main objective of this study is: i) to analyze the observed evapotranspiration in relation to natural drivers (i.e. rainfall and soil properties) and anthropogenic forcing (i.e. land use and crop successions), and ) ii to assess the differences in both energy and water balances. We focus on a hilly semiarid Mediterranean catchment devoted to rainfed agriculture, so-called the Kamech catchment, which is located in the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-eastern Tunisia. The site belongs to the OMERE observatory for environmental research and it is monitored for the different hydrological cycle components under influence of anthropogenic forcing. The analysis is based on in-situ data measured under the common cereals/legumes/pasture cropping systems within the Kamech catchment. Energy and water balance components and vegetation parameters were collected in different fields and during various crop growth cycles. The results showed the highly variable response of energy and water balances depending on soil types, land use, and climatic conditions. The annual rainfall is mainly converted into evapotranspiration during the growing cycle for different land uses. The runoff amounts, for most of the sites, correspond to less than 10% of the rainfall amount. The evapotransipration ratios differed significantly across site and season in relation to soil properties and cumulated rainfall. We observe large differences in soil water dynamics among the legumes (fababean and chickpea) and cereals (wheat, oat, and triticale). Soil water is larger for legume crops, despite substantial plant growth during winter

  18. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  19. Effect of field history on the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) and its preference to different wheat and barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zyoud, Firas Ahmad

    2012-02-15

    Due to the importance of wheat and barley production in Jordan, prevention of the cereal leafminer, Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) is of vital importance. The insect is a severe pest and plays an important role in limiting the production of these crops. The use of insecticides is neither economic nor sustainable, so that there is an urgent need to initiate a viable alternative to chemical control. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of crop rotation on S. temperatella and its preference to different wheat and barley cultivars. The field history experiment was conducted using five different crop rotations. For the preference experiments in the laboratory, two major experimental groups were conducted. The first was set up to measure the consumed leaf area and the second one to record the number of larval attaches. Each group consisted of four different subgroups; 6 wheat cultivars, 6 barley cultivars, two and one cultivar of each crop. The results indicated that the infestation percentage and number of larvae were significantly the lowest in the crop rotation, wheat/chickpea/wheat while the highest were recorded for barley/barley/barley. The preference results showed that wheat cultivar, Horani Nawawi is significantly the most preferred while Horani 27 is the least cultivar. In case of barley, Mutah was the most preferred cultivar and the least preference was recorded for Athroh. Also, wheat was significantly less preferred than barley. The wheat cultivars, Sham, Em-Qees and Acsad 65 had the highest number of attaches and Deer Alla the least. In contrast, the barley cultivar, Acsad 176 had the highest and Athroh and Rum 1 had the least attaches. Barley cultivars had higher attaches than wheat ones. There was a positive relation between the infestation percent and number of larvae, as well as the consumed area and number of attaches in all of the four subgroups. In conclusion, the crop rotation, wheat/chickpea

  20. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray

    2007-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  1. Allelopathic effects of Leucaena leucocephala leaf litter on some forest and agricultural crops grown in nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romel Ahmed; A. T. M. Rafiqul Hoque; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of leaf litter of Leucaena leucocephala on two forest crops Sada koroi (Albizia procera),Ipil ipil (L.leucocephala) and three agricultural crops Falen (Vigna unguiculata),Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Arhor (Cajanus cajan) in the nursery of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences,Chittagong University,Bangladesh,in a Randomized Block Design.Results suggested that leaf litters of L.leucocephala induced inhibitory effects on germination and growth of bioassay.It was also found that the effect depended on concentration of extract and litterfall,type of receptor species.Higher concentration of the materials had the higher effect and vice versa.Growth response of receptor crops varied with the variation of leaf litter application.The study revealed that application of low-dose leaf litter specially litter of 10 g(m-2 had stimulating effect on shoot growth of C.arietinum,V.unguiculata and A.procera.While in all other cases significant inhibitory effect was observed and it was significantly increased with the increase of leaf litter application.However,the trend of inhibition was uneven with treatments.Root growth was found to be more affected than shoot growth.

  2. LegumeIP 2.0--a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-01

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/. PMID:26578557

  3. Antimicrobial actions of degraded and native chitosan against spoilage organisms in laboratory media and foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, J; Roller, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether chitosan (poly-beta-1,4-glucosamine) and hydrolysates of chitosan can be used as novel preservatives in foods. Chitosan was hydrolyzed by using oxidative-reductive degradation, crude papaya latex, and lysozyme. Mild hydrolysis of chitosan resulted in improved microbial inactivation in saline and greater inhibition of growth of several spoilage yeasts in laboratory media, but highly degraded products of chitosan exhibited no antimicrobial activity. In pasteurized apple-elderflower juice stored at 7 degrees C, addition of 0.3 g of chitosan per liter eliminated yeasts entirely for the duration of the experiment (13 days), while the total counts and the lactic acid bacterial counts increased at a slower rate than they increased in the control. Addition of 0.3 or 1.0 g of chitosan per kg had no effect on the microbial flora of hummus, a chickpea dip; in the presence of 5.0 g of chitosan per kg, bacterial growth but not yeast growth was substantially reduced compared with growth in control dip stored at 7 degrees C for 6 days. Improved antimicrobial potency of chitosan hydrolysates like that observed in the saline and laboratory medium experiments was not observed in juice and dip experiments. We concluded that native chitosan has potential for use as a preservative in certain types of food but that the increase in antimicrobial activity that occurs following partial hydrolysis is too small to justify the extra processing involved. PMID:10618206

  4. The improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of Trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. Trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2% and Trichoderma atroviride (40.3% were found to be strong antagonists. To enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. Two mutants, Th-m1 and T. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. The enzymatic activities of the selected parent and mutant strains were assayed, and although both mutants were found to have enhanced enzymatic activities compared to their respective parent strains, Th-m1 possessed the maximum cellulase (5.69 U/mL and β-1,3-glucanase activity (61.9 U/mL. Th-m1 also showed high competitive saprophytic ability (CSA among all of the selected parent and mutant strains, and during field experiments, Th-m1 was found to successfully possess enhanced disease control (82.9%.

  5. Trichoderma species mediated differential tolerance against biotic stress of phytopathogens in Cicer arietinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amrita; Raghuwanshi, Richa; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-02-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been reported to aid in imparting biotic as well as abiotic tolerance to plants. However, there are only few reports unfolding the differential ability of separate species of Trichoderma genera generally exploited for their biocontrol potential in this framework. A study was undertaken to evaluate the biocontrol potential of different Trichoderma species namely T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, and T. aureoviride as identified in the group of indigenous isolates from the agricultural soils of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Their biocontrol potential against three major soilborne phytopathogens, i.e., Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum capsici was confirmed by dual culture plate technique. Efficient mycoparasitic ability was further assessed in all the isolates in relation to chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase, pectinase, lipase, amylase, and cellulase production while equally consistent results were obtained for their probable phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production abilities. The selected isolates were further subjected to test their ability to promote plant growth, to reduce disease incidence and to tolerate biotic stress in terms of lignification pattern against S. rolfsii in chickpea plants. Among the identified Trichoderma species, excellent results were observed for T. harzianum and T. koningiopsis indicating better biocontrol potential of these species in the group and thus exhibiting perspective for their commercial exploitation.

  6. Functional Analyses of the Diels-Alderase Gene sol5 of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani Indicate that the Solanapyrone Phytotoxins Are Not Required for Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonyong; Park, Chung-Min; Park, Jeong-Jin; Akamatsu, Hajime O; Peever, Tobin L; Xian, Ming; Gang, David R; Vandemark, George; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani, the causal agents of Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, produce a set of phytotoxic compounds including solanapyrones A, B, and C. Although both the phytotoxicity of solanapyrones and their universal production among field isolates have been documented, the role of solanapyrones in pathogenicity is not well understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of the sol5 gene, which encodes a Diels-Alderase that catalyzes the final step of solanapyrone biosynthesis. Deletion of sol5 in both Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani completely prevented production of solanapyrones and led to accumulation of the immediate precursor compound, prosolanapyrone II-diol, which is not toxic to plants. Deletion of sol5 did not negatively affect growth rate or spore production in vitro, and led to overexpression of the other solanapyrone biosynthesis genes, suggesting a possible feedback regulation mechanism. Phytotoxicity tests showed that solanapyrone A is highly toxic to several legume species and Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite the apparent phytotoxicity of solanapyrone A, pathogenicity tests showed that solanapyrone-minus mutants of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani were equally virulent as their corresponding wild-type progenitors, suggesting that solanapyrones are not required for pathogenicity.

  7. Bioinformatics approaches for viral metagenomics in plants using short RNAs : model case of study and application to a Cicer arietinum population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter ePirovano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years deep sequencing experiments have opened novel doors to reconstruct viral populations in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. Currently a substantial number of studies have been performed which employ Next Generation Sequencing (NGS techniques to either analyze known viruses by means of a reference-guided approach or to discover novel viruses using a de novo-based strategy. Taking advantage of the well-known Cymbidium ringspot virus we have carried out a comparison of different bioinformatics tools to reconstruct the viral genome based on 21-27 nt short (sRNA sequencing with the aim to identify the most efficient pipeline. The same approach was applied to a population of plants constituting an ancient variety of Cicer arietinum with red seeds. Among the discovered viruses, we describe the presence of a Tobamovirus referring to the Tomato mottle mosaic virus (NC_022230, which was not yet observed on C. arietinum nor revealed in Europe and a virod referring to Hop stunt viroid (NC_001351.1 never reported in chickpea. Notably, a reference sequence guided approach appeared the most efficient in such kind of investigation. Instead, the de novo assembly reached a non-appreciable coverage although the most prominent viral species could still be identified. Advantages and limitations of viral metagenomics analysis using sRNAs are discussed.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TRACTOR FRONT MOUNTED PIGEON PEA STEM CUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul R. Dange

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon pea or tur (Cajanus cajan L. Mills. is one of the important pulse crops of India and ranks second to chickpea in area and production. Traditionally the harvesting of pigeon pea is done manually by sickle, which demands considerable amount of labour, drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. In view of this a tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was developed and being front mounted implement it facilitated better visibility and control to operator. The power was transmitted from pto to gear box. Arrangement of hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor was provided on the equipment to facilitate the height of cut and to rotate the conveyer belt. During comparative performance evaluation of developed equipment, the average cutting efficiency and field capacity was found 96.30 % and 0.176 ha/hr respectively. There was increase in fuel consumption and plant damage with increase in speed of operation. The average operation cost of newly developed tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was 64.71% less as compared with manual harvesting of pigeon pea crop. The time saved was almost 1/3rd to that of manual harvesting.

  9. Synthesis of an efficient heteroatom-doped carbon electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction by pyrolysis of protein-rich pulse flour cooked with SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Unni, Sreekuttan M; Puthusseri, Dhanya; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-03-01

    Development of a highly durable, fuel-tolerant, metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is essential for robust and cost-effective Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEMFCs). Herein, we report the development of a nitrogen-doped (N-doped) hierarchically porous carbon-based efficient ORR electrocatalyst from protein-rich pulses. The process involves 3D silica nanoparticle templating of the pulse flour(s) followed by their double pyrolysis. The detailed experiments are performed on gram flour (derived from chickpeas) without any in situ/ex situ addition of dopants. The N-doped porous carbon thus generated shows remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards ORR in the alkaline medium. The oxygen reduction on this material follows the desired 4-electron transfer mechanism involving the direct reduction pathway. Additionally, the synthesized carbon catalyst also exhibits good electrochemical stability and fuel tolerance. The results are also obtained and compared with the case of soybean flour having higher nitrogen content to highlight the significance of different parameters in the ORR catalyst performance.

  10. Occurrence of Dinarmus basalis in Callosobruchus analis in stored soybean in São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência de Dinarmus basalis (Rondani em Callosobruchus analis (F. em soja armazenada em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Antonio Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus analis (F. is considered an important pest in several countries in Africa, Asia and Oceania. It has been observed infesting seeds belonging to 15 Leguminosae genera, including peanut, bean, chickpea, pea, cowpea, and soybean. One of its main natural enemies is the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, whose control efficiency has already been demonstrated in several studies. This paper records the occurrence of C. analis and its parasitoid, D. basalis, in stored soybean of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.Callosobruchus analis (F. é uma praga de expressão econômica em diversos países da África, Ásia e Oceania. Já foi observado infestando sementes de espécies de leguminosas pertencentes a 15 gêneros, incluindo-se culturas como amendoim, grão-de-bico, feijão, ervilha, caupi e soja. Um de seus inimigos naturais mais importantes é o parasitóide Dinarmus basalis (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, cuja eficiência de controle já foi demonstrada em vários estudos. Neste trabalho registra-se a ocorrência de C. analis e de seu parasitóide, D. basalis, em grãos armazenados de soja no estado de São Paulo.

  11. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  12. Research work on mutation breeding in Egypt during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work carried out on mutation breeding in Egypt during the 1980s is summarized. Several mutations have been developed in bread wheat, maize, rice and barley. A higher yield, tolerance to salinity, shorter types and earliness were obtained after use of different mutagens and growth regulators. Great attention has been paid to the fababean and chickpea, particularly in improving their quality and quantity of protein, and their resistance to insect weevils such as Callosobruchus sp. Tolerance or resistance to broom rape has also been reported. Various grain legumes such as lentil, pea, cowpea, bean, fenugreek and lupin received some attention. Mutation work on fibre crops such as cotton, kenaf and flax has led to some promising results. Zero type, glandless and early maturing mutants were obtained in cotton, and early flowering, high yielding (fibre or oil) mutants in flax. Some attention has been given to oil crops such as sesame, rapeseed, peanuts, castorbean, sunflower and safflower, and several characters in sesame, including yield, earliness, the number of capsules per leaf axil and tolerance to some fungi, were obtained. Promising smooth mutations with different flower colours have been developed in safflower, and nodulation and tolerance to salinity have received some attention in peanuts and sunflower. High seed getting and earliness mutants were obtained in Egyptian clover. The results on sugarcane and sugarbeet still need to be confirmed, as well as those on tomato, potato, onion, Portulaca, citrus and medicinal plants. (author). 2 refs

  13. The improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of Trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, Singh; Maurya, Sudarshan; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. Trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and Trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. To enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. Two mutants, Th-m1 and T. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. The enzymatic activities of the selected parent and mutant strains were assayed, and although both mutants were found to have enhanced enzymatic activities compared to their respective parent strains, Th-m1 possessed the maximum cellulase (5.69U/mL) and β-1,3-glucanase activity (61.9U/mL). Th-m1 also showed high competitive saprophytic ability (CSA) among all of the selected parent and mutant strains, and during field experiments, Th-m1 was found to successfully possess enhanced disease control (82.9%).

  14. Removal of 4-Nitrophenol from Water Using Ag–N–P-Tridoped TiO2 by Photocatalytic Oxidation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamo, Temesgen; Yadav, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation using semiconductor nanoparticles is an efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective process for the removal of organic pollutants, such as dyes, pesticides, phenols, and their derivatives in water. In the present study, nanosize Ag–N–P-tridoped titanium(IV) oxide (TiO2) was prepared by using sol–gel-synthesized Ag-doped TiO2 and soybean (Glycine max) or chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds as nonmetallic bioprecursors. As-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and ultra violet (UV)–visible spectroscopic techniques. Average crystallite size of the studied photocatalysts was within 39–46 nm. Whereas doped Ag in TiO2 minimized the photogenerated electron–hole recombination, doped N and P extended its photoabsorption edge to visible region. Tridoping of Ag, N, and P in TiO2 exhibited synergetic effect toward enhancing its photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), separately, under UV and visible irradiations. At three hours, degradations of 4-NP over Ag–N–P-tridoped TiO2 under UV and visible radiations were 73.8 and 98.1%, respectively. PMID:27081309

  15. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  16. Agronomic and Economic Efficiency of Manure and Urea Fertilizers Use on Vertisols in Ethiopian Highlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teklu Erkossa; Hailemariam Teklewold

    2009-01-01

    Soil fertility depletion is among the major impediments to sustained agricultural productivity especially in the less developed countries because of limited application of fertilizers. Soil fertility maintenance requires a balanced application of inorganic and organic nutrient sources. This study was conducted on a Vertisol in Ethiopia to determine the optimum farm yard manure (M) and nitrogen (N) application rates for maximum return under cereal-pulse-cereal rotation system. The main and interaction effects of M and N significantly affected biomass, grain and straw yields of wheat (Triticum durum) and tef (Eragrostis tef), but the residual effect on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was not significant. Application of 6 t M ha-1 and 30 kg N ha-1, gave the largest grain yield of both crops but a comparable result was obtained due to 3 t M ha-1 and 30 kg N ha-1. The economic analysis revealed that 6.85 t M ha-1 and 44 kg N ha-1 for wheat, and 4.53 t M ha-1 and 37 kg N ha-1 for tef were the economic optimum rates. The additional benefit obtained due to these rates was about 450 USD ha-1. Therefore,application of the economic optimum combination of both organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen is recommended for use on cereals in the cereal-legume-cereal rotation system.

  17. Purification and characterization of Locusta migratoria chymotrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakal, E; Applebaum, S W; Birk, Y

    1988-12-01

    A chymotrypsin-like enzyme (CTLE) was isolated from the digestive tract of the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose followed by affinity chromatography on phenylbutylamine (PBA) Sepharose. The purity and homogeneity of CTLE have been shown by SDS-PAGE and on cellulose acetate strips. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 24,000, determined by SDS-PAGE and on a Sephadex G-75 calibrated column. It has an isoelectric point of 10.1 and contains 0-1 half cystine residues. Sequence analysis of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids has shown 25% homology with bovine chymotrypsin and 40% homology with Vespa crabo and Vespa orientalis chymotrypsins and with Hypoderma lineatum trypsin. The optimal pH for enzyme activity and stability was in the range of 8.5-9.0. The Km and kcat values, determined on substrates for proteolytic, esterolytic and amidolytic activity, similar to those for bovine chymotrypsin. CTLE was inactivated by PMSF and TPCK indicating the involvement of serine and histidine in its active site. The enzyme was fully inhibited by the proteinaceous, double-headed, chymotrypsin-trypsin inhibitors BBI from soybeans and CI from chickpeas, by chicken ovomucoid (COM) and turkey ovomucoid (TOM), as well as by the Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) which hardly inhibits bovine chymotrypsin. Inhibition studies of CTLE with amino acid and peptide-chloromethylketones point towards the existence of an extended binding site. PMID:3246483

  18. Toxicological properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzir, Mounir; El Bairi, Khalid; Amzazi, Saaïd

    2016-10-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), used as traditional medicine and natural additive food, has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, antianorexic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihyperlipidemic, galactogogue and anti-inflammatory effects in several human and animal models. Besides, several medicinal pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties, fenugreek have toxic effects as well. The aim of this review is discuss the cumulative evidence, which suggests that consumption of fenugreek induced some serious toxicological side effects. In this review, many teratogenic effects of fenugreek, from congenital malformations to death, were reported in human, rodent, rabbit, and chick. Moreover, results obtained in rats, mice and rabbits show a testicular toxicity and anti-fertility effects in male associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as anti-fertility, antiimplantation and abortifacient activity in females related to saponin compound of fenugreek which suggest that fenugreek is not recommended for use during pregnancy. Indeed, the consumption of fenugreek should be avoided for persons having peanut and chickpeas allergy because of possible cross-reactivity as well as chronic asthma. Accumulating evidence suggest also that fenugreek may have neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral and neuropathological side effects. It is suggested that future studies would be conducted to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the fenugreek toxicological properties. PMID:27498339

  19. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita D. Marinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L. were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH, total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%, total phenolics (15.3–27.2 μg/mg sample powder, and proteins (162.7–242.8 μg/mg sample powder, respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition. The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  20. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  1. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Niely, Hania F. G.

    2007-06-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas ( Pisum satinum L), cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils ( Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly ( p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  2. Statistical physics studies of multilayer adsorption isotherm in food materials and pore size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouaini, F.; Knani, S.; Ben Yahia, M.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2015-08-01

    Water sorption isotherms of foodstuffs are very important in different areas of food science engineering such as for design, modeling and optimization of many processes. The equilibrium moisture content is an important parameter in models used to predict changes in the moisture content of a product during storage. A formulation of multilayer model with two energy levels was based on statistical physics and theoretical considerations. Thanks to the grand canonical ensemble in statistical physics. Some physicochemical parameters related to the adsorption process were introduced in the analytical model expression. The data tabulated in literature of water adsorption at different temperatures on: chickpea seeds, lentil seeds, potato and on green peppers were described applying the most popular models applied in food science. We also extend the study to the newest proposed model. It is concluded that among studied models the proposed model seems to be the best for description of data in the whole range of relative humidity. By using our model, we were able to determine the thermodynamic functions. The measurement of desorption isotherms, in particular a gas over a solid porous, allows access to the distribution of pore size PSD.

  3. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic properties of Cuminum cyminum (L.) seed essential oil and its efficacy as a preservative in stored commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Prakash, Bhanu; Mishra, Prashant K; Dubey, N K

    2014-01-01

    The study reports potential of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant based shelf life enhancer against fungal and aflatoxin contamination and lipid peroxidation. The EO showed efficacy as a preservative in food systems (stored wheat and chickpeas). A total of 1230 fungal isolates were obtained from food samples, with Aspergillus flavus LHP(C)-D6 identified as the highest aflatoxin producer. Cumin seed EO was chemically characterized through GC-MS where cymene (47.08%) was found as the major component. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum aflatoxin inhibitory concentration of EO were 0.6 and 0.5 μl/ml respectively. The EO showed toxicity against a broad spectrum of food borne fungi. The antifungal action of EO on ergosterol content in the plasma membrane of A. flavus was determined. The EO showed strong antioxidant potential having IC50 0.092 μl/ml. As a fumigant in food systems, the EO provided sufficient protection of food samples against fungal association without affecting seed germination. In view of the antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic nature, free radical scavenging potential and efficacy in food system, cumin seed EO may be able to provide protection of food commodities against quantitative and qualitative losses, thereby enhancing their shelf life. The present investigation comprises the first report on antifungal mode of action of cumin seed EO and its efficacy as fumigant in food systems.

  4. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akanksha, E-mail: bhuaks29@gmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Jain, Akansha, E-mail: akansha007@rediffmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Sarma, Birinchi K., E-mail: birinchi_ks@yahoo.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pca.iesd@bhu.ac.in [Institute for Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Harikesh B., E-mail: hbs1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  5. Encapsulation of flaxseed oil using a benchtop spray dryer for legume protein-maltodextrin microcapsule preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Karaca, Asli; Low, Nicholas; Nickerson, Michael

    2013-05-29

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin using a benchtop spray dryer. Effects of emulsion formulation (oil, protein and maltodextrin levels) and protein source (CPI vs LPI) on the physicochemical characteristics, oxidative stability, and release properties of the resulting capsules were investigated. Microcapsule formulations containing higher oil levels (20% oil, 20% protein, 60% maltodextrin) were found to have higher surface oil and lower encapsulation efficiencies. Overall, LPI-maltodextrin capsules gave higher flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiencies (∼88.0%) relative to CPI-maltodextrin matrices (∼86.3%). However, both designs were found to provide encapsulated flaxseed oil protection against oxidation over a 25 d room temperature storage study relative to free oil. Overall, ∼37.6% of encapsulated flaxseed oil was released after 2 h under simulated gastric fluid, followed by the release of an additional ∼46.6% over a 3 h period under simulated intestinal fluid conditions.

  6. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  7. Anti-flatulent Studies of Traditional Medicinal Plant Vitex negundo Linn. In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbir Lal Khokra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitex negundo is a shrub from Verbenaceae family and is traditionally used in treatment of various disease and disorders. Oil prepared with the juice of leaves of Vitex-negundo is reported to have very useful medicinal properties like wonderful cures of sloughing wounds and ulcers. In Ayurveda; roots of Vitex negundo is reported to have anti-flatulent properties. Philippines peoples used to make tea from fruits of this plant, which was considered very useful in relieving stomach gas which, we refer to flatulence. Here we studied the anti flatulent activity of different essential oils and extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. The standard drug used was simethicone (10 mg/10 g of flatulent diet, p.o., which inhibited gas production up to 90 % as compared to control. Addition of test drugs (essential oils/ethanolic extracts to the chickpea diet (5 % decreased the amount of gas production significantly up to 69% by root and leaves extracts while dry fruit oil inhibited gas formation to 81%. The anti-flatulent activity in this plant may due to combined effect of flavonoids and triterpenoids constituents. As the safety evaluation study indicates that Vitex negundo is well tolerated at very high doses without any toxic effects. Thus, Vitex negundo has a high potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.

  8. Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ahmad B; Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris; Vontobel, Peter; Lehmann, Eberhard; Weller, Ulrich; Hopmans, Jan W; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Oswald, Sascha E

    2011-11-01

    • Despite the importance of rhizosphere properties for water flow from soil to roots, there is limited quantitative information on the distribution of water in the rhizosphere of plants. • Here, we used neutron tomography to quantify and visualize the water content in the rhizosphere of the plant species chickpea (Cicer arietinum), white lupin (Lupinus albus), and maize (Zea mays) 12 d after planting. • We clearly observed increasing soil water contents (θ) towards the root surface for all three plant species, as opposed to the usual assumption of decreasing water content. This was true for tap roots and lateral roots of both upper and lower parts of the root system. Furthermore, water gradients around the lower part of the roots were smaller and extended further into bulk soil compared with the upper part, where the gradients in water content were steeper. • Incorporating the hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters of the rhizosphere into our model, we could simulate the gradual changes of θ towards the root surface, in agreement with the observations. The modelling result suggests that roots in their rhizosphere may modify the hydraulic properties of soil in a way that improves uptake under dry conditions.

  9. Azide resistance in Rhizobium ciceri linked with superior symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, V Vijay

    2004-12-01

    Isolated azide resistant (AzR) native R. ciceri strain 18-7 was resistant to sodium azide at 10 microg/ml. To find if nif-reiteration is responsible for azide resistance and linked to superior symbiotic nitrogen fixation, transposon (Tn5) induced azide sensitive mutants were generated. Using 4 kb nif-reiterated Sinorhizobium meliloti DNA, a clone C4 that complemented azide sensitivity was isolated by DNA hybridization from genomic library of chickpea Rhizobium strain Rcd301. EcoRI restriction mapping revealed the presence of 7 recognition sites with a total insert size of 19.17 kb. Restriction analysis of C4 clone and nif-reiterated DNA (pRK 290.7) with EcoRI and XhoI revealed similar banding pattern. Wild type strain 18-7, mutant M126 and complemented mutant M126(C4) were characterized for symbiotic properties (viz., acetylene reduction assay, total nitrogen content, nodule number and fresh and dry weight of the infected plants) and explanta nitrogenase activity. Our results suggested that azide resistance, nif-reiteration, and superior symbiotic effectiveness were interlinked with no correlation between ex-planta nitrogenase activity and azide resistance in R. ciceri.

  10. Mutation in the lysA gene impairs the symbiotic properties of Mesorhizobium ciceri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subrata K; Gautam, Uma Shankar; Sandhu, Kiran V; Bandyopadhyay, Saumya; Chakrabartty, Pran K; Singh, Aqbal

    2010-01-01

    A Tn5-induced mutant of Mesorhizobium ciceri, TL28, requiring the amino acid lysine for growth on minimal medium was isolated and characterized. The Tn5 insertion in the mutant strain TL28 was located on a 6.8-kb EcoRI fragment of the chromosomal DNA. Complementation analysis with cloned DNA indicated that 1.269 kb of DNA of the 6.8-kb EcoRI fragment restored the wild-type phenotype of the lysine-requiring mutant. This region was further characterized by DNA sequence analysis and was shown to contain a coding sequence homologous to lysA gene of different bacteria. The lys (-) mutant TL28 was unable to elicit development of effective nodules on the roots of Cicer arietinum L. There was no detectable level of lysine in the root exudates of chickpea. However, addition of lysine to the plant growth medium restored the ability of the mutant to produce effective nodules with nitrogen fixation ability on the roots of C. arietinum.

  11. The physicochemical properties of legume protein isolates and their ability to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with and without genipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart P; Nickerson, Michael T; Low, Nicholas H

    2015-07-01

    The physicochemical and emulsifying properties of legume protein isolates prepared from chickpea (CPI), faba bean (FPI), lentil (LPI) and soy (SPI) were investigated in the presence and absence of genipin. Solubility was highest for CPI (~94 %), followed by LPI (~90 %), FPI (~85 %) and SPI (~50 %). Surface characteristics revealed similar zeta potentials (~ - 47 mV) for CPI, LPI and FPI, but lower for SPI (~ - 44 mV). Contrastingly, surface hydrophobicity was greatest for CPI (~137 arbitrary units, AU), followed by SPI/LPI (~70 AU) and FPI (~24 AU). A significant (from 16.73 to ~8.42 mN/m) reduction in interfacial tension was observed in canola oil-water mixtures in the presence of non-crosslinked legume protein isolates. The extent of legume protein isolate-genipin crosslinking was found to be similar for all isolates. Overall, creaming stability increased in the presence of genipin, with maximum stability observed for SPI (65 %), followed by FPI (61 %), LPI (56 %) and finally CPI (50 %).

  12. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  13. Comparative studies on the antioxidant activities of nine common food legumes against copper-induced human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B J; Yuan, S H; Chang, S K C

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the consumption of dietary antioxidant was associated with the prevention of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic extracts from 9 selected legumes based on copper-induced human LDL oxidation model in vitro. The antioxidant activities were assessed on the basis of the formation of conjugated dienes (lag time of oxidation) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as the early and later stage markers of LDL oxidation. The results showed that the extracts of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), black soybeans (Glycine max), and red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) had significant (P yellow peas, green peas, chickpea, and yellow soybeans in both LDL-conjugated dienes assay and LDL-TBARS assay. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activities of these legumes against LDL-lipid peroxidation in the above assays were found to correlate very significantly (P < 0.01) with their phenolic substances, and DPPH radical scavenging activity and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity). These results suggest that consuming black beans, lentils, black soybeans, and red kidney beans may have potential in preventing the development of atherosclerosis from the perspective of inhibiting LDL oxidation. PMID:17995667

  14. Comparative analyses of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and color of cool season legumes and other selected food legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B J; Yuan, S H; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of U.S.-produced cool season legumes. A total of 33 cool season legume samples were selected. Some common beans and soybeans were included for comparisons. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) were analyzed. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were used for analyzing antioxidant properties. Color of the legume flour and the seed coat was also analyzed. TPC, TFC, CTC, FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC values of legumes were significantly different not only between classes but also among samples within each class. Among cool season legume classes, lentils possessed the highest concentrations of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Colored common beans and black soybeans exhibited higher TPC, TFC, CTC, FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC values than those of yellow peas, green peas, and chickpeas. Antioxidant activities (FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC) were strongly correlated (r= 0.96, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively, P < 0.01) with TPC. TPC and ORAC were moderately correlated (P < 0.01) with either the seed hull surface color or the flour color. PMID:17995859

  15. Phytochemical profiles and health-promoting effects of cool-season food legumes as influenced by thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2009-11-25

    The effects of four thermal processing methods (conventional boiling, conventional steaming, pressure boiling, and pressure steaming) on phytochemical profiles, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferation properties of commonly consumed cool-season food legumes, including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea, and lentil, were investigated. Four groups of individual phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols, as well as flavonols and flavones were quantified using HPLC, respectively. As compared to the original raw legumes, all processing methods caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in total phenolic content, procyanidin content, total saponin content, phytic acid content, chemical antioxidant capacities in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant power and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, and cellular antioxidant activity as well as antiproliferation capacities of cool-season food legumes. Different cooking methods have varied effects on reducing total phenolics, saponins, phytic acids, and individual phenolic compounds. For all cool-season food legumes, steaming appeared to be a better cooking method than boiling in retaining antioxidants and phenolic components, whereas boiling appeared to be effective in reducing saponin and phytic acid contents. In the case of lentil, all thermal processing methods (except conventional steaming) caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in gallic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, sinapic, subtotal benzoic, subtotal cinnamic acid, and total phenolic acid. All thermal processing methods caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in (+)-catechin and flavan-3-ols in each cool-season food legume. PMID:19873971

  16. Marzipan: polymerase chain reaction-driven methods for authenticity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Philipp; Haase, Ilka; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2011-11-23

    According to German food guidelines, almonds are the only oilseed ingredient allowed for the production of marzipan. Persipan is a marzipan surrogate in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels. Cross-contamination of marzipan products with persipan may occur if both products are produced using the same production line. Adulterations or dilutions, respectively, of marzipan with other plant-derived products, for example, lupine or pea, have also been found. Almond and apricot plants are closely related. Consequently, classical analytical methods for the identification/differentiation often fail or are not sensitive enough to quantify apricot concentrations below 1%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been shown to enable the differentiation of closely related plant species in the past. These methods are characterized by high specificity and low detection limits. Isolation methods were developed and evaluated especially with respect to the matrix marzipan in terms of yield, purity, integrity, and amplificability of the isolated DNA. For the reliable detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea, qualitative standard and duplex PCR methods were developed and established. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked raw pastes. Contaminations at the level of 0.1% could be detected.

  17. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  18. The improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of Trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, Singh; Maurya, Sudarshan; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. Trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and Trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. To enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. Two mutants, Th-m1 and T. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. The enzymatic activities of the selected parent and mutant strains were assayed, and although both mutants were found to have enhanced enzymatic activities compared to their respective parent strains, Th-m1 possessed the maximum cellulase (5.69U/mL) and β-1,3-glucanase activity (61.9U/mL). Th-m1 also showed high competitive saprophytic ability (CSA) among all of the selected parent and mutant strains, and during field experiments, Th-m1 was found to successfully possess enhanced disease control (82.9%). PMID:26887221

  19. Quantitative trait locus analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Takahiro; Sato, Shusei; Okumura, Kenji; Tabata, Satoshi; Akashi, Ryo; Isobe, Sachiko

    2007-07-01

    The first quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus was performed with a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129. Thirteen agronomic traits were evaluated in 2004 and 2005: traits of vegetative parts (plant height, stem thickness, leaf length, leaf width, plant regrowth, plant shape, and stem color), flowering traits (flowering time and degree), and pod and seed traits (pod length, pod width, seeds per pod, and seed mass). A total of 40 QTLs were detected that explained 5%-69% of total variation. The QTL that explained the most variation was that for stem color, which was detected in the same region of chromosome 2 in both years. Some QTLs were colocated, especially those for pod and seed traits. Seed mass QTLs were located at 5 locations that mapped to the corresponding genomic positions of equivalent QTLs in soybean, pea, chickpea, and mung bean. This study provides fundamental information for breeding of agronomically important legume crops.

  20. Application and opportunities of pulses in food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Rooney, Lloyd W; Ali, Rashida; Riaz, Mian N

    2013-01-01

    Pulses are highly nutritious seeds of pod-bearing leguminous plants, specifically dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas. US farmers harvest about 2.6 million pounds of pulses every year but 75% of this is being exported internationally because of its increased consumption in the developing countries. In the current scenario, increasing costs of production, bad economy, and fluctuating food commodity prices have made a strong case for US producers to seek opportunities to increase domestic consumption of pulses through value-added products. Pulses are the richest sources of plant proteins and provide approximately 10% of the total dietary requirements of the proteins world over. Pulses are also high in dietary fibers and complex carbohydrates leading to low GI (glycemic index) foods. Pulses help to lower cholesterol and triglycerides as leguminous fibers are hypoglycosuria because of consisting more amylose than amylopectin. Pulses provide tremendous opportunities to be utilized in the processed foods such as bakery products, bread, pasta, snack foods, soups, cereal bar filing, tortillas, meat, etc. These show excellent opportunities in frozen dough foods either as added flour or as fillings. Pulses in view of their nutrient profile, seem to be ideal for inclusion in designing snack foods, baby, and sports foods.

  1. Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Roopa, B S; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-11-15

    Green mussel protein hydrolysates (GMPH) utilization for the enrichment of gluten-free bread followed by characterization of flavour peptides using chromatography and electronic nose techniques have been done. The degree of hydrolysis was carried out in each protease digest, and the higher degree of hydrolysis was observed in pepsin digestion. Gluten-free (GF) bread was formulated by using buckwheat flour (BWF), rice flour (RF) and chickpea flour (CPF) (70:20:10) and GMPH were added in the range of 0-20% in the GF bread for enrichment with GMPH. Radar plot of the electronic nose analysis showed that the sensors P30/2, T30/1 and T70/2 had a higher response to the GF bread and GMPH. Consequently, the peptide sequence was obtained manually by ESI-MS spectra of GMPH (KGYSSYICDK) and F-II (SSYCIVKICDK). Flavour quality was 97% discriminately comparable to the GMPH and F-II fractions. Mussel flavoured GF bread can be included in the celiac diet. PMID:27283688

  2. Allelopathic effects of leaf litters of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on some forest and agricultural crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romel Ahmed; A. T. M. Rafiqul Hoque; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathic effects of different doses of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litters were investigated through an experiment in the green house of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Three popular agricultural crops: Falen (Vigna unguiculata), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), Arhor (Cajanus cajan) and two widely used plantation trees: Sada koroi (Albizia procera) and Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) were selected as bioassay species. Experiment was set on tray at room temperature 27℃. The effects of different doses of leaf litter extracts were compared to the control. Results suggest that leaf litters of E. camaldulesis induced inhibitory effects. It was also found that the effect depend on concentration of extract and litterfall, type of receiver species. Higher concentration of the materials had the higher effect and vice versa. Though all the bioassay species were suppressed some of them showed better performance. Vigna unguiculata, Cicer arietinum are recommended in agroforestry based on this present Experiment output. In mixed plantation, Leucaena leucochephala is a better choice while compared to Albizia procera.

  3. Role of classical breeding in improvement of pulse crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadarajan and Sanjeev Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical breeding of many crops has been instrumental for ensuring food security by developing new varieties that are higheryielding,resistant to pests and diseases, drought-resistant or regionally adapted to different environments and growingconditions. A total of 513 cultivars of different pulse crops including chickpea, pigeonpea, mungbean, urdbean, lentil, fieldpeaand rajmash were developed in India itself during last three decades. Adoption of high yielding varieties in early 1980'sincreased the average productivity of the country by 34 % now. Significant achievements have been made in developing shortduration cultivars in almost all pulse crops with incorporation of photo- thermo insensitivity. Genetic resistance for most of thediseases have been identified and incorporated in development of disease resistant cultivars. In fieldpea, a major breakthroughhas been made by developing dwarf and afila plant type which led to increase in yield by 30%. Although cultivar developmenthas traditionally emphasized improvement through pedigree selection, mass –pedigree method and backcross breeding,interspecific hybridization has also received much attention in 1980s. So far eight genotypes in different pulse crops have beendeveloped in the country using interspecific hybridization. In pigeonpea a trait cytoplasmic male sterility has been introducedthrough wild gene introgression. Using this, a hybrid GTH 1 in pigeonpea has been developed in India which has yielded 27%yield superiority than the traditional cultivars.

  4. Induced mutations and marker assisted breeding approaches to crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop improvement programme at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology involves use of mutation breeding techniques, particularly for improving plant architecture, maturity, period and induction/incorporation of genes for biotic and abiotic tolerance in important food and fibre crops. Recent advances in molecular genetics offered us new techniques to elucidate differences at the molecular level in the mutated genes with the help of marker assisted breeding techniques, i.e. restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Efforts are therefore being made to incorporate salt tolerance in cultivated wheat and rice from their wild relatives through wide hybridization. Thirteen improved varieties of rice, cotton, mungbeam and chickpea have been developed using the mutation breeding technique and then released for commercial cultivation. These improved varieties have played a significant role in increasing agricultural production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross-breeding programmes, and a few varieties of cotton have been developed in Pakistan with an induced mutation as one of their parents. Marker assisted wide hybridization in rice has helped to monitor the flow of genetic material carrying salt tolerance from wild to cultivated species. In wheat, DNA fingerprinting has been attempted to differentiate salt tolerant line (hybrids) from their parents

  5. Induced Mutagenesis for Crop Improvement in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental mutagenesis has been investigated and applied in crop breeding in various Bulgarian agricultural research institutes during the last half century. In this paper some major accomplishments achieved in Bulgaria are highlighted. Both, physical mutagens (mainly gamma rays) and chemical mutagens (mainly EMS, NMU, NEU), have been used and their proper doses have been established. According to the information available to the author, there are more than 76 new cultivars developed using induced mutants in Bulgaria, namely: barley (5), wheat (5), durum wheat (9), maize (26), sunflower (3), lentil (4), bean (2), pea (1), chickpea and vetch (2), soybean (5), tomato (6), pepper (4), cotton (2), tobacco (2). Some of the mutant cultivars such as maize hybrid Kneja 509 and durum wheat cultivar Gergana have become leading cultivars occupying up to 50% of the growing area of the crop concerned. In durum wheat, mutant cultivars have not only covered almost all the growing areas but also doubled the yield in the past 30 years. The achievements in mutation breeding programmes have also had a significant impact on the progress of genetic research by elucidating the underlying mechanisms of induced mutations and the training of many young researchers and university students through their involvement in various research projects. A number of mutant lines with novel characteristics and mutant cultivars of economical importance together with relevant techniques used in the development and characterization of those mutant lines/cultivars are described in this paper. (author)

  6. Insect disinfestation by irradiation: Feasibility and economic study, and organoleptic tests of the irradiated products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel produces limited quantities of cereals and pulses, but imports important quantities for local consumption. Because of the warm and humid climate, these grains and pulses can be infested rapidly and serious losses are encountered at the wholesale, retail and consumer levels. A programme was established to facilitate the introduction and use of irradiation technology to reduce these losses. It was aimed at establishing the necessary technological, economic and consumer acceptance parameters. To accomplish these goals, the Ministry of Health was asked to grant clearances for radiation disinfestation of all cereals, pulses, coffee beans (and their products), cocoa beans (and their products), edible seeds and nuts at an average overall dose of 1 kGy. An economic feasibility study was performed and led to the conclusion that radiation disinfestation of agricultural products is economically feasible in Israel, but it will be necessary to obtain a demonstration irradiator capable of treating the quantities needed to implement irradiation technology. The initial technology implementation costs would be about US $30 per tonne, while later costs in a commercial facility will only be about US $8 per tonne. The costs of a 60Co facility and an electron irradiation facility are analysed. The results of organoleptic tests of irradiated wheat, popcorn, red bean and chickpea are given and discussed. (author). 14 refs, 2 tabs

  7. Box-Behnken design for extraction optimization, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Cicer arietinum L. hull polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zipeng; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Qingxia; Ye, Hong; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-08-20

    The optimal extraction conditions with a yield of 5.37±0.15% for extraction of polysaccharides from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) hull (CHPS) were determined as extraction temperature 99°C, extraction time 2.8h and ratio of water to raw material 24mL/g. Three fractions of CHPS-1, CHPS-2 and CHPS-3, with average molecular weight of 3.1×10(6), 1.5×10(6) and 7.8×10(5)Da, respectively, were obtained from crude CHPS by chromatography of DEAE Fast Flow and Sephadex G-100. CHPS-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose and arabinose, CHPS-2 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose, xylose and arabinose, CHPS-3 was composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and rhamnose. CHPS-3 showed the strongest reducing power and protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells and highest scavenging activities against DPPH and ABTS radicals, while CHPS-2 showed the highest scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical. PMID:27178941

  8. Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ahmad B; Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris; Vontobel, Peter; Lehmann, Eberhard; Weller, Ulrich; Hopmans, Jan W; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Oswald, Sascha E

    2011-11-01

    • Despite the importance of rhizosphere properties for water flow from soil to roots, there is limited quantitative information on the distribution of water in the rhizosphere of plants. • Here, we used neutron tomography to quantify and visualize the water content in the rhizosphere of the plant species chickpea (Cicer arietinum), white lupin (Lupinus albus), and maize (Zea mays) 12 d after planting. • We clearly observed increasing soil water contents (θ) towards the root surface for all three plant species, as opposed to the usual assumption of decreasing water content. This was true for tap roots and lateral roots of both upper and lower parts of the root system. Furthermore, water gradients around the lower part of the roots were smaller and extended further into bulk soil compared with the upper part, where the gradients in water content were steeper. • Incorporating the hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters of the rhizosphere into our model, we could simulate the gradual changes of θ towards the root surface, in agreement with the observations. The modelling result suggests that roots in their rhizosphere may modify the hydraulic properties of soil in a way that improves uptake under dry conditions. PMID:21824150

  9. Arsenic accumulation in root and shoot vis-a-vis its effects on growth and level of phytochelatins in seedlings of Cicer arietinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Tripathi, R D; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Rai, U N; Yang, X E; Huanji, H; Inouhe, M

    2008-05-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water and soil has become a subject of prime interest due to its direct effect on human health through drinking water and food. In present study two varieties (CSG-8962 and C-235) of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L., which is a major supplementary food in many parts of India and a valuable source of protein, has been selected to estimate the level of arsenate in root and shoot of five day old seedlings vis-à-vis effect of arsenate on seedling growth and induction of thiols including glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) and their homologues. Both varieties accumulated arsenate to similar levels and most of the metalloid was confined to roots, only about 2.5% was translocated to shoot. Plant growth was also not affected significantly in both the varieties. Arsenate exposure significantly induced the levels of thiols including PCs and homophytochelatins (hPCs). The induction of thiols was much higher in roots than shoots and was greater in var C-235 between the two tested ones. Thus, both varieties tolerated and detoxified arsenic through chelation with GSH, PCs and hPCs, primarily in roots, however var C-235 performed better

  10. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC

  11. Carbon Isotope Discrimination is not Correlated with Transpiration Efficiency in Three Cool-Season Grain Legumes (Pulses)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The carbon Isotope discrimination (δ13C) of leaves has been shown to be correlated with the transpiration efficiency of leaves in a wide range of species. This has led to δ13C being used in breeding programs to select for improved transpiration efficiency. The correlation between δ13C and transpiration efficiency was determined under well-watered conditions during the vegetative phase In six genotypes of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus), six genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and 10 cultivars of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Biomass (dry matter) accumulation and water use (transpiration)varied among the genotypes in all three species and transpiration efficiency was 40% to 75% higher In the most efficient compared with the least efficient genotypes. However, δ13C and transpiration efficiency were not significantly correlated in any of the species. This suggests that the δ13C technique cannot be used In selection for transpiration efficiency in the three grain legumes (pulses) studied.

  12. Trichoderma species mediated differential tolerance against biotic stress of phytopathogens in Cicer arietinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amrita; Raghuwanshi, Richa; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-02-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been reported to aid in imparting biotic as well as abiotic tolerance to plants. However, there are only few reports unfolding the differential ability of separate species of Trichoderma genera generally exploited for their biocontrol potential in this framework. A study was undertaken to evaluate the biocontrol potential of different Trichoderma species namely T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, and T. aureoviride as identified in the group of indigenous isolates from the agricultural soils of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Their biocontrol potential against three major soilborne phytopathogens, i.e., Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum capsici was confirmed by dual culture plate technique. Efficient mycoparasitic ability was further assessed in all the isolates in relation to chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase, pectinase, lipase, amylase, and cellulase production while equally consistent results were obtained for their probable phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production abilities. The selected isolates were further subjected to test their ability to promote plant growth, to reduce disease incidence and to tolerate biotic stress in terms of lignification pattern against S. rolfsii in chickpea plants. Among the identified Trichoderma species, excellent results were observed for T. harzianum and T. koningiopsis indicating better biocontrol potential of these species in the group and thus exhibiting perspective for their commercial exploitation. PMID:25205162

  13. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  14. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  15. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHIL DOBIE

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

  16. Encapsulation of flaxseed oil using a benchtop spray dryer for legume protein-maltodextrin microcapsule preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Karaca, Asli; Low, Nicholas; Nickerson, Michael

    2013-05-29

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin using a benchtop spray dryer. Effects of emulsion formulation (oil, protein and maltodextrin levels) and protein source (CPI vs LPI) on the physicochemical characteristics, oxidative stability, and release properties of the resulting capsules were investigated. Microcapsule formulations containing higher oil levels (20% oil, 20% protein, 60% maltodextrin) were found to have higher surface oil and lower encapsulation efficiencies. Overall, LPI-maltodextrin capsules gave higher flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiencies (∼88.0%) relative to CPI-maltodextrin matrices (∼86.3%). However, both designs were found to provide encapsulated flaxseed oil protection against oxidation over a 25 d room temperature storage study relative to free oil. Overall, ∼37.6% of encapsulated flaxseed oil was released after 2 h under simulated gastric fluid, followed by the release of an additional ∼46.6% over a 3 h period under simulated intestinal fluid conditions. PMID:23663097

  17. Application and opportunities of pulses in food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Rooney, Lloyd W; Ali, Rashida; Riaz, Mian N

    2013-01-01

    Pulses are highly nutritious seeds of pod-bearing leguminous plants, specifically dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas. US farmers harvest about 2.6 million pounds of pulses every year but 75% of this is being exported internationally because of its increased consumption in the developing countries. In the current scenario, increasing costs of production, bad economy, and fluctuating food commodity prices have made a strong case for US producers to seek opportunities to increase domestic consumption of pulses through value-added products. Pulses are the richest sources of plant proteins and provide approximately 10% of the total dietary requirements of the proteins world over. Pulses are also high in dietary fibers and complex carbohydrates leading to low GI (glycemic index) foods. Pulses help to lower cholesterol and triglycerides as leguminous fibers are hypoglycosuria because of consisting more amylose than amylopectin. Pulses provide tremendous opportunities to be utilized in the processed foods such as bakery products, bread, pasta, snack foods, soups, cereal bar filing, tortillas, meat, etc. These show excellent opportunities in frozen dough foods either as added flour or as fillings. Pulses in view of their nutrient profile, seem to be ideal for inclusion in designing snack foods, baby, and sports foods. PMID:24007421

  18. Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Serafini, Mauro; Salvatore, Sara; Del Rio, Daniele; Bianchi, Marta; Brighenti, Furio

    2006-11-01

    With the aim to expand the Italian total antioxidant capacity (TAC) database, the TAC values of 11 spices, 5 dried fruits, 7 sweets, 18 cereal products, 5 pulses, and 6 nuts were determined using three different assays and considering the contribution of bound antioxidant compounds in fiber-rich foods (i. e. cereals, legumes, and nuts). Among spices, saffron displayed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas among dried fruits, prune exhibited the highest value. The TAC values of all the chocolates analyzed were far higher than the other sweet extracts measured. Among cereal products, whole meal buckwheat and wheat bran had the greatest TAC. Among pulses and nuts, broad bean, lentil and walnuts had the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas chickpeas, pine nuts and peanuts were less effective. The contribution of bound phytochemicals to the overall TAC was relevant in cereals as well as in nuts and pulses. The complete TAC database could be utilized to properly investigate the role of dietary antioxidants in disease prevention.

  19. Moganite and quartz inclusions in the nano-structured Anatolian fire opals from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat

    2009-05-01

    Red, orange, yellow and colorless chick-pea shaped Anatolian fire opals with massive translucent zoned inclusions, from the Kütahya-Şaphane-Yeni Karamanca region in Turkey, investigated using optical microscopy (gemmoscope and polarizing), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric spectroscopy (TGA), and thermoluminescent spectroscopy (TL). Hydrothermally deposited Anatolian fire opals are found as nodules within the shrinkage and dehydration cracks of rhyolitic lavas and siliceous cemented tuffs. Initially, the opal bearing zone and its surroundings were geologically mapped. Then, different colored fire opal samples were obtained from the field, and finally, tests were carried out on the representative samples to determine their texture, crystalline phases, crystallinity ratios, and the formation temperatures of the silica phases. The gemmoscope and polarizing microscope investigations show the presence of two different sized textures in Anatolian fire opals: a nano-sized matrix (opal-CT and opal-C) and micron-sized inclusions (moganite and quartz). The analyses of the XRD patterns of the Anatolian fire opals using a comparative matching technique show that there are two pseudo-crystalline and three crystalline silica phases in addition to the amorphous phase. The pseudo-crystalline phases are opal-CT and opal-C. The three crystalline phases are moganite, quartz, and also orthorhombic-silica inclusions. The analyses of the XRD patterns of Anatolian fire opals using the graphical modelling technique reveal that the crystallite sizes of the pseudo-crystalline phases are between 23 nm (red and colorless) and 27 nm (orange and yellow), and the crystallite sizes of the inclusions range between 125 and 600 nm (average 225 nm). Additionally, the amounts of tridymite present in the opal-CT are estimated to be 30-35% (for red), 45-50% (for orange and yellow), and 55-60% (for colorless). The SEM images

  20. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.