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Sample records for chicken rinse samples

  1. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    , real-time PCR has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and VNC cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in chicken rinse samples. Studying the buoyant densities of different Campylobacter spp. showed......Real-time PCR is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between DNA originating from viable, viable nonculturable (VNC), and dead cells. For this reason...... that densities changed at different time points during growth; however, all varied between 1.065 and 1.109 g/ml. These data were then used to develop a flotation assay. Results showed that after flotation and real-time PCR, cell concentrations as low as 8.6 X 10(2) CFU/ml could be detected without culture...

  2. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Griffiths, Mansel; Rådström, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Real-time PCR is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between DNA originating from viable, viable nonculturable (VNC), and dead cells. For this reason, real-time PCR has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and VNC cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in chicken rinse samples. Studying the buoyant densities of different Campylobacter spp. showed that densities changed at different time points during growth; however, all varied between 1.065 and 1.109 g/ml. These data were then used to develop a flotation assay. Results showed that after flotation and real-time PCR, cell concentrations as low as 8.6 x 10(2) CFU/ml could be detected without culture enrichment and amounts as low as 2.6 x 10(3) CFU/ml could be quantified. Furthermore, subjecting viable cells and dead cells to flotation showed that viable cells were recovered after flotation treatment but that dead cells and/or their DNA was not detected. Also, when samples containing VNC cells mixed with dead cells were treated with flotation after storage at 4 or 20 degrees C for 21 days, a similar percentage resembling the VNC cell fraction was detected using real-time PCR and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining (20% +/- 9% and 23% +/- 4%, respectively, at 4 degrees C; 11% +/- 4% and 10% +/- 2%, respectively, at 20 degrees C). This indicated that viable and VNC Campylobacter cells could be positively selected and quantified using the flotation method.

  3. Validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter Method for Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Carcass Rinse and Turkey Sponge Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Ryan; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Hosking, Edan; Biswas, Preetha; Zhang, Lei; Tolan, Jerry; Meister, Evan; Tovar, Eric; Pinkava, Lisa; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Odumeru, Joseph; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-11-01

    A performance validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter method was conducted in selected matrixes. This assay used selective nicking enzyme amplification technology to amplify target genes. Samples were enriched for 20 to 24 h and then lysed. The assay was completed within 50 min using real-time detection in a combination incubator/fluorescence detector and software. When 50 distinct strains of Campylobacter jejuni, C. lari, or C. coli were tested for inclusivity, all 50 strains produced positive results. In exclusivity testing, 31 strains of related organisms, including seven nontarget Campylobacter strains and other common species, were evaluated. All 31 species generated negative ANSR assay results, including the nontarget Campylobacter strains. The ANSR for Campylobacter method was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method using naturally contaminated chicken carcass rinse or turkey carcass sponge samples. ANSR method performance was not statistically different from the reference method using two different enrichment options. Equivalent results were observed at both time points (20 and 24 h) and in both atmospheres (microaerobic and aerobic) to reference methods. Method performance with chicken carcass rinse was confirmed in an independent laboratory study. Additionally, in robustness testing, small, deliberate changes to the assay parameters minimally affected ANSR method performance. Finally, accelerated stability results from three independently manufactured lots supported a shelf life of 6 months when stored at 4°C. The ANSR assay offered greater efficiency and flexibility when compared to the reference method with a 20-24 h single-step enrichment in a microaerobic or an aerobic atmosphere.

  4. Efficacy of Syringe Filtration for the Selective Isolation of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Young-Ji; Sung, Kidon; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of syringe filtration for selective isolation of Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinse by combining syringe filtration with the conventional culture method. Whole chicken carcass rinses were incubated in Bolton enrichment broth, set aside or subjected to syringe filtration, and streaked on Campy-Cefex agar with or without cefoperazone antibiotic supplement. Compared with the conventional method without filtration, 0.65-μm-pore-size syringe filtration resulted in a significantly higher number of Campylobacter-positive samples (23.8 to 37.5% versus 70.0 to 72.5%; P Campylobacter (93.8% versus 6.3 to 26.3%), and a lower growth index (1 = growth of a few colonies; 2 = growth of colonies on about half of the plate; and 3 = growth on most of the plate) for competing microbiota (2.9 to 3.0 versus 1.2 to 1.4). When syringe filtration was applied, agar plates containing the antibiotic had significantly less contamination (6.3% versus 26.3%; P Campylobacter isolation rate was similar (P > 0.05). Syringe filtration combined with conventional enrichment improved the rate and selectivity of Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcasses.

  5. Preston and Park-Sanders protocols adapted for semi-quantitative isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter from chicken rinse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Aalbaek, B.

    2003-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis has become the major cause of foodborne gastrointestinal diseases in several European countries. In order to implement effective control measures in the primary production, and as a tool in risk assessment studies, it is necessary to have sensitive and quantitative...... detection methods. Thus, semi-quantitative detection of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in 20 naturally contaminated chicken rinse samples was carried out using the two most common standard protocols: Preston and Park-Sanders, as proposed by Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL) and International...... Standard Organization (ISO), respectively. For both protocols, the chicken rinse samples were prepared in 500 ml buffered peptone water, as recommended in the ISO protocol no. 6887-2. The results indicated that the Preston protocol was superior to the Park-Sanders protocol in supporting growth...

  6. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Improvement of Karmali agar by addition of polymyxin B for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in whole-chicken carcass rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Song, Kwang-Young; Moon, Jin-San; Kim, Young-Jo; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2013-05-01

    The Karmali agar was modified by supplementation with a high concentration of polymyxin B. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a high concentration of polymyxin B on the ability and selectivity of the modified Karmali agar to isolate Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from whole chicken carcass rinse. A total of 80 whole chickens were rinsed with 400 mL of buffer peptone water. The rinsed samples were incubated with 2× blood-free modified Bolton enrichment broth for 48 h, and then streaked onto unmodified Karmali agar and modified Karmali agar supplemented with 100000 IU/L polymixin B (P-Karmali agar). The suspected colonies were finally confirmed by colony PCR. The P-Karmali agar exhibited a significantly better (P agar (P-Karmali agar, 73.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 33.8%). Moreover, the selectivity of the P-Karmali agar was also better (P agar when comparing the number of contaminated plates (P-Karmali agar, 68.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 87.5%) and growth index of competing flora (P-Karmali agar, 1.4; unmodified Karmali agar, 2.7). The improved selective agar excluded competing flora resistant to antibiotic agents in unmodified Karmali agar, increasing isolation rate and selectivity for C. jejuni and C. coli. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Neutralization of Bactericidal Activity Related to Antimicrobial Carryover in Broiler Carcass Rinse Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Gary R; Berrang, Mark E; Buhr, R Jeff; Hinton, Arthur; Bourassa, Dianna V; Ingram, Kimberly D; Adams, Eric S; Feldner, Peggy W; Johnston, John J

    2017-04-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the ability of three chemicals to neutralize residual antibacterial activity of commercial antimicrobial chemicals used in poultry processing. Chemical antimicrobial interventions used in poultry processing may have potential for carryover into whole poultry carcass buffered peptone water (BPW) rinses collected for monitoring Salmonella contamination. Such carryover may lead to false-negative results due to continuing bactericidal action of the antimicrobial chemicals in the rinse. To simulate testing procedures used to detect Salmonella contamination, studies were conducted by separately adding test neutralizers (highly refined soy lecithin, sodium thiosulfate, or sodium bicarbonate) to BPW and using these solutions as carcass rinses. Control samples consisted of BPW containing no additional neutralizing agents. One of four antimicrobial solutions (cetylpyridinium chloride, peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, and a pH 1 hydrochloric:citric acid mix) was then added to the rinses. The four antimicrobial solutions were prepared at maximum allowable concentrations and diluted with modified BPW rinses to volumes simulating maximum carryover. These solutions were then inoculated with a mixed culture of five nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella serovars at 10(6) CFU/mL. The inoculated rinse was stored at 4°C for 24 h, and Salmonella was enumerated by direct plating on brilliant green sulfa agar supplemented with nalidixic acid. Results indicate that incorporation of optimal concentrations of three neutralizing agents into BPW neutralized the demonstrated carryover effects of each of the four antimicrobial solutions tested, allowing recovery of viable Salmonella at 10(6) CFU/mL (P > 0.05), equivalent to recovery from carcass rinses with no antimicrobial carryover. Incorporation of these neutralizers in BPW for Salmonella monitoring may reduce false-negative results and aid regulatory agencies in accurate reporting of Salmonella

  9. Destructive and nondestructive procedures to obtain chicken carcass samples for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; de Almeida, Michelle Vieira; Dias, Mariane Rezende; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgio; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2011-12-01

    Destructive and nondestructive sampling procedures were compared for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. detection in 60 fresh chicken carcasses, which were submitted to the following sampling procedures: rinsing, skin swabbing, tissue excision, and skin excision; the proximity or not to the cloacae region was also considered. The obtained results were compared to identify significant differences (pchicken carcasses were positive for E. coli, and five were positive for Salmonella spp. For E. coli, nonsignificant differences were observed between rinsing and tissue excision, rinsing and skin excision, and skin excision and tissue excision (p>0.05), thus indicating equivalencies between these techniques. Skin swabbing produced a statistically significant lower frequency of positive results (pE. coli, thus indicating its inadequacy for detection of this microorganism. For Salmonella spp., no significant differences were observed between the sampling techniques (p>0.05), possibly due to the low overall frequency of positive carcasses. No significant differences in the number of positive samples (E. coli or Salmonella spp.) were observed between samples collected near or far from the cloacae region (p>0.05), regardless of the sampling technique. The obtained results demonstrate that the tested sampling techniques were equivalent for Salmonella spp. detection in chicken carcasses, as observed for E. coli with the exception of skin swabbing.

  10. Characterization of three novel human papillomavirus types isolated from oral rinse samples of healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erin; Dang, Juliet; Bzhalava, Davit; Stern, Joshua; Edelstein, Zoe R; Koutsky, Laura A; Kiviat, Nancy B; Feng, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the strong evidence of HPV infection as the etiological agent in a subset of oral cancer, oral α-HPV detection is rare in healthy individuals, and little is known of the existing of novel HPV types in oral cavity. We determined whether novel HPV types can be isolated from oral rinse samples collected from healthy individuals. We performed rolling circle amplification (RCA) coupled with degenerated PCR assay on 48 oral rinse samples to amplify novel HPV types. Full length HPV DNA was cloned using long range PCR. Quantitative type specific Taqman assays were used to determine the prevalence of novel HPV types in 158 archived oral tissue samples. We were able to isolate four novel human papillomavirus types. Full length HPV DNA was cloned for three of the four novel HPV types. All four HPV types belong to the genus Gammapapillomavirus (γ-PV), where HPV 171 is most closely related to HPV 169, showing 88% similarity; HPV 172 is most closely related to HPV 156, showing 70% similarity; HPV 173 is most closely related to HPV 4, showing 73% similarity; oral sample lavage (OSL) 37 is most closely related to HPV 144, showing 69% similarity. Finally, we showed that HPV 173 was rarely present in oral tissues (2/158), HPV 172 was only detected in normal oral tissues (25/76), and HPV 171 was more prevalent in malignant oral tissues (17/82 vs. 10/76, p=0.21). Novel γ-HPV types are present in oral cavity of healthy individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of salmonella following immersion chilling for matched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella prevalence and the serogroups recovered following immersion chilling were determined for matched enriched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were chilled in ice/tap water 40 min with or without 20 ppm free c...

  12. Validation of a novel rinse and filtration method for efficient processing of fresh produce samples for microbiological indicator enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Solís-Soto, Luisa; Venegas, Fabiola; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Leon, Juan S; García, Santos

    2015-03-01

    Several methods have been described to prepare fresh produce samples for microbiological analysis, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel combined rinse and membrane filtration method to two alternative sample preparation methods for the quantification of indicator microorganisms from fresh produce. Decontaminated cantaloupe melons and jalapeño peppers were surface inoculated with a cocktail containing 10(6) CFU/ml Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Enterococcus faecalis. Samples were processed using a rinse and filtration method, homogenization by stomacher, or a sponge-rubbing method, followed by quantification of bacterial load using culture methods. Recovery efficiencies of the three methods were compared. On inoculated cantaloupes, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery of coliforms (0.95 log CFU/ml higher recovery, P = 0.0193) than the sponge-rubbing method. Similarly, on inoculated jalapeños, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery for coliforms (0.84 log CFU/ml higher, P = 0.0130) and E. coli (1.46 log CFU/ml higher, P filtration method outperformed the homogenization method for all three indicators (0.79 to 1.71 log CFU/ml higher, P values ranging from 0.0075 to 0.0002). The precision of the three methods was also compared. The precision of the rinse and filtration method was similar to that of the other methods for recovery of two of three indicators from cantaloupe (E. coli P = 0.7685, E. faecalis P = 0.1545) and was more precise for recovery of two of three indicators from jalapeño (coliforms P = 0.0026, E. coli P = 0.0243). Overall, the rinse and filtration method performed equivalent to, and sometimes better than, either of the compared methods. The rinse and filtration method may have logistical advantages when processing large numbers of samples, improving sampling efficiency and facilitating microbial detection.

  13. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.

    2004-01-01

    and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method......As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse......) and PCR assay (gel electrophoresis detection) were performed by the receiving laboratories. Aliquots of BPW enrichment cultures were sent to the participants, who analyzed them using a thermal lysis procedure followed by a validated Salmonella-specific PCR assay. The results were reported as negative...

  14. Mouth Rinses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be more than adequate protection against cavities. Although anti-cavity rinses with fluoride have been clinically proven to fight up to 50 percent more of the bacteria that cause cavities, and most rinses are effective ...

  15. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Prevalence and Serogroup Diversity of Salmonella for Broiler Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies following Air or Immersion Chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, D V; Holmes, J M; Cason, J A; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup identification from the same broiler chicken carcass treated with air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant, individually bagged, and transported to the pilot processing plant. In experiment 1, carcasses were air chilled to 4°C. In experiment 2, carcasses were immersion chilled with or without chlorine. After air chilling, Salmonella was detected on 78% of NS and 89% of WCE samples. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive NS samples, and two serogroups were detected on 1 Salmonella-positive NS sample. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, and two serogroups were detected from 3 Salmonella-positive WCE samples. After immersion chilling without chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 38% of NS, 45% of WCR, and 100% of WCE samples. Without chlorine, the 15 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 14 samples with one serogroup and 1 sample with two serogroups. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling. Of 40 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, 23 had a one, 14 had two, and 3 had three Salmonella serogroups. After immersion chilling with chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 35% of NS, 0% of WCR, and 90% of WCE samples. With chlorine, the 14 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 11 samples with one serogroup and 3 samples with two serogroups. No Salmonella serogroups were detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling with 20 mg/liter free chlorine. The 36 Salmonella-positive WCE samples included 21 samples with one serogroup and 15 samples with two serogroups. NS and WCE sampling methodologies yielded similar prevalence and serogroup diversity after air chilling. However

  17. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in mouth rinse samples as biomarkers for oral dysplasia and oral cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chang, Chi-Feng; Ko, Hui-Hsin; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Wang, Huei-Jen; Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2018-02-01

    Effective biomarkers for oral cancer screening are important for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. Oral epithelial cell samples collected by mouth rinse were obtained from 65 normal control subjects, 108 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders, and 94 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation levels of zinc-finger protein 582 (ZNF582) and paired-box 1 (PAX1) genes were quantified by real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction after bisulfite conversion. An abrupt increase in methylated ZNF582 (ZNF582 m ) and PAX1 (PAX1 m ) levels and positive rates from mild dysplasia to moderate/severe dysplasia, indicating that both ZNF582 m and PAX1 m are effective biomarkers for differentiating moderate dysplasia or worse (MODY+) oral lesions. When ZNF582 m /PAX1 m tests were used for identifying MODY+ oral lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio (OR) were 0.65/0.64, 0.75/0.82, and 5.6/8.0, respectively. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in oral epithelial cells collected by mouth rinse are effective biomarkers for the detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and serogroup diversity of Salmonella for broiler neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies following air or immersion chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup from the same broiler carcass following either air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler ...

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  20. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN AND MILK SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance and identification of strains in Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from milk, milk products and rectal swabs of chicken was examined in this experiment. After samples collection cultivation and identification of bacterial strain was done. MALDI TOF MS Biotyper for identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains was used. For susceptibility testing disc diffusion methodology was used according by EUCAST. Results showed high level of ampicillin resistance in isolates from milk and milk samples. The highest streptomycin resistance was detected in isolates from rectal swabs of chicken. After identification, we determined that S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, which was isolated from rectal swabs of chicken showed the most multi-resistance from all identificated strains of Enterobacteriaceae. The most isolates bacterial strain was E. coli, which showed resistance against four antibiotics from rectal swabs of chicken. Also our results showed that the higher resistance level is in rectal swabs of chicken like in milk samples.

  1. The yield and quality of cellular and bacterial DNA extracts from human oral rinse samples are variably affected by the cell lysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mohsen; Nair, Raj G; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Zhang, Li; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md; Ahmetagic, Adnan; Good, David; Wei, Ming Q

    2016-03-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have enabled detailed mapping of human microbiome that has not been hitherto achievable by culture-based methods. DNA extraction is a key element of bacterial culture-independent studies that critically impacts on the outcome of the detected microbial profile. Despite the variations in DNA extraction methods described in the literature, no standardized technique is available for the purpose of microbiome profiling. Hence, standardization of DNA extraction methods is urgently needed to yield comparable data from different studies. We examined the effect of eight different cell lysis protocols on the yield and quality of the extracted DNA from oral rinse samples. These samples were exposed to cell lysis techniques based on enzymatic, mechanical, and a combination of enzymatic-mechanical methods. The outcome measures evaluated were total bacterial population, Firmicutes levels and human DNA contamination (in terms of surrogate GAPDH levels). We noted that all three parameters were significantly affected by the method of cell lysis employed. Although the highest yield of gDNA was obtained using lysozyme-achromopeptidase method, the lysozyme-zirconium beads method yielded the peak quantity of total bacterial DNA and Firmicutes with a lower degree of GAPDH contamination compared with the other methods. Taken together our data clearly points to an urgent need for a consensus, standardized DNA extraction technique to evaluate the oral microbiome using oral rinse samples. Further, if Firmicutes levels are the focus of investigation in oral rinse microbiome analyses then the lysozyme-zirconium bead method would be the method of choice in preference to others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  3. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter on chicken carcasses by real-time PCR and propidium monoazide as a tool for quantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    of foodborne Campylobacter, combining real-time PCR (Q-PCR) with a simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 hours, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Campylobacter with an intact membrane. The method performance was evaluated......-values (R2 = 0.993), with a quantification range from 1×1021×107 CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R2 = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by chicken rinse matrix...... or by species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does...

  4. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    of foodborne Campylobacter, combining real-time PCR (Q-PCR) with a simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 hours, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Campylobacter with an intact membrane. The method performance was evaluated......-values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range from 1x10(2)-1x10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by chicken rinse...... matrix or by species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed...

  5. Growth Inhibitory Effects of Adhatoda vasica and Its Potential at Reducing Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effects of Adhatoda vasica ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE against Listeria monocytogenes were examined to assess its potential to preserve minimally processed meat products safely. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and alkaloid levels in AVELE were 10.09 ± 4.52 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g, 22.43 ± 1.62 mg of quercetin equivalents/g, and 19.43 ± 3.90 mg/g, respectively. AVELE (1, 5, 10, or 20% had considerable antibacterial effects against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 in terms of the inhibitory zones (7.4–13.6 mm, MIC (100 mg/mL or 10% formulated solution, reduced cell viability, potassium ion efflux, and the release of 260-nm absorbing materials and extracellular ATP. AVELE was used as a rinse solution (5, 10, and 20% for raw chicken breast meat. A 20% rinsing solution applied for 60 min inhibited the L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 counts significantly on raw chicken breast meat. Moreover, L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 did not grow in the meat sample when the rinse time was increased to 90 min at the same concentration. L. monocytogenes showed a greater reduction to ~3 CFU/g after rinsing with a 10 and 20% AVELE solution for 30 min than with a 5% AVELE solution. The rinsing processes with AVELE produced the final cooked chicken products with higher sensory attribute scores, such as taste, juiciness, and tenderness, compared to the control group along with a decrease in microbial contamination. Chicken meat rinsed with AVELE (rinsing time of 90 min showed better sensory attribute scores of juiciness and tenderness, as well as the overall sensory quality compared to the untreated group. This research highlights the effectiveness of AVELE against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563, suggesting that AVELE can be used as an effective antimicrobial marinade and/or a rinse for meat preservation.

  6. Rapid sample preparation for detection and identification of avian influenza virus from chicken faecal samples using magnetic bead microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bu, Minqiang; Handberg, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    -PCR is a sensitive method for detection of AIV, it requires sample preparation including separation and purification of AIV and concentrate viral RNA. It is laborious and complex process especially for diagnosis using faecal sample. In this study, magnetic beads were used for immunoseparation of AIV in chicken...... faecal sample by a magnetic microsystem. Using this system, all the 16 hemagglutinin (H) and 9 neuraminidase (N) subtypes of AIV were separated and detected in spiked faecal samples using RT-PCR, without an RNA extraction step. This rapid sample preparation method can be integrated with a total analysis...

  7. Protease And Lipase Activity Of Staphylococcus Aureus Obtained From Meat, Chicken And Meatball Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Gündoğan, Neslihan; DEVREN, Aslı

    2010-01-01

     A total of 270 samples of raw meat (minced calf meat, chicken carcasses) and meatballs (ready-toeat meat) were analyzed for the presence of  Staphylococcus aureus. From these samples, 148 S. aureus isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity under psychrotrophic conditions (+4 oC and +20 oC) associated with meat spoilage. Both proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria can change the quality of raw meat and decrease the shelf-life, resulti...

  8. Chicken Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics". Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics".

  9. Utilization of substrates by bacterial communities (biofilm) as they develop on stored chicken meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, D D; Arnold, J W; Chew, V

    1999-12-01

    Understanding and controlling the metabolic processes of microorganisms associated with chicken meat can lead to safer poultry products with a longer shelf life. The objective of the present study was threefold: 1) to determine the feasibility of using 96-well Biolog GN microtiter plates to assess substrate utilization profiles of bacterial communities (biofilm) as they develop on poultry products, 2) to identify substrates metabolized by microbial populations associated with stored chicken meat, and 3) to compare the substrate utilization profiles of biofilm communities as they develop on meat stored at 4 C (refrigeration temperature) for up to 5 d or at 13 C (a temperature common in poultry processing areas) for 2 d. The protocol used herein for preparing inocula for microplates was acceptable for the collection of optical density values (590 nm) in microplate wells as an indicator of microbial substrate utilization over time. Data from treatment of chicken meat samples using this protocol indicate that most of the 95 substrates tested were metabolized by microbial communities present as early as 1 d after storage at 4 or at 13 C. However, the rapidity (incubation time required for initial substrate utilization) and frequency (percentage of plates positive for transformation of an individual substrate) of metabolism of the substrates by the biofilm communities varied from 4 to 164 h of plate incubation and from 17 to 100% of microplates, respectively. At 13 C, polymers were the most rapidly metabolized substrate group, followed by carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, miscellaneous or amino acids, and amides or amines. Initial utilization of these substrate groups at 4 C occurred within a consistently shorter period (24 h of plate incubation). The frequency of metabolism of each individual substrate group varied only 3 to 16% between samples stored at 4 and 13 C. However, a greater difference in frequency of utilization of some individual substrates was noted. Such

  10. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Nordentoft, Steen; Pedersen, Karl

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. DNA was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by PCR with a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored at -18degreesC. Campylobacter could be detected...... in less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 CFU/ml, in a fecal suspension. A bacterial internal control was added before DNA extraction to control both DNA isolation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in the samples. The assay was performed on 111 swab samples from a Danish surveillance program...... and compared to conventional culturing using selective enrichment. There was no statistically significant difference in performance between real-time PCR and culture by selective enrichment, and the diagnostic specificity was 0.96 with an agreement of 0.92. Therefore, the assay should be useful for screening...

  11. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test...

  12. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification with propidium monoazide treatment to detect live Salmonella in chicken carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, S Y; Jeong, O M; Choi, B K; Jung, S C; Kang, M S

    2017-02-01

    Raw chicken products are major causes of human foodborne salmonellosis worldwide. In particular, there is a significant risk of human exposure to Salmonella originating from the chicken slaughtering process. Controlling the contamination of chicken carcasses by Salmonella has been a considerable challenge in chicken-slaughtering facilities and involves routine microbiological monitoring using reliable detection methods. Simple and rapid detection methods, particularly those capable of determining cell viability, will significantly facilitate routine monitoring of Salmonella Here, we report an invA-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification method coupled with a simple propidium monoazide treatment (PMA-LAMP) for simple and rapid detection and quantification of viable Salmonella in rinse water of chicken carcasses. In this study, PMA-LAMP consistently gave negative results for isopropanol-killed Salmonella with concentrations up to 8.0 × 10 6 CFU/reaction. The detection limit of PMA-LAMP was 8.0 × 10 1 CFU/reaction with viable Salmonella in both pure culture and rinse water of chicken carcasses, and 10-fold lower than a conventional polymerase chain reaction coupled with PMA (PMA-PCR) targeting invA There was a high correlation (R 2 = 0.99 to 0.976) between LAMP time threshold (T T ) values and viable Salmonella with a quantification range of 1.0 × 10 3 to 1.0 × 10 8 CFU/mL in pure culture and rinse water of chicken carcasses. The PMA-LAMP assay took less than 2 h to detect Salmonella contaminated in test samples. Therefore, this simple and rapid method will be a very useful tool to detect live Salmonella contamination of chicken carcasses without pre-enrichment at the slaughterhouse where sanitizing treatments are commonly used. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Raw Milk, Cheese, Minced Meat, and Chicken Meat Samples

    OpenAIRE

    CAN,Hayriye Yeşim; Elmal?, Mehmet; Karag?z, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located ...

  14. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Tafur, Mc Allister; Gonzales, Sebastian; Hume, Michael; Alali, Walid; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, M P

    2012-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city per department) were collected via a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the presence of Salmonella by conventional culture methods. Salmonella strains were isolated from 27 % of the carcasses sampled. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine potential risk factors for Salmonella contamination associated with the chicken production system (conventional versus free-range), storage condition (chilled versus frozen), retail store type (supermarket, independent, and wet market), poultry company (integrated company versus nonintegrated company), and socioeconomic stratum. Chickens from a nonintegrated poultry company were associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) greater risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 2.0) than were chickens from an integrated company. Chilled chickens had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 4.3) than did frozen chicken carcasses.

  16. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after an el...... brushing with fluoride toothpaste....

  17. Towards an international standard for PCR-based detection of foodborne thermotolerant campylobacters: interaction of enrichment media and pre-PCR treatment on carcass rinse samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Hansen, F.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a large EU project for standardisation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a systematic evaluation of the interaction of enrichment media, type of DNA polymerase and pre-PCR sample treatment for a PCR detecting thermotolerant campylobacters was carried out. The growth-supporting capacity...... and PCR compatibility of enrichment in Preston, Mueller-Hinton and Bolton broth (blood-containing and blood-free) were evaluated. The effect of resin-based DNA extraction and DNA extraction by boiling on the final PCR assay was investigated. The time-course studies indicated that a 20-h sample enrichment...... in blood-containing Bolton broth, followed by a simple resin-based extraction of DNA and a PCR amplification using Tth polymerase, resulted in strong and clear PCR amplicons for target (287 bp) and internal amplification control (IAC, 124 bp). The enrichment PCR-based method, tested on 68 presumably...

  18. Comparison of the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus colony count changes in saliva following chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse, combination mouth rinse, and green tea extract (0.5% mouth rinse in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compounds present in green tea have been shown to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with oral infections. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse and combination (chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouth rinse to that of green tea extract (0.5% mouth rinse in reducing the salivary count of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in children. Materials and Methods: The sample for the study consisted of 75 school children aged 8–12 years with four or more (decay component of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Children were divided randomly into three equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. Nonstimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected at baseline and postrinsing and tested for the colony forming units of S. mutans and Lactobacillus. Results: The results of the study indicate that there was a statistically significant reduction in S. mutans and lactobacilli count in all the three study groups. The statistically significant reduction in the mean S. mutans and lactobacilli counts were more in 0.12% chlorhexidine group than in the combination mouth rinse and 0.5% green tea mouth rinse group. There was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of S. mutans and lactobacilli count between combination mouth rinse group and 0.5% green tea mouth rinse group. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be a promising preventive therapy worldwide for the prevention of dental caries.

  19. Modelling-based identification of factors influencing campylobacters in chicken broiler houses and on carcasses sampled after processing and chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, M L; Taylor, M J; Tchòrzewska, M A; Ford, G; Madden, R H; Knowles, T G

    2017-05-01

    To identify production and processing practices that might reduce Campylobacter numbers contaminating chicken broiler carcasses. The numbers of campylobacters were determined on carcass neck skins after processing or in broiler house litter samples. Supplementary information that described farm layouts, farming conditions for individual flocks, the slaughterhouse layouts and operating conditions inside plants was collected, matched with each Campylobacter test result. Statistical models predicting the numbers of campylobacters on neck skins and in litter were constructed. Carcass microbial contamination was more strongly influenced by on-farm production practices compared with slaughterhouse activities. We observed correlations between the chilling, washing and defeathering stages of processing and the numbers of campylobacters on carcasses. There were factors on farm that also correlated with numbers of campylobacters in litter. These included bird gender, the exclusion of dogs from houses, beetle presence in the house litter and the materials used to construct the house frame. Changes in farming practices have greater potential for reducing chicken carcass microbial contamination compared with processing interventions. Routine commercial practices were identified that were correlated with lowered numbers of campylobacters. Consequently, these practices are likely to be both cost-effective and suitable for adoption into established farms and commercial processing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Fluoroscence in situ hybridization of chicken intestinal samples with bacterial rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Francesch, M.; Christensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    were hybridized for 24-72h, centrifuged, washed with pre-heated hybridization buffer, centrifuged and resuspended in Millipore quality water before filtration onto a 0.22 µm black polycarbonate filter. The probes used in this study were, LGC354A, LGC354B, LGC354C, Strc493, Bacto1080, Sal3, Chis150, EUB...... were counted by the EUB338 probe. Three weeks old male broiler Ross 308 chickens were used to investigate the bacterial composition of the intestine. The birds received a wheat-barley diet. Counts with the EUB338 probe were 1.97x108(std 1.45x108) The means of counts obtained with probes targeting the r...

  1. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  2. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  3. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates. PMID:12760899

  4. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  5. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Raw Milk, Cheese, Minced Meat, and Chicken Meat Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located in the southern Turkey. Twenty (12.5%) of the samples were found to be contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 40 isolates from the 20 positive samples were confirmed to be S. aureus by multiplex PCR based on 16S rRNA and nuc gene. The mec A gene was not detected in any of the S. aureus strains. In the present study, 39 out of 40 (97.5%) isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. All of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. The highest resistance rate was detected in penicillin (95%) and ampicillin (92.5%), followed by tetracycline (30%), erythromycin (20%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%). Nine major patterns were determined by PFGE. In 6 of these patterns, thirty-six strains (90%) had identical PFGE profiles. PMID:28515641

  6. Antimicrobial and plaque inhibitory potential of herbal and probiotic oral rinses in children: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on observations done during the course of study herbal rinse proved equally effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate in reducing S. viridans counts and plaque accumulation after 1 week of intervention, whereas probiotic rinse was least effective. However, long-term clinical trial with larger sample size needs to be undertaken, especially to evaluate beneficial effects of biogenic agents such as herbal and probiotic rinses.

  7. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbohydrate mouth rinse enhances time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cindy; Velasques, Bruna; Koch, Alexander J; Machado, Marco; Paulucio, Dailson; Ribeiro, Pedro; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia

    2017-01-01

    Mouth rinsing with a CHO solution has been suggested to improve short (<1 h) endurance performance through central effect. We examined the effects of mouth rinsing with a CHO solution on running time to exhaustion on a treadmill. Six well-trained subjects ran to exhaustion at 85% VO2max , on three separate occasions. Subjects received either an 8% CHO solution or a placebo (PLA) every 15 min to mouth rinse (MR) or a 6% CHO solution to ingest (ING). Treatments were assigned in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion, with the mouth-rinsing treatments double-blinded. Blood samples were taken to assess glucose (Glu) and lactate (Lac), as well as the perceived exertion (RPE). Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were collected during all trials. Subjects ran longer (P = 0·038) in both the MR (2583 ± 686 s) and ING (2625 ± 804 s) trials, compared to PLA (1935 ± 809 s), covering a greater distance (MR 9685 ± 3511·62 m; ING 9855 ± 4118·62; PLA 7295 ± 3727 m). RER was significantly higher in both ING and MR versus PLA. No difference among trials was observed for other metabolic or cardiovascular variables (VO2 , Lac, Glu, HR), nor for RPE. Endurance capacity, based on time to exhaustion on a treadmill, was improved when either mouth rinsing or ingesting a CHO solution, compared to PLA. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Direct Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Fecal Samples Using Real-Time PCR: Evaluation of Six Rapid DNA Extraction Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Kamara, Judy N.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    for their effectiveness for the direct quantification (without enrichment) of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken fecal samples using real-time PCR. The presence of inhibitory substances in chicken fecal samples may reduce or even completely impede the PCR amplification process making quantification very difficult. Six rapid......Direct and accurate quantification of Campylobacter in poultry is crucial for the assessment of public health risks and the evaluation of the effectiveness of control measures against Campylobacter in poultry. The aim of this study was to assess several rapid DNA extraction methods...... of this study, the Easy-DNA (Invitrogen) method generated lower Ct values, the best amplification efficiency (AE = 93.2 %) and good precision (R squared = 0.996). The method NucleoSpin® Tissue was able to detect samples spiked with the lowest Campylobacter concentration level (10 CFU/ml) but the amplification...

  10. Freezing-thawing and sub-sampling influence the marination performance of chicken breast meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacuum-tumbling marination is often used to improve the yield and quality of whole or portioned boneless broiler breast fillets. The relationship between the marination performance of whole Pectoralis major muscles and breast fillet sub-samples is not well understood. The objective of this study wa...

  11. The effect of rinsing time periods on wettability of elastomeric impression materials: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.

  12. Strategies for the inclusion of an internal amplification control in conventional and real time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    To illustrate important issues in optimization of a PCR assay with an internal control four different primer combinations for conventional PCR, two non-competitive and two competitive set-ups for real time PCR were used for detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken faecal samples....... In the conventional PCR assays the internal control was genomic DNA from Yersinia ruckeri, which is not found in chicken faeces. This internal control was also used in one of the set LIPS in real time PCR. In the three other set-ups different DNA fragments of 109 bp length prepared from two oligos of each 66 bp...... against faecal inhibitors to ensure that the internal control and the target PCR had the same sensitivity towards inhibitors....

  13. [Determination of amantadine and rimantadine residues in egg and chicken samples by dispersive solid phase extraction purification-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Fan, Jianlin; Liu, Xingyong; Chen, Xinglian; Li, Yangang; Liu, Hongcheng

    2015-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of residual amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens by dispersive solid phase extraction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Egg and chicken samples were extracted with ammonia water-acetonitrile (2:98, v/v). The extraction solution was dried to 1 mL under nitrogen, and then purified by dispersive solid phase extraction method with C18 and NH2 sorbents. After purification, the extraction solution was filtered through a filter. The target compounds were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) on a ZORBAX C18 column using a mixture of 1 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in positive mode. The good linearities were obtained for amantadine and rimantadine at a concentration range of 0.15-10.0 μg/L. The limits of detection for amantadine and rimantadine were all 0.05 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.20 μg/kg. The recoveries of amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens at three spiked levels (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/kg) age of 89%-108% with the relative standard deviations of 5.0%-8.6%. The results demonstrated that the method is suitable for the determination of amantadine and rimantadine in eggs and chickens.

  14. Antibacterial properties of pit and fissure sealants combined with daily fluoride mouth rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shlomo; Peretz, Benjamin; Sidon, Reut; Weiss, Ervin I; Slutzky, Hagay

    2010-01-01

    Pit and fissure sealants are widely used in the prevention of initial occlusal caries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants regain their antibacterial properties after rinsing with a fluoride solution. Helioseal F, Ultraseal XT, Dyract Seal, and GC Fuji TRIAGE were placed on the sidewalls of the wells of a 96-microtiter plate. After polymerization and a 30 day aging process, the samples were rinsed daily with a 0.05% NaF solution for 14 days. Twenty four hours after the last fluoride rinse, freshly grown Streptococcus mutans cells (circa 1 x 106) were placed on the surface of each sample for 1 hour at 37 degrees C. Growth medium was then added to each well and bacterial growth was followed for 24 hours in a temperature-controlled spectrophotometer. Similar experiments were conducted on samples 48 hours and 72 hours after the last fluoride rinse. The results showed that both GC Fuji TRIAGE and Dyract Seal possessed antibacterial properties 24 hours after the last fluoride exposure. GC Fuji TRIAGE maintained potent antibacterial properties 48 hours after the last fluoride rinse. 72 hours after the last fluoride rinse none of the materials showed any antibacterial properties. None of the tested materials showed any antibacterial properties after a 30 day aging process An aging process of all tested sealant materials, for 30 days, resulted in a complete elimination of their antibacterial properties. After a daily 30 second rinse for two weeks with a 0.05% NaF solution, the antibacterial attributes of the glass-ionomer and the compomer based sealants were regained.

  15. Neural Network Model for Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium to Elimination in Ground Chicken: Acquisition of Data by Whole Sample Enrichment, Miniature Most-Probable-Number Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2017-01-01

    Predictive models are valuable tools for assessing food safety. Existing thermal inactivation models for Salmonella and ground chicken do not provide predictions above 71°C, which is below the recommended final cooked temperature of 73.9°C for chicken. They also do not predict when all Salmonella are eliminated without extrapolating beyond the data used to develop them. Thus, a study was undertaken to develop a model for thermal inactivation of Salmonella to elimination in ground chicken at temperatures above those of existing models. Ground chicken thigh portions (0.76 cm(3)) in microcentrifuge tubes were inoculated with 4.45 ± 0.25 log most probable number (MPN) of a single strain of Salmonella Typhimurium (chicken isolate). They were cooked at 50 to 100°C in 2 or 2.5°C increments in a heating block that simulated two-sided pan frying. A whole sample enrichment, miniature MPN (WSE-mMPN) method was used for enumeration. The lower limit of detection was one Salmonella cell per portion. MPN data were used to develop a multiple-layer feedforward neural network model. Model performance was evaluated using the acceptable prediction zone (APZ) method. The proportion of residuals in an APZ (pAPZ) from -1 log (fail-safe) to 0.5 log (fail-dangerous) was 0.911 (379 of 416) for dependent data and 0.910 (162 of 178) for independent data for interpolation. A pAPZ ≥0.7 indicated that model predictions had acceptable bias and accuracy. There were no local prediction problems because pAPZ for individual thermal inactivation curves ranged from 0.813 to 1.000. Independent data for interpolation satisfied the test data criteria of the APZ method. Thus, the model was successfully validated. Predicted times for a 1-log reduction ranged from 9.6 min at 56°C to 0.71 min at 100°C. Predicted times for elimination ranged from 8.6 min at 60°C to 1.4 min at 100°C. The model will be a valuable new tool for predicting and managing this important risk to public health.

  16. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter persists in raw retail chicken after the fluoroquinolone ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Hanning, Irene; Wiggins, Keith C; Story, Robert P; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2009-10-01

    In 2005, the FDA withdrew approval for the use of fluoroquinolones in live poultry production. To assess any changes in countable numbers of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter before and after the fluoroquinolone withdrawal, retail whole raw chicken carcasses (RTCC) purchased in Northwest Arkansas from 2004 to 2006 were sampled for this purpose. Using a previously published direct-plating method developed in our laboratory, we quantified trends of Campylobacter and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter loads by direct plating whole chicken carcass rinses on Campylobacter agar (CA) or Campylobacter agar containing 8.6 mg/ml ciprofloxacin (CCA). Countable populations of Campylobacter were recovered from 74, 96, and 63% of carcasses sampled in 2004, 2005, and 2006 respectively. The percentages of carcasses with minimum detectable levels of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were 20, 42 and 33%, sampled in 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Our 3 year analysis in one geographical area indicated a persistence of Campylobacter and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter on retail raw chicken carcasses despite the cessation of fluoroquinolone use in poultry production.

  17. Oral rinse-based cytology and conventional exfoliative cytology: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulki, Shaila; Shetty, Pushparaj; Pai, Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Simple screening test for resource-challenged areas. To compare specimen adequacy and diagnostic agreement between oral rinse-based smears and conventional smears in oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, and normal controls. Twenty-five histologically confirmed cases of oral cancer, 29 clinically diagnosed cases of oral leukoplakia, and 54 normal controls were subjected to the oral rub-and-rinse technique and the conventional exfoliative cytology. Smears were consequently stained with the Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and were examined independently by two different cytopathologists in a double-blind fashion. The results were classified as: Negative, atypical, positive, and unsatisfactory. Furthermore, they were compared, to assess the sample adequacy, cellular distribution, staining, leucocytes/inflammation and cellular clarity in both the smears. Chi square test and Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed rank test (P ≤ 0.05). Among the cancer cases, 84% showed positive, 8% atypical, and 8% unsatisfactory, after using the conventional technique, whereas, the oral rinse technique showed 80% positive, 16% atypical, and 4% unsatisfactory cases. The conventional technique showed 44.82, 37.93, and 6.89% and the oral rinse technique showed 48.27, 31.03, and 20.68% negative, positive, and atypical cases, respectively, among the leukoplakia cases. Among the normal controls, 9.26 and 90.74% and with the oral rinse technique 3.70 and 96.29% showed atypical and negative cases with the conventional technique. Sample adequacy and cellular clarity showed a statistically significant difference between both techniques. Both smears were diagnostically reliable, however, the oral rinse-based method showed an overall improvement in sample adequacy and cellular clarity.

  18. Bayesian techniques for comparison of the test performance of PCR and culture for the identification of Campylobacter in enriched comminuted chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Tankson, J

    2016-05-01

    Using Bayesian methods that do not require the definition of a gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay are compared to those of an enriched culture assay for detection of Campylobacter in enriched comminuted chicken samples. Food Safety and Inspection Service comminuted chicken samples were collected from production facilities across the United States. Enriched samples were examined using a commercial real-time PCR kit and plated for culture. Allowing for conditional dependence between these approaches and defining relatively uninformed prior distributions, the 'no gold standard' Bayesian methods generated estimates of the means (95% credible interval) of the posterior distributions for sensitivity and specificity of the PCR as 93% (79, 100%) and 95% (87, 100%) respectively. The estimated sensitivity implies a mean false negative frequency of 7%. The estimated means of the posterior distributions for sensitivity and specificity of the culture assay were 91% (76, 100%) and 96% (88, 100%) respectively. In this case, the mean false negative frequency is 9%. Graphical comparisons of the posterior distributions with their corresponding prior distributions suggested only subtle differences in the sensitivities of both tests, but the posterior distributions for specificities are substantially more certain than the prior distributions. The study suggests that the commercial real-time PCR assay is a more sensitive screening test that would provide timelier negative test results. The modest 1% reduction in specificity of this PCR assay, as compared to an enriched culture assay, is less of a concern for regulatory testing programs if a culture-based confirmatory assay is applied to all presumptive positive samples. The sensitivity and specificity of a PCR assay and a culture assay for Campylobacter in comminuted poultry produced in the United States were estimated. The PCR assay was shown to be an

  19. Saliva secretion difference before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggraeni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause women can experience a decrease in saliva secretion (decrease. To understand the clear picture about saliva secretion, the volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity were then measured. The aim of this research was to obtain a picture about the difference of saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women. The type of the research used was a laboratory quasi-experiment with comparative descriptive form. The technique used in this research is the survey method, and samples were taken using the multistage cluster random sampling method, and t-student statistical analysis. This research was conducted with the saliva collected with spitting method on 45 menopause women. The results show that the average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity before rinsing with baking soda was 1.79 ml, 0.18 ml/minute, 7.40 and 0.81 mm2/second. The average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity after rinsing with baking soda were 2.66 ml; 0.27 ml/minute; 8.67 and 0.78 mm2/second. Statistical analysis t-student on α = 0.05 shows volume changes, flow rate, pH and saliva viscosity before and after rinsing with baking soda was 0.873; 0.086; 1.273 and 0.037 respectively. The conclusion shows a significant difference between saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda, and saliva secretion after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women.

  20. Efficacy of different brands of mouth rinses on oral bacterial load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects were divided into 3 groups and their saliva samples were assessed for microbial counts at the beginning and the end of an eight-week period during which they rinsed with 10ml of mouthrinse for 15 seconds twice daily (morning and evening) in addition to their usual oral hygiene procedures.The results showed ...

  1. Changes in lactate and other ions in plaque and saliva after a fluoride rinse and subsequent sucrose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, G L; Zhang, Z; Chow, L C; Schumacher, G E

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine plaque and saliva composition after a fluoride rinse and subsequent sucrose application. Fifteen subjects accumulated plaque for 48 h, and then rinsed with a fluoride rinse based on 228 microg/g (ppm) Na2SiF6 and some received no rinse. After 60 min, upper and lower buccal molar plaque samples and 1-min saliva samples were collected. The subjects then rinsed with 10% g/g sucrose solution, and 7 and 15 min later, a second and a third set of samples were collected. Plaque fluid and clarified saliva were then recovered from these samples by centrifugation, and the remaining plaque acid extracted. The plaque fluid, centrifuged saliva, and plaque extract samples were then analyzed using micro techniques for pH, free calcium, phosphate, organic acids (plaque fluid and saliva only) and fluoride. Considering both the fluoride rinse and no-rinse groups, the most notable compositional changes in saliva 7 min after the sucrose rinse were pH -0.40 unit, free calcium 0.42 mM, lactate 5.2 mM, phosphate -1.3 mM, and fluoride 2.8 microM; while in plaque fluid, the corresponding changes were pH -1.59 unit, free calcium 1.5 mM, lactate 35 mM, phosphate -1.6 mM and fluoride -26 microM. After sucrose rinsing, undersaturation was found with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate in saliva and plaque fluid and with respect to tooth enamel in some plaque fluid samples. Plaque fluid composition appeared to be strongly influenced by salivary clearance, diffusive loss of ions into the water phase of the rinse, and lower jaw pooling of the sucrose and fluoride components of the rinses. After the experimental rinse, the fluoride concentration in plaque fluid [86 +/- 22 mM (upper molar site), 162 +/- 150 mM (lower molar site)], saliva (26 +/- 18 mM), and whole plaque [99 +/- 97 microg/g (upper molar site), 197 +/- 412 microg/g (lower molar site)] was comparable to the values in previous studies using this rinse. These very high plaque fluid fluoride

  2. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  3. Carcass enrichment detects Salmonella from broiler carcasses found to be negative by other sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most frequently used methods to recover Salmonella from processed broiler chicken carcasses involve carcass rinsing or neck skin maceration. These methods are nondestructive and practical, but have limited sensitivity. The standard carcass rinse method uses only 7.5% of the residual rinsate an...

  4. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  5. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Hulya; Altinel, Burak; Kumcuoglu, Seher; Kisla, Duygu; Tavman, Sebnem

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  6. Thin film gold etchant formulation and rinse removal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, M.K.

    1980-07-01

    The chemistry of gold etchant solutions used in photolithography of thin film networks (TFNs) for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed. The formulation and operating limits were revised to ensure that the initial solution makeup is always within required values for iodine concentration and specific gravity and that the etchant will not be used for an extended period of time. Rinsing procedures for removal of the gold etchant from the TFNs were evaluated. Increasing the rinse time beyond 15 seconds in deionized water does not significantly improve the removal of iodine. Nitrogen bubble burst, increased temperature of the rinse water, methyl alcohol rinse, and potassium iodide solution prerinse were shown to be effective in improving the rinse removal of iodine. Production requirements for stripping time for wet photoresist were shown to be more than three times longer than necessary to ensure that the photoresist was completely removed.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the effects of an alum-containing mouthrinse and a saturated saline rinse on the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature is replete with studies establishing Streptococcus mutans as a major player in the formation of pit and fissure caries in all dentitions. Salivary bacterial levels in turn are related to the number of colonized surfaces. Therefore, decreasing the salivary levels of S. mutans would have a great benefit in decreasing the incidence of dental diseases. Aims: Keeping in mind the potential antimicrobial effects of saturated saline and alum solutions, the present study was attempted to compare and evaluate the effects of saturated saline rinse and 0.02 M alum mouthrinse on salivary S. mutans levels in children. Materials and Methods: The investigation was a double-blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who used either saturated saline rinse, 0.02 M alum mouthrinse or distilled water (placebo rinse twice daily under professional supervision for a 21-day period. A total of three saliva samples were taken from each individual - at baseline, on the 10 th day and on the 21 st day, and colony counts of S. mutans were determined. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon′s Signed Ranks Sum and Mann-Whitney "U" test. Results and Conclusions: Children using saturated saline rinse and alum rinse showed statistically significant reductions in salivaryS. mutans counts after 10 days and also after 21 days. After 21 days, the saturated saline rinse and alum rinse groups showed statistically significant differences over the placebo rinse group. Again, the alum rinse group showed a statistically significant difference over the saturated saline rinse group.

  8. Rapid detection of avian influenza virus in chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic capture reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes great economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide and threatens the human population with a pandemic. The conventional detection method for AIV involves sample preparation of viral RNA extraction and purification from raw sample such as bird droppings...

  9. Chemometric analysis of the consumption of oral rinse chlorite (ClO2-) by human salivary biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hubert; Blackburn, John; Grootveld, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Oral rinse formulations containing chlorite anion (ClO(2)(-)) as an active agent exert a range of valuable oral healthcare activities. However, salivary biomolecules which chemically react with this oxidant can, at least in principle, serve as potentially significant barriers to these therapeutic properties in the oral environment. Therefore, in this investigation, we have explored the extent of ClO(2)(-) consumption by biomolecules which scavenge this agent in human salivary supernatants (HSSs) in vitro. HSS samples were equilibrated with oral rinse formulations containing this active agent (30 s at 35 °C in order to mimic oral rinsing episodes). Differential spectrophotometric and ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses were employed to determine residual ClO(2)(-) in these admixtures. Bioanalytical data acquired revealed the rapid consumption of ClO(2)(-) by biomolecular electron donors and/or antioxidants present in HSS samples. Mean ± 95 % confidence interval (CI) consumption levels of 7.14 ± 0.69 and 5.34 ± 0.69 % of the total ClO(2)(-) available were found for oral rinse products containing 0.10 and 0.40 % (w/v) ClO(2)(-), respectively. A mixed model analysis-of-variance performed on experimental data acquired demonstrated highly-significant differences between oral rinse ClO(2)(-) contents (p biomolecules for both oral rinse formulations investigated. These observations are of much clinical significance in view of the retention of these products' active agent, i.e. biomolecules within recommended 30 s oral rinsing episodes, and hence, the bulk of this oxyhalogen oxidant (>90 %) may effectively exert its essential microbicidal, anti-periodontal and oral malodour-neutralising actions.

  10. Automated Immunomagnetic Separation and Microarray Detection of E. coli O157:H7 from Poultry Carcass Rinse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Darrell P.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Jeremy D.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Call, Douglas R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wunschel, Sharon C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Grate, Jay W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Holman, David A.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Olson, Lydia G.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Stottlemyer, Mark S.(Associated Western Universities); Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-09-01

    We describe the development and application of a novel electromagnetic flow cell and fluidics system for automated immunomagnetic separation of E. coli directly from unprocessed poultry carcass rinse, and the biochemical coupling of automated sample preparation with nucleic acid microarrays without cell growth. Highly porous nickel foam was used as a magnetic flux conductor. Up to 32% recovery efficiency of 'total' E. coli was achieved within the automated system with 6 sec contact times and 15 minute protocol (from sample injection through elution), statistically similar to cell recovery efficiencies in > 1 hour 'batch' captures. The electromagnet flow cell allowed complete recovery of 2.8 mm particles directly from unprocessed poultry carcass rinse whereas the batch system did not. O157:H7 cells were reproducibly isolated directly from unprocessed poultry rinse with 39% recovery efficiency at 103 cells ml-1 inoculum. Direct plating of washed beads showed positive recovery of O 157:H7 directly from carcass rinse at an inoculum of 10 cells ml-1. Recovered beads were used for direct PCR amplification and microarray detection, with a process-level detection limit (automated cell concentration through microarray detection) of < 103 cells ml-1 carcass rinse. The fluidic system and analytical approach described here are generally applicable to most microbial detection problems and applications.

  11. The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

  12. Towards the production of reliable quantitative microbiological data for risk assessment: Direct quantification of Campylobacter in naturally infected chicken fecal samples using selective culture and real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam

    2015-01-01

    and for the evaluation of control strategies implemented in poultry production. The aim of this study was to compare estimates of the numbers of Campylobacter spp. in naturally infected chicken fecal samples obtained using direct quantification by selective culture and by real-time PCR. Absolute quantification...... of Campylobacter by real-time PCR was performed using standard curves designed for two different DNA extraction methods: Easy-DNA™ Kit from Invitrogen (Easy-DNA) and NucliSENS® MiniMAG® from bioMérieux (MiniMAG). Results indicated that the estimation of the numbers of Campylobacter present in chicken fecal samples...... was partly dependent on the methodologies used. In general, the numbers of Campylobacter obtained by real-time PCR when extracting DNA using the MiniMAG method were in most cases higher than the numbers of Campylobacter obtained by selective culture and by real-time PCR when using the Easy-DNA method...

  13. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pnuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets.

  14. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  15. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres, C R G; Perote, L C C C; Gutierrez, N C; Pucci, C R; Borges, A B

    2013-01-01

    People increasingly desire tooth whitening. Considering the wide range of whitening products on the market, this study evaluated the efficacy of whitening toothpastes and mouth rinses compared with the 10...

  16. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  17. Variation in Campylobacter Multilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes from Chickens as Detected on Three Plating Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Line, J E; Oakley, B B; Cox, N A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli detected on three selective Campylobacter plating media to determine whether each medium selected for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and 50 carcasses (representing 50 flocks) were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial broiler processing plant. Campylobacter was cultured and isolated from cecal contents and carcass rinses on Campy-Cefex, Campy Line, and RF Campylobacter jejuni/coli agars. When a positive result was obtained with all three media, one colony of the most prevalent morphology on each medium was selected for further analysis by full genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence types were assigned according to PubMLST. A total of 49 samples were positive for Campylobacter on all three media. Forty samples contained only C. jejuni , three had only C. coli , and both species were detected in six samples. From 71% of samples, Campylobacter isolates of the same sequence type were recovered on all three media. From 81.6% of samples, isolates were all from the same clonal complex. From significantly fewer samples (26%, P Campylobacter jejuni/coli . From one sample, three sequence types were detected. In most cases, all three plating media allowed detection of the same type of Campylobacter from complex naturally contaminated chicken samples.

  18. Oral rinse as a potential method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiana Radithia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida isolate is easily sampled from oral cavity by swabbing directly on the candidiasis lesion, to be smeared onto slides for direct examination or cultured in a growth medium. This method is by far the gold standard for defining candidiasis diagnosis. However it is difficult to apply on sensitive patients and almost impossible on patients showing no clinical appearance of oral candidiasis. AIDS patients are very prone to candida infection and have a tendency of repetitive infection involving mixed species. As many candida species show different susceptibility to anti-fungal agents, it is necessary to identify the species causing the infection in the management of oral candidiasis. Oral rinse is a suggested method to obtain candida isolate to be cultured for further analysis such as species identification. This method is simple and less risky on infection transmission as less tools are required in the procedure. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the application of oral rinse as an alternative method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients. Methods: A cross-sectional observative study was conducted in HIV/AIDS in-Patient Facility of Intermediate Care Unit for Infection Disease, Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Fourteen stadium 4 AIDS patients matching criteria were swabbed on 1/3-posterior of the tongue, and then given 10 ml phosphate buffer saline to rinse vigorously for 15 seconds. Both specimens were cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and colony growth was observed. Results: Candida colonies were able to grow from all 14 isolates (100% by both methods. Qualitatively, cultures from oral rinse specimens were more populated than cultures from swab specimens. Conclusion: Oral rinse is an applicable technique to obtain Candida species isolate. This technique is safe, easy, non-invasive, and needs less tools therefore less risky for HIV transmission.Latar belakang: Isolat Candida mudah diambil dengan cara mengusap lesi

  19. Genetic characterization of native southern African chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the first results on the evaluation and selection of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the genetic characterization of native chicken populations in southern Africa. Blood samples for DNA extraction were obtained from five chicken lines from South Africa (Koekoek, New Hampshire, Naked-Neck, ...

  20. Brief chewing of Garcinia manii stick reverses reduced saliva pH after a glucose rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Frederick Kwaku; Nuamah, Isaac Kwasi K; Parkins, Grace E

    2002-11-01

    A popular variety of wood, pieces of which are chewed as an oral hygiene practice in Southern Ghana, was tested for its capacity to reverse experimentally lowered pH of saliva. This was done to determine whether (Garcinia manii) stick-chewing neutralizes acidogenic challenge to teeth, and thereby potentially affords dental caries prevention benefit. Seventy-two volunteer medical students gave (baseline) saliva samples by spitting 3-4 times into a 25 ml conical flask. They then rinsed their mouths with a five-percent aqueous solution of glucose. Subsequent to the glucose rinse, half of the subjects (chewers), pre-selected by drawing lots, chewed a popular chewing stick Garcinia manii for five minutes, while the other half (controls) did not. The pH of saliva samples given by the volunteers at various time intervals was measured using a Kent EIL 7020 pH meter, and the results were analysed by the Analysis of Variance (Anova) method. As expected, saliva pH was reduced in both groups after the glucose rinse, but increased significantly faster in stick chewers compared with controls. It is suggested from this study that brief (Garcina manii) stick-chewing confers a caries prevention/control benefit by reversing acidogenic challenge to teeth.

  1. Effects of a non-rinse conditioner on the enamel of primary teeth

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    Fava Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy the morphological aspects of the enamel of primary teeth after etching with 36% phosphoric acid or a non-rinse conditioner. Ten naturally exfoliated anterior primary teeth were selected. The samples were subjected to prophylaxis with pumice paste and water using a low-speed hand piece. Etching was done on the buccal surface. Specimens were divided into 2 groups: G1 (n=10: etching with 36% phosphoric acid gel - Conditioner 36 (Dentsply for 20 s, followed by water rinse for 15 s; G2 (n=10: etching with NRC - Non Rinse Conditioner (Dentsply for 20 s, followed by air drying for 15 s. The samples were dehydrated, mounted on metal stubs, coated with gold and observed with Jeol JSM-6100 scanning electron microscope. Electron-micrographic analysis showed that both etching agents were effective for etching the enamel of primary teeth causing the formation of microporosities on the enamel surface, although the etching pattern was more effective with the use of 36% phosphoric acid gel.

  2. Can Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Improve Performance during Exercise? A Systematic Review

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    Thays de Ataide e Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to identify studies that have investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO mouth rinse on exercise performance, and to quantify the overall mean difference of this type of manipulation across the studies. The main mechanisms involving the potential benefit of CHO mouth rinse on performance was also explored. A systematic review was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, without limit of searches. Eleven studies were classified as appropriate and their results were summarized and compared. In nine of them, CHO mouth rinse increased the performance (range from 1.50% to 11.59% during moderate- to high-intensity exercise (~75% Wmax or 65% VO2max, ~1 h duration. A statistical analysis to quantify the individual and overall mean differences was performed in seven of the 11 eligible studies that reported power output (watts, W as the main performance outcome. The overall mean difference was calculated using a random-effect model that accounts for true variation in effects occurring in each study, as well as random error within a single study. The overall effect of CHO mouth rinse on performance was significant (mean difference = 5.05 W, 95% CI 0.90 to 9.2 W, z = 2.39, p = 0.02 but there was a large heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 52%. An activation of the oral receptors and consequently brain areas involved with reward (insula/operculum frontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum is suggested as a possible physiological mechanism responsible for the improved performance with CHO mouth rinse. However, this positive effect seems to be accentuated when muscle and liver glycogen stores are reduced, possibly due to a greater sensitivity of the oral receptors, and require further investigation. Differences in duration of fasting before the trial, duration of mouth rinse, type of activity, exercise

  3. Neural network model for thermal inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium to elimination in ground chicken: Acquisition of data by whole sample enrichment, miniature most-probable-number method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models are valuable tools for assessing food safety. Existing thermal inactivation models for Salmonella and ground chicken do not provide predictions above 71 degrees C, which is below the recommended final cooked temperature of 73.9 degrees C. They also do not predict when all Salmone...

  4. Anti-microbial efficacy of green tea and chlorhexidine mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida albicans in children with severe early childhood caries: A randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ann; Thakur, Sneha R; Shetty, Sowmya B

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a beverage which is consumed worldwide and is reported to have anti-cariogenic effect. So, if it was as effective as chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth rinse against cariogenic microbes it could be considered a natural, economical alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-microbial efficacy of 0.5% green tea and 0.2% CHX mouth rinses against Streptococcus Mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida Albicans. 30 children aged 4-6 years with S-ECC (based on defs score) were selected. Children were divided randomly into 2 equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. A base-line and post rinsing non-stimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml) was collected and tested for the number of colony forming units. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS v16.0 software with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's POSTHOC test. A statistically significant fall in colony count was found with both the mouth rinses in Streptococcus Mutans (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) and lactobacilli (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) but not against Candida albicans (P = 0.264, P = 0.264). Against Streptococcus Mutans, green tea mouth rinse was found to be significantly better than CHX mouth rinse (P = 0.005). Against lactobacilli spp, CHX mouth rinse was significantly better than green tea mouth rinse (P < 0.001). Green tea mouth rinse can be considered safe, economical and used without much concern. However, further studies are recommended.

  5. Anti-microbial efficacy of green tea and chlorhexidine mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida albicans in children with severe early childhood caries: A randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green tea is a beverage which is consumed worldwide and is reported to have anti-cariogenic effect. So, if it was as effective as chlorhexidine (CHX mouth rinse against cariogenic microbes it could be considered a natural, economical alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-microbial efficacy of 0.5% green tea and 0.2% CHX mouth rinses against Streptococcus Mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida Albicans. Materials and Methods: 30 children aged 4-6 years with S-ECC (based ondefs score were selected. Children were divided randomly into 2 equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. A base-line and post rinsing non-stimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected and tested for the number of colony forming units. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS v16.0 software with one-way ANOVA and Tukey′sPOSTHOC test. Results: A statistically significant fall in colony count was found with both the mouth rinses in Streptococcus Mutans (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and lactobacilli (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 but not against Candida albicans (P = 0.264, P = 0.264. Against Streptococcus Mutans, green tea mouth rinse was found to be significantly better than CHX mouth rinse (P = 0.005. Against lactobacilli spp, CHX mouth rinse was significantly better than green tea mouth rinse (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be considered safe, economical and used without much concern. However, further studies are recommended.

  6. Carbohydrate mouth rinse improves cycling performance carried out until the volitional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavaresco Gambassi, Bruno; Gomes de Santana Barros Leal, Ylana; Pinheiro Dos Anjos, Edson R; Antonelli, Bruna A; Gomes Gonçalves E Silva, Daniela C; Pires de Mélo Montenegro, Iracema H; di Cássia de Oliveira Angelo, Rita; Correia Moura, Isis S; Schwingel, Paulo A

    2017-11-17

    Carbohydrates (CHO) are among the most investigated nutritional ergogenic aids, and may be consumed in different forms, e.g., mouth rinse with carbohydrate solution (MRCS). In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MRCS on the performance of physically active individuals undergoing a physical exercise session carried out until the volitional exhaustion. This is a counter-balanced randomized study, with a double-blind design. The sample consisted of twenty-one physically active healthy men with a mean (±SD) of age of 22.4 (±2.7) years old, 76.7 (±6.0) cm of height,12.1% (±3.7) of body fat mass, and 23.9 (±2.4) kg/m2 of body mass index. After familiarizing the participants with the protocol (cycle ergometer, with oral mouth rinse procedure) and assessing the maximal lactate steady state the cycling exercise was performed until the volitional exhaustion in the following conditions: without mouth rinse (CONTROL), PLACEBO and MRCS. Time to reach exhaustion was statistically different (pexhaustion until the volitional exhaustion. Thus, the use of methodology proposed by the present study may help coaches and practitioners improve the performance of physically active young adults.

  7. Resist surface crosslinking using amine-based reactive rinses to mitagate pattern collapse in thin film lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Ming; Lawson, Richard A.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2012-03-01

    characterize the surface crosslinking reaction using such diamine surface rinse treatments. Pattern collapse test structures were fabricated and analyzed to measure the amount of mechanical property improvement imparted by such treatments. Application of such amine reactive rinses was found to clearly result in an improvement in the resistance of resists to pattern collapse as observed by SEM. A comparison of the critical stress at the point of pattern collapse as a function of resist feature size also clearly shows a significant improvement in mechanical resilience of resist samples processed with the reactive rinse treatment.

  8. The effect of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque Streptococcus mutans count in 6- to 12-year-old school children: An in vivo study

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    Neeraja R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Treating a carious tooth in children with high caries experience by providing a restoration does not cure the disease. If the unfavorable oral environment that caused the cavity persists so will the disease and more restorations will be required in future. Treating the oral infection by reducing the number of cariogenic microorganisms and establishing a favorable oral environment to promote predominantly remineralization of tooth structure over time will stop the caries process. The present study was conducted: (1 To evaluate the efficacy of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque Streptococcus mutans when used as an adjunct to restoration. (2 To compare the anti-microbial effect of 1% povidone-iodine and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque S. mutans count. Study Design: Forty-five study participants in the age group of 6-12 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected from one government school in Bangalore city. They were divided into three groups after the restorative treatment. Group-A, Group-B, and Group-C received 1% povidone-iodine mouth rinse, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and placebo mouth rinse, respectively, twice daily for 14 days. The plaque sample was collected and S. mutans count was estimated at six phases: (1 Baseline, (2 3 weeks after restoration, (3 First day after mouth rinse therapy, (4 15 days after mouth rinse therapy, (5 1 month and (6 3 months after mouth rinse therapy Results: After the restoration the percentage change in S. mutans count was 28.4%. Immediately after mouth rinse therapy there was significant reduction in S. mutans count in all the three groups. After which the count started to increase gradually and after 3 months the bacterial counts in the povidone-iodine group and placebo group were almost near the postrestorative count. Conclusion: Mouth rinses can be used as adjunct to restoration for short duration as temporary measure in reduction of S

  9. Rinsing with antacid suspension reduces hydrochloric acid-induced erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria do Socorro Coelho; Mantilla, Taís Fonseca; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinsing with antacids, following erosive episodes, have been suggested as a preventative strategy to minimize tooth surface loss due to their neutralizing effect. The purpose of this in situ study was to evaluate the effect of an antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate in controlling simulated erosion of enamel of intrinsic origin. The experimental units were 48 slabs (3×3×2mm) of bovine enamel, randomly divided among 12 volunteers who wore palatal appliances with two enamel slabs. One of them was exposed extra-orally twice a day to 25mL of a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (0.01M, pH 2) for 2min. There were two independent phases, lasting 5 days each. In the first phase, according to a random scheme, half of the participants rinsed with 10mL of antacid suspension (Gaviscon(®), Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Ltd.), while the remainder was rinsed with deionized water, for 1min. For the second phase, new slabs were inserted and participants switched to the treatment not received in the first stage. Therefore, the groups were as follows: (a) erosive challenge with HCl+antacid suspension; (b) erosive challenge with HCl+deionized water (DIW); (c) no erosive challenge+antacid suspension; (d) no erosive challenge+DIW. Specimens were assessed in terms of surface loss using optical profilometry and Knoop microhardness. The data were analyzed using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Compared to DIW rinses, surface loss of enamel was significantly lower when using an antacid rinse following erosive challenges (p=0.015). The Knoop microhardness of the enamel was significantly higher when the antacid rinse was used (p=0.026). The antacid suspension containing sodium alginate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate, rinsed after erosive challenges of intrinsic origin, reduced enamel surface loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of a polyhexamethylene biguanide mouthrinse compared with a triclosan rinse and a chlorhexidine rinse on bacterial counts and 4-day plaque re-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, A; Splieth, C H; Schmidt-Martens, G; Schwahn, Ch; Kocher, Th; Kramer, A; Rosin, M

    2005-05-01

    For various clinical applications, polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) has been used for many years as an antiseptic in medicine. Recently, a 0.04% and a 0.12% PHMB mouthwash were shown to inhibit plaque re-growth and to reduce oral bacterial counts. In this study, a 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was compared with a positive control 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B), a commercially available 0.3% triclosan/2.0% polyvinyl methyl ether maleic acid copolymer mouthrinse (Colgate Total Plax) (C), and a negative control placebo rinse (10% ethanol, flavour) (D). The controlled clinical study was a double blind, randomized, four replicate cross - over design. Plaque re-growth was assessed with the Turesky et al. (1970) modification of the Quigley & Hein (1962) plaque index. The antibacterial effect was assessed by taking bacterial counts on the tooth surface (smears from the buccal surface of 16/26) and mucosa (smears from the buccal mucosa in opposite of area 16/26) after the professional prophylaxis and after the first rinse with the preparations on day 1 and prior to the clinical examination on day 5. Sixteen volunteers participated and, on day 1 of each study period were rendered plaque-free, ceased toothcleaning, and rinsed twice daily with the allocated mouthrinse. On day 5, plaque was scored and smears were collected according to the protocol. A 10-day wash-out period was carried out between each rinse evaluation. Data were analysed using ancova with Bonferroni HSD adjustment for multiple comparisons (colony forming units per sample) with a significance level alpha=0.05. The 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was significantly better at inhibiting plaque than the placebo (D), but significant less effective than the 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B). There is no significant difference between A and the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% copolymer mouthrinse (C). Bacterial count reductions (tooth surface and mucosa) with PHMB (A) were significantly greater compared with

  11. Combined effect of a fluoride-, stannous- and chitosan-containing toothpaste and stannous-containing rinse on the prevention of initial enamel erosion-abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, T S; Lussi, A

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the preventive effect of a fluoride-, stannous- and chitosan-containing (F/Sn/chitosan-) toothpaste (TP) on initial enamel erosion and abrasion. In total, 150 human premolar enamel specimens were ground, polished and divided into 5 toothpaste/rinse groups (n=30): (G1) placebo-TP/tap water, (G2) sodium fluoride (NaF-) TP/tap water, (G3) F/Sn/chitosan-TP/tap water, (G4) F/Sn/chitosan-TP/Sn-rinse, (G5) NaF-TP/NaF-rinse. The 8-day erosion-abrasion cyclic treatment (one cycle/day) consisted of incubating the samples in artificial saliva (30min), then submitting the samples to toothbrush abrasion (2min incubation in toothpaste slurry; brushing with 20 toothbrush strokes) and rinsing (2min; 10ml) with the respective solution: tap water (G1-G3), Sn-rinse (G4) or NaF-rinse (G5). Afterwards, the samples were submitted to erosion (2min; 30ml 1% citric acid, pH=3.6). Surface microhardness (SMH) was measured initially and after every abrasion and erosion treatment. Enamel substance loss was calculated after each abrasion. Non-parametric ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon rank tests were used for analysis. G1 presented the greatest SMH decrease, while G4 presented the least SMH decrease (pabrasion. The combination of this toothpaste with the stannous-containing rinse showed even better prevention against erosion-abrasion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

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    Laxmi S Lakade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture′s chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  13. Efficacy of dental rinse formulations marketed in Abuja, Nigeria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, eight volunteers were enrolled to use a dental rinse brand 12 hourly on three consecutive occasions as the only source of oral hygiene, and then in combination with Colgate Triple Action® toothpaste before switching over to another brand. Saliva before and after swilling was taken, plated by pour plate technique, ...

  14. Antimicrobial and plaque inhibitory potential of herbal and probiotic oral rinses in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rahul; Tandon, Shobha; Rathore, Monika; Banerjee, Molay

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents serve as an effective adjunct with mechanical means in plaque control. Chlorhexidine has been the gold standard in the field of dentistry, but these days a growing number of dentists are embracing the philosophy that natural agents are better for children's oral health, and the focus is shifted toward biogenic agents for oral hygiene maintenance in children. The aim was to evaluate antimicrobial and plaque inhibitory potential of herbal and probiotic rinses against Streptococcus viridans with commonly used antimicrobial agent like 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate. A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 subjects aged between 6 and 14 years and were divided into three groups comprising 20 subjects in each group. Three oral rinses were administered twice daily for a period of 1 week. Estimation of plaque scores and S. viridans counts was done before and after intervention, and the results were statistically analyzed. The change in mean plaque index in Groups A, B, and C was 0.28 ± 0.16, 1.37 ± 0.43, and 0.60 ± 0.35 respectively. Furthermore, change in mean log 10 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml of S. viridans in Groups A, B, and C was 0.13 ± 0.06, 0.53 ± 0.17, and 0.22 ± 0.06 CFU/ml, respectively. Based on observations done during the course of study herbal rinse proved equally effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate in reducing S. viridans counts and plaque accumulation after 1 week of intervention, whereas probiotic rinse was least effective. However, long-term clinical trial with larger sample size needs to be undertaken, especially to evaluate beneficial effects of biogenic agents such as herbal and probiotic rinses.

  15. Myopathy of slaughter chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Ingr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High-powered means of slaughter chickens production cause on certain individuals abnormal biochemical development of postmortal changes in their muscles. It consequently lead to interferences of sensory quality of the chicken meat. So called myopathies of the chicken breast meat occur in the low extent. It is typical variation in dark colouring of breast muscle. Veterinary supervision confiscates chickens embodying myopathy by reason of sensorical unacceptable dark muscle colour. Deepness of colour is evaluated by adspection of veterinary supervisors. It is tendency leading to find out objective parameters for evaluating this sensual chicken meat colour variation. Incidence of the chickens with myopathy has been evaluating for 3 years in big poultry slaughter, therewithal high-quality chickens and chickens with perspicuous myopathy have been taking out of slaughter-line. Electric conductivity values and pH values were measuring during 60 till 330 minutes post mortem in breast muscles. Aproximately 9 millions chicken was annually slaughtered and 13 thousands of them was confiscated out of the slaughter line by reason of myopathy. It amounts to 0.14 per cent of annually count of processed chickens. Myopatical chickens had significantly higher muscle pH values as compared with healthy ones. Healthy chicken muscles decreased on ultimative pH values aproximately past 3 hours post mortem. It means pH 6.03, and after 300 minutes decreased to pH 5.82. However, myopatical chickens values varied from pH 6.46 to pH 6.30. Concurrently measured values of electric conductivity significantly corellated with pH values. Whereto, it's predication of similarity chicken myopathies and dark, firm, dry (DFD pork or turkey meat. Beyond unacceptable dark meat colour have disadvantage in poor post mortem acidifying of the meat and in consequence of microbial proteolyse. Significantly correlation between pH and electric conductivity values foreshadows on identification

  16. UV Disinfection of Hand-Rinse Greywater and Performance Testing Using Indigenous Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Shoults

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greywater reuse is a feasible solution for decreasing raw water extraction in urban and rural settings. However, pathogen-specific performance guidelines and regulations have only recently been recommended; practical means to assess performance are missing. Here we examine the efficacy of Staphylococcus spp. as an endogenous surrogate for greywater pathogen reduction performance testing, by evaluating UV-C irradiation of hand-rinse greywater, and the variability in UV resistance between different wild Staphylococcus species. Hand-rinse greywater samples were collected from five participants, and a collimated UV-C beam (256 nm was used to assess log10 reductions. Assays of colony-forming units on tryptic soy agar (TSA were compared to mannitol salt agar (MSA using LysostaphinTM to confirm Staphylococcus spp. After irradiating raw hand-rinse samples to a dose of 220 mJ·cm−2, log10 reductions of Staphylococcus spp. were similar (2.1 and 2.2, respectively, p = 0.112. The similarity of the reduction based on TSA and Staphylococcus-specific culture assays following UV irradiation and the dominating presence of Staphylococcus spp. suggests that Staphylococcus spp. could be used as an endogenous performance surrogate group for greywater treatment testing. Suspended wild Staphylococcus isolates were irradiated with 256 nm UV-C to compare the variability of different Staphylococcus species. Staphylococcus isolates exhibited significant variance in log10 reduction values when exposed to 11 mJ·cm−2 of UV-C. Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis exhibited surprising resistance to UV-C, with only a 1.6-log10 reduction when exposed to 11 mJ·cm−2 of UV-C (most other isolates exhibited > 5-log10 reduction. The efficacy of UV-C was also significantly reduced when the sunscreen oxybenzone was present at a possible endogenous greywater concentration.

  17. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-12-31

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ``a posteriori`` the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author).

  19. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  20. Malondialdehyde levels of frozen fish, chicken and turkey on sale in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    75 samples of frozen turkey, chicken and fish sold in Benin City markets, Nigeria were screened for lipid peroxidation by colorimetric estimation of their malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. All samples contained extremely high levels of MDA. The order of MDA profiles was fish > turkey > chicken. MDA levels within chicken ...

  1. Acceptability of chicken powder in home prepared complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chicken powder was incorporated into a breakfast meal (“Tom Brown”) and lunch/supper meal (rice and gravy) on weight basis according to predetermined proportions of the raw ingredients. Each meal consisted of a control sample (not containing chicken powder) and 3 test samples containing different amounts of ...

  2. Rinsing paired-agent model (RPAM) to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations in topical staining applications of thick tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Wang, Yu; Xiang, Jialing; Liu, Jonathan T C; Tichauer, Kenneth M

    2017-06-21

    Conventional molecular assessment of tissue through histology, if adapted to fresh thicker samples, has the potential to enhance cancer detection in surgical margins and monitoring of 3D cell culture molecular environments. However, in thicker samples, substantial background staining is common despite repeated rinsing, which can significantly reduce image contrast. Recently, 'paired-agent' methods-which employ co-administration of a control (untargeted) imaging agent-have been applied to thick-sample staining applications to account for background staining. To date, these methods have included (1) a simple ratiometric method that is relatively insensitive to noise in the data but has accuracy that is dependent on the staining protocol and the characteristics of the sample; and (2) a complex paired-agent kinetic modeling method that is more accurate but is more noise-sensitive and requires a precise serial rinsing protocol. Here, a new simplified mathematical model-the rinsing paired-agent model (RPAM)-is derived and tested that offers a good balance between the previous models, is adaptable to arbitrary rinsing-imaging protocols, and does not require calibration of the imaging system. RPAM is evaluated against previous models and is validated by comparison to estimated concentrations of targeted biomarkers on the surface of 3D cell culture and tumor xenograft models. This work supports the use of RPAM as a preferable model to quantitatively analyze targeted biomarker concentrations in topically stained thick tissues, as it was found to match the accuracy of the complex paired-agent kinetic model while retaining the low noise-sensitivity characteristics of the ratiometric method.

  3. Rinsing paired-agent model (RPAM) to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations in topical staining applications of thick tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Wang, Yu; Xiang, Jialing; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2017-06-01

    Conventional molecular assessment of tissue through histology, if adapted to fresh thicker samples, has the potential to enhance cancer detection in surgical margins and monitoring of 3D cell culture molecular environments. However, in thicker samples, substantial background staining is common despite repeated rinsing, which can significantly reduce image contrast. Recently, ‘paired-agent’ methods—which employ co-administration of a control (untargeted) imaging agent—have been applied to thick-sample staining applications to account for background staining. To date, these methods have included (1) a simple ratiometric method that is relatively insensitive to noise in the data but has accuracy that is dependent on the staining protocol and the characteristics of the sample; and (2) a complex paired-agent kinetic modeling method that is more accurate but is more noise-sensitive and requires a precise serial rinsing protocol. Here, a new simplified mathematical model—the rinsing paired-agent model (RPAM)—is derived and tested that offers a good balance between the previous models, is adaptable to arbitrary rinsing-imaging protocols, and does not require calibration of the imaging system. RPAM is evaluated against previous models and is validated by comparison to estimated concentrations of targeted biomarkers on the surface of 3D cell culture and tumor xenograft models. This work supports the use of RPAM as a preferable model to quantitatively analyze targeted biomarker concentrations in topically stained thick tissues, as it was found to match the accuracy of the complex paired-agent kinetic model while retaining the low noise-sensitivity characteristics of the ratiometric method.

  4. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... rinse-off products has been less studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the allergic response elicited in presensitized individuals from exposure to a rinse-off product preserved with the maximum permitted level of MDBGN. METHODS: Nineteen contact allergic individuals and nine controls participated...... controls had negative ROATs. The difference in reactivity between test subjects and controls was significant (one-sided Fisher's exact test, P = 0.04). Patch test threshold values ranged from product...

  5. Survival of Acanthamoeba in contact lens rinse solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauheim, R C; Brockman, R J; Stopak, S S; Turgeon, P W; Keleti, G; Roat, M I; Thoft, R A

    1990-10-01

    Acanthamoeba may cause a severe keratitis in contact lens wearers. Since most sterilization techniques require rinsing the lenses prior to insertion, contaminated solutions represent a potential vector for transmission of Acanthamoeba. The ability of rinse solutions to sustain an inoculum of Acanthamoeba polyphaga was investigated. A. polyphaga was exposed to 0.1% benzalkonium chloride, 0.001% thimerosal/0.1% edetate disodium, 0.1% edetate disodium, saline, tap water, and distilled water. The status of the organism was evaluated with direct microscopic counts and cultures to confirm viability. Incubation with 0.1% edetate disodium, saline, tap water, and distilled water resulted in the maintenance of reduced populations of viable organisms for 7 days. Benzalkonium chloride preserved saline and solutions containing thimerosal with edetate rendered the Acanthamoeba nonviable.

  6. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C D; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine......BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... rinse-off products has been less studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the allergic response elicited in presensitized individuals from exposure to a rinse-off product preserved with the maximum permitted level of MDBGN. METHODS: Nineteen contact allergic individuals and nine controls participated...

  7. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C R G; Perote, L C C C; Gutierrez, N C; Pucci, C R; Borges, A B

    2013-01-01

    People increasingly desire tooth whitening. Considering the wide range of whitening products on the market, this study evaluated the efficacy of whitening toothpastes and mouth rinses compared with the 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) whitening gel. We obtained 120 cylindrical specimens from bovine teeth, which were darkened for 24 hours in a coffee solution. The color measurement was performed by a spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* system, and specimens were divided into six groups according to the use of the following agents: group 1, conventional fluoridated toothpaste; group 2, Close Up White Now; group 3, Listerine Whitening; group 4, Colgate Plax Whitening; group 5, experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone; and group 6, 10% CP Whiteness Perfect. After the simulation of 12 weeks of treatment for groups 1 to 5 and 14 days of treatment for group 6, the specimens were subjected to a new color reading. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05), which showed significant differences among groups after 12 weeks for ΔE (p=0.001). Results of the Tukey test revealed that groups 3, 4, and 6 presented significantly higher color alteration than groups 1, 2, and 5. The whitening toothpaste Close Up White Now and the experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone showed similar color alteration as conventional toothpaste after a 12-week treatment simulation. These groups presented significantly lower color alteration compared with whitening mouth rinses Listerine and Colgate Plax Whitening, which showed similar results to those observed after 14 days of bleaching with 10% CP treatment.

  8. State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Carrilho, Marcela; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic opportunities of each step of 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesives. Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems are the oldest of the multi-generation evolution of resin bonding systems. In the 3-step version, they involve acid-etching, priming and application of a separate adhesive. Each step can accomplish multiple goals. Acid-etching, using 32-37% phosphoric acid (pH 0.1-0.4) not only simultaneously etches enamel and dentin, but the low pH kills many residual bacteria. Some etchants include anti-microbial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride that also inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in dentin. Primers are usually water and HEMA-rich solutions that ensure complete expansion of the collagen fibril meshwork and wet the collagen with hydrophilic monomers. However, water alone can re-expand dried dentin and can also serve as a vehicle for protease inhibitors or protein cross-linking agents that may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. In the future, ethanol or other water-free solvents may serve as dehydrating primers that may also contain antibacterial quaternary ammonium methacrylates to inhibit dentin MMPs and increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The complete evaporation of solvents is nearly impossible. Manufacturers may need to optimize solvent concentrations. Solvent-free adhesives can seal resin-dentin interfaces with hydrophobic resins that may also contain fluoride and antimicrobial compounds. Etch-and-rinse adhesives produce higher resin-dentin bonds that are more durable than most 1 and 2-step adhesives. Incorporation of protease inhibitors in etchants and/or cross-linking agents in primers may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The therapeutic potential of etch-and-rinse adhesives has yet to be fully exploited. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbohydrate mouth rinse does not improve repeated sprint performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on the repeated sprint ability (RSA of young soccer players. Nine youth soccer players (15.0 ± 1.5 years; 60.7 ± 4.84 kg; 1.72 ± 0.05 m; 20.5 ± 1.25 kg/m2 were selected. The athletes were submitted to an RSA test consisting of six sprints of 40 m (going/return = 20 m + 20 m, separated by 20 s of passive recovery, under three experimental conditions: carbohydrate mouth rinse (CHO or placebo (PLA and control (CON. The mouth rinses containing CHO or PLA were administered 5 min and immediately before the beginning of the test in doses of 100 mL. The best sprint time (RSAbest, mean sprint time (RSAmean, and drop-off in sprint performance (fatigue index were determined for the different treatments. One-not identify significant differences (p> 0.05 in RSAbest (CHO way ANOVA for repeated measures did = 7.30 ± 0.31 s; PLA = 7.30 ± 0.30 s; CON = 7.26 ±0.16 s, RSA mean (CHO = 7.71 ± 0.30 s; PLA = 7.71 ± 0.25 s; CON = 7.66 ± 0.24s, or fatigue index (CHO = 5.58 ± 2.16%; PLA = 5.77 ± 3.04%; CON = 5.55 ±3.72%. The results suggest that a carbohydrate mouth rinse does not improve the repeated sprint performance of young soccer players.

  10. Final rinse optimization: influence of different agitation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragliola, Raffaele; Franco, Vittorio; Fabiani, Cristiano; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Nato, Fernando; Tay, Franklin R; Breschi, Lorenzo; Grandini, Simone

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the effect of different root canal irrigant agitation protocols in the penetration of an endodontic irrigant into dentinal tubules. Fifty-six human single-rooted teeth were shaped with nickel-titanium instruments, and a final rinse of 5% sodium hypochlorite labeled with 0.2% alizarin red was performed. Specimens were assigned to 7 groups (N = 8) and submitted to the following rinse activation protocols: no agitation (control group), K-File or gutta-percha agitation, or different sonic (EndoActivator [Advanced Endodontics, Santa Barbara, CA] and Plastic Endo, Lincolnshire, IL) and ultrasonic (Satelec [Acteongroup, Merignac, France] and EMS, Nyon, Switzerland) agitations. Specimens were sectioned at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the apex in 1-mm-thick slabs, ground, and prepared for fluorescence microscopy at 100x with a wavelength of 450 milliseconds. Irrigant penetration into dentinal tubules was analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance followed by post-hoc comparisons. Groups were ranked in the following order: control = K-file = gutta-percha ultrasonic agitation to increase the effectiveness of the final rinse procedure in the apical third of the canal walls. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus colony count changes following green tea mouth rinse or sodium fluoride mouth rinse use in children (Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hajenorouzali Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse resulted in significant reduction of colony number of salivary S. mutans and Lactobacillus which is comparable with sodium fluoride mouth rinse. Due to fewer side effects, it seems that green tea can be used with less concern compared to sodium fluoride in children.

  12. Comparison of antibacterial effects of oral rinses chlorhexidine and herbal mouth wash in patients admitted to intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradari, A G; Khezri, H D; Arabi, S

    2012-01-01

    Mouthwashes decrease the risk of VAP by reducing the number of microorganisms and their transmission and colonization in the lung. Among the oral rinses, chlorhexidine is considered as the gold standard but it has a variety of complications. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare anti-bacterial effects of the chlorhexidine gluconate and herbal mouthwashes in intensive care unit patients. In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 60 patients who were admitted in ICU were divided into two equal 30 persons groups. In the first group Chlorhexidine gluconate 2 % mouthwash and in the second group herbal mouth wash was used. Just before and again after 6 min of oral rinsing, salivary samples were obtained without any stimulation in order to culture Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The data were processed in SPSS16 software and were analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Matrica® and chlorhexidine mouthwashes have significant antibacterial effects against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Decreasing of the number of bacteria in samples after oral rinsing was significant in both groups (p chlorhexidine was significantly more effective than herbal mouth wash in reducing the number of colonies (p mouth wash has significant antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, but its efficacy is less than chlorhexidine, so after further investigation, it would be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine in ICUs (Tab. 3, Ref. 33).

  13. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98% of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80% chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

  14. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The

  15. State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Carrilho, Marcela; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems are the oldest of the multi-generation evolution of resin bonding systems. In the 3-step version, they involve acid-etching, priming and application of a separate adhesive. Each step can accomplish multiple goals. This review explores the therapeutic opportunities of each separate step. Acid-etching, using 32-37% phosphoric acid (pH 0.1-0.4) not only simultaneously etches enamel and dentin, but the low pH kills many residual bacteria. Some etchants include anti-microbial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride that also inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in dentin. Primers are usually water and HEMA-rich solutions that ensure complete expansion of the collagen fibril meshwork and wet the collagen with hydrophilic monomers. However, water alone can re-expand dried dentin and can also serve as a vehicle for protease inhibitors or protein cross-linking agents that may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. In the future, ethanol or other water-free solvents may serve as dehydrating primers that may also contain antibacterial quaternary ammonium methacrylates to inhibit dentin MMPs and increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The complete evaporation of solvents is nearly impossible. Manufacturers may need to optimize solvent concentrations. Solvent-free adhesives can seal resin-dentin interfaces with hydrophobic resins that may also contain fluoride and antimicrobial compounds. Etch-and-rinse adhesives produce higher resin-dentin bonds that are more durable than most 1 and 2-step adhesives. Incorporation of protease inhibitors in etchants and/or cross-linking agents in primers may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The therapeutic potential of etch-and-rinse adhesives has yet to be fully exploited. PMID:21112620

  16. Cytomorphology and flow cytometry of brain biopsy rinse fluid enables faster and multidisciplinary diagnosis of large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debliquis, Agathe; Voirin, Jimmy; Harzallah, Inès; Maurer, Maxime; Lerintiu, Felix; Drénou, Bernard; Ahle, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Central nervous system lymphomas are aggressive tumors requiring a prompt diagnosis for successful treatment. Stereotactic biopsy remains the standard procedure, but the time needed for histopathology is usually over 2 days. We evaluated the contribution of cytomorphology and flow cytometry to histopathology of the brain biopsy in particular on the rinse fluid usually removed. Eighteen patients with suspected localized brain lymphoma underwent stereotactic brain biopsy. Brain biopsy tissue sample and/or brain biopsy rinse fluid were analyzed by cytomorphology combined with flow cytometry. Histopathology was used as a reference. Histopathology characterized ten diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and eight other diseases. Cytomorphology and flow cytometry showed lymphoma cells in nine out of the ten lymphomas. Three cytomorphology or flow cytometry negative results were reported for lymphomas in tissue samples due to low cellularity and biopsy sample conditioning. No lymphomatous cells were found by cytomorphology or flow cytometry in the eight other diseases. Rinse fluid results were consistent with histology in all cases studied (sensitivity and specificity, 100%). The median time to result was 4.5 days (range, 2-10 days) for histopathology, while 5 h (range, 3-20 h) were required for both cytomorphology and flow cytometry. Brain biopsy rinse fluid alleviates problems of tissue sample distribution compared to tissue sample. Its analysis performs the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma in a few hours and, associated with histopathology, allows a multidisciplinary diagnosis. This study shows that cytomorphology combined with flow cytometry on brain biopsy rinse fluid is a new, fast, and useful strategy. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Bonding-Compatible Corrosion Inhibitor for Rinsing Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C. R.; Wurth, L. A.; Radar, A.

    2005-01-01

    A corrosion-inhibiting mixture of compounds has been developed for addition to the water used to rinse metal parts that have been cleaned with aqueous solutions in preparation for adhesive bonding of the metals to rubber and rubber-like materials. Prior to the development of this corrosion inhibitor, the parts (made, variously, of D6AC steel and 7075-T73 aluminum) were rinsed by deionized water, which caused corrosion in some places on the steel parts especially in such occluded places as sealing surfaces and threaded blind holes. An integral part of the particular cleaning process is the deposition of a thin layer of silicates and silane primers that increase the strength of the adhesive bond. The corrosion inhibitor is formulated, not only to inhibit corrosion of both D6AC steel and 7075- T73 aluminum, but also to either increase or at least not reduce the strength of the adhesive bond to be formed subsequently. The corrosion inhibitor is a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium tetraborate. The sodium silicate functions as both a corrosion inhibitor and a bond-strength promoter in association with the silane primers. The sodium tetraborate buffers the rinse solution at the optimum pH and functions as a secondary corrosion inhibitor for the steel. For a given application, the concentrations of sodium silicate and sodium tetraborate must be chosen in a compromise among the needs to inhibit corrosion of steel, inhibit corrosion of aluminum, and minimize cosmetic staining of both steel and aluminum. Concentrations of sodium silicate in excess of 150 parts of silicon per million parts of solution (ppm Si) have been determined to enhance inhibition of corrosion; unfortunately, because of the alkalinity of sodium silicate, even a small concentration can raise the pH of the rinse solution to such a level that aluminum becomes corroded despite the inhibiting effect. The pH of a solution that contains a high concentration of sodium silicate can be decreased by adding

  18. Efficacy of Four Fluoride Mouth Rinses on Streptococcus mutans in High Caries Risk Children - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perala, Shailaja Rao; Bhupathiraju, Prameela

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries has been traditionally described as a multifactorial disease that involves the interaction of various factors like host, agent, substrate and time. Landmark studies have established the fact that Mutans Streptococci are the primary etiologic agents of dental caries. The prevention of dental caries by fluoride supplements in various vehicles, such as water and toothpaste, constitutes one of the most successful prevention measures. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of four fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans in high caries risk children and also to check the efficacy of the ingredient Triclosan which is present in two of the four mouth rinses. The study is double blinded, consisting of 1000 children in age group 6-14yrs who were screened from residential schools. Of the total, 200 children were categorized as high caries risk group based on caries risk assessment tool form given by American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) guidelines 2011. Prior to the study, salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis to estimate Streptococcus mutans counts. Out of 200 salivary samples, 132 showed 106CFU of Streptococcus mutans and these children were included in the study. The 132 children from each group received the assigned mouth wash for 14 consecutive days. On 15th day the salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis and the obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. All the mouth washes showed a significant reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans. Among the four groups Group D (S flo) showed greater percentage reduction of Streptococcus mutans followed by Group A (Act), B (Kidodent) and C (Zerocary). There was no stastically significance reduction of Streptococcus mutans among the Triclosan containing and non containing groups. The mean pre rinse CFU was significantly higher than post rinse CFU for all the study groups

  19. Effect of xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Prevention of dental caries is one of the main strategies in contemporary pediatric dental practice. Mouth rinses are widely used as an adjunct to maintain oral hygiene. It is important for these products to be effective and safe for regular use in children. Objective : The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a newly introduced xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse in reducing levels of plaque Streptococcus mutans and to compare it with that of a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Materials and Methods : Thirty children were randomly divided into two groups of 15 children each. Group I (study group was given a mouth rinse containing xylitol (5%, sodium fluoride (0.05% and triclosan (0.03% and Group II (control group was given a chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse. Both mouth rinses were alcohol free. Mouth rinsing was carried out twice daily, half an hour after breakfast and half an hour following dinner, for a period of 21 days under the supervision of the investigator. Results: In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the mean S. mutans count at the end of 21 days (P < 0.001. No significant difference was observed between the two mouth rinses. Conclusion: The use of a low fluoride-xylitol based mouth rinse appears to be a suitable choice for regular use in children.

  20. Occurrence and Characterization of Salmonella Hiduddify from Chickens and Poultry Meat in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Ameh, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    and local chickens in Maiduguri main markets, chickens from farms, and free-range local chickens. A total of 865 samples were collected from feces, kidney, lungs, cecum, intestine, liver, heart, gizzard, and cloacal swabs from 525 different chickens. Salmonella was isolated from 130 of the samples...... exhibited resistance. This study documents for the first time the isolation of Salmonella Hiduddify in chickens and shows that this serovar is widespread in rural areas in Nigeria. It also documents a high frequency of fluoroquinone resistance in the isolates indicating the presence of selective pressure...

  1. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  2. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  3. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  4. In vitro antifungal effect of mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine and thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shrestha

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial agents used in the study had good in vitro activity against the two Candida species. Mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine showed superior antifungal and fungicidal activities compared to the thymol-containing mouth rinse. Both antimicrobial agents may be suggested for use as topical antifungal agents.

  5. CPP-ACP: Effect on Dental Plaque Acidity after Water Rinsing Following Topical Fluoride Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemeh, Mazhari; Marjan, Sharifi; Homa, Noorollahian; Mahsa, Sharifi

    There is some evidence that water rinsing immediately after topical fluoride therapy has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of fluoride. The aim was to determine if covering fluoridated teeth with a layer of mousse containing CPP-ACP could prevent the adverse effect of rinsing on fluoride and consequently its buffering effect on dental plaque pH during cariogenic challenge. This randomized, controlled, crossover, in situ study was conducted on 25 participants. The participants were subjected to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application followed by five treatment protocols: (1) water rinsing after 30 minutes (APF-30) or (2) immediate water rinsing (APF-0); (3) using CPP-ACP immediately before water rinsing (F-CPP-ACP); and two control groups: (4) no fluoride therapy (No-F) and (5) using CPP-ACP and immediate water rinsing (CPP-ACP-0). After 48 hours, teeth were rinsed with 10% sucrose solution and plaque pH was measured before and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes. The least pH changes, the lowest pH drop, and the quickest pH recovery were found in the APF-30 and F-CPP-ACP groups. APF-0 ranked in the middle and the highest values were in the control groups. The results show that in the case using CPP-ACP on fluoridated teeth, water rinsing immediately after topical fluoride therapy did not seem to influence the inhibitory effect of fluoride on plaque acidity.

  6. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque and is identified as a device intended to reduce the presence of...

  7. Long-term efficacy of a 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse in relation to plaque and gingivitis: a 6-month randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, M P C; Rosema, N A M; Versteeg, P A; Slot, D E; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Weijden, G A

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouth rinse for reduction of gingival inflammation and inhibition of plaque compared to a vehicle control (VC) mouth rinse over a 6-month period. Participants (n = 62) used their randomly assigned product as adjunct to toothbrushing. Bleeding, plaque and staining scores were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Plaque and saliva samples were taken at each assessment monitoring possible shifts in the composition of the microbiota. A significant difference (P = 0.002) in favour of the CPC mouth rinse, with respect to plaque scores, was found. Bleeding scores at 6 months were not significantly different (P = 0.089). However, when correcting for baseline values, a tendency towards a significant difference in bleeding scores at end trail was observed in favour of the CPC mouth rinse (P = 0.061). Regarding staining at 3 and 6 months, a small but significant difference (8.6% and 10.4%, respectively) (P plaque scores than the vehicle control. Bleeding scores were not different at 6 months. The test product was well accepted and did not cause any serious clinical side effects or negatively affected the microbiota. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) oral rinse reduces capsaicin-induced burning mouth pain sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In burning mouth patients, analgesia after oral administration of clonazepam may result from modulation of peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. METHODS: The effect of oral administration of test solutions (water, 0.5 mol/L or 0.05 mol/L GABA, 1% lidocaine) was investigated...... application on the tongue evoked burning pain with a peak of 4.8/10, and significantly increased CDT and MDT while significantly decreasing WDT, HPT, and MPT. The VASAUC was significantly smaller after oral rinse with 0.05 mol/L GABA, 0.5 mol/L GABA, and 1% lidocaine than after oral rinse with water. Rinse...... of GABA. CONCLUSIONS: Capsaicin-induced burning tongue pain and decreases in WDT and HPT can be ameliorated by rinsing the mouth with lidocaine and GABA solutions. SIGNIFICANCE: Rinsing the mouth with an oral GABA containing solution ameliorated burning pain and increased heat sensitivity produced...

  9. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S. A.; Van Bergen, Marcel A. P.; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Veldman, Kees T.; Kalupahana, Ruwani S.

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102) and wet markets (n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance. PMID:29186018

  10. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:20799963

  13. Chamomile Mouth Rinse Effects on Mucositis Reduction After Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaipour AR

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many patients have been received radiotherapy for head and neck tumors and"na large number of them have been survived for some years."nThe side effects of radiotherapy in oral region are mucositis, ulcers, fungal and viral infections and"nsalivary glands dysfunction. Among these, mucositis is the most important one."nA randomized double blind clinical trial was performed in radiotherapy department of Tehran Imam"nKhomeini Hospital to determine chamomile mouth rinse effects on mucositis after radiotherapy."nThe patients are selected randomly from those with oral oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancers."nData showed that chamomile administration could decrease mucositis rate significantly,

  14. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, K; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Faurschou, A

    2015-01-01

    in cosmetics, and was used by 10 allergic subjects and all controls. Another liquid soap with 50 ppm MI was used by nine allergic subjects. As the negative control, all subjects used a similar soap that did not contain MI. The repeated open applications proceeded until a positive reaction occurred or up to 21...... days. The study was conducted in a randomized and blinded fashion. RESULTS: Ten out of 10 MI-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the soap with 100 ppm and seven out of nine reacted to the 50 ppm soap, while none of the 19 controls had a positive reaction during 21 days of application......BACKGROUND: In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) has increased dramatically. Cosmetic products are one of the major sources of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether allowed concentrations of MI in cosmetic rinse-off products have...

  15. Campylobacter jejuni occurrence in chicken fecal samples from small properties in Pelotas, southern of Brazil Ocorrência de Campylobacter jejuni em amostras fecais de galinhas em pequenas propriedades de Pelotas, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane R. Gomes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in broiler flocks from 26 small properties located near the campus of Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. A total of 404 chicken fecal samples were analyzed and after isolation, identification and biotyping was performed according to Lior´s scheme. Twenty one strains (5.2% of Campylobacter jejuni biotype II were isolated from animals from seven properties (26.9%, with a variation from 3% to 34.6% among the positive properties. We also analyzed twelve C. jejuni isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using specific primers that generate a fragment of 402 pb. Our study allowed us to observe that chickens raised in non-industrial establishments without sanitary attention can harbour C. jejuni in their intestinal tract, and by doing so, they could be a serious health risk to humans.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de espécies termofílicas de Campylobacter em galinhas de 26 pequenas propriedades localizadas próximo ao campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. Um total de 404 amostras fecais de galinhas foram analisadas e após o isolamento, a identificação e a biotipificação foram realizadas de acordo com o esquema de Lior. Vinte e uma amostras (5,2% de Campylobacter jejuni biotipo II foram isoladas de animais de sete propriedades (26,9%, com uma variação de 3,3% a 34,6% entre as propriedades positivas. Primers específicos, que geram um fragmento de 402pb, foram usados em PCR para analisar 12 isolados de C. jejuni. Concluímos que galinhas criadas em estabelecimentos não industriais e sem atenção sanitária, são portadoras de C. jejuni e, desta forma, podem ser consideradas um fator de risco para infecção humana.

  16. Sero-prevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SINIDU

    2015-02-04

    sectional study was undertaken from January 2012 to June. 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence and risk factors of IBD infection in non-vaccinated backyard chickens. The sample size was determined using the formula ...

  17. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  18. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Shi

    Full Text Available Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  19. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  20. Plaque pH in caries-free and caries-active young individuals before and after frequent rinses with sucrose and urea solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Haidar; Lingström, Peter; Carlén, Anette

    2015-01-01

    To examine pH in the approximal dental biofilm after acid and alkali formation from sucrose and urea, after an adaptation period to these substances, in caries-free (CF) and caries-active (CA) individuals. Saliva flow and buffer capacity, and aciduric bacteria in saliva and plaque were also examined. Twenty adolescents and young adults (15-21 years) with no caries (n = 10, D(m + i)MFS = 0) or ≥1 new manifest lesions/year (n = 10, DmMFS = 3.4 ± 1.8) participated. After plaque sampling, interproximal plaque pH was measured using the strip method before (baseline) and up to 30 min (final pH) after random distribution of a 1-min rinse with 10 ml of 10% sucrose or 0.25% urea. This procedure was repeated after a 1-week adaptation period of rinsing 5 times/day with 10 ml of the selected solution. After a 2-week washout period the second solution was similarly tested. Mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and pH 5.2-tolerant bacteria were analyzed by culturing. In the CF group, acid adaptation resulted in lowering of baseline and final plaque pH values after a sugar challenge, and in increased numbers of bacteria growing at pH 5.2, which was increased also after alkali adaptation. In the CA group, the final pH was decreased after acid adaptation. No clear effects of alkali adaptation were seen in this group. One-week daily rinses with sucrose and urea had the most pronounced effect on the CF group, resulting in increased plaque acidogenicity from the sugar rinses and increased number of acid-tolerant plaque bacteria from both rinses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  2. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aziz, Doaa M Abd

    2013-09-01

    To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40% and 48% in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.

  3. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Shaun M.; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 ...

  4. Transfer of Campylobacter jejuni from raw to cooked chicken via wood and plastic cutting boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J Y H; Nishibuchi, M; Nakaguchi, Y; Ghazali, F M; Saleha, A A; Son, R

    2011-06-01

    We quantified Campylobacter jejuni transferred from naturally contaminated raw chicken fillets and skins to similar cooked chicken parts via standard rubberwood (RW) and polyethylene cutting boards (PE). RW and PE cutting boards (2.5 × 2.5 cm(2)) were constructed. RW surfaces were smooth and even, whereas PE was uneven. Scoring with scalpel blades produced crevices on RW and flaked patches on the PE boards. Raw chicken breast fillets or skin pieces (10 g) naturally contaminated with Camp. jejuni were used to contaminate the cutting boards (6.25 cm(2)). These were then briefly covered with pieces of cooked chicken. Campylobacter jejuni on raw chicken, the boards, and cooked chicken pieces were counted using a combined most-probable-number (MPN)-PCR method. The type of cutting board (RW, PE; unscored and scored) and temperature of cooked chicken fillets and skins were examined. Unscored PE and RW boards were not significantly different in regards to the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from raw samples to the boards. The mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW was significantly higher than from scored PE. When the chicken fillets were held at room temperature, the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW and PE was found to be 44.9 and 40.3%, respectively.   RW and PE cutting boards are potential vehicles for Camp. jejuni to contaminate cooked chicken. Although cooked chicken maintained at high temperatures reduced cross-contamination via contaminated boards, a risk was still present. Contamination of cooked chicken by Camp. jejuni from raw chicken via a cutting board is influenced by features of the board (material, changes caused by scoring) and chicken (types of chicken parts and temperature of the cooked chicken). © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. THE METABOLITES OF STREPTOMICETES AS IMMUNOSTIMULATORIN CHICKENS RISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae STARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.

  6. The risk to import ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus through chicken meat trade in Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Schaumburg, F.; A.S. Alabi; Frielinghaus, L. (Lisa); Grobusch, M.; Köck, R.; Becker, K.; Issifou, S.; P.G. Kremsner; Peters, G; Mellmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A main export market for chicken meat from industrialized countries is sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that antibiotic resistant bacteria could be exported to developing countries through chicken meat trade. The objective was to investigate the occurrence and molecular types of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in chicken meat in Gabon and to assess their dissemination among humans. Results: Frozen chicken meat samples imported from industrialized cou...

  7. A sensitive and a rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Candida species in concentrated oral rinse specimens in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Asanga; Weerasekera, Manjula; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Dilhari, Ayomi; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha; Fernando, Neluka

    2017-03-01

    Oral candidiasis is being frequently recognized in patients with diabetes, and is associated with multiple pathogens including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a usefulness of a Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction as a rapid diagnostic tool for identification of four oral Candida pathogens in patients with diabetes. A multiplex PCR was optimized to identify four Candida species in concentrated oral rinse samples. Common reverse primer, ITS4 and four species-specific forward primers targeting ITS1 and ITS2 regions of yeast genome were used. Species-specific single amplicon were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Performance efficacy of multiplex PCR was compared with phenotypic identification. Out of 100 oral rinse samples, 72 were culture positive and of these 43 were at risk of oral Candida infection (>600cfu/ml). Multiple Candida species including C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were identified in 22 samples which had risk of oral Candida infection. In total, 85 patients were positive for Candida by multiplex PCR and of them 49 had multiple Candida species. All 43 colonized specimens were also positive by multiplex PCR. C. albicans was the most predominant organism (75/85) followed by C. parapsilosis (47/85), C. tropicalis (17/85) and C. glabrata (6/85). In specimens with multiple species, the two most common organisms were C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. Multiplex PCR yielded a sensitivity of 10 Candida cells/ml of oral rinse sample. Multiplex PCR is found to be rapid, sensitive and specific than phenotypic identification methods in discriminating multiple Candida species in oral rinse specimens.

  8. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G. In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens.

  9. Quantifying the Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the existing literature investigating carbohydrate mouth rinsing as an ergogenic aid using the effect sizes (ES) and percentage change in performance of the respective studies as outcome measures. A trivial-small average overall ES was present for the 25 studies included in the review (0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.27). Effect sizes for the subgroups were ≥25 minutes (0.25, 95% CI = 0.14-0.36), ≤180 seconds (0.06, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.15), resistance exercise (-0.09, 95% CI = -0.20 to 0.03) but the ES is still small. A subanalysis of ∼1-h cycling time trial performance resulted in an overall ES of 0.20 (95% CI = 0.02-0.38), and ES for performance time and power output of 0.31 (95% CI = -0.02 to 0.64) and 0.19 (95% CI = -0.09 to 0.46), respectively. Although ES were small, the average percentage change in performance in ∼1-hour trials was 2.48%, which may have implications for elite performers as this is greater than the 1.30% smallest worthwhile change recommended in the past research.

  10. High-Pressure Water-Rinse Cleaning of Copper(LCC-0067)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, R

    2003-11-06

    Copper, niobium and stainless steel surfaces were cleaned by high-pressure water-rinsing spray (HPWR). Surface chemical and topographic analyses show that the HPWR process is neither a contaminating nor a significantly eroding process.

  11. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  12. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shaun M; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg(-1) BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg(-1), p 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key pointsThe paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint.The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors.The significant increase in peak power output with the carbohydrate mouth rinse may come at a relative cost for the remainder of the sprint, evidenced by non-significantly lower mean power output and a greater fatigue index in the carbohydrate vs. placebo trial.Serial administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse may be beneficial for

  13. Self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in clinical dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Fusun; Blatz, Markus B

    2013-01-01

    Current adhesive systems follow either an "etch-and-rinse" or "self-etch" approach, which differ in how they interact with natural tooth structures. Etch-and-rinse systems comprise phosphoric acid to pretreat the dental hard tissues before rinsing and subsequent application of an adhesive. Self-etch adhesives contain acidic monomers, which etch and prime the tooth simultaneously. Etch-and-rinse adhesives are offered as two- or three-step systems, depending on whether primer and bonding are separate or combined in a single bottle. Similarly, self-etch adhesives are available as one- or two-step systems. Both etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems form a hybrid layer as a result of resins impregnating the porous enamel or dentin. Despite current trends toward fewer and simpler clinical application steps, one-step dentin bonding systems exhibit bonding agent lower bond strengths and seem less predictable than multi-step etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems. The varying evidence available today suggests that the choice between etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems is often a matter of personal preference. In general, however, phosphoric acid creates a more pronounced and retentive etching pattern in enamel. Therefore, etch-and-rinse bonding systems are often preferred for indirect restorations and when large areas of enamel are still present. Conversely, self-etch adhesives provide superior and more predictable bond strength to dentin and are, consequently, recommended for direct composite resin restorations, especially when predominantly supported by dentin.

  14. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C Martyn; Maulder, Peter; Pooley, Adrian; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinses in enhancing repeated sprint ability. Previously, studies have shown that a carbohydrate mouth rinse (without ingestion) has beneficial effects on endurance performance that are related to changes in brain activity. Caffeine ingestion has also demonstrated positive effects on sprint performance. However, the effects of carbohydrate or caffeine mouth rinses on intermittent sprints have not been examined previously. Twelve males performed 5 × 6-s sprints interspersed with 24 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer. Twenty-five milliliters of either a noncaloric placebo, a 6% glucose, or a 1.2% caffeine solution was rinsed in the mouth for 5 s prior to each sprint in a double-blinded and balanced cross-over design. Postexercise maximal heart rate and perceived exertion were recorded, along with power measures. A second experiment compared a combined caffeine-carbohydrate rinse with carbohydrate only. Compared with the placebo mouth rinse, carbohydrate substantially increased peak power in sprint 1 (22.1 ± 19.5 W; Cohen's effect size (ES), 0.81), and both caffeine (26.9 ± 26.9 W; ES, 0.71) and carbohydrate (39.1 ± 25.8 W; ES, 1.08) improved mean power in sprint 1. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a combination of caffeine and carbohydrate improved sprint 1 power production compared with carbohydrate alone (36.0 ± 37.3 W; ES, 0.81). We conclude that carbohydrate and (or) caffeine mouth rinses may rapidly enhance power production, which could have benefits for specific short sprint exercise performance. The ability of a mouth-rinse intervention to rapidly improve maximal exercise performance in the absence of fatigue suggests a central mechanism.

  15. The effect of different mouth rinse products on intra-oral halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erovic Ademovski, S; Lingström, P; Renvert, S

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of different mouth rinses 12 h after rinsing on genuine intra-oral halitosis. Twenty-four adults with halitosis were included in a double-blind, crossover, randomized clinical trial. Halitosis was evaluated 12 h after rinsing with placebo and five mouth rinse products containing zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate; zinc lactate, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride; zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate with reduced amounts of mint and menthol; zinc chloride and essential oil; and chlorine dioxide using the organoleptic method and a gas chromatograph. Test periods were separated by 1 week. Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and the organoleptic scores (OLS) were significantly reduced 12 h following rinsing with all substances compared to placebo (P halitosis 12 h after rinsing compared to placebo. H2 S and MM were most effectively reduced by zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mouth rinsing improves cycling endurance performance during Ramadan fasting in a hot humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Mohamed, Nazirah Gulam; Ismail, Norjana; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth rinsing during endurance cycling in a hot humid environment (32 °C and 75% relative humidity) on athletes in the Ramadan fasted state. Nine trained adolescent male cyclists completed 3 trials that consisted of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR), a placebo mouth-rinse (PMR), and a no-rinse (NOR) trial during the last 2 weeks of Ramadan. Each trial consisted of a preloading cycle at 65% peak rate of oxygen consumption for 30 min followed by a 10-km time trial (TT10 km) under hot humid condition. During the CMR and PMR trials, each cyclist rinsed his mouth with 25 mL of the solution for 5 s before expectorating the solution pre-exercise, after 5, 15, and 25 min of the preloading cycle, and 15 s prior to the start of TT10 km. Time to complete the TT10 km was significantly faster in the CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial (12.9 ± 1.7 and 12.6 ± 1.7 vs. 16.8 ± 1.6 min, respectively; p benefits compared with a no-rinse condition on TT10 km performance in acute Ramadan fasted subjects during endurance cycling in a heat stress environment.

  17. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Phillips, Scott Findlay, Mykolas Kavaliauskas, Marie Clare Grant

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD age: 23.1 (3.0 years, height: 1.83 (0.07 m, body mass (BM: 86.3 (13.5 kg completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg-1 BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg-1, p 0.05. No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint.

  18. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population. PMID:27680288

  19. Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the localization and to compare methods for isolation of minute Ascaridia galli larvae in chicken intestine. Firstly, six 7-week-old layer pullets were orally infected with 2,000 embryonated A. galli eggs and necropsied either at 3, 5 or 7 days post infection...

  20. Paraproteinaemia in inbred chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, J R; McNally, M P; Jaton, J C

    1975-01-01

    Sera from seventy chickens of several inbred lines were screened by cellulose acetate electrophoresis for abnormalities of immunoglobulin production. IgG levels in two sera (both from apparently healthy birds) were unusually high. The IgG proteins purified from these two sera were shown, by isoelectric focusing, to be of restricted heterogeneity. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1201862

  1. Genetic diversity of Hajar1 and Hajar2 local Saudi chicken lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess genetic diversity of Hajar1 and Hajar2 local Saudi chicken lines using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop partial sequences. One hundred blood samples were obtained equally from Hajar1 and Hajar2 Saudi chicken lines as 50 samples from each line. The D-loop region was partially ...

  2. Mycoplasma gallisepticum Invades Chicken Erythrocytes during Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Gunther; Plaickner, Astrid; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, László; Rosengarten, Renate; Szostak, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. It was also shown that this mycoplasma can survive and multiply intracellularly for at least 48 h and that this cell invasion capacity contributes to the systemic spread of M. gallisepticum from the respiratory tract to the inner organs. Using the gentamicin invasion assay and a differential immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to demonstrate in in vitro experiments that M. gallisepticum is also capable of invading sheep and chicken erythrocytes. The frequencies of invasion of three well-defined M. gallisepticum strains were examined over a period of 24 h, and a significant increase in invasiveness occurred after 8 h of infection. In addition, blood samples derived from chickens experimentally infected via the aerosol route with the virulent strain M. gallisepticum Rlow were analyzed. Surprisingly, M. gallisepticum Rlow was detected in the bloodstream of infected chickens by nested PCR, as well as by differential immunofluorescence and interference contrast microscopy that showed that mycoplasmas were not only on the surface but also inside chicken erythrocytes. This finding provides novel insight into the pathomechanism of M. gallisepticum and may have implications for the development of preventive strategies. PMID:17954728

  3. Mycoplasma gallisepticum invades chicken erythrocytes during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Gunther; Plaickner, Astrid; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, László; Rosengarten, Renate; Szostak, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. It was also shown that this mycoplasma can survive and multiply intracellularly for at least 48 h and that this cell invasion capacity contributes to the systemic spread of M. gallisepticum from the respiratory tract to the inner organs. Using the gentamicin invasion assay and a differential immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to demonstrate in in vitro experiments that M. gallisepticum is also capable of invading sheep and chicken erythrocytes. The frequencies of invasion of three well-defined M. gallisepticum strains were examined over a period of 24 h, and a significant increase in invasiveness occurred after 8 h of infection. In addition, blood samples derived from chickens experimentally infected via the aerosol route with the virulent strain M. gallisepticum R(low) were analyzed. Surprisingly, M. gallisepticum R(low) was detected in the bloodstream of infected chickens by nested PCR, as well as by differential immunofluorescence and interference contrast microscopy that showed that mycoplasmas were not only on the surface but also inside chicken erythrocytes. This finding provides novel insight into the pathomechanism of M. gallisepticum and may have implications for the development of preventive strategies.

  4. Textural characteristics of fresh and frozen meat chicken and turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Momchilovа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the structural characteristics of the texture of chilled and frozen meat of chickens and turkeys. The object of the study were chicken and turkey breast and legs frozen and refrigerated. Research was carried out using two methods - the analysis of the profile of texture (TPA and shear Warner-Bratzler (WB. The total chemical composition determined by methods: total protein - Kjeldahl, carbohydrates, fats and total ash down in the relevant known methods. Samples have similar protein containing identical anatomical sites, have some differences in the content of fat and minerals. The results show that the water content of the turkey breasts and legs lower than with the chicken at about equal protein content. According to analysis of variance (ANOVA, a statistical difference was observed between the shear forces of refrigerated and frozen chicken legs, but no significant differences in the results of the shear characteristics of the refrigerated and frozen chicken breast samples were detected. Parameters produced by Warner-Bratzler correlates well with the characteristics of strength, hardness and wiry, obtained by texture profile analysis. The results indicate that the test samples have different textural characteristics depending on the type of meat and the thermal state. Methods of Warner-Bratzler and ATP method in combination with others, may be used to determine in which the thermal state (chilled or frozen were meat turkey and chicken.

  5. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  6. Veiculação de Campylobacter spp. através de carne e miúdos de frangos comercializados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil | Transmission of Campylobacter spp. through chicken meat and organs sold in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Martins Campos

    2015-02-01

    refrigerated chicken were collected; 19 of these were industrially packed and 21 were manipulated in the supermarkets. The samples were subjected to analysis using three different methodologies: in natura, by enrichment, and by incubation of the rinse water. The results revealed the presence of zoonotic, antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter species in chicken meat marketed for human consumption, indicating that raw or undercooked chicken pieces and organs are potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  7. Evaluation of Biocompatibility of an Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive System Based in Tertiary Butanol Applied in Deep Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilvanely Cardoso; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system based in tertiary butanol applied in deep cavity human teeth with approximately 1 mm of remaining dentin by observing histological changes of the pulp tissue of humans at intervals of 01, 07, 14 and 21 days. Twenty third molars with indication for xtraction from patients of both sexes, presenting no systemic alterations were used. Class I cavity was made deeper and then, XP BOND adhesive system and resin Filtek Z250 were applied. The sample was divided into four groups according to the time intervals between the application of adhesive system and extraction. Morphologic criteria analysed considered the presence of hyperemia, type of inflammatory cell response, organization of odontoblast cells layer, organization of pulp tissue and the presence or absence of bacteria. Data were submitted to Fisher Exact Test p> 0.05. We observed mild inflammatory infiltrate, preserved pulp tissue morphology, disorganization of the odontoblast layer in most specimens, as well as absence of bacteria at the intervals of 01, 07, 14 and 21 days. In some cases there was pulp hyperemia. The etchand- rinse adhesive system based in tertiary butanol showed satisfactory behavior in the conditions studied.

  8. Bonding efficacy of etch-and-rinse adhesives after dentin biomodification using ethanol saturation and collagen cross-linker pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pallavi; Nagpal, Rajni; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Manuja, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether the application of two simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives to biomodified dentin using ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) and collagen cross-linker (CCL) pretreatment improves their sealing ability. In 176 extracted human molars, the pulp-chambers were deroofed, and teeth were sectioned horizontally. Samples were randomly divided into eight groups according to four bonding techniques using two simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives; Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB) and XP Bond (XPB). The bonding protocols included: (a) Water-wet bonding (WWB); (b) EWB; (c) WWB and CCL application; (d) EWB and CCL application. After composite resin restorations, dye leakage evaluation and scanning electron microscope analysis were done. Leakage scores were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of P adhesives, least dye leakage was observed in EWB groups (b and d) (P = 0.918 and P = 0.399 respectively) which showed no significant difference, while maximum leakage scores were seen in WWB groups (a and c). Regardless of CCL application and adhesives used, EWB technique depicted (P = 0.003 and P = 0.004) significantly greater sealing ability than WWB. Bonding of ASB and XPB using EWB significantly improved their sealing ability. Biomodification using CCL pretreatment had no significant effect on the sealing ability of adhesives bonded with either WWB or EWB.

  9. Dual-cured etch-and-rinse adhesive systems increase the bond durability of direct coronal dentin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, B C D; Vilela, A R R C; da Silva-Junior, C A; Souza-Junior, E J; Sinhoreti, M A C; Pinheiro, F H S L; Braz, R; Montes, M A J R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the bond durability of dentin restorations bonded with light- or dual-cured etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. A three-step adhesive system (Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus), an acetone-based two-step adhesive system (Prime & Bond 2.1), and an ethanol-based two-step adhesive system (Excite) were tested. Both the light- and the dual-cured versions were evaluated. High C-factor dentin cavities were prepared on 120 bovine incisors, which were then restored with resin composite (n=10). The samples were stored in water for 24 hours, and half of them were subjected to additional degradation with 10% NaOCl for five hours. The push-out bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine until failure. Failure modes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (padhesive system presented a higher immediate bond strength and durability than those that were light cured. The three-step adhesive system produced the highest values, whereas the acetone-based adhesive system produced the lowest result. Therefore, the use of dual-cured etch-and-rinse adhesive systems can induce increased bond durability to direct coronal dentin restorations.

  10. The Effect of a Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Upper-Body Muscular Strength and Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, James E; Phillips, Shaun M

    2017-07-01

    Dunkin, JE and Phillips, SM. The effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1948-1953, 2017-Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing rapidly increases corticomotor output and maximal muscle force production, which could enhance muscular strength and endurance during resistance exercise. However, previous research has found no effect of CHO rinsing on muscular strength or endurance. The current study altered the CHO rinse composition and frequency and the muscular endurance test to further investigate the effects of a CHO mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance. Twelve recreationally resistance-trained men (mean ± SD age 22 ± 1 year, height 179.2 ± 1.8 cm, body mass 80.9 ± 6.1 kg) completed a bench press protocol (1 repetition maximum [RM] test followed by repetitions to failure at 40% of 1RM) on 3 occasions. Subjects rinsed 25 ml of an 18% CHO solution or a placebo for 10 seconds before 1RM and repetitions to failure and completed a no-rinse control condition. Felt arousal (FA) was measured before and after each rinse, heart rate (HR) was measured before and after both exercise protocols, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after repetitions to failure. Rinsing did not influence 1RM (p = 0.680, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.03), repetitions to failure (p = 0.677, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.04), or exercise volume (load × reps; p = 0.600, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.05). There were no significant treatment effects on heart rate (p = 0.677, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.04), FA (p = 0.674, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.04) or rating of perceived exertion (p = 0.604, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.05). A CHO mouth rinse does not improve upper-body muscular strength or endurance.

  11. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (pdietary fiber (pdietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  12. The autopsy of chicken nuggets reads "chicken little".

    Science.gov (United States)

    deShazo, Richard D; Bigler, Steven; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2013-11-01

    To determine the contents of chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains. Chicken nuggets have become a major component of the American diet. We sought to determine the current composition of this highly processed food. Randomly selected nuggets from 2 different national fast food chains were fixed in formalin, sectioned and stained for microscopic analysis. Striated muscle (chicken meat) was not the predominate component in either nugget. Fat was present in equal or greater quantities along with epithelium, bone, nerve, and connective tissue. Chicken nuggets are mostly fat, and their name is a misnomer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Enhances High Intensity Time Trial Performance Following Prolonged Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Luden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence that mouth rinsing with carbohydrate (CHO solutions can enhance endurance performance (≥30 min. The impact of a CHO mouth rinse on sprint performance has been less consistent, suggesting that CHO may confer benefits in conditions of ‘metabolic strain’. To test this hypothesis, the current study examined the impact of late-exercise mouth rinsing on sprint performance. Secondly, we investigated the effects of a protein mouth rinse (PRO on performance. Eight trained male cyclists participated in three trials consisting of 120 min of constant-load cycling (55% Wmax followed by a 30 km computer-simulated time trial, during which only water was provided. Following 15 min of muscle function assessment, 10 min of constant-load cycling (3 min at 35% Wmax, 7 min at 55% Wmax was performed. This was immediately followed by a 2 km time trial. Subjects rinsed with 25 mL of CHO, PRO, or placebo (PLA at min 5:00 and 14:30 of the 15 min muscle function phase, and min 8:00 of the 10-min constant-load cycling. Magnitude-based inferential statistics were used to analyze the effects of the mouth rinse on 2-km time trial performance and the following physiological parameters: Maximum Voluntary Contract (MVC, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, Heart Rate (HR, and blood glucose levels. The primary finding was that CHO ‘likely’ enhanced performance vs. PLA (3.8%, whereas differences between PRO and PLA were unclear (0.4%. These data demonstrate that late-race performance is enhanced by a CHO rinse, but not PRO, under challenging metabolic conditions. More data should be acquired before this strategy is recommended for the later stages of cycling competition under more practical conditions, such as when carbohydrates are supplemented throughout the preceding minutes/hours of exercise.

  14. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  15. Salivary pH after a glucose rinse: effect of a new mucoadhesive spray (Cariex) based on sodium bicarbonate and xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, G M; Levrini, L; Caria, M P

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether sodium bicarbonate applied on the oral mucosa through a new mucoadhesive spray (Cariex) could control a drop in salivary pH after a glucose rinse, and therefore enhance the buffering potential of saliva. A sample of 50 healthy adults was selected. At day 1, the measurement of salivary pH was performed in the lower fornix in correspondence with the lower molars. Each subject rinsed with 10 ml of a 10% glucose solution and then pH was monitored continually for 40 minutes. At day 2, the same experimental procedure was repeated and three shots of the spray were administered on the oral mucosa. The tested spray is composed of sodium bicarbonate, xylitol, and excipients. Without the mucoadhesive spray, salivary pH became significantly lower following the glucose rinse (p < 0.01). Following the spray, the time in which the pH remained lower than 6.0 was reduced statistically significantly (p < 0.01). A continual rise of salivary pH was observed for the 40 minutes in which the pH recording was performed. Conclusions: The use of a sodium bicarbonate spray on the mucosa was shown to control the lowering of salivary pH following carbohydrate consumption, and might therefore add to the prevention of caries and dental erosion.

  16. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study on the clinical and microbial effects of an essential oil mouth rinse used by patients in supportive periodontal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, J; Princen, K; Miremadi, R; Decat, E; Vaneechoutte, M; De Bruyn, H

    2013-02-01

    This 3-month double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study evaluated the clinical and microbial effects of an essential oil mouth rinse used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control by patients in supportive periodontal care. Fifty patients were randomly allocated to an essential oil group (Listerine(®) Coolmint; Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ, USA) or placebo group to rinse twice per day as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control. At baseline and after 3 months, plaque index (PI), gingivitis index (GI), probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing (BoP) and clinical attachment level were registered. Subgingival plaque samples were collected for the detection and quantification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Micromonas micros, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium genus and Streptococcus mutans by means of real-time PCR (qPCR). Patient's compliance, satisfaction and side effects were registered. Twenty-three patients in the essential oil group (mean age: 57) and 21 in the placebo group (mean age: 55) with acceptable oral hygiene at intake (mean PI patients. Patients in supportive periodontal care who are fairly compliant with oral hygiene may not benefit from additional mouth rinsing using an essential oil solution. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  18. Chocolate mouth rinse: Effect on plaque accumulation and mutans streptococci counts when used by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, R K; Shashikiran, N D; Subba Reddy, V V

    2008-06-01

    Glucosyltransferases (GTF) play an important role in the adherence of bacteria to acquired pellicle. Cocoa bean husk extract (CBHE) has been shown to possess anti-glucosyltransferase and antibacterial activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CBHE on plaque accumulation and mutans streptococcus count when used as a mouth rinse by children. Scaling of the teeth of the selected children was done and the children were instructed to refrain from their routine oral hygiene practices till the morning of the fourth day; they were instead given a placebo mouth rinse for use during this period. On the fourth day, saliva was collected from each subject for microbiological analysis and plaque was disclosed and scored using the modified Quigley and Hein plaque index; later, the teeth were cleaned. After 1 week, scaling of the subjects was done and they were given CBHE mouth rinse to rinse their mouth, following the above protocol. The data was statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. There was a 20.9% decrease in mutans streptococci counts and a 49.6% decrease in plaque scores in the CBHE group as compared to the placebo group, which was highly significant (P value Conclusion: CBHE is highly effective in reducing mutans streptococci counts and plaque deposition when used as a mouth rinse by children.

  19. Chocolate mouth rinse: Effect on plaque accumulation and mutans streptococci counts when used by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucosyltransferases (GTF play an important role in the adherence of bacteria to acquired pellicle. Cocoa bean husk extract (CBHE has been shown to possess anti-glucosyltransferase and antibacterial activity. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CBHE on plaque accumulation and mutans streptococcus count when used as a mouth rinse by children. Materials and Methods: Scaling of the teeth of the selected children was done and the children were instructed to refrain from their routine oral hygiene practices till the morning of the fourth day; they were instead given a placebo mouth rinse for use during this period. On the fourth day, saliva was collected from each subject for microbiological analysis and plaque was disclosed and scored using the modified Quigley and Hein plaque index; later, the teeth were cleaned. After 1 week, scaling of the subjects was done and they were given CBHE mouth rinse to rinse their mouth, following the above protocol. The data was statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon′s signed rank test. Results: There was a 20.9% decrease in mutans streptococci counts and a 49.6% decrease in plaque scores in the CBHE group as compared to the placebo group, which was highly significant (P value < 0.001. Conclusion: CBHE is highly effective in reducing mutans streptococci counts and plaque deposition when used as a mouth rinse by children.

  20. Chicken Domestication and Indigenous Chicken Breeds of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chicken was domesticated in South Asia in 2000 BC and then spread around the world .The red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus was the ancestor of the chicken. In consequence of long years of domestication and breeding activities, chickens were scattered over various countries, continents and regions. As a result, today there are many chicken breeds in the world. Native breeds are thought to be crossbreds of various breeds brought to Turkey in different time periods. It is difficult to predict when and how the hybridization has been taken shape, because Anatolia has been a passage for a variety of tribes since ancient times. Indigenous chicken breeds in Turkey are Gerze, Sultan and the most well-known Denizli.

  1. Carcass composition of Venda indigenous scavenging chickens under village management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raphulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four Venda indigenous scavenging (VIS chickens (one young male and one young female of 10–16 weeks of age, a mature cockerel and a mature hen were randomly purchased from each of six adjacent rural villages during three different seasons (autumn, winter and spring to determine the meat yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 72 chickens were slaughtered and feathers, head, neck, viscera, feet and lungs were removed. The live body weight, dressed carcass weight and also the mass of the breast without wings, thighs and drumsticks were recorded with bones and skin. The muscle tissues of the breast and both legs without tendons and fat were sampled for chemical analysis and were analysed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and ash. The carcass weight, dressing %, mass of the breast, mass of the thighs, mass of the drumsticks, breast yield, thighs yield and drumsticks yield of both grower and adult VIS chickens were not influenced by season. The crude protein of the grower chickens breast muscles and fat content of the adult chicken leg muscles differed with season. The meat from VIS chickens provided a constant nutrient (crude protein supply throughout the year to the rural communities.

  2. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  3. Microbiological assessment of effects of clinical mouth rinses on common oral microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Taiji; Honda-Ogawa, Mariko; Ikebe, Kazunori; Kawabata, Shigetada; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Dry mouth occurs frequently in aged individuals, as well as in patients who are hospitalized, receiving multiple drugs, undergoing radiation treatment to the head and neck, or wearing a removable denture prosthesis, use of mouth rinse being often an option for relief. In the present study, we performed microbiological assessments of subjects given three different commercially available mouth rinses commonly employed in clinical practice (Peptisal, Biotène, ConCool) to determine their effects. For bacterial clearance in vitro, Peptisal showed the highest level of suppression of oral indigenous bacteria found in both planktonic formations and biofilm. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these agents on biofilm formation on acrylic resin plates were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Again, Peptisal proved superior, because acquisition of resistance to antimicrobial peptides by a sensitive microbial strain was rarely observed. We conclude that Peptisal is an effective mouth rinse for clearance of planktonic and biofilm microorganisms present in the oral cavity.

  4. Use of Culture, PCR Analysis, and DNA Microarrays for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Chicken Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens; Bunkenborg, Henrik; Telleman, Pieter; Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp. detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter je...

  5. Different levels of natural antibodies in chickens divergently selected for specific antibody responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, H.K.; Lammers, A.; Hoekman, J.J.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Zaanen, I.T.A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the presence of Natural antibodies in plasma samples from individual birds from selected chicken lines at young and old age. Binding, specificity, and relative affinity to various antigens were determined in plasma from non-immunized female chickens at 5 weeks of age, and in plasma

  6. The incidence of mycotoxins litter, feed, and livers of chickens in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Br has been shown, in laboratory trials, to be one of the most toxic and to cause a number of disease conditions ... products was investigated during 1982/83. Samples of chicken litter, feed, and liver ... Table 1 Incidence of mycotoxins in chicken feed, litter, and liver in cases of broiler disease. Aflatoxin HI. Other mycotoxinsb.

  7. Assessing Chicken Meat Freshness through Measurement of Radio-Frequency Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Change in freshness of chicken meat was assessed through measurement of the dielectric properties with a vector network analyzer and an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at 23 oC. Chicken meat samples were stored in a refrigerator for 8 days at 4 oC. Changes in dielectric cons...

  8. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  9. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168, w...

  10. Analysis of multi-class preservatives in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics by matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2011-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of multi-class preservatives in a wide variety of cosmetic samples including rinse-off and leave-on products. After extraction, derivatization with acetic anhydride, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were performed. Optimization studies were done on real non-spiked and spiked leave-on and rinse-off cosmetic samples. The selection of the most suitable extraction conditions was made using statistical tools such as ANOVA, as well as factorial experimental designs. The final optimized conditions were common for both groups of cosmetics and included the dispersion of the sample with Florisil (1:4), and the elution of the MSPD column with 5 mL of hexane/acetone (1:1). After derivatization, the extract was analyzed without any further clean-up or concentration step. Accuracy, precision, linearity and detection limits were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. The recovery studies on leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics gave satisfactory values (>78% for all analytes in all the samples) with an average relative standard deviation value of 4.2%. The quantification limits were well below those set by the international cosmetic regulations, making this multi-component analytical method suitable for routine control. The analysis of a broad range of cosmetics including body milk, moisturizing creams, anti-stretch marks creams, hand creams, deodorant, shampoos, liquid soaps, makeup, sun milk, hand soaps, among others, demonstrated the high use of most of the target preservatives, especially butylated hydroxytoluene, methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben.

  11. Graft rinse prior to reperfusion in liver transplantation: literature review and online survey within the Eurotransplant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Philipp; Manzini, Giulia; Kremer, Michael; Arend, Joerg; Berlakovich, Gabriela A; Klar, Ernst; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Lerut, Jan; Otto, Gerd; Pirenne, Jacques; Rogiers, Xavier; Seehofer, Daniel; Stippel, Dirk L; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Graft rinse prior reperfusion in liver transplantation (LT) is believed to reduce the incidence of postreperfusion syndrome and improve clinical outcome. A MEDLINE search was performed to obtain a comprehensive review of the published literature dealing with graft rinse in LT. Moreover, all thirty-four LT centers in the Eurotransplant (ET) region were invited to participate in an online survey to whether or not graft rinse is performed and whether further research in the field is needed. Seventeen reports have been found to investigate graft rinse protocols in 1894 LT recipients. Eighteen of the thirty centers that participated in the online survey performed graft rinse prior reperfusion in LT. The most commonly used rinse solution was albumin. Nineteen centers stated interest in participating in a multicenter RCT in the field. The published literature does not provide concluding appraisal of the benefit of graft rinse in LT. Graft rinse protocols are not standardized and are based on personal experience. Appropriately designed clinical trials addressing the topic are demanded. The online survey appears to be a helpful tool for the evaluation of clinical practice and future research topics in the transplant community. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Comparison of an automated most-probable-number technique with traditional plating methods for estimating populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli associated with freshly processed broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J E; Stern, N J; Oakley, B B; Seal, B S

    2011-09-01

    An instrument (TEMPO) has been developed to automate the most-probable-number (MPN) technique and reduce the effort required to estimate some bacterial populations. We compared the automated MPN technique with traditional microbiological plating methods and Petrifilm methods for estimating the total viable count of aerobic microorganisms (TVC), total coliforms (CC), and Escherichia coli populations (EC) on freshly processed broiler chicken carcasses (postchill whole carcass rinse [WCR] samples) and cumulative drip-line samples from a commercial broiler processing facility. Overall, 120 broiler carcasses, 36 prechill drip-line samples, and 40 postchill drip-line samples were collected over 5 days (representing five individual flocks) and analyzed by the automated MPN and direct agar plating and Petrifilm methods. The TVC correlation coefficient between the automated MPN and traditional methods was very high (0.972) for the prechill drip samples, which had mean log-transformed values of 3.09 and 3.02, respectively. The TVC correlation coefficient was lower (0.710) for the postchill WCR samples, which had lower mean log values of 1.53 and 1.31, respectively. Correlations between the methods for the prechill CC and EC samples were 0.812 and 0.880, respectively. The estimated number of total aerobes was generally greater than the total number of coliforms or E. coli recovered for all sample types (P < 2e⁻¹⁶). Significantly more bacteria were recovered from the prechill samples than from the postchill WCR or cumulative drip samples (P < 9.5e⁻¹² and P < 2e⁻¹⁶, respectively). When samples below the limit of detection were excluded, 92.1% of the total responses were within a single log difference between the traditional plating or Petrifilm methods and the automated MPN method.

  13. The effect of short-time microwave exposures on Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto chicken meat portions and whole chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, I; Papadopoulou, C; Levidiotou, S; Ioannides, K

    2005-05-01

    Small portions of fresh chicken breasts weighting 20 g each and fresh whole chickens, weighting on average 1310 g each, were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (10(5)-10(6) cfu/g) and cooked, using two different domestic microwave ovens at full power. The chicken portions were heated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 s and the whole chickens for 22 min. Following exposures, viable counts and temperature measurements were performed. Although the chicken breast portions looked well-cooked after 30 s of MW heating at a mean end-point surface temperature of 69.8 degrees C, a mean concentration of 83 cfu/g E. coli O157:H7 cells was recovered. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 cells occurred only after 35 s of MW exposure at 73.7 degrees C. When whole chickens were thoroughly cooked by MW heating, the final subsurface temperatures, measured in the thighs and wings, ranged from 60.2 degrees C to 92 degrees C and viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 were recovered from all samples of whole chicken. The results indicate that short time exposures of chicken portions to microwave heating do not eliminate E. coli O157:H7.

  14. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  15. Optical diffusion property of chicken tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Patricia S.; Flamholz, Alex; Wong, Peter K.; Lieberman, David H.; Cheung, Tak D.; Itoka, Harriet; Minott, Troy; Quizhpi, Janie; Rodriguez, Jacquelin

    2004-11-01

    Chicken tissue acts as a turbid medium in optical wavelength. Optical characterization data of fresh chicken dark and white meat were studied using the theory of light diffusion. The gaussian-like transmission profile was used to determine the transport mean free path and absorption. The refractive index, a fundamental parameter, was extracted via transmission correlation function analysis without using index-matching fluid. The variation in refractive index also produced various small shifts in the oscillatory feature of the intensity spatial correlation function at distance shorter than the transport mean free path. The optical system was calibrated with porous silicate slabs containing different water contents and also with a solid alumina slab. The result suggested that the selective scattering/absorption of myoglobin and mitochondria in the dark tissues is consistent with the transmission data. The refractive index was similar for dark and white tissues at the He-Ne wavelength and suggested that the index could serve as a marker for quality control. Application to chicken lunchmeat samples revealed that higher protein and lower carbohydrate would shift the correlation toward smaller distance. The pure fat refractive index was different from that of the meat tissue. Application of refractive index as a fat marker is also discussed

  16. Bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Fegan, Narelle; Stuttard, Ed

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets manufactured at a chicken processing facility in Queensland, Australia, was determined. Chicken nuggets are manufactured by grinding poultry, adding premixes to incorporate spices, forming the meat to the desired size and shape, applying a batter and breading, freezing, and packaging. A total of 300 frozen batches were analyzed for aerobic plate count, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella over a period of 4 years. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 5.4 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 5.7, 5.9, and 6.5 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of bacteria detected was 6.6 log CFU/g. E. coli prevalence was 47%, and of the positive samples, the mean was 1.9 log CFU/g; counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 2.3, 2.4, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of E. coli was 2.9 log CFU/g. The Salmonella prevalence was 8.7%, and 57.7% of these isolates were typed as Salmonella subspecies II 4,12,[27]:b:[e,n,x] (Sofia), a low-virulence serotype well adapted to Australian poultry flocks. There was a significant relationship (P nuggets.

  17. Method for reprocessing and recycling of aqueous rinsing liquids from car painting with water-based paints in automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Walter; Dinglreiter, Udo

    2011-08-01

    In the paint processes of modern car plants the paint to be applied on the car bodies change after every few numbers. In order to avoid intermixtures of different lacquers the application systems has to be cleaned before every change by means of a rinsing liquid. Water based lacquers require water based cleaning agents. For these rinsing waters a new recycling process based on an evaporation process, a fractionated condensation and an after treatment of the condensates is described. The compatibility of the recycled system for lacquers is investigated. After a test with ten recycling loops no accumulation of harmful substances occurs. In comparison to original agents the recycled rinsing liquids show comparable or better cleaning abilities. The comparison of the energy consumption and the disposal of CO2 and of volatile organic compounds between the application of fresh rinsing liquid with disposal after usage and recycled rinsing liquid show major advantages of the recycling process.

  18. An Assay in Microtitre Plates for Absolute Abundance of Chicken Interferon Alpha Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Novak Kujundžić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppression of commercial chickens is a serious animal health and economic problem in the poultry industry. The major causes of the immunosuppression are viruses that suppress transcription of interferon genes, especially interferon alpha. There is a need for monitoring immunosuppression in commercially bred chickens. For this purpose, the absolute abundance of interferon alpha transcripts can be measured in blood of chickens by a suitable assay. Such an assay was used to estimate abundance of chicken interferon alpha in a sample of splenic cells induced with polyinosinic polycytidylic acid. The abundance measured was 29 ± 2 attomoles/µg total RNA. This assay can be performed in microtitre plates using samples collected from chickens in poultry houses.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the whitening effect of mouth rinses containing hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleaching effect of two mouth rinses containing hydrogen peroxide. Thirty premolars were randomly divided into two groups (n = 15: Listerine Whitening (LW and Colgate Plax Whitening (PW. The teeth were fixed on a wax plate and with acrylic resin, at a distance of 5 mm between each other, exposing the buccal surfaces. All teeth were stored in artificial saliva for 45 days, being removed twice a day to be immersed for 1 min in each mouthwash, followed by 10-second washing in tap water. The pH of each product was measured. Digital images of each tooth were captured under standardized conditions. These images were cut in areas previously demarcated and analyzed in Adobe Photoshop 7.0 using the CIEL*a*b* color space system. Data were statistically analyzed by a paired t test and an independent samples t test (p < 0.05. The pH values were 5.6 and 3.4 for LW and PW, respectively. Both treatment groups showed a decrease in the b* parameter (p < 0.01, but a decrease of a* was observed only for PW (p < 0.01. While the LW group showed an improvement in lightness (L* (p = 0.03, the PW group had a decrease in the L* parameter (p = 0.02. Within the limitations of this study, it is possible to conclude that both products caused some degree of whitening; however, extreme care should be taken when using Colgate Plax Whitening, since its decline in luminosity might be due to its lower pH.

  20. Genetic diversity in some local chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 100 DNA samples from 2 local chicken breeds (45 Robusta Lionata and 43 Robusta Maculata and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.05 and the expected heterozigosity resulted lower for the local breeds than the broiler line. The Robusta Lionata breed and the broiler line showed a significant deficit and excess of heterozygotes, respectively, deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, were calculated among breeds. The local breeds resulted very similar confirming the same genetic origin. The results suggested that microsatellite markers are a useful tool for studying the genetic diversity among local chicken breeds.

  1. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat Sold in İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kemal BÜYÜKÜNAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are some of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. They are mainly considered as foodborne pathogens that are found in raw or undercooked poultry and serve as an important source of sporadic campylobacteriosis. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 176 samples of chicken meat were analyzed using PCM and BAX® system. The samples analyzed included: 56 samples of whole chicken, 27 samples of chicken breast, 33 samples of chicken thigh, 25 samples of chicken drumstick and 35 samples of chicken wings. Samples of all the fresh chicken meat sold in İstanbul were randomly purchased from different major supermarkets in their original, individual packages. Laboratory analyses to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were performed in accordance with the ISO 10272-1, 2006 standard (qualitative analysis. API® Campy (BioMerieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France was used for the confirmation of presumptive colonies. Campylobacter isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the disc diffusion method as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Zones of growth inhibition were evaluated according to the NCCLS standards. Using PCM, the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari was determined as 15.34, 8.52 and 1.7%, respectively. However, using BAX® system, the prevalence was determined as 15.90, 18.75 and 1.7% for C. coli, C. jejuni and C. lari, respectively. C. coli was resistant to nalidixic acid (78.57%, ofloxacin (14.29% norfloxacin (10.71% and ampicillin (10.71%. But the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (90.91% for C. jejuni and (100% for C. lari. In conclusion, considering the public health, chicken meat is a common source for Campylobacter strains and antibiotics should be used carefully in veterinary medicine.

  2. Express quality control of chicken eggs by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Arbuzova, Evgeniia A.

    2017-06-01

    The urgency of the task of analyzing the foodstuffs quality is determined by the strategy for the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the rational nutrition of the world population. This applies to products, such as chicken eggs. In particular, it is necessary to control the chicken eggs quality at the farm production prior to incubation in order to eliminate the possible hereditary diseases, as well as high embryonic mortality and a sharp decrease in the quality of the bred young. Up to this day, in the market there are no objective instruments of contactless express quality control as analytical equipment that allow the high-precision quality examination of the chicken eggs, which is determined by the color parameters of the eggshell (color uniformity) and yolk of eggs, and by the presence in the eggshell of various defects (cracks, growths, wrinkles, dirty). All mentioned features are usually evaluated only visually (subjectively) with the help of normalized color standards and ovoscopes. Therefore, this work is devoted to the investigation of the application opportunities of contactless express control method with the help of technical vision to implement the chicken eggs' quality analysis. As a result of the studies, a prototype with the appropriate software was proposed. Experimental studies of this equipment on a representative sample of eggs from chickens of different breeds have been carried out (the total number of analyzed samples exceeds 300 pieces). The correctness of the color analysis was verified by spectrophotometric studies of the surface of the eggshell.

  3. Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Meat in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Zarfel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA, and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48% of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes.

  4. Does Rinsing Following Particle Deposition Methods Have a Negative Effect on Adhesion to Titanium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekkan, Gurel; Khan, Ashkan; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated whether air blasting or rinsing particle remnants with water would impair adhesion of resin composite to metal. Materials and Methods: Commercially pure titanium plates (1 mm x 25 mm x 50 mm) were wet polished down to 1200-grit silicone carbide abrasive and

  5. The effects of rinsing red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. juice on Streptococcus sp. dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Setyorini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The early attachment process of plaque formation is dominated by Streptococcus sp. Chemical antiplaque agent can optimize plaque control. Material and Methods : Materials of antiplaque have side effects, so it is necessary to do research of alternative antiplaque materials. One of them use red beet root because contain some antibacterial substance. The aim of this study was examine the effectiveness of rinsing red beetroot juice to Streptococcus sp. on dental plaque. Results : This study was a quasi-experimental research with the post test only control group design. Subjects were 27 students from Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jember who fulfilled the criteria, have been scalled, and given the knowledge of how to rinse. The subjects were divided into three groups, and instructed to rinse for 30 seconds using chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%, distilled water, and red beet root juice. Plaque were taken at the buccal maxillary first molar. Plaque were diluted and planted on streptococcus media for 24 hours, the number of colonies counted using colony counter. Analysis of One-Way ANOVA have significance 0.000, means decreased the number of Streptococcus sp. Conclusion : Rinsing red beet root juice was effective to decrease the number of Streptococcus sp. on dental plaque.

  6. Genotoxicity of non-alcoholic mouth rinses: A micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities study with fluorescent microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbakula, Karteek; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Jose, Maji

    2017-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of non-alcoholic mouth rinses on buccal epithelial cells using a micronucleus test. A total of 105 patients were selected and randomly divided into five groups. Four different mouth rinses and normal saline were given for 2 weeks' duration, and cytological smears were collected before and after exposure. These smears were subjected to micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (ONA) tests using acridine orange stain, and their frequencies were obtained in 500 buccal epithelial cells. The statistical analysis included mean, χ 2 -test, analysis of variance, and post-hoc analysis by Bonferroni test. Micronucleated cells (P < .00) and MN (P < .00) were higher in individuals exposed to chlorhexidine (CHX), followed by chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ), potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ), and sodium fluoride (NaF), amine fluoride (AmF), and normal saline. ONA were greater (P < .00) in individuals exposed to CHX, followed by ClO 2 , AmF, KNO 3 , and NaF and normal saline. Overall, the results showed that genotoxic damage was greater in the case of CHX, followed by ClO 2 , KNO 3 , and NaF, AmF, and normal saline. Chronic exposure to mouth rinses can cause genotoxic damage to buccal epithelial cells. Long-term injudicious and inadvertent use of mouth rinses should be discouraged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Microtensile bond strength of etch and rinse versus self-etch adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; Samra, Nagia R; Badawi, Manal F

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of the etch and rinse adhesive versus one-component or two-component self-etch adhesives. Twelve intact human molar teeth were cleaned and the occlusal enamel of the teeth was removed. The exposed dentin surfaces were polished and rinsed, and the adhesives were applied. A microhybride composite resin was applied to form specimens of 4 mm height and 6 mm diameter. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce dentin-resin composite sticks, with an adhesive area of approximately 1.4 mm(2). The sticks were subjected to tensile loading until failure occurred. The debonded areas were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the site of failure. The results showed that the microtensile bond strength of the etch and rinse adhesive was higher than that of one-component or two-component self-etch adhesives. The scanning electron microscope examination of the dentin surfaces revealed adhesive and mixed modes of failure. The adhesive mode of failure occurred at the adhesive/dentin interface, while the mixed mode of failure occurred partially in the composite and partially at the adhesive/dentin interface. It was concluded that the etch and rinse adhesive had higher microtensile bond strength when compared to that of the self-etch adhesives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Effects on Exercise Capacity in Pre- and Postprandial States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie-J. M. Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oropharyngeal receptors signal presence of carbohydrate to the brain. Mouth rinses with a carbohydrate solution facilitate corticomotor output and improve time-trial performance in well-trained subjects in a fasted state. We tested for this effect in nonathletic subjects in fasted and nonfasted state. Methods. 13 healthy non-athletic males performed 5 tests on a cycle ergometer. After measuring maximum power output (Wmax, the subjects cycled four times at 60% Wmax until exhaustion while rinsing their mouth every 5 minutes with either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution or water, one time after an overnight fast and another after a carbohydrate rich breakfast. Results. Mouth rinsing with maltodextrin improved time-to-exhaustion in pre- and postprandial states. This was accompanied by reductions in the average and maximal rates of perceived exertion but no change in average or maximal heart rate was observed. Conclusions. Carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves endurance capacity in both fed and fasted states in non-athletic subjects.

  9. Selection and evaluation of adsorbents for the removal of anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, N.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Low-cost adsorbents were tested to remove anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water to allow re-use of water. Adsorbents were selected corresponding to the different surfactant adsorption mechanisms. Equilibrium adsorption studies of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) show that ionic

  10. Short-term storage stability of NaOCl solutions when combined with Dual Rinse HEDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, A; Mohn, D; Zeltner, M; Zehnder, M

    2017-11-09

    To assess the stability of NaOCl solutions when combined with a novel product for clinical use, Dual Rinse HEDP, which contains etidronate (1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonate). Mixtures of NaOCl solutions with Dual Rinse HEDP were prepared so that they initially contained 5.0%, 2.5% or 1.0% NaOCl and always 9.0% of dissolved Dual Rinse HEDP powder per total weight. NaOCl solutions alone were used as controls. The stability of these solutions over 8 h was assessed in transparent borosilicate glass bottles at ambient temperature (23 °C). Subsequently, the effects of heating (60 °C) or storing the solutions at 5 °C were studied in polypropylene syringes. NaOCl concentrations were measured by iodometric titration, that is free available chlorine contents. Experiments were performed in triplicate. In the glass bottles at 23 °C, the 5.0% NaOCl/9.0% Dual Rinse HEDP solution lost 20% of the available chlorine after 1 h, whilst the corresponding 2.5% NaOCl and 1.0% NaOCl solutions retained this relative amount of available chlorine for 2 and 4 h, respectively. Results obtained in the glass bottles were similar to those achieved in the syringes. Heating of the NaOCl/Dual Rinse HEDP mixtures had a detrimental effect on available chlorine, with a complete loss after 1 h. In contrast, storing the NaOCl/Dual Rinse HEDP mixtures in a refrigerator at 5 °C kept the available chlorine high for 7 h, with the expected loss after a further hour of storage at 23 °C. Initial NaOCl concentration and temperature both affected short-term storage stability of combined solutions containing Dual Rinse HEDP. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Application of aziridine reactive rinses in a post-development process to reduce photoresist pattern collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Ming; Lawson, Richard A.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2012-03-01

    One of the problems for lithographic processes at very small feature scales is pattern collapse caused by unbalanced capillary forces experienced by the photoresist patterns during the final deionized water rinse and drying process. The use of surfactants or super critical fluids to reduce collapse problems has been proposed and studied by many research groups. However, the patterns rinsed with low surface tension fluids appear in many cases to shrink or such treatments cause other feature deformations. Super critical fluid processing requires major changes to the ways in which current track systems operate and can result in swelling and deformation of the resist features as well. Instead of utilizing super critical fluids or adding surfactants to the rinse liquid, one general methodology we have pursued for alleviating such pattern collapse problems involves the actual strengthening of the resist feature itself during wet processing in the development and rinse cycle. One method we have investigated extensively is the use of post-development resist surface crosslinking reactions while the resist structures are still in their wet state, a process we term "reactive rinsing". Such reactive rinse processes have shown significant impact on improving resist pattern collapse. However, previous chemistries used for such reactive rinse processes have either: (1) been complex mixtures that potentially have long term stability problems (i.e. thus making their application in a fab environment more difficult) or (2) been specific to a certain resist types in that the chemistries react with only certain resist functional groups that may not be present in all resists of interest (e.g. some chemistries only work with phenolic resins such as those found in DUV or EUV resists). Therefore, the goal of this work has been to investigate other novel reactive rinse chemistries that are both more robust and which can function with different families of resist materials. Poly

  12. Effect of green tea mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva in children: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anil Kumar; Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Meenakshi; Garg, Mamta; Khairwa, Abhishek; Garg, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea catechin as a mouth wash on colony count of Streptococcus mutans in children. A sample size of thirty children was selected out of screened 290 children by simple random sampling between the age group of 7 and 12 years. The study was conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After 24 h of oral prophylaxis, the baseline samples were collected and each group was subjected to mouth rinsing with green tea mouth wash for 2 weeks and further plaque and saliva samples were collected at 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Microbiological analysis of plaque and saliva samples was done by Dentocult SM strip kit (Orion Diagnostica, Finland), and the results were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistically, there was highly significant reduction in S. mutans count in plaque as well as in saliva for after 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Hence, finally, our study showed that green tea catechin is effective as a mouth wash against S. mutans and having better action in plaque as compared to saliva. It can be used as an adjunct to commercially available mouthwashes.

  13. Effect of green tea mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea catechin as a mouth wash on colony count of Streptococcus mutans in children. Materials and Methods: A sample size of thirty children was selected out of screened 290 children by simple random sampling between the age group of 7 and 12 years. The study was conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After 24 h of oral prophylaxis, the baseline samples were collected and each group was subjected to mouth rinsing with green tea mouth wash for 2 weeks and further plaque and saliva samples were collected at 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Microbiological analysis of plaque and saliva samples was done by Dentocult SM strip kit (Orion Diagnostica, Finland, and the results were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Results: Statistically, there was highly significant reduction in S. mutans count in plaque as well as in saliva for after 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Conclusion: Hence, finally, our study showed that green tea catechin is effective as a mouth wash against S. mutans and having better action in plaque as compared to saliva. It can be used as an adjunct to commercially available mouthwashes.

  14. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  15. Supplementing the antimicrobial effects of chemomechanical debridement with either passive ultrasonic irrigation or a final rinse with chlorhexidine: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Simone S M; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Carmo, Flávia L; Ferreira, Dennis C; Curvelo, José Alexandre R; Soares, Rosangela M A; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-09-01

    The ability of 2 different approaches to supplement the antimicrobial effects of chemomechanical debridement in infected root canals was compared in vivo. Samples from necrotic root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis were taken at the baseline (S1), after preparation with rotary nickel-titanium BioRaCe instruments and 2.5% NaOCl irrigation (S2), and then after either passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) for activation of NaOCl (n = 13) or a final rinse with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (n = 14) (S3). The incidence of positive culture for bacteria and fungi as well as positive broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for bacteria, fungi, and archaea was determined. All S1 samples were positive for bacteria in all methods. Fungi were not detected, and archaea occurred in only one S1 sample. Treatment procedures were significantly effective in reducing the incidence of positive culture and PCR results. Although both supplementary approaches reduced the incidence of positive bacteriologic results when compared with postinstrumentation samples, reduction was not statistically significant (P > .05). There was no significant difference for intergroup comparisons either (P > .05). Although supplementary disinfection with either PUI or a final rinse with CHX can reduce the number of cases with positive culture and PCR results for bacteria, many cases still remain with detectable bacteria in the main root canal. Research on alternative or supplementary antimicrobial methods or substances should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Nilay Kulaksız

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate (CHO concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12% after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05. Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05. In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  17. The Influence of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Self-Selected Intermittent Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Ian; Homewood, George; Williams, Clyde; Carter, James; Goosey-Tolfrey, Vicky L

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of mouth rinsing a carbohydrate solution on self-selected intermittent variable-speed running performance. Eleven male amateur soccer players completed a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on 2 occasions separated by 1 wk. The modified LIST allowed the self-selection of running speeds during Block 6 of the protocol (75-90 min). Players rinsed and expectorated 25 ml of noncaloric placebo (PLA) or 10% maltodextrin solution (CHO) for 10 s, routinely during Block 6 of the LIST. Self-selected speeds during the walk and cruise phases of the LIST were similar between trials. Jogging speed was significantly faster during the CHO (11.3 ± 0.7 km · h(-1)) than during the PLA trial (10.5 ± 1.3 km · h(-1)) (p = .010); 15-m sprint speeds were not different between trials (PLA: 2.69 ± 0.18 s: CHO: 2.65 ± 0.13 s) (F(2, 10), p = .157), but significant benefits were observed for sprint distance covered (p = .024). The threshold for the smallest worthwhile change in sprint performance was set at 0.2 s. Inferential statistical analysis showed the chance that CHO mouth rinse was beneficial, negligible, or detrimental to repeated sprint performance was 86%, 10%, and 4%, respectively. In conclusion, mouth rinsing and expectorating a 10% maltodextrin solution was associated with a significant increase in self-selected jogging speed. Repeated 15-m sprint performance was also 86% likely to benefit from routinely mouth rinsing a carbohydrate solution in comparison with a taste-matched placebo.

  18. No effects of ingesting or rinsing sucrose on depleted self-control performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, N B; Lawton, C L; Allen, R; Croden, F; Smith, K; Dye, L

    2016-02-01

    Self-control tasks appear to deplete a limited resource resulting in reduced subsequent self-control performance; a state of ego depletion. Evidence of reduced peripheral glucose by exertion of self-control, and attenuation of ego depletion by carbohydrate metabolism underpins the proposition that this macronutrient provides the energetic source of self-control. However, the demonstration of positive, non-metabolic effects on ego depletion when merely sensing carbohydrates orally contradicts this hypothesis. Recent studies have also failed to support both metabolic and non-metabolic accounts. The effects of ingesting or rinsing a carbohydrate (sucrose) and an artificially sweetened (sucralose) solution on capillary blood and interstitial glucose, and depleted self-control performance were examined in older adults. Forty, healthy, adults (50-65years) ingested and rinsed sucrose and sucralose solutions in a 2 (method)×2 (source), fully counterbalanced, repeated measures, crossover design. Capillary blood and interstitial glucose responses were assayed. Depleted self-control performance (induced by the Bakan visual processing task) on an attention switch task was assessed under each study condition. Ego depletion had no consistent effects on peripheral glucose levels and no significant effects of ingesting or rinsing sucrose on self-control were observed. The act of rinsing the solutions, independent of energetic content, resulted in a small, non-significant enhancement of performance on the attention switch task relative to ingesting the same solutions (RT: p=.05; accuracy: p=.09). In conclusion, a metabolic account of self-control was not supported. Whilst a positive effect of rinsing on depleted self-control performance was demonstrated, this was independent of energetic content. Findings suggest glucose is an unlikely physiological analogue for self-control resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid layers of etch-and-rinse versus self-etching adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, Alberto; Osorio, Raquel; Toledano, Manuel; Ferrari, Marco

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness in the formation of resin tags, adhesive lateral branches and hybrid layers of five adhesive systems, when bonding to dentine. Flat dentin surfaces from 25 molars were bonded with several adhesive systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Composite build-ups were constructed incrementally with Tetric Ceram. The Specimens were sectioned parallel to the long axis. One section was treated with phosphoric acid and sodium hypochlorite in order to reveal the hybrid layer formation. The other section was stored in 30% hydrochloric acid to detect resin tags and adhesive lateral branch formation. The two etch-and-rinse self-priming adhesives exhibited thicker hybrid layers than those found in self-etching adhesive systems. The all-in-one adhesive showed droplet formation between the adhesive and the resin composite. The resin tags formed with the etch-and-rinse adhesives were much longer than those found with the self-etching adhesives. Lateral branch formation was observed in etch-and-rinse adhesives and in one of the self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE Bond (SEB). The formed hybrid layer obtained with the two-step self-etching adhesives and the etch-and-rinse systems were continuous and uniform in thickness. Droplets within the all-in-one adhesive layer may occur as a result of water absorption from dentin through osmosis, and may interfere with proper resin polymerization. Resin tags obtained with SEB and the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems showed lateral branches, which is a sign of proper resin infiltration.

  20. Dry development rinse process (DDRP) and material (DDRM) for novel pattern collapse free process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Rikimaru; Sakaida, Yasushi; Ho, Bang-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Because the pattern pitch is getting smaller and smaller, the pattern collapse issue in the lithography process have been getting the sever problem. Especially, pattern collapse is one of the main reasons for minimizing of process margin at fine pitch by EUV lithography. The possible major cause of pattern collapse is the surface tension of the rinsing liquid and the shrinkage of resist pattern's surface in the process of drying the rinsing liquid. The influence of surface tension for very small pitch pattern is particularly severe. The one of the most effective solution for this problem is thinning of the resist film thickness, however this method is reaching to its limits in terms of substrate etching process anymore. The tri-layer resist process or hard mask processes have been used, but there is a limit to the thinning of resist film and there is no essential solution for this problem. On the other hand, the supercritical drying method has been known as an ultimate way to suppress the pattern collapse issue. The supercritical drying method is a dry process advanced to the vapor phase from the liquid phase via supercritical, and the supercritical drying method can dry the rinsing liquid without making the vapor-liquid coexistence state. However, this process is not applied to the mass production process because it requires the introduction of the special equipment. We newly developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly without using any special equipment. The process is Dry Development Rinse Process (DDRP), and the material used in the process is Dry Development Rinse Material (DDRM). DDRM is containing the special polymer which can replace the exposed and developed part. And finally, the resist pattern will be developed by Dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. In this paper, We will discuss the approach for preventing the pattern collapse issue in PTD and NTD process, and propose DDRP and DDRM

  1. Randomized controlled trial on mouth rinse and flossing efficacy on interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, H S; Luís, L S; Bernardo, M; Santos, Nr Dos

    2017-08-22

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of an essential oils mouth rinse and dental floss on dental plaque accumulation and gingivitis in interproximal areas. With informed consent, a parallel randomized controlled clinical trial was developed with 60 third-year dental hygiene students, randomly divided into two non-blind groups of 30 individuals each. For a period of 2 weeks, one group used an essential oils mouth rinse, according to manufacturer's instructions, and the other group flossed twice a day. Both groups received a toothbrush and fluoridated toothpaste for home dental hygiene care. A baseline dental hygiene appointment consisted of tooth scaling, prophylaxis and collection of the study data, using the Lobene modified gingival index; Saxton & Ouderaa gingival bleeding index and the Quigley & Hein modified by Turesky dental plaque index. At baseline, there was no significant difference between the groups for interproximal gingival inflammation (P = .214), gingival bleeding (P = .829) and dental plaque accumulation (P = .860). After 2 weeks of treatment, no significant differences were found between the essential oils mouth rinse and dental flossing for reduction of interproximal gingival inflammation (P = .938) and bleeding (P = .307). Essential oils mouth rinse showed to be significantly better than dental flossing in reducing interproximal dental plaque accumulation (P = .006). The use of an essential oils mouth rinse may be advised, as a complement, for patients unable to floss effectively, as it is more effective in reducing interproximal dental plaque accumulation than dental floss. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  3. Campylobacter in chicken carcasses and slaughterhouses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejab, Saira Banu Mohamed; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard; Patchanee, Prapas

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Campylobacter contamination rate of chicken carcasses and the processing lines of modern processing plants in Malaysia. Three hundred sixty samples were collected from 24 flocks of broiler chickens at 12 modern poultry processing plants in 6 states of Malaysia. Fresh fecal droppings were collected from crates in the arrival area. Neck skin samples were taken from processed chicken carcasses at 3 different processing stages: before inside-outside washing, after inside-outside washing and post chilling. Swab samples from the scalding tank, chilling tank and conveyer belt before chilling were also collected to determine contamination with Campylobacter in the slaughter house environment prior to slaughter. Isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006(E). The overall of contamination rate with Campylobacter at the 12 plants was 61.0% (220/360). Eighty point six percent of the samples from before the inside-outside wishing step were contaminated with Campylobacter, as were 62.5% of the samples after the inside washing and 38.9% after the post-chilling step. This study shows extensive contamination of chicken carcasses and slaughtering houses in Malaysia with Campylobacter.

  4. A total integrated Lab-on-a-chip-system for rapid detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken feaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Høgberg, Jonas; Agirregabiria, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a pre-validation of a portable LOC based system for real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from packed chicken at supermarkets, Chicken fecal sample at slaughters and chicken farms. The LOC system performs DNA purification and real-time PCR detection within 30...... minutes in a single total integrated chip with high sensitivity (0.7 – 7 pg DNA /μl)....

  5. Carotenoid absorption in chicken intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R; Alonso, A; Martín, M

    1978-09-01

    The powdered flowers of marigold (Tagetes erecta) are used as a cheap source of carotenoids in avicultura. Lutein (3,3'-dyhydroxi-alpha-carotene) constitutes up to 85 to 90% of marigold carotenoids. In the plant, lutein is found esterified to palmitic or estearic acid. In chicken, carotenoid is hydrolized in the first portion of the small intestine, and absorbed as free lutein. After the absorption, lutein is not re-esterified in the different chicken tissues.

  6. Comparison of antimicrobial resistant genes in chicken gut microbiome grown on organic and conventional diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha V. Hegde

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are widely used in chicken production for therapeutic purposes, disease prevention and growth promotion, and this may select for drug resistant microorganisms known to spread to humans through consumption of contaminated food. Raising chickens on an organic feed regimen, without the use of antibiotics, is increasingly popular with the consumers. In order to determine the effects of diet regimen on antibiotic resistant genes in the gut microbiome, we analyzed the phylotypes and identified the antimicrobial resistant genes in chicken, grown under conventional and organic dietary regimens. Phylotypes were analyzed from DNA extracted from fecal samples from chickens grown under these dietary conditions. While gut microbiota of chicken raised in both conventional and organic diet exhibited the presence of DNA from members of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, organic diet favored the growth of members of Fusobacteria. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified from metagenomic libraries following cloning and sequencing of DNA fragments from fecal samples and selecting for the resistant clones (n=340 on media containing different concentrations of eight antibiotics. The antimicrobial resistant genes exhibited diversity in their host distribution among the microbial population and expressed more in samples from chicken grown on a conventional diet at higher concentrations of certain antimicrobials than samples from chicken grown on organic diet. Further studies will elucidate if this phenomena is widespread and whether the antimicrobial resistance is indeed modulated by diet. This may potentially assist in defining strategies for intervention to reduce the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the production environment.

  7. Long-term bonding effectiveness of simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin after different surface pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Radhika; Singh, Udai Pratap; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 30% proanthocyanidin (PA) application on the immediate and long-term bond strength of simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin. One hundred twenty extracted human molar teeth were ground to expose the flat dentin surface. The teeth were equally divided into six groups according to the adhesives used, either Tetric N Bond or Solobond M and pretreatments given either none, CHX, or PA. Composite cylinder was bonded to each specimen using the respective adhesive technique. Half the samples from each group (n = 10) were then tested immediately. The remaining samples were tested after 6 month storage in distilled water. The mean bond strength of samples was not significantly different upon immediate testing being in the range of 8.4(±0.7) MPa. The bond strength fell dramatically in the control specimens after 6 month storage to around 4.7(±0.33) MPa, while the bond strength was maintained in the samples treated with both CHX and PA. Thirty percent PA was comparable to 2% CHX with respect to preservation of the resin dentin bond over 6 months.

  8. Susceptibility of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to Trichinella patagoniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, M; Fariña, F; Falzoni, E; Cardillo, N; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-15

    Trichinella spp. is a genus of parasites that is widespread all over the world. In Argentina, T. spiralis was for years the only species involved in human and animal outbreaks. During the last decade, T. patagoniensis, a new Trichinella species, was discovered in Argentina. Up to now, this species has only been found in cougars (Puma concolor). Experimental infections in pigs, cats, mice and rats with this new genotype showed that cats and mice were the most susceptible hosts. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the susceptibility of chickens to infection with T. patagoniensis. In order to study the intestinal and muscular phase, and the histopathological changes, 27 Leghorn chickens were inoculated per os with 1000 muscle larvae of T. patagoniensis and were euthanized on days 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Adult worms of T. patagoniensis were recovered from the small intestine of chickens up to day 14p.i. Gross examination of small intestine showed a moderate congestive appearance. Microscopically, an inflammatory response with lymphocytes and eosinophils in lamina propria, slight hyperemia, oedema and some haemorrhagic areas were detected. Lesions observed in chickens were similar to those described in different animal species during the intestinal phase. No muscular larvae were recovered from the muscle samples. These results suggest that T. patagoniensis is not capable to complete its entire life cycle in chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Utilization of Chicken By-Products to Form Collagen Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudini A. Munasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken collagen casings could be an alternate source of collagen casings that are manufactured for sausages. The overall objective of this project was to extract chicken collagen from by-products of the broiler processing industries and to explore the possibility of making films. Chicken skin was washed, ground, and pretreated to remove the noncollagenous compounds. Collagen was extracted using acetic acid and pepsin. Solubilized collagen was salted-out and centrifuged at 20,000 ×g at 4°C for one hour. The precipitates were dissolved in 0.5 M acetic acid and dialyzed against 0.1 M acetic acid and distilled water before freeze-drying. Molecular weight, collagen solubility at different pH values, and NaCl concentrations were determined. TA-XT2 texture analyzer was used to characterize mechanical properties of collagen films. The highest collagen solubility was obtained at pH 2 and 2% NaCl. Hand-homogenized, nonfiltered, and conditioned samples had the highest hardness (3,262 g and the least brittleness (30.5 mm. These results demonstrate that chicken collagen extracted from chicken by-products has the ability to form films and could be considered for making casings or be used in various other industries.

  10. Serological detection of West Nile virus in horses and chicken from Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, Vanessa; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Komar, Nicholas; Nogueira, Maurício L; Mondini, Adriano; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Alencar, Jeronimo; Bosch, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in Brazil, we sampled serum from horses and chickens from the Pantanal region of the state of Mato Grosso and tested for flavivirus-reactive antibodies by blocking ELISA. The positive samples were further confirmed for serological evidence of WNV infection in three (8%) of the 38 horses and one (3.2%) of the 31 chickens using an 80% plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT80). These results provide evidence of the circulation of WNV in chickens and horses in Pantanal. PMID:23295763

  11. The phylogenetics of Leucocytozoon caulleryi infecting broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprihati, Endang; Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the species and strains of Leucocytozoon caulleryi and study the phylogenetics of L. caulleryi of broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia. Blood samples were collected from broiler chickens originated from endemic area in Indonesia, i.e., Pasuruan, Lamongan, Blitar, Lumajang, Boyolali, Purwokerto, and Banjarmasin in 2017. Collected blood was used for microscopic examination, sequencing using BLAST method to identify the nucleotide structure of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene that determines the species, and the phylogenetics analysis of L. caulleryi that infected broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia, using Mega 5 software. The results showed that Plasmodium sp. and L. caulleryi were infected broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia. L. caulleryi in one area had very close phylogenetic relations with those in other areas. The genetic distance between L. caulleryi taxa from various endemic areas is very close (broiler chickens in various endemic areas in Indonesia.

  12. Molecular genetic analysis of diversity in village chickens in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous chickens obtained from the central and northern parts of Nigeria were evaluated for incidence and frequencies of endogenous viral, ev, genes 1, 3, 15 and 21 using blood samples collected by branchial venipuncture from free ranging adult birds of both sexes. Results indicated that 60.7% of the birds do not carry ...

  13. Cross-species applicability of chicken microsatellite markers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We obtained blood samples of 57 Indian ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) belonging to three indigenous duck populations of geographically distinct locations of the country and genotyped them using chicken microsatellite markers. Twenty three of the 30 loci were amplified and 17 loci yielded high success rate (> 91%).

  14. Sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ...

  15. Detection and identification of Salmonella species in minced beef and chicken meats by using Multiplex PCR in Assiut city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Hassanein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence and distribution of Salmonella species in selected meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut, Egypt. A total of 75 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and examined for the presence of Salmonella species. In addition, 28 children stool cultures were collected from hospitalized children resident in Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 75 meat samples examined, Salmonella was detected in 5 (20% of minced frozen beef, 9 (36% of frozen chicken leg and 13 (52% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed. Regarding the examined 28 children stool cultures, 3 (10.71 % were found Salmonella positive. Of the total 30 Salmonella positive samples from all examined samples, five selected Salmonella isolates were further identified using multiplex PCR (m-PCR. Two serovars were the dominant serovar identified was Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Enteritidis (2 chicken leg isolates and 2 chicken breast fillets followed by Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Kentucky (one minced beef isolate. The public health hazards of Salmonella were discussed and the suggestive measures to protect the consumers and improve the quality of meat and chicken products were given. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 5-11

  16. Isolation of Brachyspira Pilocicoli from Gastrointestinal Tract of Commercial Chickens in Khuzestan, South West Iran

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    Leila Alavi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachyspira pilosicoli is an intestinal spirochete which colonizes in cecum, colon and rectum of the birds. This infection in broiler and laying chicken may cause disorders such as: diarrhea, reduced egg production, pasty vents, fecal staining of egg shells, poor shell quality, pale egg yolks, increased feed consumption, slower growth and poor feed digestion. Objectives: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify B. pilosicoli from broiler and laying chicken. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by using bacteriological examination and PCR in Khuzestan located in the South West of Iran. Totally 150 samples of broiler chicken feces and 100 samples of laying chicken feces were collected. The samples were cultured on blood agar containing three antibiotics (vancomycin 12.5μg/mL, spiramaycin 25μg/mL and spectinomycin 400 μg/mL.The colonies of intestinal spirochetes were studied by PCR. Results: Intestinal spirochetes were isolated in 21 out of 150 fecal samples of broiler chicken and in 9 out of 100 fecal samples of laying chicken. Species identification of isolates was done by PCR using 16SrRNA gene specific for B. pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli was isolated in 13 out of 21 positive broilers and in 4 out of 9 positive laying chickens. Conclusions: This study showed that B. pilosicoli exists in the broiler and laying chicken in the region. This intestinal pathogen may be considered as a major cause of production threats and economic losses in chicken farms in the region of study.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of seed dormancy after rinsing and chilling in ornamental peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjana, Worarad; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Yamane, Kenji

    2016-08-08

    Ornamental peaches cv. 'Yaguchi' (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) can be propagated via seeds. The establishment of efficient seed treatments for early germination and seedling growth is required to shorten nursery and breeding periods. It is important, therefore, to identify potential candidate genes responsible for the effects of rinsing and chilling on seed germination. We hypothesized that longer rinsing combined with chilling of seeds can alter the genes expression in related to dormancy and then raise the germination rate in the peach. To date, most molecular studies in peaches have involved structural genomics, and few transcriptome studies of seed germination have been conducted. In this study, we investigated the function of key seed dormancy-related genes using next-generation sequencing to profile the transcriptomes involved in seed dormancy in peaches. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome identified differentially expressed and unique genes present in this fruit. De novo RNA-sequencing of peach was performed using the Illumina Miseq 2000 system. Paired-end sequence from mRNAs generated high quality sequence reads (9,049,964, 10,026,362 and 10,101,918 reads) from 'Yaguchi' peach seeds before rinsed (BR) and after rinsed for 2 or 7 days with a chilling period of 4 weeks (termed 2D4W and 7D4W), respectively. The germination rate of 7D4W was significantly higher than that of 2D4W. In total, we obtained 51,366 unique sequences. Differential expression analysis identified 7752, 8469 and 506 differentially expressed genes from BR vs 2D4W, BR vs 7D4W and 2D4W vs 7D4W libraries respectively, filtered based on p-value and an adjusted false discovery rate of less than 0.05. This study identified genes associated with the rinsing and chilling process that included those associated with phytohormones, the stress response and transcription factors. 7D4W treatment downregulated genes involved in ABA synthesis, catabolism and signaling pathways, which

  18. Response of intestinal microbiota to antibiotic growth promoters in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Hunkapiller, Andree A; Layton, Alice C; Chang, Yun-Juan; Robbins, Kelly R

    2013-04-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average daily weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than five decades. However, use of AGPs is associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens of animal origin, posing a significant threat to food safety and public health. Thus, development of novel alternatives to AGPs is important to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. To achieve this goal, the mode of action of AGPs should be elucidated. In this study, the response of the chicken gut microbiota to AGPs was examined using two culture-independent approaches: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing. PLFA analysis showed that AGP tylosin treatment changed composition of the microbiota in various intestinal sites; however, total viable bacterial biomass in intestine was not affected by tylosin treatment. PLFA analysis also revealed an abundant viable fungal population in chicken microbiota. Eight 16S rDNA libraries (96 clones per library) were constructed using ileal samples from chickens that received either antibiotic-free or medicated feed. The 16S rDNA clone analysis of the growth-relevant samples showed the AGP treatment influenced the diversity of ileum microbiota in the chickens primarily in the Firmicutes division. In particular, Lactobacillus spp. populations in the ileum of AGP-treated chickens were significantly lower than those from chickens receiving antibiotic-free feed. Together, this study revealed novel features of the intestinal microbiota in response to AGP treatment and suggested approach to develop potential alternatives to AGPs for mitigation of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens.

  19. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mashak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 chicken sandwich samples (chicken sausage, chicken fillet, minced chicken fillet were purchased from different supermarkets in Tehran city randomly during 2013 and transported to the laboratory of food hygiene of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch under temperature-controlled conditions for bacteriological examination by American Public Health Association (APHA method. Results: The average count ± standard error (and percent of unacceptable samples of S. aureus, B. cereus and Coliform were 1.6 ± 0.56 (28%, 2.0 ± 0.62 (10%, 4.2 ± 1.12 (50% CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were identified in 21% of chicken sandwich samples. Conclusions: The large number of foodborne pathogens detected in this study, represented a potential health hazard to consumers. Thus, it is necessary to employ Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in order to minimize the risk caused by secondary contamination.

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Inner Fillets Subjected to Different Thermal Processing Types

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    NN Arguelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of thermal processing on the physiochemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of chicken inner fillets. The study was divided into three assays. In the first assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Treatments consisted in cooking in water bath, electric oven, microwave oven, deep frying, or grilling. The analyzed variables were: cooking weight loss (CWL and lipid oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In the second assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Each treatment consisted of the same cooking methods applied in the first assay, and storage for 48 hours under refrigeration and reheating in a microwave oven. The variable analyzed in the second assay was lipid oxidation (TBARS. In the third assay, 30 samples of chicken inner fillets were subjected to one, four and eight freeze-thaw cycles, after which meat pH, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, water retention capacity (WRC, and lipid oxidation (TBARS were determined. Chicken inner fillets submitted to deep frying and cooked in a microwave oven presented greater lipid oxidation than the other cooking methods, and deep frying resulted in the highest cooking weight loss. Reheating chicken inner fillets in a microwave oven caused the highest meat lipid oxidation. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the pH, MFI, WRC and TBARS values of chicken inner fillets.

  1. Isolation of Clostridium perfringens, Causal agents of necrotic enteritis in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, M. S.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Sufian, M. A.; Hossain, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate the causal agent of necrotic enteritis (NE) from broiler chickens. A total of 50 jejunal samples from necropsied broiler chickens were collected for isolation of Clostridium perfringens, the causal agent of NE. The novel method for isolation of Clostridium perfringens was stab culture in association with pouring of olive oil on the surface of the stab culture. The collected samples in nutrient broth were kept in a candle jar and incubated for 24 hrs ...

  2. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars in conventional and organic chickens from Louisiana retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Shofiyah Ika; Han, Feifei; Wang, Fei; Ge, Beilei

    2009-06-01

    In this 1-year survey from October 2006 to September 2007, we isolated and characterized 126 Salmonella isolates from conventionally raised (n=141) and organically raised (n=53) chicken carcasses obtained from 27 retail stores in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Salmonella was isolated from 22% of conventional and from 20.8% of organic chicken samples. Eight Salmonella serovars were identified; predominant ones included Kentucky, Hadar, and Enteritidis. The vast majority of isolates within the same chicken sample possessed the same pulsed-field gel pattern. All Salmonella isolates were susceptible to amikacin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin; however, decreased susceptibility to quinolones (7.1%) or extended-spectrum cephalosporins (45.2%) was observed. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials (two or more) was found among 52.4% of the Salmonella isolates. Antimicrobial resistance profiles differed greatly among Salmonella serovars and also depended on the type of chicken from which they were recovered. Salmonella Kentucky isolates from organic chicken samples were susceptible to 11 of the antimicrobials tested, whereas those from conventional chickens were only susceptible to 4 antimicrobials. Three Salmonella Kentucky isolates from conventional chickens possessed multidrug resistance phenotype MDR-AmpC. Results of this study provide baseline data on both prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in retail chickens in this region and emphasize the need for implementing effective control measures to reduce Salmonella contamination and the levels of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in both conventionally and organically raised poultry products. Further studies involving larger sample sizes over time are needed to better monitor and assess the trend of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility among Salmonella serovars in retail chickens.

  4. Water and detergent recovery from rinsing water in an industrial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Linclau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wash water streams coming from rinsing of equipment in a detergent production site is in many cases considered as waste. On site treatment in waste water plants is possible but typically requires advanced oxidation process (AOP technology which uses chemicals and creates a waste sludge. A new treatment approach, based on nanofiltration, has been demonstrated at industrial scale in a detergent production site in China. Wash water could be split into a concentrate stream and water fraction. The concentrate stream contains most of the valuable surfactants and has a value to recycle. The water fraction can easily be polished by MBR to feed cooling towers. As such, this production site does not discharge any process wash water and recovers all resources out of the rinsing water: both chemicals (as surfactants as the water.

  5. Ion exchange treatment of rinse water generated in the galvanizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Elena; Fernández, Yolanda; Castrillón, Leonor

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted of the viability of using the cationic exchange resins Amberlite IR-120 and Lewatit SP-112 to treat rinse water generated in the galvanizing process as well as acidic wastewater containing zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Solutions containing either 100 mg/L of Zn at pH 5.6 (rinse water) or Fe and Zn at concentrations of 320 and 200 mg/L at pH 1.5 (acidic water), respectively, were percolated through packed beds until the resins were exhausted. Breakthrough capacities obtained ranged between 1.1 and 1.5 meq metal/mL resin. The elution of metal and the regeneration of resins were performed with hydrochloric acid. The influence of the flowrate used during the loading stage was also studied, with 0.5 bed volumes/min (3.2 cm/min) found to be the optimum flowrate.

  6. Topical oral cavity chemoprophylaxis using isotretinoin rinse: A 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Sameep; Badhey, Arvind; Milam, Mary; Lee, Thomas; Ducic, Yadranko

    2017-07-01

    To determine the utility of isotretinoin oral rinses as a method of chemoprevention for recurrent oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), carcinoma in situ, and dysplasia. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred forty-three patients were initially enrolled in the study; however, 18 were excluded due to inability to tolerate therapy. The included patients were classified into four groups. Group 1 included patients with multiple early stage oral cavity lesions following initial resection. Group 2 included patients with SCC in situ after excision. Group 3 included patients with multifocal dysplasia following initial CO2 laser ablation. Group 4 included patients with a history of treated oral cavity SCC with new leukoplakia lesions proven to be dysplastic. Fifty-three patients in the control group did not use post-treatment isotretinoin rinses due to various reasons, whereas 72 patients completed therapy. Minimum use of isotretinoin rinses was 12 months, and minimum follow-up was 24 months. During the follow-up period, all recurrences of carcinoma, in situ disease, and dysplasia were noted and compared with a Fisher test of fit. A Bonferroni correction was applied to increase accuracy and strength of comparison. Using a Bonferroni correction, the significance threshold was 0.0125. By that cutoff, isotretinoin rinses were found to be associated with lower recurrence in groups 1 and 3 (P = .00014, P = .00002, respectively) but not in groups 2 and 4 (P = .4, P = .3846, respectively). Oral isotretinoin as chemoprophylaxis for patients treated for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, in situ disease, or dysplasia may be beneficial in decreasing recurrence rate. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1595-1599, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Effect of three commercial mouth rinses on cultured human gingival fibroblast: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemingson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the effect of three commercial mouth rinses (Hexidine 0.2%, Listerine Cool Mint, Betadine 1% upon cultured human gingival fibroblast proliferation. Materials and Methods: Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured and incubated in Dulbecco′s Minimum Eagle′s Medium containing Chlorhexidine, Listerine, Povidone-Iodine at varying concentrations (1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 100% of the given solution at 37°C for 1, 5 and 15 min. Control cells received an equal volume of Dulbecco′s Minimum Eagle′s Medium without adding mouth rinses, for similar duration of exposure at 37°C. Following incubation the media were removed, cells were washed twice with medium, supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum, and fibroblasts in the test and control group were allowed to recover in the same media for 24 h. Results: In all the three groups, the proliferation inhibition was dependent on the concentration of solublized mouth rinses in the cell culture but independent of the duration of exposure to all three mouth rinses. The results showed that all three solutions were toxic to cultured human gingival fibroblasts, Chlorhexidine being the most cytotoxic. It was seen that at dilute concentrations (1% and 2% of given solutions Listerine was more cytotoxic than Chlorhexidine and Povidone-Iodine. Conclusion: These results suggest that Chlorhexidine, Listerine and Povidone-Iodine are capable of inducing a dose-dependent reduction in cellular proliferation of fibroblasts. The results presented are interesting, but to know the clinical significance, further studies are needed.

  8. Comparison of rinsing and sanitizing procedures for reducing bacterial pathogens on fresh cantaloupes and bell peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Casillas, S; Ibarra-Sánchez, S; Rodríguez-García, O; Martínez-Gonzáles, N; Castillo, A

    2007-03-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to health benefits but also to an increase in the number of outbreaks of foodborne illness. To determine the effectiveness of different sanitizing treatments for reducing bacterial pathogens on fresh produce, fresh cantaloupes and bell peppers were harvested and inoculated with suspensions of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated fruits were treated with water wash alone or were washed and then waxed or rinsed with 200 mg/liter hypochlorite, 10% Ca(OH)2, or 2% lactic acid solutions applied by dipping for 15 s or spraying for 15 s. Preliminary experiments with chlorine treatments indicated that spraying with a 200, 600, or 1,000 mg/liter hypochlorite solution reduced populations of both pathogens by 2.1 to 2.6 and 1.5 to 2.1 log CFU for Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. In general, no differences were observed between chlorine solutions without pH adjustment (pH 9.2) and those with pH adjusted to 6.0. When different wash regimes were applied to inoculated cantaloupes or bell peppers, water wash alone produced significantly lower counts of both pathogens on bell peppers in comparison to untreated controls. However, this reduction was not observed on cantaloupes, indicating a possible surface effect. Application of 2% L-lactic acid by spray was the treatment that resulted in the lowest bacterial counts on both cantaloupes and bell peppers. This treatment did not produce any deleterious change in the sensorial characteristics of the products tested. None of the pathogens studied was able to grow during refrigerated storage (5 degrees C for cantaloupes and 10 degrees C for bell peppers), although numbers close to the detection limit of the counting method were found in randomly tested individual samples at days 14 and 28 of storage, indicating that these pathogens can survive for long periods on the produce surface. These results indicate that selected produce

  9. Membrane biofouling characterization: effects of sample preparation procedures on biofilm structure and the microbial community

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Zheng

    2014-07-15

    Ensuring the quality and reproducibility of results from biofilm structure and microbial community analysis is essential to membrane biofouling studies. This study evaluated the impacts of three sample preparation factors (ie number of buffer rinses, storage time at 4°C, and DNA extraction method) on the downstream analysis of nitrifying biofilms grown on ultrafiltration membranes. Both rinse and storage affected biofilm structure, as suggested by their strong correlation with total biovolume, biofilm thickness, roughness and the spatial distribution of EPS. Significant variations in DNA yields and microbial community diversity were also observed among samples treated by different rinses, storage and DNA extraction methods. For the tested biofilms, two rinses, no storage and DNA extraction with both mechanical and chemical cell lysis from attached biofilm were the optimal sample preparation procedures for obtaining accurate information about biofilm structure, EPS distribution and the microbial community. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Correlation between type of alkali rinsing, cytotoxicity of bio-nanocellulose and presence of metabolites within cellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam; Fijałkowski, Karol; Ząbek, Adam; Mikołajewicz, Katarzyna; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Smutnicka, Danuta; Żywicka, Anna; Sedghizadeh, Parish Paymon; Dziadas, Mariusz; Młynarz, Piotr; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna

    2017-02-10

    The study aimed at evaluation of various types of alkali rinsing with regard to their efficacy in terms of removal, not only of bacteria but also bacterial metabolites, from cellulose matrices formed by three Komagataeibacter xylinus strains. Moreover, we tested the type of alkali rinsing on membrane cytotoxicity in vitro in fibroblast and osteoblast cells and we compared matrices' ability to induce oxidative stress in macrophages. We identified 11 metabolites of bacterial origin that remained in cellulose after rinsing. Moreover, our results indicated that the type of alkali rinsing should be adjusted to specific K. xylinus strains that are used as cellulose producers to obtain safe biomaterials in the context of low cytotoxicity and macrophage induction. The findings have translational importance and may be of direct significance to cellulose dressing manufacturers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CFD modelling of axial mixing in the intermediate and final rinses of cleaning-in-place procedures of straight pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jifeng; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Nordkvist, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    are derived from CFD results and applied to examine if the process is operated in an efficient and economic manner. It has been found that the displacement time can be predicted from the inner pipe diameter and the mean flow velocity using a power law relationship. Changing flow velocities does......The intermediate and final rinses of straight pipes, in which water replaces a cleaning agent of similar density and viscosity, are modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods. It is anticipated that the displacement process is achieved by convective and diffusive transport...... for optimizing the rinse steps with lower water consumption based on the above observations. A case of rinsing a 24 m long straight pipe describes the promising application of the CFD study. The recovery of cleaning agent can be up to 89.3% of the volume and the saving of intermediate rinsing water can...

  12. Ocular burn: rinsing and healing with ionic marine solutions and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Toihiri; Dutot, Mélody; Labbé, Antoine; Warnet, Jean-Michel; Rat, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of various rinsing and healing protocols on corneal wound repair and inflammation following alkali burn in rabbits. We conducted in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies. First, different rinse solutions were tested in vitro after incubation of ocular cells with methanol or NaOH. Cell viability was then assessed using the neutral red test (cytofluorometry). Second, NaOH was applied to rabbit corneas and associations of rinse solutions (NaCl 0.9% or controlled ionization marine solutions) with N-acetylcysteine or vegetable oils (from Calophyllum inophyllum and Aleurites moluccana) were tested in vivo. The regeneration of the corneal epithelium and the infiltration of inflammatory cells were evaluated using in vivo confocal microscopy and ex vivo histological cuts. The association of a controlled ionization marine solution with 10% C. inophyllum oil and 90% A. moluccana oil induced regeneration of the corneal epithelium and a decrease in inflammatory cells. Irrigation with marine solution followed by treatment with a mixture of C. inophyllum and A. moluccana oils is a promising treatment for ocular burns. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Clinical Effectiveness of Post-Brushing Rinsing in Reducing Plaque and Gingivitis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Jankiram, Chandrasheker; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Vashishtha, Vaibhav; Malhi, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental plaque is the major etiological factor associated with the development of gingivitis. Hence, maintenance of oral hygiene is very essential. Aim To systematically review the literature on the effects of a post toothbrushing rinsing on plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods A literature review was performed in PubMed Central and Cochrane library, embase, google scholar were searched up to February 2015 to identify appropriate studies. The primary outcome measure was plaque and gingival inflammation reduction. Results Out of the total 56 titles appeared, 08articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. One article which was hand searched and one article which was through e-mail was included. A statistically significant reduction in overall plaque and gingivitis was noted when different mouth rinses were compared to the control (ptoothbrushing rinsing and gingivitis. A clear effect was observed, indicating that different mouthrinses (chlorhexidine, probiotic, herbal, essential oil mouthrinse) when used as an adjunct to mechanical means of oral hygiene, provides an additional benefit with regard to plaque and gingivitis reduction as compared to a placebo or control. PMID:27437376

  14. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, E; Osman, Y; Grobler, S R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on human enamel micro-hardness of three over-the-counter whitening oral rinses available in South Africa. Enamel fragments were gathered into three groups of 15 each. One group was exposed to Colgate Plax Whitening Blancheur, the second group to White Glo 2 in 1 and the third to Plus White, in each case for periods recommended by the respective manufacturers. Surface micro-hardness of all groups was measured before and after a 14 day treatment period. pH levels of the oral rinses were also determined with a combination pH electrode. Pre- and post- treatment data were analysed by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. According to the micro-hardness values no significant (p > 0.05) enamel damage was found as a result of treatment. However, it was observed that Colgate Pax and White Glo decreased the enamel hardness, an early sign of enamel damage, while Plus White showed a small increase in hardness. The three whitening oral rinses on the South African market do not damage the tooth enamel significantly when used as recommended by the manufacturers. However, extending the contact period and increasing the frequency of application might lead to damage of enamel.

  15. Evaluation of plaque pH changes following oral rinse with eight infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, C; Erickson, P R

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate feeding habits have been identified as major factors associated with the development of baby bottle tooth decay or nursing caries. An in vivo/in vitro combination technique was developed to investigated the plaque pH changes associated with rinsing with eight different infant formulas. These eight formulas represented four categories: 1) formulas with iron, 2) formulas with low iron, 3) soy formulas 4) and protein hydrolyzate formulas (from the manufacturers Mead Johnson Nutritionals and Ross Laboratories). All formulas had the ability to reduce the pH significantly below the pre-rinse plaque pH. Furthermore, the average minimum pH for formulas from the two manufacturers did not differ within each formula category except for the soy-based formulas, where, rinsing with Isomil produced a significantly lower plaque pH than ProSobee. These results suggest that infant formulas are acidogenic and therefore may play a significant role in the development of baby bottle tooth decay.

  16. Depletion of water molecules during ethanol wet-bonding with etch and rinse dental adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, Genevieve, E-mail: gregoire@cict.fr [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France); Sharrock, Patrick [Medical and Spatial Imaging Laboratory, University Toulouse III, Ave. Pompidou, 81104, Castres (France); Delannee, Mathieu [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France); Delisle, Marie-Bernadette [Faculty of Medicine, University Toulouse III, 31062, Toulouse (France)

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of demineralized dentin with ethanol has been proposed as a way to improve hydrophobic monomer penetration into otherwise water saturated collagen fibrils. The ethanol rinse is expected to preserve the fibrils from collapsing while optimizing resin constituent infiltration for better long term adhesion. The physico-chemical investigations of demineralized dentin confirmed objectively these working hypotheses. Namely, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the melting point of water molecules pointed to the presence of free and bound water states. Unfreezable water was the main type of water remaining following a rinsing step with absolute ethanol. Two different liquid water phases were also observed by Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) solid state Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of ethanol treated specimens illustrated differences with the fully hydrated specimens concerning the polar carbonyl vibrations. Optical microscopy observations as well as scanning electron microscopy showed an improved dentin-adhesive interface with ethanol wet bonding. The results indicate that water can be confined to strongly bound structural molecules when excess water is removed with ethanol prior to adhesive application. This should preserve collagen from hydrolysis upon aging of the hybrid layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-freezable water exists in demineralized dentine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free water can be removed by ethanol rinse of the demineralized collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol wet bonding leads to a homogeneous hybrid layer free of defects.

  17. Recovery of the Pristine Surface of Black Phosphorus by Water Rinsing and Its Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhyun; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-06-28

    Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted significant attention due to its excellent optical and electrical properties. However, the rapid degradation of BP under ambient air limits further research on its properties and implementation in various fields. This degrading behavior lowers the performance of BP-based devices and can even result in a complete failure when exposed to air for an extended period of time. In our research, the degraded surface with "bubbles" was recovered to its pristine state by rinsing with deionized water and following with post-treatments. The formation of bubbles and their optical, morphological, and electrical effects were systematically investigated by fabricating BP field-effect transistors (FETs) in conjunction with micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Water rinsing of the degraded BP flakes also allowed us to thin BP flakes down because phosphorus atoms are consumed while forming bubbles. Therefore, recovery of the pristine surface not only results in a smoother and thinner morphology but also improves device performances. After the rinsing process, field-effect mobility of the BP FET was maintained, whereas a significant enhancement in the switching behaviors was achieved in conclusion. The capability of reversing the inevitable degradation that occurs once exposed to ambient conditions can open up new opportunities for further applications of BP that was limited due to its instability.

  18. Pathogenesis of chicken-passaged Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chickens and wild and exotic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Glaucia D; King, Daniel J; Seal, Bruce S; Brown, Corrie C

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens (Ckn-LBM and Ckn-Australia) and wild (Anhinga) and exotic (YN parrot, pheasant, and dove) birds was examined after the isolates had been passaged four times in domestic chickens. Groups of 10 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with each one of the isolates. The infected birds were observed for clinical disease and were euthanatized and sampled at selected times from 12 hr to 14 days postinoculation or at death. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect viral nucleoprotein (IHC/NP), and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA and were double labeled for apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling ([TUNEL] or IHC/caspase-3) and viral nucleoprorein (IHC/NP). Birds infected with the three low virulence viruses (Ckn-LBM, YN parrot, and Ckn-Australia) did not develop clinical disease. Microscopic lesions were observed only at the inoculation site and in organs of the respiratory system. The detection of viral nucleoprotein (N) was restricted to the inoculation site. The pheasant and dove isolates were highly virulent for chickens with marked tropism for lymphoid tissues, confirmed by the presence of large numbers of cells positive for viral N protein and viral mRNA. Viral N protein was detected early in the cytoplasm of cells in the center of the splenic ellipsoids. The apoptosis assays (TUNEL and IHC/caspase-3) showed increased apoptosis in the splenic ellipsoids as well. Apparently, apoptosis is an important mechanism in lymphoid depletion during NDV infection.

  19. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Village chicken production was characterized using retrospective and crosssectional methods, where 280 households rearing local chickens in Halaba district of southern Ethiopia were used for data collection. The study revealed that the average flock size was 8.5 chickens (95% CI=7.98 – 9.08). The average number of ...

  20. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  1. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Village chicken production was characterized using retrospective and cross- sectional methods, where 280 households rearing local chickens in Halaba district of southern Ethiopia were used for data collection. The study revealed that the average flock size was 8.5 chickens (95% CI=7.98 – 9.08). The average number of ...

  2. ISOLATION AND PHENOTIPICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM SLAUGHTERED HOUSE WASTE AND CARCASS OF CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnan -

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is known as a potential agent that cause food poisoning. Chicken meats could be as vehicles of food poisoning cases while they contaminated by agents during slaughtered and meat processing as well as infected chickens by S. aureus itself. The aims of the research were to isolated and characterized of S. aureus from liquid wastes of chicken slaughtered house and washing water of chicken carcass. The characterization of S aureus based on mannitol salt agar (MSA, catalase and coagulation assay, production of hemolysins, hydrophobicity test, and the reaction of hemaglutination. Thirty seven samples used in this study were collected from 16 liquid wastes slaughtered chicken house and 21 samples from washing water of chicken carcasses.The research resulted 18 S. aureus isolated from liquid wastes slaughtered house (4 isolates and from wahing water of chicken carcasses (14 isolates. All 18 isolates fermented mannitol, catalase and coagulase positive, contain of hydrophilic surfaces. Among 18 S. aureus isolates could agglutinate of rabbit erythrocytes for 55%, produced ?-hemolysis (12% and ?-hemolysis (88%.

  3. Prolactin promoter gene as marker assisted selection (MAS for the control of broodiness of Kampung chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research about MAS (Marker Assisted Selection was conducted to detect broodiness trait of Kampung chicken. MAS currently is very important in situations, where the accuracy of selection is low, such as, traits with low heritability, e.g. broodiness trait and egg production. Prolactin promoter was selected as a marker gene for broodiness because it plays a critical part in the neuroendocrine cascade which is triggered at the onset of broodiness. DNA samples were collected from low and highbroodiness samples on basic population (G0 each 24 samples, and from selected population (G3 each 28 samples. As control population without broody behavior was used 16 samples White Leghorn (WL chicken. Prolactin promoter gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR product was analyzed using electrophoresis agarose gel 2%. The results showed four types of bands represent in the Kampung chicken, three types called as wild type band and one type as the WL band. The chickens with low and high broodiness on G0 generation have 75 and 87.5% of wild type band while in the G3 generation was decreased to 25 and 75%. Conclusions of the research indicated that the selected breed of the Kampung chicken on G3 generation increased WL band like White Leghorn chicken as much as 31,25% from the G0 generation.

  4. The use of lithium as a marker for the retention of liquids in the oral cavity after rinsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara M; Kieser, Jules A; Ferguson, Martin M; Reid, Malcolm; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the use of lithium as a marker to indicate the retention of simple liquids in the oral cavity and use this to determine how much liquid is retained in the oral cavity following 30 s of rinsing. This is a validation study in which saliva was spiked with known concentrations of lithium. Twenty healthy participants then rinsed their mouths with either water or a 1 % w/v carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution for 30 s before expectorating into a collection cup. Total volume and concentration of lithium in the expectorant were then measured, and the percentage of liquid retained was calculated. The mean amount of liquid retained was 10.4 ± 4.7 % following rinsing with water and 15.3 ± 4.1 % following rinsing with 1 % w/v CMC solution. This difference was significant (p < 0.01). Lithium was useful as a marker for the retention of liquids in the oral cavity, and a value for the amount of water and 1 % w/v CMC solution remaining in the oral cavity following a 30-s rinse was established. The present study quantifies the retention of simple fluids in the oral cavity, validating a technique that may be applied to more complex fluids such as mouth rinses. Further, the application of this method to specific population groups such as those with severe xerostomia may assist in developing effective saliva substitutes.

  5. Daylong Effect of Rinsing with Water Diluted Antiplaque®Toothpaste Combined with Toothbrushing on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandina Irmagita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis, complained by most adult population, is a common oral condition. About 8%% of the cases happened because of the microbia activity in the oral cavity that produces Volatile Sulphur Compound (VSC which has unpleasant odour. Daily oral prophylaxis can reduce the oral VSC levels. Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplque® toothpaste in daily oral prophylaxis: as dentrifice for tooth brushing and, in modified way, as oral rinse; on the VSC level. Methods: a double blind, clinical experimental study, involving 120 subjects with or without halitosis complain, divided in 2 treatment groups (oral rinse group and the combination of tooth brushing and oral rinse group, using Antiplaque® toothpaste and 2 control groups (same procedure using placebo toothpaste. The daylong VSC levels measure with halimeter were taken twice, in the afternoon day I and day II. Results: there are significant reduction of daylong VSC levels (Wilcoxon signed rank test P<0.0%, but not in the treatment groups using the placebo toothpaste. The result on conbination of tooth brushing and oral rinse using Antiplaque® toothpaste are significant compared to the oral rinse treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste alone (Mann Whitney, P<0.05. Conclusion: tooth brushing with Antiplaque® toothpaste combined with oral rinse using the modified Antiplaque® toothpaste can significantly reduce daylong VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.94

  6. Effects of rinsing with arginine bicarbonate and urea solutions on initial enamel lesions in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, X; Ge, C; Wang, B; Cheng, C; Gan, Y-H

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rinsing with arginine or urea solution on initial enamel lesions in situ. Fourteen subjects who wore mandibular removable partial dentures embedded with bovine enamel blocks with artificial enamel lesions were included. The experiment included four 4-week rinsing periods with a 10-day washout period between each rinsing period. In each rinsing period, the subjects rinsed after meal or snack using water, or 2% arginine bicarbonate, or 1% urea, or 0.05% NaF solution, five times daily. The mineralization changes of the enamel lesions were assessed using quantitative light-induced fluorescence. All groups except the water group showed a statistically significant decrease in the fluorescence loss after treatment, compared with their respective baseline. Although both the arginine group and urea group showed more decrease in fluorescence loss than that of the water group, the decrease was not statistically significantly different from that of the water group. The decrease in fluorescence loss of the NaF group was statistically significant than that of the water group, arginine group, and urea group. Rinsing with arginine or urea solution offers limited remineralizing benefit to enamel lesions over a period of 4-week time. © 2016 The Authors. Oral Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Shell rinse and shell crush methods for the recovery of aerobic microorganisms and enterobacteriaceae from shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Cox, N A; Harrison, M A

    2005-10-01

    Recovery of bacteria from shell eggs is important for evaluating the efficacy of processing and the quality and safety of the final product. Shell rinse (SR) techniques are easy to perform and widely used. An alternative sampling method involves crushing and rubbing the shell (CR). To determine the most appropriate method for recovering microorganisms from shell eggs, 358 shell eggs were collected from a commercial egg processor and sampled by SR and CR techniques. Total aerobic mesophiles and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated on plate count and violet red bile glucose agar plates, respectively. Unwashed, in process, and postprocess eggs were evaluated in the study. Aerobic microorganism prevalence for eggshells sampled was similar for both methods (approximately 100%), but the log CFU per milliliter values were higher in the SR than the CR samples (3.2 and 2.2, respectively). Average Enterobacteriaceae recovery was similar for both methods (45 versus 40% for the SR and CR methods, respectively) when all eggs were considered together. This population was detected more often by SR when unwashed eggs were sampled (90 versus 56% for the SR and CR methods, respectively), equally by SR and CR for in-process eggs (30 versus 29.3% for the SR and CR methods, respectively), but more often by CR for postprocess eggs (10 versus 36% for the SR and CR methods, respectively). The SR technique was easier to perform and recovered larger numbers of aerobic organisms, particularly for unwashed eggs. However, the CR technique was more efficient for recovery of Enterobacteriaceae from postprocess eggs. Stage of shell egg processing may be an important consideration when choosing egg sampling methods.

  8. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... on quantitative trait loci using data from collaborating institutions and public resources. Our data can be queried by search engine and homology-based BLAST searches. ChickVD is publicly accessible at http://chicken.genomics.org.cn. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jan-1...

  9. Potential Transmission Opportunity of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Large-scale Chicken Farm in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Thi Kim, Ngan; Bui Thi Mai, Huong; Ueda, Shuhei; Le Danh, Tuyen; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-10-10

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been spread out worldwide. We investigated blaCTX-M-positive E. coli in a Vietnamese large-size chicken farm, and evaluated whether there was any different prevalence and molecular characters of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli between the large size chicken farm and a Vietnamese community. Fecal samples were collected from 24 human individuals and 38 chickens of a large-scale chicken farm, and from 51 human and 36 chickens of a community. All samples were collected between June, 2013 and June 2014 in the Bavi province in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Molecular characterizations of CTX-M-producing E. coli and genetic relatedness among the isolates were evaluated by conventional typing methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated by disc diffusion test. The prevalence of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli was 83.3%, 71.1%, 54.9% and 13.9% in farm workers, farm chickens, community individuals and community backyard chicken, respectively. On average, blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolates obtained from the farm chicken were resistant to 8.3 different antibiotics. The average number of detected aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) genes (3.1 genes) and detection rate of the plasmid colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 (33.3%) were higher in blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolated from the farm chicken than other sampling groups. In addition, two types of indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed in six blaCTX-M-65-positive E. coli and three blaCTX-M-55-positive E. coli from the farm chicken. Our results suggested more frequent transmission opportunity of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli in the Vietnamese large-scale chicken farm. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  11. Karakteristik Genetik dan Fenotip Ayam Nunukan di Pulau Tarakan, Kalimantan Timur (THE PHENOTHYPIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF NUNUKAN CHICKEN OF TARAKAN ISLAND, EAST BORNEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is local chicken of Tarakan and Nunukan in East Borneo Province. It is a germplasmof East Kalimantan which have special characteristics. Due to its characteristic, the chicken extremelyneed to be conserved and develop. This study was conducted to find out more reliable data on thecharacteristics of nunukan chicken in Tarakan Island. It was done by directly observed and measuredfenotype traits of nunukan chicken. Sample used was mature chicken, with the total tnumber 211 birds.Fenotype qualitative traits of nunukan chicken was florid brown of feather basic colour, columbian offeather colour theme, golden of feather flickering, and solid of feather pattern. The other special traits islittle growth (even not growth of wings and tail feather, and on immature chicken (age of 0-5 monthcommonly primary feather not growth. There was 13 fenotype quantitative traits on male, and two onfemale chicken was different between location (sub district on 20 traits. The number of nunukan chickenat Tarakan Island was about 940 birds, and 36,17% was mature chicken. The effective population totalwas 299 birds, highest effective population was in West Tarakan (162 birds and lowest was in MidleTarakan (46 birds. The average of inbreeding increased 0.177%, highest was in Midle Tarakan (1,08%and lowest was in West Tarakan (0,31. The population of nunukan chicken in Tarakan Island was specificof the fenotype characteristic.

  12. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  13. Evaluation of passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder against intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Influence of garlic extract on antioxidant status of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on animal organism resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihypertensive properities. Studies focused on growth, conversion and meat quality of different types of animals indicate its positive effects. In our experiment we studied the influence of garlic extract in a dose of 0, 10 g and 15 g per 1 kg of chicken feed mixture. We focused on weight gains and antioxidant status of an organism. The experiment took 39 days. 54 seven-day-old chickens were included in the experiment. The chickens were weighed once a week, when aged 11, 17, 24, 31 and 38 days, at the same time of the day. The chickens had ad libitum access to feed ration and water. The chickens were taken blood sample at the end of the experiment when 39 days old. Their antioxidant status were measured using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods. Our results show that owing to higher concentration of garlic extract in feed ration the antioxidant status of observed chickens was increased. DPPH method showed an increase in antioxidant status of both experimental groups by 38% (a group with a dose of 10 g/kg of mixture and by 46% (a group with a dose of 15 g/kg of mixture compared to the control group. When using FRAP method, antioxidant status of both G10 and G15 groups increased by 24%, resp. 16%. No evidential differences in antioxidant activity between the experimental groups and control group were found using ABTS method. The supplement of garlic extract into a feed ration did not have any influence

  15. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Abasht

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or <0.77 between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  16. Chicken barn climate and hazardous volatile compounds control using simple linear regression and PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Bakar, M. A. A.; Shukor, S. A. A.; Saad, F. S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Mustafa, M. H.; Khalid, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    The hazardous volatile compounds from chicken manure in chicken barn are potentially to be a health threat to the farm animals and workers. Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced in chicken barn are influenced by climate changes. The Electronic Nose (e-nose) is used for the barn's air, temperature and humidity data sampling. Simple Linear Regression is used to identify the correlation between temperature-humidity, humidity-ammonia and ammonia-hydrogen sulphide. MATLAB Simulink software was used for the sample data analysis using PID controller. Results shows that the performance of PID controller using the Ziegler-Nichols technique can improve the system controller to control climate in chicken barn.

  17. Salmonella Enteritidis infection in young broiler chickens from breeding farm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available old from a breeding farm not far from Bogor. Samples were examined pathologic anatomically (PA and bacteriologically to isolate the causative agents . The sensitivity of the main causative agents isolated from the samples was tested with some drugs, while its pathogenicity was tested in 3 days old chickens intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally and orally, three chickens per inoculations . Exudative and caseous omphalitis, pericarditis, hepatitis, sirsacculitis, and coxofemoral and knee joints were observed in PA examinations, while on bacteriological examination the main cusative agent, ie. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated successfully . Drug sensitivity test showed that the pathogen was sensitive to chloramphenicol, baytril, gentamisin, and sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, and resistant to erythromycin, colistin, streptomycin and kanamycin . On the other hand, pathogenicity test of the isolate showed that all but two chickens which were inoculated orally, were died 24 hours post-inoculation . It was concluded that young broiler chickens of the farm were infected by Salmonella Enteritidis.

  18. Effect of freezing on electrical properties and quality of thawed chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Wang, Peng; Han, Minyi; Chen, Tianhao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research was to study the electrical properties and quality of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat and to investigate the relationship between these parameters at different times of frozen storage. Thawed samples of chicken breast muscles were evaluated after being kept in frozen storage at -18°C for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 months). The results showed that water-holding capacity (WHC) and protein solubility decreased while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content increased with increasing storage time. The impedance module of samples decreased during 8-month frozen storage. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the impedance change ratio (Q value) was significantly (pprotein solubility, indicating a good relationship between the electrical properties and qualities of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat. Impedance measurement has a potential to assess the quality of frozen chicken meat combining with quality indices.

  19. Technological, chemical, sensory, and microbiological examination of frozen chicken as affected by microwave thawing

    OpenAIRE

    Kenawi M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating as a thawing method on physical, chemical sensory, and microbiological properties of frozen chicken was investigated in comparison with other thawing methods (at ambient temperature, in refrigerator, and in running tap water). Microwave thawed chicken had the highest taste panel scores and the lowest drip percentage loss compared with the other thawing methods. Thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) remarkably increased the samples thawed at ambient temperature or und...

  20. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens.

  1. Omega-3 chicken egg detection system using a mobile-based image processing segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Oky Dwi; Kurniawan Teguh, M.; Cintya Amalia, P.

    2017-02-01

    An Omega-3 chicken egg is a chicken egg produced through food engineering technology. It is produced by hen fed with high omega-3 fatty acids. So, it has fifteen times nutrient content of omega-3 higher than Leghorn's. Visually, its shell has the same shape and colour as Leghorn's. Each egg can be distinguished by breaking the egg's shell and testing the egg yolk's nutrient content in a laboratory. But, those methods were proven not effective and efficient. Observing this problem, the purpose of this research is to make an application to detect the type of omega-3 chicken egg by using a mobile-based computer vision. This application was built in OpenCV computer vision library to support Android Operating System. This experiment required some chicken egg images taken using an egg candling box. We used 60 omega-3 chicken and Leghorn eggs as samples. Then, using an Android smartphone, image acquisition of the egg was obtained. After that, we applied several steps using image processing methods such as Grab Cut, convert RGB image to eight bit grayscale, median filter, P-Tile segmentation, and morphology technique in this research. The next steps were feature extraction which was used to extract feature values via mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis from each image. Finally, using digital image measurement, some chicken egg images were classified. The result showed that omega-3 chicken egg and Leghorn egg had different values. This system is able to provide accurate reading around of 91%.

  2. Microbiological Effect of Essential Oils in Combination with Subgingival Ultrasonic Instrumentation and Mouth Rinsing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Morozumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, saline, and essential oil-containing antiseptic (EO. Subgingival plaque was collected from a total of 90 pockets across all subjects. Subsequently, subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation (SUI was performed by using EO or saline as the irrigation agent. After continuous mouth rinsing at home with EO or saline for 7 days, subgingival plaques were sampled again. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified using the modified Invader PLUS assay. The total bacterial count in shallow pockets (probing pocket depth (PPD = 4-5 mm was significantly reduced in both saline (P<0.05 and EO groups (P<0.01. The total bacterial count (P<0.05 and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P<0.01 and Tannerella forsythia (P<0.05 count in deep pockets (PPD ≥6 mm were significantly reduced only in the EO group. In comparisons of the change ratio relative to baseline value of total bacteria counts across categories, both the saline and EO groups for PPD 4-5 mm and the EO group for PPD 6 mm showed a significantly low ratio (P<0.05. The adjunctive use of EO may be effective in reducing subgingival bacterial counts in both shallow and deep pockets. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000007484.

  3. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Canned Chicken Products 2 to 5 years in pantry Do not freeze in can. [ Top of Page ] ... Contact Us Ask Karen askFSIS En Español FSIS Home | USDA.gov | FoodSafety.gov | USA.gov | Whitehouse.gov | ...

  4. Vaccination of chickens against Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoete, de M.R.; Putten, J.P.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial entero-colitis in humans and is associated with the occurrence of life-threatening auto-immune based neurological disorders. Chickens, which are often heavily colonized with Campylobacter without signs of pathology, are

  5. Infection of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT in chickens in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a bacterium identified as a new species in 1994 and generally associated with respiratory distress in chickens. From 214 of sinus swabs, tracheal swabs, lungs, airsac, liver heart blood samples and yolk sacs of chickens suffered from respiratory distresses, 6 isolates of O. rhinotracheale were isolated. These isolates were obtained from tracheal swabs of broiler chickens aged between 28-35 days old and broiler breeder of 32 weeks old. Upon incubated on blood agar for 48 hours at 37oC in a 5% CO2 atmosphere, round, convect and grey colonies with diametres of 1-2 mm were observed. The bacteria were pleomorphic, Gram negative rods, negative catalase and positive oxidase. Biochemically, the bacteria did not change potassium nitrate, tryptophan, glucose, arginine, urea, esculin, gelatine, arabinose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetyl-glucosamine, maltose, gluconate, caprate, adipate, malate, citrate and phenyl-acetate in API 20 NE system but β –galactosidase was produced. In the API 20 NE system, the isolates were identified as 0020004, 0060004, 0020104 codes. Tracheitis, air sacculitis, pneumonia and cheesy air sacs were pathological changes generally found in chickens infected with O. rhinotracheale. Trachea is the most important organ for the isolation of O. rhinotracheale.

  6. Genomic variability in Mexican chicken population using Copy Number Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Gorla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNVs are polymorphisms which influence phenotypic variation and are an important source of genetic variability [1]. In Mexico the backyard poultry population is a unique widespread Creole chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus population, an undefined cross among different breeds brought to Mexico from Europe and under natural selection for almost 500 years [2-3]. The aim of this study was to investigate genomic variation in the Mexican chicken population using CNVs. A total of 256 DNA samples genotyped with Axiom® Genome-Wide Chicken Genotyping Array were used in the analyses. The individual CNV calling, based on log-R ratio and B-allele frequency values, was performed using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM of PennCNV software on the autosomes [4-5]. CNVs were summarized to CNV regions (CNVRs at a population level (i.e. overlapping CNVs, using BEDTools. The HMM detected a total of 1924 CNVs in the genome of 256 samples resulting, at population level, in 1216 CNV regions, of which 959 gains, 226 losses and 31 complex CNVRs (i.e. containing both losses and gains, covering a total of 47 Mb of sequence length corresponding to 5,12 % of the chicken galGal4 assembly autosome. A comparison among this study and 7 previous reports about CNVs in chicken was performed, finding that the 1,216 CNVRs detected in this study overlap with 617 regions (51% mapped by others studies.   This study allowed a deep insight into the structural variation in the genome of unselected Mexican chicken population, which up to now has not been never genetically characterized with SNP markers. Based on a cluster analysis (pvclust – R package on CNV markers the population, even if presenting extreme morphological variation, does not resulted divided in differentiated genetic subpopulations. Finally this study provides a CNV map based on the 600K SNP chip array jointly with a genome-wide gene copy number estimates in Mexican chicken population.

  7. The risk to import ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus through chicken meat trade in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S; Frielinghaus, Lisa; Grobusch, Martin P; Köck, Robin; Becker, Karsten; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G; Peters, Georg; Mellmann, Alexander

    2014-11-19

    A main export market for chicken meat from industrialized countries is sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that antibiotic resistant bacteria could be exported to developing countries through chicken meat trade. The objective was to investigate the occurrence and molecular types of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in chicken meat in Gabon and to assess their dissemination among humans. Frozen chicken meat samples imported from industrialized countries to Gabon (n = 151) were screened for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and S. aureus. Genotypes and resistance genes (SHV, TEM, CTX-M, CMY-2) of isolates from meat were compared with isolates derived from humans. The contamination rate per chicken part (i. e. leg, wing) with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL E. coli, no other ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found) and S. aureus was 23% and 3%, respectively. The beta-lactamase CTX-M 1 was predominant in ESBL E. coli from meat samples but was not found in isolates from cases of human colonization or infection. S. aureus belonging to spa type t002 (multilocus sequence type ST5) were found both in chicken meat and humans. There is a risk to import ESBL E. coli to Gabon but molecular differences between isolates from humans and chicken meat argue against a further dissemination. No MRSA isolate was detected in imported chicken meat.

  8. Prospective study of the effect of post-brushing rinsing behaviour on dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiulskiene, V; Richards, A; Nyvad, B; Baelum, V

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rinsing the mouth with a beaker of water after toothbrushing may compromise the caries reducing effect of fluoride toothpaste. A 3-year clinical trial of daily supervised brushing with fluoride toothpaste at school was used to test the effect of post-brushing rinsing with water on caries increment. A total of 407 children, mean age 11.8 years, attending three schools in Kaunas, Lithuania were enrolled following informed consent of the children and their parents. Caries was recorded at baseline and annually for 3 years. During the study, children in two schools (A and B) performed daily supervised brushing with a 1,500-ppm fluoride toothpaste. Children in school A rinsed their mouths thoroughly with a beaker of water after toothbrushing whereas children in school B were only permitted to spit out once after brushing. Furthermore, the children in these schools were supplied with toothpaste and toothbrushes for use at home and in school. A third school (C), without daily brushing and without supply of toothpaste, served as control. Compliance with the protocol was consistently better in school B. After 3 years 276 children were available for examination. Three-year DMFS increments, including non-cavitated lesions (mean, 95% CI), were: school A, 6.8 (5.3; 8.3); school B, 6.2 (4.6; 7.8), and school C, 12.4 (10.6; 14.1). Mean increments for schools A and B did not differ significantly but were both significantly lower than those of school C (ptoothpaste. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Effectiveness of immediate bonding of etch-and-rinse adhesives to simplified ethanol-saturated dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Leandro Afonso; Almeida, Júlio César Franco; Wang, Linda; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the immediate bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesives to demineralized dentin saturated with either water or absolute ethanol. The research hypothesis was that there would be no difference in bond strength to dentin between water or ethanol wet-bonding techniques. The medium dentin of 20 third molars was exposed (n = 5). The dentin surface was then acid-etched, left moist and randomly assigned to be saturated via either water wet-bonding (WBT) or absolute ethanol wet-bonding (EBT). The specimens were then treated with one of the following etch-and-rinse adhesive systems: a 3-step, water-based system (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose, or SBMP) or a 2-step, ethanol/water-based system (Adper Single Bond 2, or SB). Resin composite build-ups were then incrementally constructed. After water storage for 24 h at 37°C, the tensile strength of the specimens was tested in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 5%). The failure modes were verified using a stereomicroscope (40'). For both adhesives, no significant difference in bond strength was observed between WBT and EBT (p > 0.05). The highest bond strength was observed for SB, regardless of the bonding technique (p adhesives and bonding techniques was noticed (p = 0.597). There was a predominance of adhesive failures for all tested groups. The EBT and WBT displayed similar immediate bond strength means for both adhesives. The SB adhesive exhibited higher means for all conditions tested. Further investigations are needed to evaluate long-term bonding to dentin mediated by commercial etch-and-rinse adhesives using the EBT approach.

  10. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans mouth isolates to antifungal agents, essentials oils and mouth rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhinho, Sara; Costa, Ana Margarida; Coelho, Ana Cláudia; Martins, Eugénio; Sampaio, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Forty Candida albicans strains isolated from patient's mouth with fixed orthodontic appliances were analyzed to their susceptibilities to antifungal agents, mouth rinses and essential oils. Susceptibility to fluconazole, econazole, miconazole and ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed by the disk diffusion (DD) method based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M44-A protocol, and by Etest (fluconazole and amphotericin B). The susceptibilities to mouth rinses and essential oils were also determined by the DD technique. All isolates tested were susceptible (S) to amphotericin B, nystatin and fluconazole. The overall concordance between the DD and the Etest was 100% for amphotericin and fluconazole. One isolate was resistant to econazole (2.5%) and the other to ketoconazole (2.5%). Econazole and ketoconazole had the highest percentages of susceptible dose dependent (SDD), 55 and 95%, respectively. Regarding to the susceptibility isolates profile, seven phenotypes were detected, and the 3 more represented (90% of the isolates) of them were SDD to one, two or three azoles. The study of mouth rinses showed a high variability of efficacy against C. albicans. The results showed that the isolates susceptibility to essential oils differed (P cinnamon > laurel > mint > eucalyptus > rosemary > lemon > myrrh > tangerine. The main finding was that the susceptibility to cinnamon and laurel varied among the three more representative antifungal phenotypes (P cinnamon and lemon was higher than those of the econazole-S yeasts (P < 0.05). In contrast, econazole-SDD isolates were less affected by laurel than econazole-S counterparts (P < 0.05).

  11. Effectiveness of immediate bonding of etch-and-rinse adhesives to simplified ethanol-saturated dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Afonso Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the immediate bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesives to demineralized dentin saturated with either water or absolute ethanol. The research hypothesis was that there would be no difference in bond strength to dentin between water or ethanol wet-bonding techniques. The medium dentin of 20 third molars was exposed (n = 5. The dentin surface was then acid-etched, left moist and randomly assigned to be saturated via either water wet-bonding (WBT or absolute ethanol wet-bonding (EBT. The specimens were then treated with one of the following etch-and-rinse adhesive systems: a 3-step, water-based system (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose, or SBMP or a 2-step, ethanol/water-based system (Adper Single Bond 2, or SB. Resin composite build-ups were then incrementally constructed. After water storage for 24 h at 37°C, the tensile strength of the specimens was tested in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 5%. The failure modes were verified using a stereomicroscope (40'. For both adhesives, no significant difference in bond strength was observed between WBT and EBT (p > 0.05. The highest bond strength was observed for SB, regardless of the bonding technique (p < 0.05. No significant interaction between adhesives and bonding techniques was noticed (p = 0.597. There was a predominance of adhesive failures for all tested groups. The EBT and WBT displayed similar immediate bond strength means for both adhesives. The SB adhesive exhibited higher means for all conditions tested. Further investigations are needed to evaluate long-term bonding to dentin mediated by commercial etch-and-rinse adhesives using the EBT approach.

  12. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  13. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country rich in native chicken genetic resources. There are 31 native chicken breed in Indonesia. Native chicken farming was developed for decades. In early period of 1907’s, mostly farmers reared their native chicken by traditional system (about 80%. In 1980s until now, the number of native chicken farmers which rear native chicken by semi intensive and intensive system have been increasing. These rearing system changing have significantly increased the native chicken productivity. The major constraints for the development of native chicken i.e. low growth rate, risks of high mortality, low egg production. Many research results stated that improving in breeding, feeding and management aspect will increase native chicken production. The information and data contained in this paper is the result of study literature for scientific papers, either in the form of journals, books, or proceedings, and livestock statistics books. This paper is made to support the development of native chickens in Indonesia.

  14. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from organic and conventional retail chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Brown, A; Nahashon, S N; Long, D

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria existing in agricultural environments may be transferred to humans through food consumption or more multifaceted environmental paths of exposure. Notably, enterococcal infections are becoming more challenging to treat as their resistance to antibiotics intensifies. In this study, the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci in organic and conventional chicken from retail stores were analyzed. Of the total 343 retail chicken samples evaluated, 282 (82.2%) were contaminated with Enterococcus spp. The prevalence was higher in organic chicken (62.5%) than conventional chicken (37.5%). Enterococcus isolates were submitted to susceptibility tests against 12 antimicrobial agents. Among the isolates tested, streptomycin had the highest frequencies of resistance (69.1 and 100%) followed by erythromycin (38.5 and 80.0%), penicillin (14.1 and 88.5%), and kanamycin (11.3 and 76.9%) for organic and conventional isolates, respectively. Chloramphenicol had the lowest frequency (0.0 and 6.6%, respectively). The predominant species in raw chicken was E. faecium (27.3%), followed by E. gallinarum (6.0%), E. casseliflavus (2.1%), and E. durans (1.4%). These species were also found to be resistant to three or more antibiotics. The data indicated that antibiotic-resistant enterococci isolates were found in chicken whether it was organic or conventional. However, enterococci isolates that were resistant to antibiotics were less common in organic chicken (31.0%) when compared with those isolated from conventional chicken (43.6%). The results of this study suggest that raw retail organic and conventional chickens could be a source of antibiotic-resistant enterococci.

  15. Molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in Korea with a history of enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, B S; Lee, H R; Jeon, E O; Han, M S; Min, K C; Lee, S B; Mo, I P

    2013-11-01

    Several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in chickens. A molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken parvovirus (ChPV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian rotavirus (AvRV), avian reovirus (ARV), and fowl adenovirus (FAdV), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks that experienced enteritis outbreaks between 2010 and 2012. Using techniques such as PCR and reverse-transcription PCR, enteric viruses were identified in a total of 85.3% of investigated commercial chicken flocks in Korea. Furthermore, diverse combinations of 2 or more enteric viruses were simultaneously identified in 51.7% of chicken farms positive for enteric viruses. The rank order of positivity for enteric viruses was as follows: ANV (44.1%), CAstV (38.2%), ChPV (26.5%), IBV (20.6%), ARV (8.8%), AvRV (5.9%), and FAdV (2.9%). Additionally, other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Eimeria spp., and FAdV were detected in 79% of chicken flocks positive for enteric viruses using PCR, bacterial isolation, and microscopic examination. The results of our study indicate the presence of several enteric viruses with various combinations in commercial chicken farms that experienced enteritis outbreaks. Experimental studies are required to further understand the roles of enteric viruses in RSS in commercial chickens.

  16. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuates exercise-induced decline in executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kana; Kimura, Tetsuya; Yuhaku, Atsushi; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A decline in executive function could have a negative influence on the control of actions in dynamic situations, such as sports activities. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could serve as an effective treatment for preserving the executive function in exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution on executive function after sustained moderately high-intensity exercise. Eight young healthy participants completed 65 min of running at 75% V̇O2max with two mouth-rinsing conditions: with a carbohydrate solution (CHO) or with water (CON). Executive function was assessed before and after exercise by using the incongruent task of the Stroop Color and Word Test. The levels of blood glucose; and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), epinephrine, and norepinephrine (NE) were evaluated. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, with condition (CHO and CON) and time (pre-exercise and post-exercise) as factors, was used to examine the main and interaction effects on the outcome measures. The reaction time in the incongruent condition of the Stroop test significantly increased after exercise in CON (pre-exercise 529 ± 45 ms vs. post-exercise 547 ± 60 ms, P = 0.029) but not in CHO (pre-exercise 531 ± 54 ms vs. post-exercise 522 ± 80 ms), which resulted in a significant interaction (condition × time) on the reaction time (P = 0.028). The increased reaction time in CON indicates a decline in the executive function, which was attenuated in CHO. Increases in plasma epinephrine and NE levels demonstrated a trend toward attenuation accompanying CHO (P mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuated the decline in executive function induced by sustained moderately high-intensity exercise, and that such attenuation seems to be unrelated to carbohydrate metabolic pathway but rather attributed, in part, to the inhibition of the excessive release of stress hormones.

  17. Introduction to Superconducting RF Structures and the Effect of High Pressure Rinsing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This presentation begins by describing RF superconductivity and SRF accelerating structures. Then the use of superconducting RF structures in a number of accelerators around the world is reviewed; for example, the International Linear Collider (ILC) will use ~16,000 SRF cavities with ~2,000 cryomodules to get 500 GeV e⁺/e⁻ colliding energy. Field emission control was (and still is) a very important practical issue for SRF cavity development. It has been found that high-pressure ultrapure water rinsing as a final cleaning step after chemical surface treatment resulted in consistent performance of single- and multicell superconducting cavities.

  18. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of...

  19. Note: Influence of rinsing and drying routines on growth of multilayer thin films using automated deposition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan A; Ham, Aaron; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2010-03-01

    A versatile, high speed robot for layer-by-layer deposition of multifunctional thin films, which integrates concepts from previous dipping systems, has been designed with dramatic improvements in software, positioning, rinsing, drying, and waste removal. This system exploits the electrostatic interaction of oppositely charged species to deposit nanolayers (1-10 nm thick) from water onto the surface of a substrate. Dip times and number of deposited layers are adjustable through a graphical user interface. In between dips the system spray rinses and dries the substrate by positioning it in the two-tiered rinse-dry station. This feature significantly reduces processing time and provides the flexibility to choose from four different procedures for rinsing and drying. Assemblies of natural montmorillonite clay and polyethylenimine are deposited onto 175 microm poly(ethylene terephthalate) film to demonstrate the utility of this automated deposition system. By altering the type of rinse-dry procedure, these clay-based assemblies are shown to exhibit variations in film thickness and oxygen transmission rate. This type of system reproducibly deposits films containing 20 or more layers and may also be useful for other types of coatings that make use of dipping.

  20. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    was attributed to broiler chickens and a minor part to isolators, whereas infection trials did not affect the total variance. The results showed that pooled samples within isolators had lower c.f.u./g compared to the arithmetic mean of the individual samples. There was a significant correlation between faecal c...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  1. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168......, which were not significantly different from the reduction obtained by sterile water (0.95 log). Statistically larger reductions (1.57 to 3.81 log) were caused by formic acid (2%), lactic acid (2.5%), trisodium phosphate (10%), capric acid sodium salt (5%), grapefruit seed extract (1...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...

  2. Assessing serum metabolite profiles as predictors for feed efficiency in broiler chickens reared at geographically distant locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Magowan, E; Hollmann, M; Ball, M E E; Molnár, A; Lawlor, P G; Hawken, R J; O'Connell, N E; Zebeli, Q

    2017-12-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in growth performance, serum intermediary metabolites, acute-phase proteins and white blood cells in low, medium and high-residual feed intake (RFI) chickens. It was also assessed if the environment affects the feed efficiency (FE) and FE-related performance and serum profiles of chickens. 2. Individual body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) were recorded from d 7 of life. At 5 weeks of age, female and male broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were selected according to their RFI (L1: Austria; L2: UK; n = 9/RFI group, sex and locatity -45on) and blood samples were collected. 3. Chickens at L1 had similar FI but a 15% higher BW gain compared to chickens at L2. The RFI values of female chickens were -231, 8 and 215 g and those of male chickens -197, 0 and 267 g for low, medium and high RFI, respectively. 4. Location affected serum glucose, urea, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ovotransferrin in females, and serum glucose and triglycerides in male chickens. Serum uric acid and NEFA linearly increased from low to high RFI in females, whereas in males, cholesterol showed the same linear response from low to high RFI. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and blood heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio linearly increased by 35% and 68%, respectively, from low to high RFI but only in male chickens at L1. 5. Regression analysis showed significant positive relationships between RFI and serum uric acid (R2 = 0.49) and cholesterol (R2 = 0.13). 6. It was concluded that RFI-related variation in serum metabolites of chickens was largely similar for the two environments and that serum metabolite patterns could be used to predict RFI in chickens.

  3. Effect of dentin biomodifiers on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of a simplified etch and rinse adhesive to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This in vitro study evaluated the effect of dentin biomodifiers on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of a simplified etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. Materials and Methods Flat coronal dentin surfaces were prepared in 120 extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 24 according to 5 different surface pre-treatments: No pre-treatment (control; 1M carbodiimide (EDC; 0.1% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; 2% minocycline (MI; 10% sodium ascorbate (SA. After surface pre-treatment, adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], 3M ESPE was applied. Composite was applied into transparent plastic tubes (2.5 mm in diameter, which was placed over the bonded dentin surface. From each group, 10 samples were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS evaluation at 24 hours (immediate and remaining 10 samples were tested after 6 months (delayed. Additionally, 4 samples per group were subjected to scanning electron microscopic analysis for observation of resin-dentin interface. The data were statistically analysed with Shaperio‑Wilk W test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test. Results At 24 hours, SBS of all surface pre-treatment groups were comparable with the control group, with significant differences found between EDC and SA groups only (p = 0.009. After 6 months storage, EDC, EGCG, and MI pre-treatments preserved the resin-dentin bond strength with no significant fall. Conclusions Dentin pre-treatment with all the dentin biomodifiers except SA resulted in significant preservation of resin-dentin bond over 6 months storage period, without negatively affecting the immediate bond strength of the etch and rinse adhesive tested.

  4. Effect of dentin biomodifiers on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of a simplified etch and rinse adhesive to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Payal; Nagpal, Rajni; Singh, Udai Pratap

    2017-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of dentin biomodifiers on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of a simplified etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. Flat coronal dentin surfaces were prepared in 120 extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 24) according to 5 different surface pre-treatments: No pre-treatment (control); 1M carbodiimide (EDC); 0.1% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); 2% minocycline (MI); 10% sodium ascorbate (SA). After surface pre-treatment, adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], 3M ESPE) was applied. Composite was applied into transparent plastic tubes (2.5 mm in diameter), which was placed over the bonded dentin surface. From each group, 10 samples were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) evaluation at 24 hours (immediate) and remaining 10 samples were tested after 6 months (delayed). Additionally, 4 samples per group were subjected to scanning electron microscopic analysis for observation of resin-dentin interface. The data were statistically analysed with Shaperio‑Wilk W test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc Tukey's test. At 24 hours, SBS of all surface pre-treatment groups were comparable with the control group, with significant differences found between EDC and SA groups only (p = 0.009). After 6 months storage, EDC, EGCG, and MI pre-treatments preserved the resin-dentin bond strength with no significant fall. Dentin pre-treatment with all the dentin biomodifiers except SA resulted in significant preservation of resin-dentin bond over 6 months storage period, without negatively affecting the immediate bond strength of the etch and rinse adhesive tested.

  5. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  6. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  7. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika

    2007-01-01

    with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...... and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which...

  8. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  9. Clostridial necrotic enteritis in chicken associated with growth rate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen causing necrotic enteritis. C. perfringens only causes necrotic enteritis when it transforms from non-toxin producing type to toxin producing type. The alpha toxin, (phospholipase C is believed to be a key to the occurrence of Clostridial necrotic enteritis (CNE. The best known predisposing factor is mucosal damage, caused by coccidiosis that damages the intestinal lining, making the gut susceptible to infections including C. perfringens. The purpose of this study was to observe the chicken performance in experimental CNE and field cases of CNE. Diagnosis of CNE were made by latex agglutination test, isolation and identification of the agent. Pathological and histopathological changes were also observed. Experimentally, NE could be reproduced when Eimeria sp and C. perfringens spores are inoculated in chicken. Signs of an NE are wet litter and diarrhea, and an increase in mortality is not often obvious. The depression of growth rate and feed efficiency of chicken become noticeable by week 5 because of damage to the intestine and the subsequent reduction in digestion and absorption of food. Subclinical form of CNE was also frequently found in the field, leading to significant decreases in performance. Chicken gut samples examinations revealed that subclinical form of CNE causes damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by C. perfringens leads to decreased digestion and absorption, increased feed conversion ratio and reduced weight gain. Dual infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria sp. was frequently found in field. The results of these studies provide evidence for C. perfringens as a causative bacteria for growth depression.

  10. Complete genome sequence analysis of chicken astrovirus isolate from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amrutlal K; Pandit, Ramesh J; Thakkar, Jalpa R; Hinsu, Ankit T; Pandey, Vinod C; Pal, Joy K; Prajapati, Kantilal S; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2017-03-01

    Chicken astroviruses have been known to cause severe disease in chickens leading to increased mortality and "white chicks" condition. Here we aim to characterize the causative agent of visceral gout suspected for astrovirus infection in broiler breeder chickens. Total RNA isolated from allantoic fluid of SPF embryo passaged with infected chicken sample was sequenced by whole genome shotgun sequencing using ion-torrent PGM platform. The sequence was analysed for the presence of coding and non-coding features, its similarity with reported isolates and epitope analysis of capsid structural protein. The consensus length of 7513 bp genome sequence of Indian isolate of chicken astrovirus was obtained after assembly of 14,121 high quality reads. The genome was comprised of 13 bp 5'-UTR, three open reading frames (ORFs) including ORF1a encoding serine protease, ORF1b encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and ORF2 encoding capsid protein, and 298 bp of 3'-UTR which harboured two corona virus stem loop II like "s2m" motifs and a poly A stretch of 19 nucleotides. The genetic analysis of CAstV/INDIA/ANAND/2016 suggested highest sequence similarity of 86.94% with the chicken astrovirus isolate CAstV/GA2011 followed by 84.76% with CAstV/4175 and 74.48%% with CAstV/Poland/G059/2014 isolates. The capsid structural protein of CAstV/INDIA/ANAND/2016 showed 84.67% similarity with chicken astrovirus isolate CAstV/GA2011, 81.06% with CAstV/4175 and 41.18% with CAstV/Poland/G059/2014 isolates. However, the capsid protein sequence showed high degree of sequence identity at nucleotide level (98.64-99.32%) and at amino acids level (97.74-98.69%) with reported sequences of Indian isolates suggesting their common origin and limited sequence divergence. The epitope analysis by SVMTriP identified two unique epitopes in our isolate, seven shared epitopes among Indian isolates and two shared epitopes among all isolates except Poland isolate which carried all distinct epitopes.

  11. Comparison of the Prevalence of Microbial Contamination in Packed and Unpacked Redmeat and Chicken Meat at Retail Outlets and Department Stores in Southern Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kamkar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Despite advances in disease prevention and food materials technology, food – borne diseases are still a major problem in both developed and developing countries. Morever, meat plays a key role in transfer of bacteria, especially “Zoonotic” to humans. Therefore, we decided to investigate the outbreak of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella,Campylobacter, Yersinia and Aeromonas in red meat and chicken offered as packed and unpacked in areas under the authority of Tehran university of medical sciences . Methods: 630 samples including 315 raw chicken meat and 315 raw red meat samples were collected and tested for a period of one year from July, 2004 to August,2005. Samples were collected from shops selling packed meat and chicken as well as shops selling unpacked meat and chicken in different parts of the south of Tehran The methods used for the laboratory investigation were based on Iranian National Standard Procedure No. 2394. Results: Of the 630 samples of chicken and meat, 183 samples (29 % were contaminated. 49.2 percent of the contaminated samples were chicken meat and 8.9 percent were red meat. From the total, 71 samples were contaminated with salmonella (11.3 %, 68 samples with Campylobacter (10.8 %, 26 samples with Yersinia entrocolitica (4.1 % and 18 samples with Aeromonas (2.9 %. In red meat samples, microbial contamination was observed in 4.9 % of packed and 10.3 percent of unpacked samples. Contamination rate of chicken samples was higher including 59.3 % of packed and 45.7 % of unpacked chicken samples. The observed difference between the remitting samples of packed and unpacked chicken was statistically significant. (P 0.05

  12. An in-vitro model for comparing the efficiency of wound-rinsing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehn, K

    2009-06-01

    To develop an in-vitro model to evaluate the efficiency of wound-rinsing solutions in removing adherent, hydrophobic, denatured proteins. We hypothesised that saline solutions would be less effective than surfactant-containing solutions in removing denatured proteins. Prepared slides containing dried blood plasma or fibrin were incubated for up to one hour in histological troughs filled with one of four test solutions: physiological saline solution, Ringer's solution, a surfactant-containing solution and an antiseptic. The concentration of dissolved proteins was measured using a modified Biuret test. Results were analysed by plotting protein concentration against the incubation time. During the incubation period, the protein concentration increased in all of the test solutions, with the lowest concentration reported in the two saline-based solutions. These stayed clear, while the surfactant-containing solution become opaque, indicating that the surfactant had encased hydrophic substances, such as denatured proteins. Ringer's solution and saline are inappropriate solvents for adhering wound coatings. A sterile, surfactant-containing wound rinsing solution contains the essential properties for thorough and gentle cleansing of chronic wounds. None.

  13. Impact of rinsing in pesticide packaging waste management: Economic and environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta Una

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have become dailiness due to inevitable application of these preparations in agricultural activities, with the consequence of generation of large amounts of waste packaging. Impact on the environment and expenses of management of packaging waste can be minimized if the packaging is immediately rinsed after the application of devices and if identified as non-hazardous. Besides, financial losses may be reduced by maximum utilization of the preparation. Considering these two financial aspects this work shows evaluation of quantitative losses of preparations if the triple rising method is not applied. The research was conducted in two phases. Phase I included the examination of the impact of different formulations of the same volume on quantitative and financial losses. Based on the results of the first phase of the research, it was noted that the SC formulation is the most interesting to study because this type of formulation has the highest percentage of residue, as well as the fact that the highest annual consumption is noted percisely in this preparation group. This paper presents the results which indicate the impact of packaging volume of SC formulation (ALVERDE 240 SC, INTERMEZZO and ANTRE PLUS on percentage of preparation residue in packaging if there was no rinsing. The results have shown that the quantitative loss is inversely proportional to the volume of packaging, while financial losses do not only depend on the percentage of residue but also on price and quantity of utilization of preparations.

  14. Effects of potassium oxalate on knoop hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M A; Malacarne-Zanon, J; Carvalho, R M; Alves, M C; De Goes, M F; Anido-Anido, A; Carrilho, M R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives may be affected by the pretreatment of acid-etched dentin with potassium oxalate desensitizer. Unerupted human third molars were cut into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The pulp chamber of these crown segments was connected to a syringe barrel filled with phosphate-buffered saline so that the moisture of dentin was maintained during the bonding procedures. Three etch-and-rinse adhesives-two two-step systems (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], One-Step [OS]) and one three-step system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [MP])-were applied to acid-etched dentin that had been treated (experimental groups) or not (control groups) with potassium oxalate (BisBlock). The Knoop hardness (KHN) of adhesives was taken at different sites of the outer surface of the adhesive-bonded dentin. The KHN of the three tested adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin treated with potassium oxalate was significantly lower than that exhibited by the respective controls (not treated with oxalate; padhesive, the treatment with potassium oxalate reduced the adhesives' KHN (p<0.05), with the OS system exhibiting the lowest KHN compared with the MP and SB systems.

  15. Mouth-rinses for the prevention of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, A; Bahrololoumi, Z; Khaksar, Y; Saffarzadeh, N; Neamatzade, H; Foroughi, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate studies in basic oral care interventions to update evidence based practice guidelines for preventing oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Pub Med database and Google Scholar were searched for all papers published between 2000 and December 2014 in English that were conducted using the search terms including ''mocusitis, chemotherapy, mouth-rinses, oral care, oral care protocol, dental care,dental cleaning, oral decontamination, oral hygiene", and the combined phrases in order to obtain all relevant studies. The initial search concluded 151 published papers representing both research and clinical work. Review articles, clinical case reports, literature reviews, and other nonresearch articles were excluded from the review. Following this process, 30 papers remained. Among these, chlorhexidine, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, iseganan, benzydamine, sucralfate and Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor have been used in the form of mouth-rinse for prevention of chemotherapy induced mucositis. However, none of these mouthrinses have been shown to be definitely effective in preventing chemotherapy induced oral mucositis.

  16. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.

  17. Topical minocycline and tetracycline rinses in treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel; Rabenstein, Shira; Elishoov, Hanita; Yarom, Noam

    2007-05-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa. We assessed minocycline and tetracycline oral rinses in patients with frequent episodes of RAS in a clinical randomized crossover trial. Seventeen patients with high frequency recurrent minor RAS were randomly allocated to a cross-over topical therapy with 0.2 percent minocycline or 0.25 percent tetracycline aqueous solution mouthwash. The minimum interval between the cross-over was 30 days. The intensity of pain was recorded daily using a visual analogue scale. Minocycline mouthwashes as compared to topical tetracycline rinses resulted in significantly improved pain control, by reducing the severity and duration of pain. Topical minocycline rinse may be a potential treatment for other mucosal diseases that result in mucosal ulceration and pain.

  18. [A randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial of tacrolimus mouth rinse on erosive oral lichen planus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-xin; Li, Xiao-yu; Cai, Gan-ying; Chen, Yan-qing

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus mouth rinse on the treatment of erosive and ulcerative oral lichen planus (OLP). A randomized single-blind open trial of tacrolimus mouth rinse with dexamethasone as control was designed. The VAS and REU scoring system was utilized to compare the signs and symptoms. The scores and therapeutic effects were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. There was no significant difference in effective rate between the treatment group and control group (X(2)=0.295,0.413, P>0.01) at 4-week and 12-week after treatment. There was significant difference in REU scores between the 2 groups (P<0.01) 4 weeks after treatment. Tacrolimus mouth rinse effects quickly and is worthy of application in the treatment of erosive and ulcerative OLP.

  19. Effect of thermocycling on the durability of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives on dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwichit, Ketkamon; Kingkaew, Ruksaphon; Pongprueksa, Pong; Senawongse, Pisol

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to compare bond strengths of adhesives with/without thermocycling and to analyze the micromorphology of resindentin interfaces. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared and divided into eight groups to bond with four etch-and-rinse adhesives (Optibond FL, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond Solo Plus, and Single Bond 2) and four self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Adper SE Plus, Clearfil S(3) Bond and Adper Easy Bond). Specimens were further divided into two subgroups subjected for with/without thermocycling and then subjected to both micro-tensile test and resin-dentin interface evaluation. The results revealed that there were significant differences in bond strength between the groups with and without thermocycling for all etch-and-rinse groups and for the Adper Easy Bond self-etch group (petch-and-rinse adhesives and Adper SE Plus and Adper Easy Bond after thermocycling.

  20. Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Benli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a survey was conducted to both evaluate the consumers’ general attitudes for purchasing and storing the raw chicken and determine the thawing practices used for defrosting frozen chicken at home. About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more. Furthermore, the majority (82.16% of those who stored at least a portion of the raw chicken stated freezing the raw chicken meat at home. Freezing the chicken meat was considered to have no effect on the quality by 43.49% of the consumers while 56.51% thought that freezing had either negative or positive effects on the quality. The survey study indicated that top five most commonly used thawing practices included thawing on the kitchen counter, thawing in the refrigerator, thawing in the warm water, thawing in the microwave, and thawing under tap water. In addition, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of these most commonly used thawing practices on some quality characteristics of the chicken meat including pH, drip loss, cooking loss, color analysis and textural profile analysis. Although, L* value for thawing on the kitchen counter was the lowest, after cooking, none of the thawing treatments have a significant effect on the color values. Thawing in the microwave produced the highest drip loss of 3.47% while the lowest drip loss of 0.62% was observed with thawing in the refrigerator. On the other hand, thawing in the microwave and refrigerator caused the lowest cooking loss values of 18.29% and 18.53%, respectively. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among textural parameter values of the defrosted and then cooked samples using the home based thawing practices, indicating similar quality characteristics among the samples.

  1. Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a survey was conducted to both evaluate the consumers' general attitudes for purchasing and storing the raw chicken and determine the thawing practices used for defrosting frozen chicken at home. About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more. Furthermore, the majority (82.16%) of those who stored at least a portion of the raw chicken stated freezing the raw chicken meat at home. Freezing the chicken meat was considered to have no effect on the quality by 43.49% of the consumers while 56.51% thought that freezing had either negative or positive effects on the quality. The survey study indicated that top five most commonly used thawing practices included thawing on the kitchen counter, thawing in the refrigerator, thawing in the warm water, thawing in the microwave, and thawing under tap water. In addition, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of these most commonly used thawing practices on some quality characteristics of the chicken meat including pH, drip loss, cooking loss, color analysis and textural profile analysis. Although, L* value for thawing on the kitchen counter was the lowest, after cooking, none of the thawing treatments have a significant effect on the color values. Thawing in the microwave produced the highest drip loss of 3.47% while the lowest drip loss of 0.62% was observed with thawing in the refrigerator. On the other hand, thawing in the microwave and refrigerator caused the lowest cooking loss values of 18.29% and 18.53%, respectively. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among textural parameter values of the defrosted and then cooked samples using the home based thawing practices, indicating similar quality characteristics among the samples.

  2. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom

    2006-08-01

    1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis. 2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic salmonella, are essentially commensal in chickens. They usually form part of the gut flora and contaminate chicken carcases, for example, by faecal spillage at slaughter. Even when certain salmonella serovars like S. Enteritidis are invasive in laying hens overt evidence of clinical disease is rare and the birds appear to behave normally. 3. Are these bacteria just 'passing through' the avian host and only transient members of the bacterial flora or is there a more dynamic perspective to this infection/colonisation process? Chickens mount antibody responses to both pathogens, which indicate something other than commensalism. Such immune responses, however, do not always result in the clearance of the pathogen. 4. Not all animals in a group will carry salmonella or campylobacter, even under experimental conditions, and will vary, especially those that are outbred, in their responses to pathogen challenge. Identifying the reasons behind this could have important implications for disease control. 5. Both salmonella and campylobacter are more likely to be found in animals, which are compromised and this may explain at least part of the variations seen. Animals are more susceptible to infection when they are in a poor environment, fed a poor diet and/or under physical or psychological stress. 6. Work in this area has naturally focused on pathogens of medical significance and has shown that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline can markedly alter pathogen behaviour. Other host responses like Interferon gamma can also affect host tissues in a way, which facilitates invasion by

  3. Physical and chemical properties of meat from scavenging chickens and helmeted guinea fowls in response to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, M T; Halimani, T E; Chimonyo, M

    2017-08-01

    1. The effects of age and sex on body weight, carcass traits, physical and chemical properties of breast muscle from chickens and helmeted guinea fowls managed under village free-range conditions were assessed in random samples of 48 guinea fowls and 48 chickens obtained from local markets. 2. Guinea fowls had higher body weight, hot carcass weight, cold dressed weight and breast weight than chickens. 3. Guinea fowls had more dry matter, protein and less fat than chickens. Ash content did not differ between guinea fowls and chickens. Protein and fat increased, whereas dry matter and ash decreased with age (P Chicken meat was lighter, less red and more yellow than guinea fowl meat. Cooking loss was higher in guinea fowls, male and grower birds than chickens, females and adult birds, respectively. Shear force was affected by age, as mature birds had a higher value than growers. 5. Guinea fowl carcasses contained more meat that was leaner, higher in protein and redder compared with chicken meat. As age increased the meat increased in protein and fat content and shear force, whereas colour became darker, redder and yellower.

  4. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI WARALABA FRIED CHICKEN DI BANJARMASIN BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI KONSUMEN (Studi Pada KFC Duta Mall, Texas Fried Chicken Duta Mall,AW Duta Mall Dan California Fried Chicken Rs Ulin Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatini Ade Mayvita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During  the  last  14  years,  the  growth  rate  of  fried  chicken  franchise  with  the concept of fast food restaurants in Banjarmasin is 12% per year. It is characterized by large number of outlets/stores of fried chicken franchise in Banjarmasin city as many as 10 outlets. Most of the existing outlets are in Duta Mall Banjarmasin.  This study aims to identify and analyze the competitive position of fried-chicken fast-food franchise restaurants based on the consumers’ perceptions (Study on KFC,  Texas  Fried  Chicken, AW  Duta  Mall  and  CFC  RS  Ulin  Banjarmasin. Perceptions formulated are based on the assessment of marketing mix, which consists of services, physical condition, Product, promotion, personal traits, Price, means of support, distribution and location. 100 respondents are taken as samples in this study, i.e. respondents who have eaten in the fourth Fried Chicken fast food franchise using the technique of non proportional stratified random sampling. Meanwhile, the technique of data analysis uses Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS. The findings from the analysis using Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS show inequality  positions  of  Fried  Chicken  franchise  restaurants,  Kentucky  Fried Chicken,  Texas  Chicken,  AW  and  California  Fried  Chicken,  based  on  their consumers’  perceptions:  1.  KFC  is  a  fried  chicken  franchise  restaurant  that has superiority over the ease in getting information for organizing parties, the rooms’ capacities, the frequency of advertisements, employee skills, appropriate Products with Prices. In addition, KFC also has special superiority over different/ unique fried chicken taste and more outlets than other fried chicken franchise restaurants; 2. Texas Fried chicken has superiority over the speed of Customer service,  cleanliness  of  the  room,  the  Product  pakaging  which  is  favorable  to consumers,  direct  gifts,

  5. Mitochondrial resequencing arrays detect tumor-specific mutations in salivary rinses of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Suhail K; Smith, Ian M; Zhou, Shaoyu; Gray, Andrew; Koch, Wayne M; Maitra, Anirban; Califano, Joseph A

    2007-12-15

    Alterations of the mitochondrial genome have been identified in multiple solid tumors and in many head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Identification of mitochondrial mutations in the salivary rinses of patients with HNSCC has potential application in disease detection. In this study, we used the MitoChip v2.0 mitochondrial genome resequencing array to detect minor populations of mitochondrial DNA in salivary rinses of patients with HNSCC. Salivary rinses from 13 patients with HNSCC, whose tumors carried mitochondrial mutations, were collected before surgical resection. DNA isolated from salivary rinses and serial dilutions of DNA derived from HNSCC-derived cell lines with known mitochondrial mutations were sequenced using the MitoChip, and analyzed using a quantitative algorithm which we developed to detect minor populations of mitochondrial DNA from MitoChip probe intensity data. We detected heteroplasmic populations of mitochondrial DNA up to a 1:200 dilution using MitoChip v2.0 and our analysis algorithm. A logarithmic relationship between the magnitude of assay intensity and concentration of minor mitochondrial populations was shown. This technique was able to identify tumor-specific mitochondrial mutations in salivary rinses from 10 of 13 (76.9%) patients with head and neck cancer. Minor populations of mitochondrial DNA and disease-specific mitochondrial mutations in salivary rinses of patients with HNSCC can be successfully identified using the MitoChip resequencing array and the algorithm which we have developed. This technique has potential application in the surveillance of patients after resection and may have applicability in the surveillance of body fluids in other tumor types.

  6. Clinical and Microbial Evaluation of the Effects on Gingivitis of a Mouth Rinse Containing an Enteromorpha linza Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Bin; Lee, Hee-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Choi, Jae-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Enteromorpha linza, a green alga, has been recognized as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antifungal compounds. We previously reported that an E. linza extract strongly inhibited the growth of Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing the E. linza extract on gingivitis disease, as measured by the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP), and on two bacterial strains (P. intermedia and P. gingivalis), in comparison with Listerine® (Listerine-Korea, Seoul, Korea), which was used as a positive control. In total, 55 subjects were recruited into active participation in this clinical study. The PI, GI, BOP, and bacterial strains were then evaluated over a test period of 6 weeks. After 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks, the same clinical indices were recorded, and the levels of P. intermedia and P. gingivalis were quantified via real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of the study, the group using the mouth rinse containing the E. linza extract evidenced significant reductions in the clinical indices (PI, GI, and BOP) and P. gingivalis compared with baseline values. Moreover, E. linza extract containing mouth rinse produced effects similar to those of Listerine. Overall, these results indicate that a mouth rinse containing E. linza extract significantly reduces plaque, improves the condition of gingival tissues, and reduces bleeding. Additionally, E. linza extract mouth rinse significantly inhibits P. gingivalis and P. intermedia. Thus, this clinical study demonstrated that the twice-daily use of an E. linza extract mouth rinse can inhibit and prevent gingivitis. PMID:22145775

  7. Chicken- and duck-associated Bacteroides-Prevotella genetic markers for detecting fecal contamination in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ayano; Sano, Daisuke; Hatori, Jun; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    Bacteroides-Prevotella group is one of the most promising targets for detecting fecal contamination in water environments, principally due to its host-specific distributions and high concentrations in feces of warm-blooded animals. We developed real-time PCR assays for quantifying chicken/duck-, chicken-, and duck-associated Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers (Chicken/Duck-Bac, Chicken-Bac, and Duck-Bac). A reference collection of DNA extracts from 143 individual fecal samples and wastewater treatment plant influent was tested by the newly established markers. The quantification limits of Chicken/Duck-Bac, Chicken-Bac, and Duck-Bac markers in environmental water were 54, 57, and 12 copies/reaction, respectively. It was possible to detect possible fecal contaminations from wild ducks in environmental water with the constructed genetic marker assays, even though the density of total coliforms in the identical water samples was below the detection limit. Chicken/Duck-Bac marker was amplified from feces of wild duck and chicken with the positive ratio of 96 and 61 %, respectively, and no cross-reaction was observed for the other animal feces. Chicken-Bac marker was detected from 70 % of chicken feces, while detected from 39 % of cow feces, 8.3 % of pig feces, and 12 % of swan feces. Duck-Bac marker was detected from 85 % of wild duck feces and cross-reacted with 31 % of cow feces. These levels of detection specificity are common in avian-associated genetic markers previously proposed, which implies that there is a practical limitation in the independent application of avian-associated Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers and a combination with other fecal contamination markers is preferable for detecting fecal contamination in water environments.

  8. Presence of Listeria and Salmonella spp. in retail chicken in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultos, N; Koidis, P; Madden, R H

    2003-01-01

    Retail packs of fresh chicken in Northern Ireland were sampled to determine the frequency with which they were contaminated with Salmonella and Listeria spp. Packs of chicken were chosen from supermarkets ensuring a diverse range of EU producer codes were sampled. Salmonellas were isolated using BS EN 12824: 1998 methodology, biotyped and serotyped whilst Listeria spp. were isolated based on EN ISO 11290-1: 1996 procedures and identified using a multiplex PCR system utilizing genus and species specific primers. Only three of 205 samples yielded Salmonella spp. indicating that measures undertaken by the poultry industry to control this pathogen have apparently been successful. However, Listeria spp. were present in 38 of 80 samples tested (48%) and 14 (18%) yielded Listeria monocytogenes. Thus Salmonella controls do not markedly affect this pathogen and retail packs of raw chicken must be considered a potential source of L. monocytogenes, and appropriate precautions taken to prevent infection.

  9. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  10. Adhesion of 10-MDP containing resin cements to dentin with and without the etch-and-rinse technique

    OpenAIRE

    Turp, Volkan; Sen, Deniz; Tuncelli, Betul; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the adhesion of 10-MDP containing self-etch and self-adhesive resin cements to dentin with and without the use of etch-and-rinse technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human third molars (N=180) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=30 per group). Conventional (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray-PAN) and self-adhesive resin cements (Clearfil SA, Kuraray-CSA) were bonded to dentin surfaces either after application of 3-step etch-and-rinse (35% H3PO4 + ED Primer) or two-step sel...

  11. Clinical efficacy analysis of the mouth rinsing with pomegranate and chamomile plant extracts in the gingival bleeding reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana Luzia Araújo; Lins, Ruthineia Diógenes Alves Uchôa; de Souza Coelho, Renata; do Nascimento Barbosa, Danielle; Moura Belém, Nayara; Alves Celestino, Frayni Josley

    2014-02-01

    Medicinal plants represent important therapeutic resources to health restoration, including the use of herbal products in the mouth conditions treatment. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth rinse with pomegranate and chamomile plant extracts, against chlorhexidine 0.12% in the gingiva bleeding condition. The mouth rinses with the herbal products were effective for this case, showing thus, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties similar to that of chlorhexidine 0.12%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and genotypes of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from human stool and chicken meat in Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar Campos, Cristina; Fenner, Ines; Wiese, Nicole; Lensing, Carmen; Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Fenner, Thomas; Hentschke, Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Chicken meat has been proposed to constitute a source for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-carrying Enterobacteriaceae that colonize and infect humans. In this study the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool samples from ambulatory patients who presented in the emergency department of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf with gastrointestinal complains and in chicken meat samples from the Hamburg region were analysed and compared with respect to ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance profiles. Twenty-nine (4.1%) of 707 stool samples and 72 (60%) of 120 chicken meat samples were positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The distribution of ESBL genes in the stool vs. chicken meat isolates (given as % of total isolates from stool vs. chicken meat) was as follows: CTX-M-15 (38% vs. 0%), CTX-M-14 (17% vs. 6%), CTX-M-1 (17% vs. 69%), SHV-12 (3% vs. 18%) and TEM-52 (3% each). Comparison of ESBL- and multilocus sequence type revealed no correlation between isolates of human and chicken. Furthermore, ESBL-producing E. coli from stool samples were significantly more resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than chicken isolates. The differences in ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance patterns indicate that in our clinical setting chicken meat is not a major contributor to human colonization with ESBL-carrying Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. CROWING SOUND ANALYSIS OF GAGA??? CHICKEN: LOCAL CHICKEN FROM SOUTH SULAWESI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  14. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  15. The Characteristic and The Use of Pelung Chicken in Indonesia

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    Sofjan Iskandar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pelung chicken is one of livestock genetic resources in Indonesia, which has been playing an important role for years in the villagers in West Java Province. Pelung chicken originally came from Cianjur district in West Java area. It has been raised as a singing cockerel. This singing ability of the cockerel has become the main criteria for Pelung chicken regular competition in Cianjur. A serious attention on Pelung chicken can maintain the existence of Pelung chicken. The specific character of Pelung chicken compared to other native chicken in Indonesia is the large size of its body. This character could be used to improve the growth rate up to 20% bodyweight and the feed utilization efficiency up to 10% when crossbred with Kampung chicken. The economic value of Pelung chicken is not only its beautiful voice but also as a source of local chicken meat. Further research on any genetic potential of Pelung chicken is strongly suggested.

  16. Long-term efficacy of a 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse in relation to plaque and gingivitis : a 6-month randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, M. P. C.; Rosema, N. A. M.; Versteeg, P. A.; Slot, D. E.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Van der Weijden, G. A.

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouth rinse for reduction of gingival inflammation and inhibition of plaque compared to a vehicle control (VC) mouth rinse over a 6-month period. Materials & MethodsParticipants (n=62) used their randomly assigned product

  17. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

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    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  18. Chicken Immune Response after In Ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 Activating Flagellin of Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Katarzyna A Radomska

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant C. jejuni flagellin-based subunit vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Toll-like receptor activation assays demonstrated the purity and TLR5 stimulating (adjuvant activity of the vaccine. The antigen (20-40 μg was administered in ovo to 18 day-old chicken embryos. Serum samples and intestinal content were assessed for antigen-specific systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses. In ovo vaccination resulted in the successful generation of IgY and IgM serum antibodies against the flagellin-based subunit vaccine as determined by ELISA and Western blotting. Vaccination did not induce significant amounts of flagellin-specific secretory IgA in the chicken intestine. Challenge of chickens with C. jejuni yielded similar intestinal colonization levels for vaccinated and control animals. Our results indicate that in ovo delivery of recombinant C. jejuni flagellin subunit vaccine is a feasible approach to yield a systemic humoral immune response in chickens but that a mucosal immune response may be needed to reduce C. jejuni colonization.

  19. Chicken Immune Response after In Ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 Activating Flagellin of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A; Vaezirad, Mahdi M; Verstappen, Koen M; Wösten, Marc M S M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant C. jejuni flagellin-based subunit vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Toll-like receptor activation assays demonstrated the purity and TLR5 stimulating (adjuvant) activity of the vaccine. The antigen (20-40 μg) was administered in ovo to 18 day-old chicken embryos. Serum samples and intestinal content were assessed for antigen-specific systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses. In ovo vaccination resulted in the successful generation of IgY and IgM serum antibodies against the flagellin-based subunit vaccine as determined by ELISA and Western blotting. Vaccination did not induce significant amounts of flagellin-specific secretory IgA in the chicken intestine. Challenge of chickens with C. jejuni yielded similar intestinal colonization levels for vaccinated and control animals. Our results indicate that in ovo delivery of recombinant C. jejuni flagellin subunit vaccine is a feasible approach to yield a systemic humoral immune response in chickens but that a mucosal immune response may be needed to reduce C. jejuni colonization.

  20. Impact of aflatoxin B1 on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Starling; Srinivasa Rao, G; Malik, Jitendra K

    2015-09-01

    The potential impact of subchronic exposure of aflatoxin B1 was investigated on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens given either normal or aflatoxin B1 (750μg/kg diet) supplemented diet for 6 weeks received a single oral dose of enrofloxacin (10mg/kg body wt). Blood samples were drawn from the brachial vein at predetermined time intervals after drug administration. Enrofloxacin plasma concentrations analyzed by RP-HPLC were significantly lower in aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens at 0.167, 0.5 and 1.0h after drug administration. In aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens, the absorption rate constant (ka) of enrofloxacin (0.20±0.05h(-1)) was significantly decreased as compared to the unexposed birds (0.98±0.31h(-1)). The values of [Formula: see text] , tmax and AUC0-∞ of enrofloxacin were nonsignificantly increased by 17%, 26% and 17% in aflatoxin-exposed broiler chickens, respectively. Subchronic aflatoxin B1 exposure markedly decreased the initial absorption of enrofloxacin without significantly influencing other pharmacokinetic parameters in broiler chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating the Global Dispersal of Chickens in Prehistory Using Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Alice A.; Athens, J. Stephen; Bryant, David; Carson, Mike; Emery, Kitty; deFrance, Susan; Higham, Charles; Huynen, Leon; Intoh, Michiko; Jones, Sharyn; Kirch, Patrick V.; Ladefoged, Thegn; McCoy, Patrick; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Quiroz, Daniel; Reitz, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Walter, Richard; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Data from morphology, linguistics, history, and archaeology have all been used to trace the dispersal of chickens from Asian domestication centers to their current global distribution. Each provides a unique perspective which can aid in the reconstruction of prehistory. This study expands on previous investigations by adding a temporal component from ancient DNA and, in some cases, direct dating of bones of individual chickens from a variety of sites in Europe, the Pacific, and the Americas. The results from the ancient DNA analyses of forty-eight archaeologically derived chicken bones provide support for archaeological hypotheses about the prehistoric human transport of chickens. Haplogroup E mtDNA signatures have been amplified from directly dated samples originating in Europe at 1000 B.P. and in the Pacific at 3000 B.P. indicating multiple prehistoric dispersals from a single Asian centre. These two dispersal pathways converged in the Americas where chickens were introduced both by Polynesians and later by Europeans. The results of this study also highlight the inappropriate application of the small stretch of D-loop, traditionally amplified for use in phylogenetic studies, to understanding discrete episodes of chicken translocation in the past. The results of this study lead to the proposal of four hypotheses which will require further scrutiny and rigorous future testing. PMID:22848352

  2. Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Indigenous Chickens From Dalahu Region, Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Ghashghaei, Omid; Yakhchali, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with the poor production of indigenous chickens. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and ectoparasite diversity in indigenous chickens of the Dalahu region in the western part of Kermanshah province, Iran. A total of 600 indigenous chickens (250 roosters and 350 hens) were randomly examined for the presence of different ectoparasites over the period April to September 2011. Ectoparasites were collected from different parts of chicken body using a hand lens, magnifying glass, and flashlights. The samples were preserved in 70% alcohol and cleared in lactophenol. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 52.8% (66% hens and 34.4% roosters) (p<0.001). Mixed infestation was noted in 70.34% of the chickens. The prevalence was significantly higher in young (66.3%) animals compared with older animals (39.33%) (p<0.001). Five species of ectoparasites were identified: Menopon gallinae (35.3%), Menacanthus stramineus (26.7%), Argas persicus (19%), Dermanyssus gallinae (11%), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (the "sticktight flea") (8%). The results of the present investigation reveal that ectoparasite infestation is prevalent in this area. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of the ectoparasites on indigenous chicken health and production in the region.

  3. Investigating the global dispersal of chickens in prehistory using ancient mitochondrial DNA signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A Storey

    Full Text Available Data from morphology, linguistics, history, and archaeology have all been used to trace the dispersal of chickens from Asian domestication centers to their current global distribution. Each provides a unique perspective which can aid in the reconstruction of prehistory. This study expands on previous investigations by adding a temporal component from ancient DNA and, in some cases, direct dating of bones of individual chickens from a variety of sites in Europe, the Pacific, and the Americas. The results from the ancient DNA analyses of forty-eight archaeologically derived chicken bones provide support for archaeological hypotheses about the prehistoric human transport of chickens. Haplogroup E mtDNA signatures have been amplified from directly dated samples originating in Europe at 1000 B.P. and in the Pacific at 3000 B.P. indicating multiple prehistoric dispersals from a single Asian centre. These two dispersal pathways converged in the Americas where chickens were introduced both by Polynesians and later by Europeans. The results of this study also highlight the inappropriate application of the small stretch of D-loop, traditionally amplified for use in phylogenetic studies, to understanding discrete episodes of chicken translocation in the past. The results of this study lead to the proposal of four hypotheses which will require further scrutiny and rigorous future testing.

  4. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms of The Chicken Antiviral Mx Gene in A Variety of Indonesian Indigenous Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that a G/A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP at nucleotideposition 1,892 of coding sequence of chicken Mx gene confers susceptibility/resistance to avian viral diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the geographical distribution of G/A alleles in relation to differentgenetic backgrounds of a wide range of chicken populations. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction- RestrictionFragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods, 492 samples from 15 breeds of indigenous chickenpopulations from Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan and Sulawesi islands were genotyped. Allele and genotypefrequencies of each population were calculated. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were testedand inbreeding coefficient FIS estimated. Overall, the susceptible allele G had a frequency of 37.27% whilethe resistant allele A had a corresponding frequency of 62.73%. No clear relation of the geographicaldistribution of the G/A alleles to genetic backgrounds was found. The distribution of this SNP acrosspopulations seems to be affected by genetic drift rather than selection.

  6. Shear bond strength of two 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives when bonding ceramic brackets to bovine enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Marion; Deuve, Benjamin; Lopez, Isabelle; Hippolyte, Marie-Pascale; Barthélemi, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    The present study assessed a fracture analysis and compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of two 2-step etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesives when bonding ceramic orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel. Thirty healthy bovine mandibular incisors were selected and were equally and randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Ceramic brackets (FLI Signature Clear®, RMO) were bonded onto bovine enamel using an adhesive system. In group 1 (n=15), the conventional E&R adhesive (OrthoSolo®+Enlight®, Ormco) was used, and in group 2 (n=15), the new E&R adhesive limited to ceramic bracket bonding (FLI ceramic adhesive®: FLI sealant resin®+FLI adhesive paste®, RMO) was used. In order to obtain appropriate enamel surfaces, the vestibular surfaces of mandibular bovine incisors were flat ground. After bonding, all the samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 21 days and subsequently tested for SBS, using the Instron® universal testing machine. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores were evaluated. Failure modes were assessed using optical microscopy at magnification ×40. A statistic data analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (Padhesive interface. A statistically significant difference was found for the ARI scores between the two groups (P=0.00996). Only two fractured brackets, which remained bonded onto the bovine enamel, were reported. Both occurred in group 1. When bonded to ceramic brackets, FLI ceramic adhesive® (RMO) was demonstrated to be very predictable and safe for clinical application in enamel bonding, whereas the results obtained with the conventional adhesive system (OrthoSolo®+Enlight®, Ormco) were less reproducible and revealed slightly excessive shear bond strength values. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of the application sequence of calcium-containing desensitising pastes during etch-and-rinse adhesive restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongye; Pei, Dandan; Chen, Zhiyong; Lei, Jinmei; Zhou, Liqun; Huang, Cui

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of different application sequence of calcium-containing desensitising pastes on bonding effectiveness and tubule occlusion during etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesive restoration. Seventy molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal plane, polished and randomly divided into seven groups (n=10). Group 1 was etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15s. Groups 2-4 were treated with different calcium-containing desensitisers, including an arginine-calcium carbonate (Arg-CaCO3)-containing paste, a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-containing paste and a calcium-sodium phosphosilicate (Novamin)-containing paste, respectively. Afterward, these groups were etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15s. Groups 5-7 were initially etched and then treated with Arg-CaCO3-, CPP-ACP- and Novamin-containing desensitisers, respectively. In each group, samples were equally distributed into two subgroups (n=5) to bond with either a two-step E&R adhesive Adper SingleBond 2 (SB) or a three-step E&R adhesive Adper ScotchBond Multi-Purpose (SBMP). The microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) were tested and fracture modes were analyzed by stereomicroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Eight additional dentine disks were prepared to evaluate tubule occlusion prior to bonding using FESEM. The application sequence of calcium-containing desensitising pastes did not significantly affect MTBS irrespective of two-step SB (P>0.05) or three-step SBMP E&R adhesives (P>0.05). Effective dentinal tubule occlusion was observed in the mode of etching-desensitising. Applying calcium-containing desensitisers (particularly Arg-CaCO3- and Novamin-based) after etching during E&R adhesive restoration could achieve effective tubule occlusion without affecting the bonding strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Prevalence of Toxoplasma Infection among Free-Ranging Chickens in Southern Iran Using IFA and Nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Hatam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: As consumption of chicken meat may be as one of the sources of human infection, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in farm chickens (Gallus gallus domesti­cus in Shiraz, southern Iran. "nMethods: Two hundred and thirty one blood samples were collected from farm chickens by a cluster ran­dom sampling method and tested for toxoplasmosis by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT. The samples of the brain, heart, and liver of the chickens were tested by a Nested PCR method. The re­sults were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-Square test and a P value <0.05 was considered statically sig­nificant. "nResults: Out of 58 seropositive chickens, 29 (1:16 in eight, 1:32 in 14, 1:64 in five and 1:128 in two birds and out of seronegative chickens, three were enrolled in the study. The most infected tissue was liver (27 out of 29 and the lowest was the heart (16 out of 29 (α=0.05, P=0.002. None of the seronegative chick­ens was positive in PCR method. Only 2 out of 8 cases with a titer of 1:16 (as cut off point were negative in PCR method whereas the remained were positive. "nConclusion: Based on cultural and food habits in our area, the meat and viscera of chicken may be impor­tant sources of infection in human when consuming semi-cooked meats. Considering the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in chickens, standards in chicken breeding, education of environmental health personnel and standardization for preparation and handling techniques are required by Health and Veterinary organizations.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, K; Ogunsola, F; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007. METHODOLOGY: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms...... in 2007. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (4%) Salmonella isolates were obtained from human blood and 70 (11%) from chicken fecal samples. The human isolates revealed nine different serovars; 82% were non-typhoidal Salmonella and 18......% were (S. Typhi). The majority of serovars from humans were S. Enteritidis (33%), S. Dublin (18%), and S. Typhimurium (18%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ampicillin ranged from 36% to 59% for the human isolates. Eight different serovars were obtained from chickens...

  10. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained encom...

  11. Haptoglobin Studies in Kenyan Indigenous Chickens | Maina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haptoglobin Studies in Kenyan Indigenous Chickens. J. O. Maina, M. Bhattacharjee, P. J. Aduma. Abstract. Haptoglobin polymorphism was found in indigenous chickens of Kenya. Haptoglobin was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. There was high average diversity recorded with respect to haptoglobin.

  12. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the development of an

  13. Immunological characterisation of two chicken lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreukniet, M.B.

    1996-01-01


    Two chicken lines were divergently selected for antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Several experiments were conducted to investigate what mechanisms the immune system of the chickens uses to realize either the high (H) or the low (L) antibody production. The lines did not

  14. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhuo

    Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  16. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few recent outbreaks in Europe and the US involving Campylobacter and Salmonella were linked to the consumption of chicken livers. Studies investigating Staphylococcus aureus in chicken livers and gizzards are very limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of S. aureus and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail chicken livers and gizzards in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In this study, 156 chicken livers and 39 chicken gizzards samples of two brands were collected. While one of the brands showed very low prevalence of 1% (1/100 for S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards, the second brand showed prevalence of 37% (31/95. No MRSA was detected since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. Eighty seven S. aureus isolates from livers and 28 from gizzards were screened for antimicrobial resistance to 16 antimicrobials and the possession of 18 toxin genes. Resistance to most of the antimicrobials screened including cefoxitin and oxacillin was higher in the chicken gizzards isolates. While the prevalence of enterotoxin genes seg and sei was higher in the gizzards isolates, the prevalence of hemolysin genes hla, hlb, and hld was higher in the livers ones. The lucocidin genes lukE-lukD was equally prevalent in chicken livers and gizzards isolates. Using spa typing, a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are not known to be livestock associated and, hence, may be of a human origin. In conclusion, this study stresses the importance of thorough cooking of chicken livers and gizzards since it might contain multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic S. aureus. To our knowledge this is the first study to specifically investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards in the US.

  17. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar M Gadelhaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  18. Corrosion behavior of ion implanted nickel-titanium orthodontic wire in fluoride mouth rinse solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Endo, Kazuhiko; Muguruma, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion properties of ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) in artificial saliva and fluoride mouth rinse solutions (Butler F Mouthrinse, Ora-Bliss). Non ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy) was used as control. The anodic corrosion behavior was examined by potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The surfaces of the specimens were examined with SEM. The elemental depth profiles were characterized by XPS. Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in artificial saliva and Butler F Mouthrinse (500 ppm) had a lower current density than Neo Sentalloy. In addition, breakdown potential of Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in Ora-Bliss (900 ppm) was much higher than that of Neo Sentalloy although both wires had similar corrosion potential in Ora-Bliss (450 and 900 ppm). The XPS results for Neo Sentalloy Ionguard suggested that the layers consisted of TiO(2) and TiN were present on the surface and the layers may improve the corrosion properties.

  19. Efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous extracts) on dental plaque and gingivitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ritesh; Nekkanti, Sridhar; Kumar, Nikesh G; Kapuria, Ketan; Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous) in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis among children. The study was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, with a total of 60 school children (n = 30 in each group; triphala and chlorhexidine groups). Plaque and gingival indices were used to evaluate baseline and follow-up plaque and gingivitis. A total of 57 children completed the study. Both chlorhexidine and triphala groups showed significantly lower mean gingival and plaque index scores at follow up than baseline (P plaque index was significantly higher in the chlorhexidine group compared to the triphala group (P = 0.048). The effectiveness of triphala in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was comparable to chlorhexidine, and can be used for short-term purposes without potential side-effects. It is a cost-effective alternative in reducing plaque and gingivitis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Effects of Storage Time on the Quality of Local Chicken Meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the proximate composition and effects of aging time on local chicken meat quality. ... half carcasses samples were chilled for 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours post mortem (PM) at 4oC. pH values were measured for each sample followed by storage at -20oC to arrest further changes in meat.

  1. Effects of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Adhesives on Dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Scaffa, P.; Carrilho, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; Di Lenarda, R.; Polimeni, A.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply) (all 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives), and Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE), Tri-S (Kuraray), and Xeno-V (Dentsply) (1-step self-etch adhesives). MMP-2 and -9 activities were quantified in adhesive-treated dentin powder by means of an activity assay and gelatin zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found after treatment with all of the simplified etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives; however, the activation was adhesive-dependent. It is concluded that all two-step etch-and-rinse and the one-step self-etch adhesives tested can activate endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human dentin. These results support the role of endogenous MMPs in the degradation of hybrid layers created by these adhesives. PMID:23128110

  2. Effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives on dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Scaffa, P; Carrilho, M; Tjäderhane, L; Di Lenarda, R; Polimeni, A; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply) (all 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives), and Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE), Tri-S (Kuraray), and Xeno-V (Dentsply) (1-step self-etch adhesives). MMP-2 and -9 activities were quantified in adhesive-treated dentin powder by means of an activity assay and gelatin zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found after treatment with all of the simplified etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives; however, the activation was adhesive-dependent. It is concluded that all two-step etch-and-rinse and the one-step self-etch adhesives tested can activate endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human dentin. These results support the role of endogenous MMPs in the degradation of hybrid layers created by these adhesives.

  3. An in vitro evaluation of leakage of two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesives after thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Sabine; Bolette, Amandine; Seidel, Laurence; Guéders, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Our experiment evaluated the microleakage in resin composite restorations bonded to dental tissues with different adhesive systems. 40 class V cavities were prepared on the facial and lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (root dentin). The teeth were restored with Z100 resin composite bonded with different adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), a 3-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1), a 2-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, AdheSE One (ADSE-1), a 1-step Self-Etch adhesive, and AdheSE (ADSE), a 2-step Self-Etch adhesive. Teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution. When both interfaces were considered, SBMP has exhibited significantly less microleakage than other adhesive systems (resp., for SB1, ADSE-1 and ADSE, P = 0.0007, P Etch adhesives, microleakage was found greater at enamel than at dentin interfaces (for ADSE, P = 0.024 and for ADSE-1, P Etch and Rinse adhesive systems, there was no significant difference between enamel and dentin interfaces; (3) SBMP was found significantly better than other adhesives both at enamel and dentin interfaces. In our experiment Etch and Rinse adhesives remain better than Self-Etch adhesives at enamel interface. In addition, there was no statistical difference between 1-step (ADSE-1) and 2-step (ADSE) Self-Etch adhesives.

  4. Influence of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on running and jumping performance during early morning soccer scrimmaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibyslavská, Veronika; Scudamore, Eric Michael; Johnson, Samantha Louise; Green, James Matthew; Stevenson Wilcoxson, Mary Caitlin; Lowe, Jordan Blaine; O'Neal, Eric Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) is a novel method proposed to enhance endurance performance lasting ≤ 60 min. The current study examined the influence of CMR on anaerobic performance tasks in 11 collegiate female soccer players after an overnight fast. Athletes completed two experimental sessions, during which carbohydrate (CHO; 6% maltodextrin) or taste- and colour-matched placebo (PLA) mouth-rinse solutions were administered in a counterbalanced, double-blinded design. Three rounds of a 5-min scrimmage bout and series of performance tests including a single countermovement vertical jump (1VJ), a set of four consecutive vertical jumps, a 72-m shuttle run (SR72) and 18-m sprint comprised each trial. Thirst sensation (TS), session TS, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and session RPE were assessed as secondary outcomes. The first SR72 approached significance (p = 0.069), but no significant between-trials differences were observed for any of the mean performance tasks. The highest 1VJ scores did not differ for the first (CHO = 47.3 ± 3.4, PLA = 47.7 ± 3.5 cm; p = 0.43), second (CHO = 48.0 ± 4.1, PLA = 47.9 ± 3.5 cm; p = 0.82) or third bout (CHO = 47.4 ± 3.9, PLA = 48.1 ± 3.9 cm; p = 0.26). TS approached significance (p = 0.053) during the first bout. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for any of the perceptual variables. Current results fail to support ergogenic influence of CMR on anaerobic performance tasks in collegiate female athletes.

  5. A comprehensive laboratory screening of three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loguercio, A D; Luque-Martinez, I; Muñoz, M A; Szesz, A L; Cuadros-Sánchez, J; Reis, A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated several bonding (microtensile bond strengths [μTBS], nanoleakage [NL], and in situ degree of conversion [ISDC] on dentin) and mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength [UTS], degree of conversion [DC], water sorption [WS], and solubility [SL] in water) of four three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in the short term. A total of 28 molars were used in this study. The dentin surfaces were bonded with the following adhesives: All-Bond 3 (ALB3); Fusion Duralink (FSDL); Optibond FL (OBFL), and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP). After each adhesive-system application, composite resin build-ups were added. For bonding tests, specimens were sectioned in order to obtain bonded sticks. The sticks were divided to be tested for μTBS (0.5 mm/min), for NL (n=2), and ISDC (n=2). For NL, they were immersed in 50% silver nitrate and analyzed by scanning election microscopy. For ISDC, the hybrid layer was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. An hourglass-shaped matrix (UTS) or disk-shaped matrix (WS and SL) was filled with primer and adhesive (1:1 ratio) and light-polymerized. For UTS evaluation, the specimens were tested under tension. For WS and SL, specimens were desiccated and stored in distilled water to evaluate water diffusion kinetics over a 28-day period. The DC of the adhesives was evaluated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The data from each test were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. OBFL resulted in the highest μTBS, lower NL, higher ISDC and DC, and higher UTS than other adhesives (p0.05). ALB3 showed a higher NL and the lowest DC value. FSDL showed the highest NL and SL and the lowest ISDC. SBMP showed the lowest pattern of WS (petch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

  6. Effect of carbodiimide (EDC) on the bond stability of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Annalisa; Angeloni, Valeria; Apolonio, Fabianni M; Scotti, Nicola; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies supported the use of protein cross-linking agents during bonding procedures to inactivate endogenous dentin proteases, preventing dentin collagen degradation thus improving bond durability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-containing conditioner on the stability of the adhesive interface created by two etch-and-rinse adhesives. Human dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid, treated with 0.3M EDC-containing conditioner followed by a three-step or a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. Adhesives were applied to control specimens without EDC pre-treatment. Specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength test and pulled to failure after 24h or 1 year of storage and interfacial nanoleakage expression was evaluated and quantified by light microscopy. Additionally, to investigate endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinase activity a zymographic assay was performed on protein extracts obtained from phosphoric-acid-etched dentin powder with or without EDC treatment. The use of the EDC-containing conditioner did not affect immediate bond strength to dentin but contributed to preserve the bond strength after 1 year (padhesives. No difference was found in the interfacial nanoleakage expression that increased after aging irrespective from the treatment. EDC pre-treatment inhibited dentin endogenous MMPs as assayed with the zymography. In conclusion, the results of the study provide proof that EDC can produce long-term inactivation of MMPs in acid-etched dentin matrices contributing to bond strength preservation over time. Future studies are needed to support the use of EDC in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization and antibiogram of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from chicken and mutton of retail markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar B. N., Nadeem Fairoze , Madhavaprasad C. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate Listeria monocytogenes from chicken and mutton meat sold at retail outlets and to characterize isolates for virulence determinants. Methods: Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from chicken and mutton meat samples using ISO: 11290 method. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of virulence associated genes. Results: Out of 198 retail meat samples (72 chicken and 126 mutton analyzed, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4.5% (8.3% chicken and 2.3% mutton samples. All the 9 isolates (6 from chicken and 3 from mutton belonged to 1/2a servar and carried virulence genes viz. haemolysin (hlyA, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase (plcA, actin polymerization protein (actA and invasive associative protein p60 (Iap. Conclusion: L. monocytogenes is an organism of food safety and public health significance, its recovery from the meat sold at retail outlets indicated breach in the quality assurance. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 65-68

  8. Multi-strain infections and 'relapse' of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi gametocytes in domestic chickens in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Zhao

    Full Text Available Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss to the poultry industry. Although the prevalence and distribution of two Leucocytozoon species (L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi have been reported in China previously, there are many questions related to the parasite infection that remain unanswered, including population diversity and transmission dynamics in domestic chickens. Here we surveyed chicken blood samples from seven sites in four provinces of China to identify Leucocytozoon infection, characterized parasite diversity within individual infected hosts and between sampling sites, and investigated the dynamics of gametocytemia in chickens over time. We found high infection rates in three of the seven sites. Clustering parasite sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase III (coxIII and cytochrome b (cytb genes showed lack of grouping according to geographic origins and individual hosts carrying large numbers of L. sabrazesi strains. Monitoring gametocytemia in blood samples from infected chickens over time showed 'relapse' or persistence of low-level gametocytemia for 4-5 months, which could be explored as an in vivo model for testing drugs against liver stages of Apicomplexan parasites. This study provides important information on population diversity and transmission dynamics of L. sabrazesi and for disease control.

  9. speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from sakarya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    results was checked by analysis of the BCR-701 certified reference material. The concentrations of metals ... All laboratory glassware and plastic ware were rinsed five times with distilled deionized Ultra High .... The total metal analysis was performed with 0.5 and 1.0 g of dust samples using aqua regia as digestion solution.

  10. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  11. Comparison of the loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles of Enterococcus species from conventional and organic chicken carcasses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Park, J-H; Seo, K-H

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in poultry meat are a threat to public health. In this study, we compared the Enterococcus spp. loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles between carcasses of conventionally and organically raised chickens. A total of 144 chicken carcasses (72 conventional and 72 organic) was collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. Overall, 77.7% (112 of 144; 75% conventional and 80% organic) of chicken carcasses were positive for Enterococcus. The mean loads of Enterococcus spp. were greater in conventional chicken carcasses, at 2.9 ± 0.4 log CFU/mL, than those in organic chicken carcasses, at 1.78 ± 0.3 log CFU/mL (p organic chicken carcasses) was randomly selected for further analysis. The predominant species was Enterococcus faecalis in both conventional and organic chicken carcasses (57.7 and 76.9%, respectively; P > 0.05). Rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, which are used in veterinary medicine in South Korea, were significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses. However, we found no difference between the rates of resistance to antibiotics such as vancomycin and tigecycline, which were not registered for use in veterinary medicine in South Korea, of Enterococcus isolates from conventional and organic chicken carcasses. In addition, although multidrug resistant isolates were obtained from both types of chicken samples, the prevalence of samples positive for Enterococcus was significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses (P organic chicken carcasses. A high level of gentamicin resistance was observed in isolates from not only conventional (5.8%) but also organic chicken (1.9%) carcasses, with no significant difference in rates between them (P > 0.05). Despite this, our results suggest that organic food certification is effective in reducing fecal contamination and the burden of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. in

  12. Gingival bleeding on probing: relationship to change in periodontal pocket depth and effect of sodium hypochlorite oral rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S; Cohen, C L; Galván, M; Alonaizan, F A; Rich, S K; Slots, J

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the potential of gingival bleeding on probing to serve as a predictor of future periodontal breakdown. It also assessed the ability of 0.25% sodium hypochlorite twice-a-week oral rinse to convert periodontal pockets showing bleeding on probing to nonbleeding sites. The study was performed as a randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial in parallel groups. Seven periodontitis patients rinsed twice-weekly for 3 mo with 15 mL of a fresh solution of 0.25% sodium hypochlorite, and five periodontitis patients rinsed with water. The 12 study patients received no subgingival or supragingival scaling. Clorox(®) Regular-Bleach was the source of sodium hypochlorite. At baseline and 3-mo visits, gingival bleeding was assessed within 30 s after probing to full pocket depth using an approximate force of 0.75 N. A total of 470 (38%) of 1230 periodontal pockets in the bleach-rinse group revealed bleeding on probing at the initial visit but not at the 3-mo visit; only 71 (9%) of 828 pockets in the control group became bleeding-negative during the study (p depth increases of ≥ 2 mm after 3 mo: 60 (62%) of those pockets exhibited bleeding on probing at both the initial and the 3-mo visits; 24 (25%) bled at only one of the two visits; and 13 (13%) never demonstrated gingival bleeding (p < 0.001). Persistent gingival bleeding on probing was associated with an increased risk for periodontal breakdown, and the absence of gingival bleeding seemed to be a useful, although not perfect, indicator of disease stability. Twice-weekly oral rinsing with dilute bleach (0.25% sodium hypochlorite) produced a significant reduction in bleeding on probing, even in deep unscaled pockets. Sodium hypochlorite constitutes a valuable antiseptic in periodontal self-care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Efficacy of mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Arun Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the years chlorhexidine (CHX, triclosan and sodium fluoride (NaF mouth rinses are used alone or combined in the prevention of dental diseases. However, at present little is known about the combined effects of NaF + triclosan and CHX + NaF + triclosan mouth rinses on reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Aim: The aim was to determine the efficacy of mouth rinses used as adjuncts to regular oral hygiene measures on reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted for 6-month, among 12-15 years old school children in Nellore, India. Eligible subjects (n = 210 with consent were randomly allocated to four groups and were provided with a mouth rinse (Group A = 0.2% CHX; Group B = 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; Group C = 0.2% CHX + 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; Group D = Placebo. All subjects used 10 ml of mouth rinse, once daily for 60 s. The clinical parameters evaluated were plaque index (PlI and gingival Index (GI. Statistical significance within and between four groups was tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc and paired t-test. Results: At the end of clinical trial, the three test groups showed statistically significant (P < 0.001 reduction in PlI and GI scores compared with placebo group. Conclusion: The active agents demonstrated highly potent antiplaque and antigingivitis properties when compared to placebo.

  14. Effect of pulp pressure on the micropermeability and sealing ability of etch & rinse and self-etching adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Leal, Juan Ignacio; de la Torre-Moreno, Francisco José; Bravo, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This research evaluated the effect of pulp pressure on the micropermeability and sealing ability of etch & rinse and self-etching adhesives. Two etch & rinse adhesives (Prime&Bond NT and Admira Bond) and one self-etching adhesive (Xeno III) were used. Adhesive layer micropermeability was evaluated by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Eighteen molars were connected to a pulp pressure device and divided into two groups. One group was restored with pulp pressure and the other group without. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the adhesive used. The adhesives were rhodamine-labeled and Class V cavities were restored. After restoration, all specimens were kept under pulp pressure conditions for 24 hours with fluorescein-labeled pulp fluid. The specimens were sectioned and the axial wall was observed under CLSM. A microleakage test was performed to evaluate the sealing. Thirty molars were divided into two groups. One group was prepared with a pulp pressure device and the other group without. Each group was divided into three subgroups as a function of the adhesive used. Class V cavities were restored and the specimens were immersed in fuchsin and sectioned. Microleakage and dentin penetration were recorded in the occlusal and gingival walls. A CLSM study showed that the etch & rinse adhesives had higher micropermeability compared to the self-etching adhesives and pulp pressure made all the adhesives more permeable. In the occlusal wall, the best sealing (hermetic) was obtained when etch & rinse adhesives were used. Xeno obtained the lowest occlusal sealing values. In the gingival wall, Xeno obtained the best sealing, followed by Admira and Prime&Bond. Pulp fluid decreased gingival wall sealing when etch & rinse adhesives were used but not when self-etching adhesive was used.

  15. Longevity of Self-etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives Compared to Etch-and-rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Nader; Mohamed, Ahmed; Abou-Rabii, Iyad; Abu Zaghlan, Rawan; Steier, Liviu

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare longevity of Self-Etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives to Etch-and-Rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives. The following databases were searched for PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library complemented by a manual search of the Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. The MESH keywords used were: "etch and rinse," "total etch," "self-etch," "dentin bonding agent," "bond durability," and "bond degradation." Included were in-vitro experimental studies performed on human dental tissues of sound tooth structure origin. The examined Self-Etch Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and One Step Self-Etch Bonds, while Etch-and-Rinse Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and Three Steps. The included studies measured micro tensile bond strength (μTBs) to evaluate bond strength and possible longevity of both types of dental adhesives at different times. The selected studies depended on water storage as the aging technique. Statistical analysis was performed for outcome measurements compared at 24 h, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of water storage. After 24 hours (p-value = 0.051), 3 months (p-value = 0.756), 6 months (p-value=0.267), 12 months (p-value=0.785) of water storage self-etch adhesives showed lower μTBs when compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesives, but the comparisons were statistically insignificant. In this study, longevity of Dentin Bonds was related to the measured μTBs. Although Etch-and-Rinse bonds showed higher values at all times, the meta-analysis found no difference in longevity of the two types of bonds at the examined aging times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-08-21

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  17. Multivariate approach to assess in vitro Fe bioaccessibility in chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Náira da Silva CAMPOS

    Full Text Available Abstract A 32 factorial design was employed to develop an in vitro digestion method for estimation of Fe bioaccessible fractions in cooked chicken meat. The effects of sample size and the in vitro bioaccessible fractions of this essential element were evaluated. A sample preparation method employing a microwave assisted digestion with dilute nitric acid was used prior to total Fe determination. For the bioacessibility studies, the optimized procedure employed 7.5 g of sample and 6% w/v of an acid pepsin solution. This procedure was applied to two kinds of chicken meat samples: breast and liver. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine total and bioaccessible (chyme or soluble portion levels of iron in the samples. With respect to total Fe content, the bioaccessible fractions of Fe found in these samples were around 23% and 56 %, for breast and chicken liver, respectively. The chicken liver sample showed the highest total (400 ± 10 mg kg-1 and bioaccessible Fe contents (223 ± 18 mg kg-1 and stands out as a good source of this micronutrient.

  18. NMR Metabolomics Investigates the Influence of Flavonoid-Enriched Rations on Chicken Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, Charalambos; Lantzouraki, Dimitra Z; Goliomytis, Michael; Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Charismiadou, Maria; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis

    2017-03-01

    The use of flavonoids as dietary supplements is well established, mainly due to their intense antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, hesperidin, naringin, and vitamin E were used as additives at different concentrations in poultry rations in order to achieve meat of improved quality. NMR metabolomics was applied to chicken blood serum samples to discern whether and how the enriched rations affected the animals' metabolic profile. Variations in the metabolic patterns according to sustenance consumption were traced by orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models and were attributed to specific metabolites by using S-line plots. In particular, serum samples from chickens fed with vitamin E displayed higher concentrations of glycine and succinic acid compared to control samples, which were mainly characterized by betaine, formic acid, and lipoproteins. Samples from chickens fed with hesperidin were characterized by increased levels of lactic acid, citric acid, creatine, carnosine, creatinine, phosphocreatine, anserine, glucose, and alanine compared to control samples. Lastly, naringin samples exhibited increased levels of citric and acetic acids. Results verify the scalability of NMR metabolomics to highlight metabolite variations among chicken serum samples in relation to food rations.

  19. Effect of a volumatic spacer and mouth rinsing on systemic absorption of inhaled corticosteroids from a metered dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selroos, O; Halme, M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of inhaled corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and may cause long term side effects. As rinsing the mouth out after use and inhaling through a spacing device may reduce systemic absorption this has been further investigated. METHODS: Three crossover studies were carried out to assess the effect of budesonide given by dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) with and without mouth rinsing and beclomethasone dipropionate given by metered dose inhaler with or without a spacing device (Volumatic) on serum cortisol concentrations and urinary cortisol excretion in patients with asthma taking an inhaled corticosteroid. Each treatment period was two weeks with in a two week washout period. Serum cortisol concentrations at 0800 hours on day 14 and the 24 hour urinary excretion of cortisol were measured. In study 1 24 patients taking beclomethasone dipropionate 500 micrograms twice a day inhaled with (n = 10) or without (n = 14) a Volumatic spacing device were switched to a budesonide dry powder inhaler, 600 micrograms to be taken twice a day without mouth rinsing. In study 2 10 patients took budesonide 800 micrograms twice a day with and without mouth rinsing and without swallowing the rinsing water. In study 3 17 patients took budesonide 800 micrograms twice daily with mouth rinsing and beclomethasone dipropionate 500 micrograms twice daily with the spacing device and mouth rinsing. RESULTS: In study 1 no difference was seen between budesonide without mouth rinsing and beclomethasone dipropionate without a spacer: beclomethasone with spacer caused less suppression of cortisol (mean (SD) serum cortisol concentration: beclomethasone and spacer 487(148), budesonide 368(145) nmol/l). In study 2 mouth rinsing caused less suppression of morning serum cortisol concentrations (rinsing 440(63), no rinsing 375(56) nmol/1). In study 3 there was no difference in serum or urinary cortisol concentrations between twice daily beclomethasone dipropionate 500 micrograms

  20. Plasma Concentrations of Fentanyl Achieved With Transdermal Application in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaski, Kristina M; Gehring, Ronette; Heffron, Brendan T; Negrusz, Adam; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2017-03-01

    Providing appropriate analgesia is an important concern in any species. Fentanyl, a μ-receptor specific opioid, use is common in mammalian species but has been incompletely evaluated for this purpose in avian species. Transdermal fentanyl patches were applied to domestic chickens (n = 10) of varying breeds for 72 hours. Repeated blood samples were collected from the birds to assess time-concentration of fentanyl and norfentanyl in plasma, as assayed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, throughout patch application and for 48 hours after patch removal. Compartmental modeling was used to characterize the elimination profiles. Evaluation as a large bolus, followed by slower elimination rates over the remaining time, best fit the data as a one-compartment open model. Although maximum plasma fentanyl concentrations varied substantially by individual birds, chickens trended into 2 general groups of maximum plasma concentration, clearance, and volume of distribution, which was attributed to absorption variability. For all birds, harmonic mean of elimination half-life was 7.2 ± 3.7 hours and showed less individual variation than the other pharmacokinetic parameters. Because the application of transdermal fentanyl patches in the chickens achieved plasma fentanyl concentrations considered therapeutic in people, this approach could provide an additional analgesic option for avian patients.

  1. Proliferative Enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Kimura, K; Katsuda, K; Kobayashi, H; Mikami, O; Haritani, M; Onodera, T

    Proliferative enteropathy (PE) is an infectious disease caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (Li), an obligate intracellular bacterium. PE is endemic in swine herds and has been reported in a variety of mammals including horses, hamsters, rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, ferrets, foxes, dogs, sheep, deer and non-human primates. Avian cases are reported only in ratite birds, including emus and ostriches. Some studies show an absence of Lawsonia spp. infection in chickens. In this study, we performed morphological and bacteriological examinations on the intestines of two broiler chickens that had been condemned at a poultry slaughter plant in Japan due to intestinal haemorrhage, which was a result of focal coccidial enteritis. Histopathology revealed proliferation of the villous epithelium in the small and/or large intestines, especially the caeca, regardless of coccidial lesions. Warthin-Starry silver staining and immunohistochemistry using anti-Li monoclonal antibody revealed numerous bacteria and/or antigens in the villous epithelium. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of curved rods, morphologically compatible with Li, in the apical cytoplasm of the epithelium. Polymerase chain reaction products specific for Li were amplified from DNA samples extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded tissue. These results suggest that Li can cause PE, characterized by proliferation of the villous epithelium, in chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. POLYMORPHISMS OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN HARINGHATA BLACK CHICKEN

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    R. Saikhom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with an aim to investigate the genetic variability of growth hormone gene in Haringhata Black chicken. Blood samples were collected from 82 experimental birds and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified high salt method. Amplification of specific DNA fragment of intron 4 of growth hormone gene yielded a product size of 713 bp and was analyzed for polymorphism using PCR-SSCP technique. The banding pattern of present investigation revealed two SSCP variants AA and BB genotype in all experimental birds. In the analysed flock of Haringhata Black Chicken, the genotype frequencies were found to be 0.915 for AA and 0.085 for BB genotype. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.915 and 0.085 respectively which indicated A allele was predominant in the studied Haringhata Black Chicken population of the farm. The Chi Square Test revealed that studied population was not in accordance with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium with respect to intron 4 of Growth hormone gene.

  3. Early feeding to modify digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens

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    Milagro León T.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect on digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens by providing food in the first 48 hrs. after birth. Materials and methods. After incubating 300 fertile eggs from Hubbard breeding and immediately after hatching, the chicks were randomly assigned to treatments: fasting (from hatching to 48 hrs.; Hydrated Balanced Food (HBF from birth to 48 hrs.; commercial hydrating supplement (CHS from birth to 48 hrs. The diets were provided ad libitum. After 48 hrs. a commercial diet was fed. At birth and at 48 and 72 hrs. of age 30 chicks/treatment were sacrificed to determine the enzyme activity of maltase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, phytase, a-amylase, trypsin and lipase in samples of duodenal or pancreatic homogenate. Results. The supply of HBF or CHS during the first 48 hrs. of life increased the activity of maltase, sucrase and phytase in the first 3 days of life, with values between 1.2 and up to 4-fold compared to the control (p<0.05. Chickens that fasted for the first 48 hrs. had higher activity of the pancreatic enzymes a-amylase, trypsin, and lipase at 72 hrs. of life (p<0.05. Conclusions. The food supply in the first 48 hrs. after hatching increases the duodenal enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border during the first 3 days of age in broiler chickens.

  4. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  5. Genetic diversity of Lombok chickens based on D-loop mitochondrial DNA sequences

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    M. Syamsul Arifin Zein

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA displacement (D-loop sequences were used to study the genetic diversity and relationship of Lombok chickens. A total of 45 individuals were sampled. The D-loop segment was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences of the 785 nucleotides were used for analysis. Twelve haplotypes were identified from 25 polymorphic sites with polymorphism between nucleotides 200 and 400 contributing to 80% of the variation. Fu’s Fs value was - 8.768 (all samples, P = 0, indicating high genetic diversity and population expansion, a conclusion supported by a neighbor– joining analysis of the haplotypes. Nucleotides diversity of the Lombok chicken were 0.00221 and haplotype diversity were 0.654 + 0.08. The dominant haplotype found among the Lombok chickens was haplotype B (62% and genetic distances value ranged from 0.001 to 0.017.

  6. Wine industry residues extracts as natural antioxidants in raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, M M; Contreras-Castillo, C J; Shirahigue, L D; Gallo, C R; Plata-Oviedo, M; Montes-Villanueva, N D

    2011-07-01

    The effect of Isabel (IGE) and Niagara (NGE) grape seed and peel extracts on lipid oxidation, instrumental colour, pH and sensory properties of raw and cooked processed chicken meat stored at -18°C for nine months was evaluated. The pH of raw and cooked samples was not affected by the addition of grape extracts. IGE and NGE were effective in inhibiting the lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat, with results comparable to synthetic antioxidants. The extracts caused alterations in colour, as evidenced by the instrumental (darkening and lower intensity of red and yellow colour) and sensory results of cooked samples. In the sensory evaluation of odour and flavour, IGE produced satisfactory results, which did not differ from synthetic antioxidants. These findings suggest that the IGE and NGE are effective in retarding lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Natural Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Chicken in Thika Region of Kenya Using Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    John Mokua Mose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens is a good indicator of possible risk to human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii in free-range chicken using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Brain samples from 105 free-range chickens from three administrative areas in Thika region, Kenya, were collected, DNA-extracted, and analyzed using PCR to detect presence of T. gondii. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in all the three areas was 79.0% (95% CI: 70.0–86.4% and the prevalence across the three areas was not significantly different (P=0.5088; χ2=1.354. Female chickens had higher (79.4% prevalence than males (78.6%, although the difference was not significant (P=0.922, χ2 = 0.01. However, chickens that were more than 2 years old had significantly (P=0.003; χ2 = 11.87 higher prevalence compared to younger ones. The study indicates that there was a high occurrence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens from Thika region and that the infection rate is age dependent. Further studies should be carried out to determine the possible role of roaming chickens in the epidemiology of the disease among humans in the area.

  8. Detection of Natural Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Chicken in Thika Region of Kenya Using Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Simon Muturi; Ngotho, Maina; Kamau, David Muchina; Njuguna, Adele Nyambura

    2016-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens is a good indicator of possible risk to human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii in free-range chicken using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brain samples from 105 free-range chickens from three administrative areas in Thika region, Kenya, were collected, DNA-extracted, and analyzed using PCR to detect presence of T. gondii. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in all the three areas was 79.0% (95% CI: 70.0–86.4%) and the prevalence across the three areas was not significantly different (P = 0.5088; χ 2 = 1.354). Female chickens had higher (79.4%) prevalence than males (78.6%), although the difference was not significant (P = 0.922, χ 2 = 0.01). However, chickens that were more than 2 years old had significantly (P = 0.003; χ 2 = 11.87) higher prevalence compared to younger ones. The study indicates that there was a high occurrence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens from Thika region and that the infection rate is age dependent. Further studies should be carried out to determine the possible role of roaming chickens in the epidemiology of the disease among humans in the area. PMID:27981052

  9. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and histopathological and hematobiochemical alterations in backyard chickens reared in an industrial area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indrajit; Mukhopadhayay, Sunit Kumar; Patra, Amlan Kumar; Pradhan, Saktipada

    2017-11-25

    This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of four heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co), and histopathological lesions in tissues of chickens reared in an industrial area of West Bengal, India. In particular, Mejhia Block was selected as a heavy metal-exposed area and Vatar Block (120 km away from industrially polluted areas) as a reference site. Samples were collected from the backyard chickens in these areas. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water, feedstuffs, tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and muscle), and droppings were greater (p muscle, whereas Cu and Co concentrations accumulated in these tissues resulted in the following: liver > kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Heavy metal concentrations were greater in older chickens (> 1 year) than in young chickens (biochemical profiles were altered due to heavy metal exposure. Histological changes revealed necrotic lesions and tubulitis in the kidney, degeneration and necrosis in liver parenchyma, and periarteriolitis, peribronchiolitis, and presence of hemosiderin pigment in the lung of chickens in the exposed site. Results indicated that backyard chickens in heavy metal-exposed site may show pathological lesions in different tissues due to accumulation of heavy metals, and thus, the consumption of chicken meat from the industrially exposed site may pose a potential health risk to local residents of polluted sites.

  10. Reliable solution processed planar perovskite hybrid solar cells with large-area uniformity by chloroform soaking and spin rinsing induced surface precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann-Cherng Chern

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent soaking and rinsing method, in which the solvent was allowed to soak all over the surface followed by a spinning for solvent draining, was found to produce perovskite layers with high uniformity on a centimeter scale and with much improved reliability. Besides the enhanced crystallinity and surface morphology due to the rinsing induced surface precipitation that constrains the grain growth underneath in the precursor films, large-area uniformity with film thickness determined exclusively by the rotational speed of rinsing spinning for solvent draining was observed. With chloroform as rinsing solvent, highly uniform and mirror-like perovskite layers of area as large as 8 cm × 8 cm were produced and highly uniform planar perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 10.6 ± 0.2% as well as much prolonged lifetime were obtained. The high uniformity and reliability observed with this solvent soaking and rinsing method were ascribed to the low viscosity of chloroform as well as its feasibility of mixing with the solvent used in the precursor solution. Moreover, since the surface precipitation forms before the solvent draining, this solvent soaking and rinsing method may be adapted to spinless process and be compatible with large-area and continuous production. With the large-area uniformity and reliability for the resultant perovskite layers, this chloroform soaking and rinsing approach may thus be promising for the mass production and commercialization of large-area perovskite solar cells.

  11. A method to isolate bacterial communities and characterize ecosystems from food products: Validation and utilization in as a reproducible chicken meat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, Amélie; Remenant, Benoit; Prévost, Hervé; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-04-17

    Influenced by production and storage processes and by seasonal changes the diversity of meat products microbiota can be very variable. Because microbiotas influence meat quality and safety, characterizing and understanding their dynamics during processing and storage is important for proposing innovative and efficient storage conditions. Challenge tests are usually performed using meat from the same batch, inoculated at high levels with one or few strains. Such experiments do not reflect the true microbial situation, and the global ecosystem is not taken into account. Our purpose was to constitute live stocks of chicken meat microbiotas to create standard and reproducible ecosystems. We searched for the best method to collect contaminating bacterial communities from chicken cuts to store as frozen aliquots. We tested several methods to extract DNA of these stored communities for subsequent PCR amplification. We determined the best moment to collect bacteria in sufficient amounts during the product shelf life. Results showed that the rinsing method associated to the use of Mobio DNA extraction kit was the most reliable method to collect bacteria and obtain DNA for subsequent PCR amplification. Then, 23 different chicken meat microbiotas were collected using this procedure. Microbiota aliquots were stored at -80°C without important loss of viability. Their characterization by cultural methods confirmed the large variability (richness and abundance) of bacterial communities present on chicken cuts. Four of these bacterial communities were used to estimate their ability to regrow on meat matrices. Challenge tests performed on sterile matrices showed that these microbiotas were successfully inoculated and could overgrow the natural microbiota of chicken meat. They can therefore be used for performing reproducible challenge tests mimicking a true meat ecosystem and enabling the possibility to test the influence of various processing or storage conditions on complex meat

  12. Validation of the ANSR Salmonella method for detection of Salmonella spp. in selected foods and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozola, Mark; Norton, Paul; Alles, Susan; Gray, R Lucas; Tolan, Jerry; Caballero, Oscar; Pinkava, Lisa; Hosking, Edan; Luplow, Karen; Rice, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    ANSR Salmonella is a new molecular diagnostic assay for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. The test is based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction (NEAR) isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology. The assay platform features simple instrumentation, minimal labor, and, following a single-step 10-24 h enrichment (depending on sample type), an extremely short assay time of 30 min, including sample preparation. Detection is real-time using fluorescent molecular beacon probes. Inclusivity testing was performed using a panel of 113 strains of S. enterica and S. bongori, representing 109 serovars and all genetic subgroups. With the single exception of the rare serovar S. Weslaco, all serovars and genetic subgroups were detected. Exclusivity testing of 38 non-salmonellae, mostly Enterobacteriaceae, yielded no evidence of cross-reactivity. In comparative testing of chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, and oat cereal, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of positive results obtained with the ANSR and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods. In testing of swab or sponge samples from five different environmental surfaces, four trials showed no statistically significant differences in the number of positive results by the ANSR and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/ Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods; in the trial with stainless steel surface, there were significantly more positive results by the ANSR method. Ruggedness experiments showed a high degree of assay robustness when deviations in reagent volumes and incubation times were introduced.

  13. Analytical Method for Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-Thawed Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Ivelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Chilled and frozen chicken breast and thigh meat were stored at +4±1 oC and - 20±1 oC, respectively. Maillard reaction between ribose and meat proteins of the chicken samples was initiated. The changes in the ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate during chilled and frozen storage of chicken meat were evaluated on the bases of corrected absorbance values (A420* and bovine melanoidin equivalent values (mg BME/g. Application of BME as a measure of ribose-induced Maillard reaction rate enables comparability of the data obtained by different spectrophotometers. It was found that the BME values of chicken meat frozen stored for more than 15 days were significantly (P<0.05 lower than BME values of chilled-stored samples. According to the suggested threshold limit values the chicken thigh and breast meat with BME values lower than 30 mg BME/g and 51 mg BME/g, respectively could be classified as frozen-thawed.

  14. Whey protein solution coating for fat-uptake reduction in deep-fried chicken breast strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragich, Ann M; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of whey protein, as an additional coating, in combination with basic, well-described predust, batter, and breading ingredients, for fat-uptake reduction in fried chicken. Chicken breasts were cut into strips (1 x 5 x 10 cm) and coated with wheat flour (WF) as a predust, dipped in batter, coated with WF as a breading, then dipped in 10% denatured whey protein isolate (DWPI) aqueous solution (wet basis). A WF-batter-WF treatment with no DWPI solution dip was included as a control. Coated chicken strips were deep-fried at 160 degrees C for 5 min. A Soxhlet-type extraction was performed to determine the fat content of the meat fraction of fried samples, the coating fraction of fried samples, raw chicken, and raw coating ingredients. The WF-batter-WF-10% DWPI solution had significantly lower fat uptake than the WF-batter-WF control, by 30.67% (dry basis). This article describes applied research involving fat reduction in coated deep-fried chicken. The methods used in this article were intended to achieve maximized fat reduction while maintaining a simple procedure applicable to actual food processing lines.

  15. The microbiological safety of duckweed fed chickens: a risk assessment of using duckweed reared on domestic wastewater as a protein source in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, S.; Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    The possibility of transmission of pathogens from duckweed supplemented feed to chickens and consequently to the human consumer necessitated the microbiological testing of duckweed fed chickens. This assessment was thus done to determine whether there is transmission of pathogens from the duckweed supplemented feed to the chickens; determine whether such infection would be systemic or be confined to the gastro-intestinal tract of the birds; and to investigate the microbial load and distribution of the microbes with age. The study birds were sacrificed at 3, 6, 8 and 10 weeks of age and examined for the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. There was no discernible pattern in the microbial load of both the duckweed fed chickens and control birds with age although the control birds sampled clearly had a lower microbial load than the experimental flock. Some Salmonella and two enteropathogenic E. coli strains were isolated from control and experimental sub-samples at 3 weeks. There were no Salmonellae isolated in the subsequent batches of birds and feed although a number of E. coli were isolated. More isolates were obtained from the three weeks’ sub-samples (collected during wet weather) than from all the other sub-samples. The use of duckweed at this inclusion rate under the processing conditions at Nemanwa was thus concluded to be microbiologically safe as long as due caution is exercised during the processing of the duckweed and handling of the birds. There are indications that the chickens may get contaminated especially during wet weather as evidenced by the isolation of E. coli and Salmonella spp from the first batch sub-samples. This was attributed to poor environmental sanitation at the plant particularly in view of the prevailing wet conditions at the time.

  16. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    . detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained......A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp...

  17. Negligible penetration of incidental amounts of alpha-hydroxy acid from rinse-off personal care products in human skin using an in vitro static diffusion cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, M; Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Story, D C; Sakaguchi, H; Fautz, R; Fuchs, A

    2011-12-01

    Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs), primarily glycolic and lactic acids, are widely used in cosmetics to alleviate dyspigmentation, photodamage, and other aging skin conditions and as pH adjusters. Glycolic acid reportedly enhances skin damage after repeated ultraviolet light exposure, e.g., increased sunburn cell formation. This study assessed potential in vitro skin penetration of lactic acid and malic acid incorporated into rinse-off personal care products, compared with rinse-off and leave-on exposures to glycolic acid (10%, pH 3.5) in a reference lotion. Radiolabeled AHA-fortified shampoo, conditioner, and lotion were evenly applied as single doses to human epidermal membranes mounted in static diffusion cells (not occluded). Exposures were 1-3 min (rinse-off) or 24 h (leave-on). Epidermal penetration of malic acid and lactic acid from the rinse-off shampoo and conditioner, respectively, was negligible, with >99% removed by rinsing, a negligible portion remaining in the stratum corneum (≤0.15%), and even less penetrating into the viable epidermis (≤0.04%). Glycolic acid penetration from the leave-on reference lotion was 1.42 μg equiv./cm2/h, with total absorbable dose recovery (receptor fluid plus epidermis) of 2.51%, compared to 0.009%, 0.003%, and 0.04% for the rinse-off reference lotion, shampoo (malic acid), and conditioner (lactic acid) exposures, respectively. Dermal penetration of AHAs into human skin is pH-, concentration-, and time-dependent. Alpha-hydroxy acids in rinse-off shampoos and conditioners are almost entirely removed from the skin within minutes by rinsing (resulting in negligible epidermal penetration). This suggests that ultraviolet radiation-induced skin effects of AHA-containing rinse-off products are negligible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alkali ocular burns in Martinique (French West Indies) Evaluation of the use of an amphoteric solution as the rinsing product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Harold; Donnio, Angélique; Ayeboua, Lucas; Michel, Franck; Thomas, Félix; Ketterle, Jeannine; Leonard, Christian; Josset, Patrice; Gerard, Max

    2005-03-01

    During the 4 years of this study, we noted 66 cases of alkali ocular burns, or approximately 16 cases per year, nearly half (45.5%) of which are due to an assault. For grade 1 and 2 burns the time elapsed to reepithelialization appears to be shorter when rinsed with Diphoterine* versus physiological solution. Comparison of the effectiveness of two rinsing solutions for emergency use: a physiological solution and an amphoteric solution (Diphoterine*, Laboratories Prevor, Valmondois, France). Description of the clinical and progressive characteristics of alkali burns treated at the University Hospital Center of Fort de France in Martinique (French West Indies). Prospective consecutive observational case series and nonrandomized comparative study. Sixty-six patients were included. The total number of burned eyes is 104. Forty-eight eyes (46%) were rinsed with physiological solution and 56 eyes (54%) with Diphoterine*. All patients benefited from an ocular rinse with 500ml of physiological solution or Diphoterine*, followed by a complete ophthalmologic exam. The ocular injuries were classified according to the Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system. The same standardized therapeutic protocol was applied and adapted to the seriousness of the burn. Demographic data, time to corneal reepithelialization, final best corrected visual acuity and complications were analysed. Twenty-eight (42.4%) patients have a unilateral burn and 38 (57.6%) patients have bilateral burns. In decreasing order of frequency, the circumstances surrounding the injury are: assaults in 45.5% of cases (n=30), work-related accidents in 32% of cases (n=31), and domestic accidents in 23% of cases (n=15). For grade 1 and 2 burns the time elapsed to reepithelialization appears to be shorter when rinsed with Diphoterine* versus physiological solution (respectively): 1.9+/-1 days versus 11.1+/-1.4 days (p=10(-7)) and 5.6+/-4.9 days versus 10+/-9.2 days (p=0.02). For grade 3 and 4 burns

  19. Impact of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on time to exhaustion during Ramadan: A randomized controlled trial in Jordanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Mo'ath F; Al-Nawaiseh, Ali M; Abu Altaieb, Mohammad H; Bellar, David M; Hindawi, Omar S; Judge, Lawrence W

    2018-01-24

    Mouth rinsing using a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been suggested to improve physical performance in fasting participants. This study examined the effects of CHO mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting on running time to exhaustion and on peak treadmill speed (V peak ). In a counterbalanced crossover design, 18 sub-elite male runners (Age: 21 ± 2 years, Weight: 68.1 ± 5.7 kg, VO 2max : 55.4 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min) who observed Ramadan completed a familiarization trial and three experimental trials. The three trials included rinsing and expectorating a 25 mL bolus of either a 7.5% sucrose solution (CHO), a flavour and taste matched placebo solution (PLA) for 10 s, or no rinse (CON). The treatments were performed prior to an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Three-day dietary and exercise records were obtained on two occasions and analysed. Anthropometric characteristics were obtained and recorded for all participants. A main effect for mouth rinse on peak velocity (V peak ) (CHO: 17.6 ± 1.5 km/h; PLA: 17.1 ± 1.4 km/h; CON: 16.7 ± 1.2 km/h; P exhaustion (CHO: 1282.0 ± 121.3 s; PLA: 1258.1 ± 113.4 s; CON: 1228.7 ± 98.5 s; P = .002, η p 2  = 0.41) was detected, with CHO significantly higher than PLA (P  .05). Energy availability from dietary analysis, body weight, and fat-free mass did not change during the last two weeks of Ramadan (P > .05). This study concludes that carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves running time to exhaustion and peak treadmill speed under Ramadan fasting conditions.

  20. CHANGES IN THE QUALITY OF DRESSED CHICKEN OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar HT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This present study examines the preservation quality of dressed chicken procured from different sources of processing during storage at –18±1ºC. Breast portion of the dressed birds obtained from three different sources, viz. market/road side slaughtered chicken (MSC, retail slaughtered chicken (RSC, and scientifically slaughtered chicken (SSC, were cut into chunks, divided into 250 g portions, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at –18±1ºC and evaluated at 30 days intervals for changes in quality attributes. Frozen storage had no marked influence on pH change of the samples. SSC samples had higher extract release volume (15.34±0.08 to 13.45±0.93 ml than MSC (13.00±0.19 to 9.91±0.97 ml and RSC samples (13.65±0.24 to 11.70±1.21ml. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in thiobarbituric acid of all three sample types during storage but values were well below the threshold level of spoilage. SSC samples showed lower tyrosine content throughout frozen storage compared to MSC and RSC samples. A significant decline in microbial load, viz. total viable count, coliform count, psychrophilic count and yeast and moulds count were noticed during frozen storage. Organoleptic attributes, viz. appearance, flavour, texture and overall palatability were not affected due to frozen storage except juiciness in MSC samples which decreased (P<0.05 from 6.53±0.13 to 5.96±0.11 on 90 days of storage. Although the scientifically slaughtered chicken had better quality, all the sample types could be stored at –18±1ºC till 90 days without much deterioration in their quality.

  1. Developing a two-step heat treatment for inactivating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of a two-step heat treatment for eliminating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter was evaluated. The aged chicken litter with 20, 30, 40, and 50% moisture contents was inoculated with a mixture of four Salmonella serotypes for a 24-h adaptation. Afterwards, the inoculated chicken litter was added into the chicken litter with the adjusted moisture content for a 1-h moist-heat treatment at 65 °C and 100% relative humidity inside a water bath, followed by a dry-heat treatment in a convection oven at 85 °C for 1 h to the desired moisture level (heat treatment, the populations of Salmonella in aged chicken litter at 20 and 30% moisture contents declined from ≈6.70 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 3.31 and 3.00 log CFU/g, respectively. After subsequent 1-h dry-heat treatment, the populations further decreased to 2.97 and 2.57 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella cells in chicken litter with 40% and 50% moisture contents were only detectable by enrichment after 40 and 20 min of moist-heat treatment, respectively. Moisture contents in all samples were reduced to dry-heat process. Our results demonstrated that the two-step heat treatment was effective in reducing >5.5 logs of desiccation-adapted Salmonella in aged chicken litter with moisture content at or above 40%. Clearly, the findings from this study may provide the chicken litter processing industry with an effective heat treatment method for producing Salmonella-free chicken litter.

  2. Newcastle Disease Virus Shedding Among Healthy Commercial Chickens and its Epidemiological Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwor Emmanuel Chukwudi, Eze Didacus Chukwuemeka* and Umeh Mary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV, shedding among apparently healthy commercial chickens reared intensively in Nsukka and its environs were studied. Samples were collected from birds that were not vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND, and also from those that were vaccinated but given an interval of 28 days between vaccination and sample collection. Cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected from each bird and a total of 1800 birds were sampled from 72 farms located in the area. The birds in the area were monitored for 15 days post sampling. The samples were examined for NDV by isolation in embryonated chicken eggs through the allantoic cavity route. Result showed an isolation frequency of 3.2% and this could be termed as the prevalence of NDV in clinically healthy chickens in Nsukka area as the birds remained apparently healthy for more than 15 days. We therefore conclude that there is virus shedding among healthy commercial chickens in Nsukka and its environs and this should be considered an important epidemiological factor in the spread of the disease. Healthy carriers can serve as short term reservoirs and transmit the disease to other birds.

  3. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from chickens, preparation of formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine, and determination of efficacy in experimental chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Akhtar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify Pasteurella multocida from fowl cholera (FC suspected chicken, and to prepare and efficacy determination of formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine using the isolated P. multocida strain. Materials and methods: A total of five suspected dead chickens were collected from Brothers Poultry Farm located at Gazipur district, Bangladesh. The samples were processed and the P. multocida was isolated through conventional bacteriological techniques, were finally confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using P. multocida specific primers targeting cap gene. The P. multocida isolate was used to develop a formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine. The efficacy of the newly prepared vaccine was determined in Starcross-579 chickens (n=30 aging 15 weeks either by injecting 1 mL (group-A; n=10 or 0.5 mL (group-B; n=10 vaccine containing approximately 3.2x108 CFU/mL P. multocida organism; 10 birds were kept as unvaccinated control. The sera from the vaccinated and control birds were collected and were subjected for antibody titre determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Finally the vaccinated birds were challenged using virulent strains of P. multocida to confer the protection against FC. Results: P. multocida could be isolated from both the samples. The formalin killed vaccine prepared from the isolated bacteria was subjected for the determination of antibody titre in chicken, and found that the antibody titres in the birds of group A and group B were 4.513 and 4.07 respectively after primary vaccination, and 4.893 and 4.37 respectively after booster vaccination. Most of the vaccinated birds were found to be survived after challenging with virulent strain of P. multocida. Conclusion: It is concluded that the causal agent of FC (P. multocida was successfully isolated from FC affected dead chickens. The prepared formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine induces protective immune response and

  4. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  5. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using

  6. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  7. Analysis of Consumers’ Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers’ preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens. PMID:28747834

  8. Oxidative stability of chicken thigh meat after treatment of fennel and savory essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the fennel and savory essential oils on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were used chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period. The obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with fennel (Foeniculum vulgare essential oil at concentrations 0.2% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with savory (Satureja hortensis essential oil at concentration 0.2% v/w. The essential oils were applicate on surface chicken thighs. The chicken thighs were packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and stored in refrigerate at                 4 ±0.5 °C. The value of thiobarbituric acid (TBA expressed as amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample was measured during storage in 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day. The treatments of chicken thighs with fennel and savory essential oils show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group                 (0.359 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.129 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.091 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.084 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.089 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with fennel and savory essential oils had positive influence on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh muscles during chilling storage and use of essential oil is one of the options increase shelf life of fresh chicken meat.

  9. Microtensile bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives to artificially created carious dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Lobo, Maristela Maia; Goulart, Marcelo; Coelho-de-Souza, Fabio Herrmann; Valentino, Thiago Assuncao; Pisani-Proenca, Jatyr; Conceicao, Ewerton Nocchi; Pimenta, Luiz Andre Freire

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates a pH-cycling model for simulation of caries-affected and caries-infected dentin (CAD and CID, respectively) surfaces, by comparing the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse and a self-etch adhesive system. For both adhesives, bonding to sound dentin (SD) showed that the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) values of SD, CAD, and CID were SD > CAD > CID (P Adhesive systems were not able to totally penetrate into CAD and CID, forming more irregular resin-dentin interdiffusion zones and atypical resin tags than SD. The tested in vitro pH-cycling caries model allowed the evaluation of specific dentin substrate alterations in response to μTBS. The type of dentin and its histological structure played an important role in etch-and-rinse and self-etch bonding, as lower μTBS values were attained in CAD and CID.

  10. Cognitive Performance Enhancement Induced by Caffeine, Carbohydrate and Guarana Mouth Rinsing during Submaximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pomportes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serial mouth rinsing (MR with nutritional supplements on cognitive performance (i.e., cognitive control and time perception during a 40-min submaximal exercise. Twenty-four participants completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions, during which they performed MR with either placebo (PL, carbohydrate (CHO: 1.6 g/25 mL, guarana complex (GUAc: 0.4 g/25 mL or caffeine (CAF: 67 mg/25 mL before and twice during exercise. The present study provided some important new insights regarding the specific changes in cognitive performance induced by nutritional supplements. The main results were: (1 CHO, CAF and GUA MR likely led participants to improve temporal performance; (2 CAF MR likely improved cognitive control; and (3 CHO MR led to a likely decrease in subjective perception of effort at the end of the exercise compared to PL, GUA and CAF. Moreover, results have shown that performing 40-min submaximal exercise enhances information processing in terms of both speed and accuracy, improves temporal performance and does not alter cognitive control. The present study opens up new perspectives regarding the use of MR to optimize cognitive performance during physical exercise.

  11. The Efficacy of Sucralfate and Chlorhexidine as an Oral Rinse in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Soylu Özler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In this study, we compared the efficacy of sucralfate suspension with chlorhexidine as an oral rinse in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS in terms of pain relief and healing time. Materials and Methods. The subjects with a complaint of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter on the first day of the occurrence of the ulcer and between 20 and 40 years were included in the study. Seventy patients completed the study. The patients were randomized into two groups as SCH group and CHX group. Changes in pain scores, healing time, and side effects of the treatments were evaluated. Results. The mean value of pain scores on the days after the treatment from the first day to the seventh day was significantly higher in CHX group than SCH group (P≤0.05. On the seventh day after the treatment, the ulcers were completely reepithelialized in 23 patients in SCH group and in 19 patients in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (P≤0.05. In SCH group, the mean healing time of ulcers was 1.97±1.56 days whereas it was 2.80±3.00 days in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (P≤0.05. No side effects were recorded in either of the groups. Conclusion. Topical sucralfate suspension is an easy, safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment option for RAS to obtain pain relief and shorten the healing time of oral ulcers.

  12. High-volume manufacturing compatible dry development rinse process (DDRP): patterning and defectivity performance for EUVL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Safak; Vanelderen, Pieter; Hetel, Iulian; Chan, BT; Raghavan, Praveen; Blanco, Victor; Foubert, Philippe; D'urzo, Lucia; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2017-04-01

    There are many knobs available that change the chemical and physical properties of the photoresists to "break" the RLS (Resolution, Sensitivity, Line edge/width roughness) trade-off, however those are not enough today to realize a material to satisfy all requirements at once for 7nm technology and beyond. DDRP improves the ultimate achievable resolution via pattern collapse mitigation, hence the priority of requirements for the EUV photoresist development may be changed with more focus on Sensitivity and LWR. This may potentially provide a new conceptual approach towards EUV PR development for DDRP applications. We have previously demonstrated pattern collapse (PC) mitigation via DDRP on different EUVL photoresists (including different resist platforms), achieving ultimate resolution and exposure latitude improvements [1,2]. In this contribution, we report patterning and material defect performance of HVM compatible (all aqueous) dry development rinse material. We will also report on process window improvement on 2-dimensional metal structures towards standard cell size reduction with elimination of mask layer(s) using single EUV exposure.

  13. Removal of heavy metals from Water Rinsing of Plating Baths by Electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delimi R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the chromic plating of parts, the baths become more and more poor in chromic acid and rich in metallic impurities such as Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ which makes the bath useless. Also, the water used to rinse parts contains chromic acid and metallic impurities. As it is known that chromic acid is relatively expensive and very toxic, so its recovery has double interest: economic and environmental. Its reuse is possible after removal of metallic impurities. In this work, we studied the possibility of metallic impurities elimination from the chromic acid. The influence of the current density and the circulating solution flow rate on the process efficiency has been studied. The elimination rates obtained in the presence of ion exchange textile are superior to those obtained in the absence of textile. The analysis of the results showed that for the three metallic impurities studied (Cu2+, Fe3+ and Zn2+, the purification rate increases versus the applied current density and solution flow rate. The importance of the elimination of the three metal cations is as the following order: Cu2+ >Zn2+ >Fe3+.

  14. Efficacy and safety of spinosad and permethrin creme rinses for pediculosis capitis (head lice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Dow; Shellabarger, Susan; Quiring, John; Gabrielsen, Alvin A

    2009-09-01

    Studies compared spinosad creme rinse and permethrin lice treatment under "actual-use" conditions for pediculosis capitis (head lice). Two phase-3, multicenter, randomized, evaluator/investigator-blinded studies compared 0.9% spinosad without nit-combing to 1% permethrin with combing (according to product instructions) in 1038 males and females aged > or =6 months. Spinosad-with-combing groups were included for descriptive, noninferential purposes only. Within 391 households, youngest members having > or =3 live lice were designated primary participants. All household members with lice received the same treatment. Participants administered product 1 to 2 times during the 21-day home-use period on the basis of complete lice eradication after a single use or the presence of lice requiring a second treatment. Scalp evaluations were performed at baseline, day 7, and day 14 (and day 21 for participants treated twice). The primary end point was the proportion of lice-free primary participants 14 days after last treatment. A total of 84.6% (study 1) and 86.7% (study 2) of spinosad-treated participants were lice free versus 44.9% and 42.9% permethrin-treated participants (P pediculosis capitis.

  15. The relationship between turbidity of mouth-rinsed water and oral health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Ueno, Masayuki; Takehara, Sachiko; Pham, Thuy Anh Vu; Hakuta, Chiyoko; Morishima, Seiji; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between turbidity of mouth rinsed water and oral health status such as dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status, flow rate of saliva and oral bacteria. Subjects were 165 patients who visited the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Oral health status, including dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status and flow rate of saliva, was clinically examined. The turbidity was measured with a turbidimeter. Quantification of Fusobacterium spp, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and total bacteria levels was performed using real-time PCR. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to explore the associations between the turbidity and oral health parameters. The turbidity showed significant correlations with the number of decayed teeth and deep pockets, the plaque index, extent of tongue coating and Fusobacterium spp, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and total bacteria levels. In a multiple regression model, the turbidity was negatively associated with the flow rate of saliva and positively associated with the total number of bacteria (p oral health condition and the amount of bacteria in the oral cavity. In addition, the turbiditimeter appeared as a simple and objective device for screening abnormality of oral health condition at chair side as well as community-based research.

  16. Enamel-resin bond durability of self-etch and etch & rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Moreira, Mario A G; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the degradation of resin-enamel interfaces bonded with different adhesive systems. Flat enamel surfaces were ground buccally on bovine incisors. Two etch & rinse self-priming adhesives (Single Bond, Prime & Bond NT), three two-step self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Resulcin Aquaprime, NRC/Prime & Bond NT) and two all-in-one adhesives (Etch & Prime 3.0, Adper Prompt-L-Pop) were used for bonding. A hybrid resin composite (Tetric Ceram) was selected for coronal build-up. Bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, 6 months and 1 year, respectively, and then sectioned into 1 mm2 beams. Each microtensile stick was loaded in tension until failure (crosshead speed: 0.5 mm/minute). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Student Newman Keuls tests (P Etching patterns resulting from phosphoric acid etching and self-etch adhesives application on ground enamel were analyzed under SEM. All adhesives attained similar bond strengths after 24 hours. All-in-one adhesives and Resulcin Aqua Prime recorded a significant reduction in bond strengths after 6 months and 1 year of water aging.

  17. Effect of tetracycline on the bond performance of etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Stanislawczuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of modified tetracycline on the resin-dentin bond strength (µTBS, silver nitrate uptake (SNU and solution homogeneity (SH of two adhesives. Dentin surfaces were treated with phosphoric acid, rinsed off and either rewetted with water (control group - CO, 2% minocycline (MI, 2% doxycyline (DO or 2% chlorhexidine (CH. Adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond 2 and Prime Bond NT and composite were applied and light-polymerized. Specimens were sectioned to obtain bonded sticks (0.8 mm² to test under tension at 0.5 mm/min. For SNU, specimens were immersed in silver nitrate and analyzed by EDX-SEM. SH was qualitatively analyzed after mixing the adhesives with different solvent-based solutions containing MI, DO and CH. Lower µTBS values were observed in the DO group compared with MI and CH (p = 0.01. Lower SNU was observed for MI and CH. The lowest µTBS for both adhesives was observed for the DO group (p = 0.01. Signs of phase separation were observed for DO with both adhesives. MI or CH used as rewetting solutions after acid etching did not affect the µTBS and hybrid layer quality.

  18. Detection of Candida in Concentrated Oral Rinse Cultures by Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. Lewis; Williams, David W.; Kuriyama, Tomoari; Samad, Shamim A.; Lewis, Michael A. O.; Barnes, Rosemary A.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of oral candidosis has increased in recent years, largely as a result of the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the more widespread use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy. This development has been associated with a need for more reliable methods for the detection of Candida. The present study assessed the performance of a real-time PCR and two block-based PCRs for the detection of Candida in 193 concentrated oral rinse culture (CRC) specimens. A total of 102 CRC specimens were positive by culture for Candida; and 96, 90, and 75 of these were also positive by real-time, N18-specific, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-specific PCRs, respectively. The five false-negative results by the real-time PCR were all non-Candida albicans positive by culture. Of the 91 culture-negative CRC specimens, 20, 41, and 44 were positive by the real-time PCR and the N18- and ITS-specific PCRs, respectively. All three PCRs detected fungal DNA in 8 culture-negative CRC specimens, with a further 30 being positive by two of the three PCRs. A total of 32 CRC specimens were Candida free by all methods. In summary, a real-time PCR that provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid alternative technique for detection of Candida in the mouth is described. PMID:15131176

  19. Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution does not influence cycle time trial performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Phillip; Nichols, David; Cordery, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Ten endurance-trained males were recruited to examine the possible role of carbohydrate (CHO) receptors in the mouth influencing exercise performance in the heat. Volunteers completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake, a familiarisation trial, followed by 2 experimental trials. Trials consisted of a 1-h time trial undertaken in a climatic chamber maintained at 30 °C, 60% relative humidity. Immediately before, and at regular intervals throughout exercise, subjects ingested a bolus of water and then were provided with either a placebo (PLA) or a 6.4% glucose (CHO) solution to rinse in the mouth for 10 s before being expectorated. There was no difference in total work done between the PLA and CHO trials (758.8 ± 149.0 kJ; 762.6 ± 141.1 kJ; P = 0.951). Pacing was also similar, with no differences in power output apparent during the experimental trials (P = 0.546). Core temperature (P = 0.615), heart rate (P = 0.505), ratings of perceived exertion (P = 0.181), and perceived thermal stress (P = 0.416) were not influenced by the nature of the intervention. Blood glucose concentrations were similar during the CHO and PLA trials (P = 0.117). In contrast to the findings of several studies undertaken in temperate conditions, the present investigation failed to support role of oral sensing of CHO in influencing performance during prolonged exercise in warm conditions.

  20. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  1. An In Vitro Evaluation of Leakage of Two Etch and Rinse and Two Self-Etch Adhesives after Thermocycling

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Geerts; Amandine Bolette; Laurence Seidel; Audrey Guéders

    2012-01-01

    Our experiment evaluated the microleakage in resin composite restorations bonded to dental tissues with different adhesive systems. 40 class V cavities were prepared on the facial and lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (root dentin). The teeth were restored with Z100 resin composite bonded with different adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), a 3-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1), a 2-step Etch and Ri...

  2. Dry development rinse (DDR) process and material for ArF/EUV extension technique toward 1Xnm hp and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Shuhei; Onishi, Ryuji; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2015-03-01

    Since the pattern pitch is getting smaller and smaller, the pattern collapse issue has been getting sever problem in the lithography process. Pattern collapse is one of the main reasons for minimizing of process margin at fine pitch by ArF-immersion or EUV lithography. The possible major cause of pattern collapse is the surface tension of the rinsing liquid and the shrinkage of resist pattern's surface. These surface tension or shrinkage are occurred in the spin drying process of the rinsing liquid. The influence of surface tension against very small pitch pattern is particularly severe. One of the most effective solution for this problem is thinning of the resist film thickness, however this strategy is reaching to its limits in terms of substrate etching process anymore. Recently the tri-layer resist process or hard mask processes have been used, but there is a limit to the thinning of resist film and there is no essential solution for this problem. On the other hand, dry development process such a supercritical drying method or DSA patterning by dry etching have been known as an ultimate way to suppress the pattern collapse issue. However, these processes are not applied to the mass production process right now because these have some problems such a defect issue, requirement of the special equipment and so on. We newly developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly without using any special equipment. The process is Dry Development Rinse process (DDR process), and the material used in the process is Dry Development Rinse material (DDR material). DDR material is containing the special polymer which can replace the exposed and developed part. And finally, the resist pattern is developed by dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. In this paper, we will discuss the approach for preventing the pattern collapse issue in ArF and EUV lithography process, and propose DDR process and DDR material as the

  3. Ocular tolerance in rabbits after intracameral administration of a fixed combination of tropicamide, phenylephrine, and lidocaine with and without rinsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijts, Rudy M M A; Mencucci, Rita; Viaud-Quentric, Karen; Elena, Pierre-Paul; Olmière, Céline; Behndig, Anders

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of a single intracameral administration of a combined mydriatic (tropicamide and phenylephrine) and anesthetic (lidocaine) formulation (Mydrane) with or without rinsing. Iris Pharma, La Gaude, France. Experimental study. Sixty pigmented rabbits received 100 μL or 200 μL of the combination product or a placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) by intracameral injection. For the combination product, separate groups were included with and without rinsing after administration. From day 1 day to day 7, assessments included general clinical and ocular observations, pupil diameter measurements, corneal assessments, confocal microscopy, and electroretinography (ERG). Necropsy examinations were performed at study completion at day 8. Rapid mydriasis, stable 24 minutes after injection and returning to baseline levels by day 1, was induced in all groups that received the combination mydriatic and anesthetic drug. Rinsing had no effect. The combination product induced no adverse effects on the anterior or posterior segment of the eye (ie, no increased corneal thickness and endothelial cell loss, no abnormalities in ERG). Slitlamp examination showed slightly increased anterior chamber inflammation with rinsing in both the study group and placebo group. This observation was not confirmed by aqueous flare examination. No toxic effects of the products were found on histological evaluation. The combination mydriatic and anesthetic drug administered to pigmented rabbits as a single intracameral injection at volumes of 100 μL and 200 μL was well tolerated with no ocular adverse effects and no effect on the corneal endothelium. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Attitude of broiler breeders toward the production of antibiotics-free chickens (case study: Tehran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Behrouzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aimed to investigate the attitude of broiler breeders toward the production of antibiotics-free chickens in Tehran province. The statistical population in this study included all broiler breeders (N=450 in Tehran province. Using stratified-random-sampling method 136 breeders were selected. The main tool for data gathering was a questionnaire contained 44 questions and items. Results showed that 52.9% of the respondents had “positive” or “relatively positive” viewpoints about the production of antibiotic-free chicken. The results also indicated that there were a significant (p < 0.05 positive relationship between the attitude of  production of antibiotic-free chicken with the education level, job satisfaction, second job as well as having technical supervisor. Moreover, a significant (p < 0.01 positive relationship was observed between the participation in training courses related to the production of antibiotic-free chicken and the viewpoint of studied broiler producers. On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between the “viewpoint of chicken producers” and the variables such as: “age”, “job background”, “frequency of progeny”, “production/non-production of antibiotic-free chicken”, “consumption/non-consumption of antibiotic-free chicken” and “knowledge on breeding the antibiotic-free chicken”.

  6. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Kaboudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (2+ were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%, E. maxima (12%, and E. acervulina (1.5%. Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 among infection rates, age groups, season, diarrhea, and type of chicken. Conclusion. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country.

  7. Effects of soy sauce on physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H W; Hwang, K E; Song, D H; Kim, Y J; Lim, Y B; Choi, J H; Choi, Y S; Kim, H Y; Kim, C J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy sauce on the physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breasts. Chicken breasts marinated with distilled water (Con), 4% NaCl solution, 4% NaCl and lactic acid solution (pH 4.9), and soy sauce solution (4% salt concentration and pH 4.9) were vacuum tumbled at 3°C for 60 min. The chicken breast marinated with soy sauce solution showed lower lightness and higher redness and yellowness due to the color of the soy sauce. The acidic marinades led to a decrease in pH value of tumbled chicken breast. The acidic marinades increased collagen solubility of sample compared with 4% NaCl solution, resulting in decreased shear force. Water-holding capacity, marination and cooking yields, and solubility of myofibrillar proteins were mainly affected by the presence of salt in the marinade, rather than by pH alternation. Our results suggested that soy sauce marination can improve the tenderness of tumbled chicken breast.

  8. Phylogeny, genetic relationships and population structure of five Italian local chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ceccobelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Number and population size of local chicken breeds in Italy is considered to be critical. Molecular data can be used to provide reliable insight into the diversity of chicken breeds. The first aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genetic origin of five Italian local chicken breeds (Ancona, Livorno, Modenese, Romagnola and Valdarnese bianca based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA information. Secondly, the extent of the genetic diversity, population structure and the genetic relationships among these chicken populations, by using 27 microsatellite markers, were assessed. To achieve these targets, a 506 bp fragment of the D-loop region was sequenced in 50 chickens of the five breeds. Eighteen variable sites were observed which defined 12 haplotypes. They were assigned to three clades and two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 90% of the haplotypes are related to clade E, which has been described to originate from the Indian subcontinent. For the microsatellite analysis, 137 individual blood samples from the five Italian breeds were included. A total of 147 alleles were detected at 27 microsatellite loci. The five Italian breeds showed a slightly higher degree of inbreeding (FIS=0.08 than the commercial populations that served as reference. Structure analysis showed a separation of the Italian breeds from the reference populations. A further sub-clustering allowed discriminating among the five different Italian breeds. This research provides insight into population structure, relatedness and variability of the five studied breeds.

  9. Identification of oviposition attractants of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) released from rotten chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Chaudhury, Muhammad F; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Skoda, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), is an important blowfly species affecting both livestock and humans. It can transmit pathogenic disease agents mechanically and is an agent of facultative myiasis, which leads to economic losses. The adult flies are attracted to decomposing carcasses, carrion, or rotten meat in order to deposit their eggs, and the hatched larvae develop on these decaying organic materials. This research was aimed to identify volatiles emitted from rotten chicken livers that were reported previously to attract gravid females. In laboratory oviposition assays, gravid females laid significantly more eggs on rotten livers than on fresh livers, and rotten chicken liver was more attractive than rotten beef liver. Volatiles from the two livers were collected using solid phase microextraction. Significantly different volatile profiles were detected from the rotten livers of beef and chicken. Electroantennography (EAG) was performed to determine antennal responses to chemicals released from the most attractive chicken liver that are candidate oviposition attractants. Seven compounds from rotten chicken liver elicited significant EAG responses from antennae of gravid females. Oviposition assays showed that the 7-component blend stimulated gravid females to lay significantly more eggs than the other combinations tested. This 7-component blend may have potential for use in monitoring and sampling populations of secondary screwworm and their associated disease epidemiology.

  10. Influences of end-point heating temperature on the quality attributes of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, W; Chen, C F; Chen, H Y; Tan, F J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness, of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. Meat from BRs and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics. TNC meat had longer cooking time and lower myofibrillar fragmentation index than BR meat did. TNC meat had higher collagen content, shear force values and springiness but lower collagen solubility than BR meat did. BR meat had significantly higher onset and end transition temperatures than TNC meat did. In BR meat, a sensory analysis revealed that moisture release decreased and chicken flavour increased with increasing temperature. Protein solubility, cooking loss and the texture of heated meat were highly correlated. This study scientifically assessed the performances of the two breeds of chickens with different thermal treatments; producers could utilise the information to produce poultry products with more desirable qualities.

  11. Detection of antibiotic resistant Avibacterium paragallinarum from broiler chickens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Mousumi Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt was undertaken for the detection and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from clinically sick broiler chickens during field outbreaks. Materials and methods: Nasal and ocular discharges (n=6, tracheal swab (n=6, tracheal washing (n=4 and infraorbital sinus exudates (n=4 were collected aseptically from broiler chickens (n=10. To isolate A. paragallinarum, the clinical samples were cultured onto blood agar and chocolate agar enriched with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD and feeder organism (Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of A. paragallinarum was performed by Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation profiles using five basic sugars (Dextrose, Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose and Mannitol and biochemical tests (Indole, Voges Proskauer and Methyl red tests. Antibiogram of the bacterial isolates of infected chicken was performed against five antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin using disk diffusion method. Results: Results of colonial morphology, Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation and biochemical tests confirmed one isolate as A. paragallinarum. The overall prevalence of IC in broiler chicken was 10% (1 of 10. This isolate was found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Azithroycin and Gentamicin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. Conclusion: This is the first report of detection of A. paragallinarum from broiler chicken in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 173-177

  12. East African origins for Madagascan chickens as indicated by mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Michael B; Thomson, Vicki A; Wadley, Jessica J; Piper, Philip J; Sulandari, Sri; Dharmayanthi, Anik Budhi; Kraitsek, Spiridoula; Gongora, Jaime; Austin, Jeremy J

    2017-03-01

    The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50-500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar). In contrast to the linguistic and human genetic evidence indicating dual African and Southeast Asian ancestry of the Malagasy people, we find that chickens in Madagascar only share a common ancestor with East Africa, which together are genetically closer to South Asian chickens than to those in Southeast Asia. This suggests that the earliest expansion of Austronesian-speaking people across the Indian Ocean did not successfully introduce chickens to Madagascar. Our results further demonstrate the complexity of the translocation history of introduced domesticates in Madagascar.

  13. Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Li, Yiping

    2005-01-01

    of 28 to 44 days. Gross pathological lesions were not observed. Lymphoid tissues from the bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow, spleen and thymus in addition to cloacal- and bursal swaps were analysed by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive results were confirmed by two......-step strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. The vaccine strain was detected in bursa tissues from all groups, while the challenge strain was detected in few bursal as well as non-bursal tissue samples. The results indicate a possibility of replication of vvIBDV in vaccinated chickens....

  14. Toxicity studies of six types of carbon nanoparticles in a chicken-embryo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurantowicz, Natalia; Sawosz, Ewa; Halik, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide. Experimental solutions at a concentration of 500 µg/mL were administrated into the egg albumin. Gross pathology and the rate of survival were examined after 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of incubation. After 20 days of incubation, blood samples were collected......In the present study, the toxicity of six different types of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) was investigated using a chicken-embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into the following treatment groups: placebo, diamond NPs, graphite NPs, pristine graphene, small graphene oxide, large...

  15. Identification of Enterococcus sp. in GIT of Broiler Chickens after Application of Biological Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Nováková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a rapid detection and identification of Enterococcus sp. in various segments of chicken gastrointestinal tract by polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. As a biological material were used broiler chickens Hybro. They were fattening by the combined probiotic preparation for elimination of pathogens and better utilization of feed. In our study, the identification of Enterococcus species was based on the superoxid dismutase gene (sodA. Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis were determined in all samples (100% occurence. Occurence of Enterococcus gallinarum was 87.5% and Enterococcus cecorum was 0%.

  16. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An Intelligent Procedure for the Detection and Classification of Chickens Infected by Clostridium Perfringens Based on their Vocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, an intelligent method was implemented for the detection and classification of chickens by infected Clostridium perfringens type A based on their vocalization. To this aim, the birds were first divided into two groups that were placed in separate cages with 15 chickens each. Chickens were inoculated with Clostridium perfringens type A on day 14. In order to ensure the absence of secondary diseases and their probable effect on bird vocalization, vaccines for common diseases were administered. During 30 days of the experiment, chicken vocalization was recorded every morning at 8 a.m. using a microphone and a data collection card under equal and controlled conditions. Sound signals were investigated in time domains, and 23 features were selected. Using Fisher Discriminate Analysis (FDA, five of the most important and effective features were chosen. Neural Network Pattern Recognition (NNPR structure with one hidden layer was applied to detect signals and classifying healthy and unhealthy chickens. Firstly, this neural network was trained with 34 samples, after which eight samples were tested for accuracy. Classification accuracy was 66.6 and 100% for days 16 and 22; i.e., two and eight days after the disease, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of intelligent methods for diagnosing diseases in chickens.

  18. The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride-containing mouth rinses as adjuncts to toothbrushing on plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haps, S.; Slot, D.E.; Berchier, C.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature concerning cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) containing mouth rinses as effective adjuncts to toothbrushing in the prevention of plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Materials and methods: Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were

  19. Effect of air abrasion and thermocycling on resin adaptation and shear bond strength to dentin for an etch-and-rinse and self-etch resin adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Rebecca; Varanasi, Srinivas; Meyers, Ian A; Symons, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of air abrasion and thermocycling on the adaptation and shear bond strength, of composite resin bonded to dentin using etch-and-rinse and self-etch resin adhesives. Confocal microscopy showed both adhesives closely adapted to dentin and a significantly (petch-and-rinse adhesive. Air abrasion significantly increased resin tag length (petch-and-rinse adhesive and significantly increased the number (petch adhesive. However, air abrasion resulted in defect formation within the hybrid layer and thermocycling caused separation of the hybrid layer from adjacent dentin containing resin tags. A significant (petch-and-rinse adhesive following thermocycling. Both adhesive systems adapted well to dentin in vitro and shear bond strengths were similar. The area of tag penetration into dentin was significantly (p<0.0001) enhanced following air abrasion.

  20. Effect of Herbal and Fluoride Mouth Rinses on Streptococcus mutans and Dental Caries among 12-15-Year-Old School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinej Somaraj; Rekha P. Shenoy; Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal; Vijaya Kumar; Praveen S. Jodalli; Laxminarayan Sonde

    2017-01-01

      To assess and compare the effect of herbal and fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, a parallel group placebo controlled...

  1. Evaluation of the joint effect of the incorporation of mechanically deboned meat and grape extract on the formulation of chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournour, Hernán H; Cunha, Luís M; Magalhães, Luís M; Lima, Rui C; Segundo, Marcela A

    2017-06-01

    The proximate composition, instrumental and perceived appearance of chicken nuggets formulated with varying contents of mechanically deboned chicken meat and varying concentrations of grape pomace extract were evaluated, with the choice of formulations following a central composite design. Significant differences (P formulations with higher acceptance scores. Correspondence analysis of open-ended comments complemented the information obtained from overall acceptance, adding valuable descriptive attributes of nugget samples. Thus, addition of grape pomace extract up to 120 mg/kg and mechanically deboned chicken meat up to 15 g/100 g did not adversely affect the perceived appearance of chicken nuggets. Mechanically deboned chicken meat and grape pomace extract can be successfully used for the elaboration of novel products, for different market segments, with healthy connotations highlighted by antioxidant properties retained by the grape pomace extract.

  2. serum protein levels in local ani) exotic adult chickens suffering from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of (2004), the presence ofAl antibodies in the sera. HPAI in the aforementioned areas in March, samples confirmed the disease in the flocks. 2006. While the AHL and AHE chickens were Serum total protein levels were determined by bled from the same area 6 months after the Biuret method (Coles, l974). Albumin levels.

  3. EU Interlaboratory comparison study food VII : Detection of Salmonella in whole liquid chicken egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Mooijman KA; VLD; I&V

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, it was shown that all 36 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) in the European Union were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in whole liquid chicken egg. One NRL reported positive results for two blank whole liquid egg samples, a possible explanation may be

  4. Comparative Study on Compositions and Functional Properties of Porcine, Chicken and Duck Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Narunatsopanon, Supawadee

    2017-01-01

    Hematological, chemical and functional characteristics of porcine, chicken and duck blood were evaluated. A porcine blood sample showed the most abundant red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and plasma protein content as well as its freeze-dried blood possessed the highest contents of protein, fat, Cu and Cr with the highest percentage of heme iron (p

  5. Clonal population structure and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken meat in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of human diarrhea worldwide. In the present work, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to study the genotypic diversity of 145 C. jejuni isolates from 135 chicken meat preparations sampled across Belgium. Isolates were further typed by p...

  6. Morphometric study of the testes of the Nigerian local breed of chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from 10 adult male Nigerian local breed of chicken were used to investigate the morphometry of the testis. The mean live weight of the birds as well as testes weights were obtained, and testes samples subjected to histological preparations for light microscopy. The mean live weight of the birds and testes weights were ...

  7. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of chickens are useful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a retrospective study, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archival tissues from chickens obtained during outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 that occurred in Nigeria in 2006 and 2007. Ten samples as representative of 10 ...

  8. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  9. diurnal variation in blood parameters in the chicken in the hot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Twelve adult male chicken of the Nigerian local strain were bled every 3 Hours for 24 hours. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters were measured in the samples collected. Variations in the levels of these parameters throughout the 24 hours were determined. Thirteen out of the parameters measured showed.

  10. An In Vitro Evaluation of Leakage of Two Etch and Rinse and Two Self-Etch Adhesives after Thermocycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Sabine; Bolette, Amandine; Seidel, Laurence; Guéders, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Our experiment evaluated the microleakage in resin composite restorations bonded to dental tissues with different adhesive systems. 40 class V cavities were prepared on the facial and lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (root dentin). The teeth were restored with Z100 resin composite bonded with different adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), a 3-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1), a 2-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, AdheSE One (ADSE-1), a 1-step Self-Etch adhesive, and AdheSE (ADSE), a 2-step Self-Etch adhesive. Teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution. When both interfaces were considered, SBMP has exhibited significantly less microleakage than other adhesive systems (resp., for SB1, ADSE-1 and ADSE, P = 0.0007, P adhesives, microleakage was found greater at enamel than at dentin interfaces (for ADSE, P = 0.024 and for ADSE-1, P adhesive systems, there was no significant difference between enamel and dentin interfaces; (3) SBMP was found significantly better than other adhesives both at enamel and dentin interfaces. In our experiment Etch and Rinse adhesives remain better than Self-Etch adhesives at enamel interface. In addition, there was no statistical difference between 1-step (ADSE-1) and 2-step (ADSE) Self-Etch adhesives. PMID:22675358

  11. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Anne Yanagihara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as “venom load”, has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis. Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products. Seawater rinsing, considered a “no-harm” alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles.

  12. A randomized, double‑blind clinical study to assess the antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of Aloe vera mouth rinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathini Chandrahas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Aloe Vera mouth rinse on experimental plaque accumulation and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, controlled, and double-blind study, a total of 148 systemically healthy subjects were screened in the age group of 18-25 years. Finally, 120 subjects were requested to abstain from oral hygiene (tooth brushing for 14 days and used a specially fabricated plaque guard. Following cessation of tooth brushing in the specified area, the subjects were randomly divided into Group A (test group who received 100% Aloe vera, Group B (negative control group who received placebo (distilled water, and Group C (positive control group who received 0.2% chlorhexidine. The rinse regimen began on the 15 th day and continued for 7 days. Plaque accumulation was assessed by Plaque Index (PI and gingivitis was assessed by Modified Gingival Index (MGI and Bleeding Index (BI at baseline (0, 7 th , 14 th , and 22 nd days. Results: There was statistically significant decrease in PI, MGI, and BI scores after the rinse regimen began in both Group A (test group and Group C (chlorhexidine compared with Group B. Mouth wash containing Aloe vera showed significant reduction of plaque and gingivitis but when compared with chlorhexidine the effect was less significant. Conclusion: Aloe vera mouthwash can be an effective antiplaque agent and with appropriate refinements in taste and shelf life can be an affordable herbal substitute for chlorhexidine.

  13. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, I; Nyman, A; Lahti, E; Gustafsson, P; Olsson Engvall, E

    2015-06-01

    A study was performed with the aim to investigate associations between Campylobacter in chicken caecum, carcass skin, underlying breast muscle and packaged breast fillets. Samples were taken from 285 chickens from 57 flocks and analysed according to ISO 10272. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from caecal samples from 41 flocks. From birds of the same 41 flocks Campylobacter could be detected and quantified in 194 (68%) skin samples. Moreover, Campylobacter spp. were enumerated in 13 (5%) underlying muscle samples originating from 9 of the 41 flocks. The mean number of Campylobacter spp. in the 194 skin samples which could be counted was 2.3 log cfu/g and for the 13 underlying muscle samples 1.3 log cfu/g. Campylobacter could only be quantified in those breast muscle samples with a finding in corresponding skin sample. Five packaged chicken fillets were taken from each 25 of the 57 flocks and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In qualitative analysis Campylobacter was detected in 79 (63%) fillets from 16 flocks and quantified in 24 (19%) samples from 11 flocks. The results showed a significant association (P Campylobacter on carcass skin (log cfu/g) and the proportion of Campylobacter positive breast muscle samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of a Chicken Anemia Virus Variant-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Cats in China, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chicken anemia virus (CAV, is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat.

  15. The degradation of oxytetracycline during thermal treatments of chicken and pig meat and the toxic effects of degradation products of oxytetracycline on rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, VanHue; Nguyen, VanToan; Li, ChunBao; Zhou, GuangHong

    2015-01-01

    .... Samples of chicken and pig muscles previously dosed with OTC residues were subjected to boiling or microwave treatment, and the residues were extracted in a mixture of citrate buffer-MeOH (75:25 v/v...

  16. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assays integrated with an internal control for quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey species in food and feed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanan R Shehata; Jiping Li; Shu Chen; Helen Redda; Shumei Cheng; Nicole Tabujara; Honghong Li; Keith Warriner; Robert Hanner

    2017-01-01

    .... Reliable techniques are needed to monitor these issues. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) assays were developed and evaluated for detection and quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey DNA in food and feed samples...

  17. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  18. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  19. Effect of calcium pre-rinse and fluoride dentifrice on remineralisation of artificially demineralised enamel and on the composition of the dental biofilm formed in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Furlani, Tatiana de Almeida; Italiani, Flávia de Moraes; Iano, Flávia Godoy; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2007-12-01

    This in situ blind crossover study investigated the effect of calcium (Ca) rinse prior to the use fluoride (F) dentifrice on remineralisation of artificially demineralised enamel and on the composition of biofilm. During four phases of 14 days, 10 volunteers wore appliances containing two artificially demineralised bovine enamel blocks. Three times a day, they rinsed with 10 mL of Ca (150 mM) or placebo rinse (1 min). A slurry (1:3, w/v) of F (1030 ppm) or placebo dentifrice was dripped onto the blocks. During 1 min, the volunteers brushed their teeth with the respective dentifrice. The appliance was replaced into the mouth and the volunteers rinsed with water. The biofilm formed on the blocks was analysed for F and Ca. Enamel alterations were evaluated by the percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMHC), cross-sectional microhardness (% mineral volume) and alkali-soluble F analysis. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p<0.05). The use of the Ca pre-rinse before the F dentifrice produced a six- and four-fold increase in biofilm F and Ca concentrations, respectively. For enamel, the remineralisation was significantly improved by the Ca pre-rinse when compared to the other treatments. There was a significantly higher concentration of alkali-soluble F in enamel when the F dentifrice was used, but the Ca pre-rinse did not have any significant additive effect. According to our protocol, the Ca pre-rinse significantly increased biofilm F concentration and, regardless the use of F dentifrice, significantly enhanced the remineralisation of artificially demineralised enamel.

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  1. Physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken nuggets with washed mechanically deboned chicken meat: Research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlo, F; Bonato, P; Teira, G; Fabre, R; Kueider, S

    2006-04-01

    The effects of different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%) of washed mechanically deboned chicken meat (WM) as a substitute for hand deboned chicken meat, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of chicken nuggets were evaluated. The addition of WM increased fat content, but it was only significant (P0.05) in ΔE(*) color scores. The addition of WM did not affect (P>0.05) sensory attributes of chicken nuggets. From a technical viewpoint, up to 40% WM could be incorporated into nugget formulation instead of hand deboned chicken meat without affecting sensory attributes of the product. Minor changes in composition were observed but they were probably not detrimental to the product.

  2. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  3. Modern organic and broiler chickens sold for human consumption provide more energy from fat than protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqun; Lehane, Catherine; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael A

    2010-03-01

    In 1976, the Royal College of Physicians and the British Cardiac Society recommended eating less fatty red meat and more poultry instead because it was lean. However, the situation has changed since that time, with a striking increase in fat content of the standard broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to report a snapshot of data on fat in chickens now sold to the public. Samples were obtained randomly between 2004 and 2008 from UK supermarkets, farm shops and a football club. The amount of chicken fat was estimated by emulsification and chloroform/methanol extraction. Food sold in supermarkets and farms in England. Chicken samples. The fat energy exceeded that of protein. There has been a loss of n-3 fatty acids. The n-6:n-3 ratio was found to be as high as 9:1, as opposed to the recommendation of about 2:1. Moreover, the TAG level in the meat and whole bird mostly exceeded the proportion of phospholipids, which should be the higher for muscle function. The n-3 fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22 : 5n-3) was in excess of DHA (22 : 6n-3). Previous analyses had, as usual for birds, more DHA than DPA. Traditional poultry and eggs were one of the few land-based sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, which is synthesized from its parent precursor in the green food chain. In view of the obesity epidemic, chickens that provide several times the fat energy compared with protein seem illogical. This type of chicken husbandry needs to be reviewed with regard to its implications for animal welfare and human nutrition.

  4. The long-term effect of a zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate containing mouth rinse on intra-oral halitosis-A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erovic Ademovski, Seida; Mårtensson, Carina; Persson, Gösta Rutger; Renvert, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of a zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate mouth rinse (Zn/CHX) on intra-oral halitosis. Forty-six adults with intra-oral halitosis were randomized into a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. The presence of intra-oral halitosis was evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6 months after treatment by assessment of organoleptic score (OLS) and by total volatile sulphur compounds (T-VSC), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (MM) concentrations in exhaled air. A Zn/CHX mouth rinse provided significantly better control of intra-oral halitosis than a placebo mouth rinse. At 3 and 6 months, individuals rinsing with the Zn/CHX rinse presented with reductions of the OLS, T-VSC (p oral halitosis (i.e. H2 S oral halitosis, assessed both objectively and subjectively. With regular rinsing, the effect was sustained for 6 months. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparative effect of fluoride, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis in patients with and without dental caries: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charugundla, B R; Anjum, S; Mocherla, M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fluoride, essential oil (EO) and chlorhexidine (CHX)-containing mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis and to compare their relative efficacy in patients with and without dental caries. A randomized, controlled, double- blind, crossover clinical trial was conducted for a period of 8 weeks. Thiry-six qualifying subjects, aged 12-44 years, were included in the study. Subjects were divided into caries and caries-free groups and were randomly assigned to one of the following mouth rinse groups: fluoride; EO; CHX and saline as negative control. Subjects used their respective mouth rinse for a period of 7-days each with 1-week wash-out periods. Primary efficacy variables were Quigley-Hein plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index. Fluoride and CHX mouth rinses showed significant reduction in plaque after use of mouth rinses (P 0.05). Further significant differences were found in reducing plaque and gingivitis in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries (P plaque accumulation and gingivitis especially in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries, and amongst the three, fluoride and CHX proved to be more effective than EO mouth rinse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed "robust" Hellevad chickens with two chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample to positive ratio of natural antibodies in serum and concentration of mannose-binding lectin in serum as compared to Bovans. Moreover, indications of an inflammatory response were observed in the Bovans at week 5, corresponding to 1 week after vaccination with live infectious bursal disease virus. With regard to adaptive immune parameters such as IgY concentration in blood and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-specific antibody titres, the Hellevad and Hisex chickens had lower

  7. Comparison of ESBL contamination in organic and conventional retail chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Stuart, James; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Voets, Guido; Scharringa, Jelle; Fluit, Ad; Hall, Maurine Leverstein-Van

    2012-03-15

    Contamination of retail chicken meat by Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria likely contributes to the increasing incidence of infections with these bacteria in humans. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and load of ESBL positive isolates between organic and conventional retail chicken meat samples, and to compare the distribution of ESBL genes, strain genotypes and co-resistance. In 2010, 98 raw chicken breasts (n=60 conventional; n=38 organic) were collected from 12 local stores in the Netherlands. Prevalence of ESBL producing micro-organisms was 100% on conventional and 84% on organic samples (porganisms were 80 (range conventional, and organic samples (p=0.001). The distribution of ESBL genes in conventional samples and organic samples was 42% versus 56%, respectively (N.S.), for CTX-M-1, 20% versus 42% (N.S.) for TEM-52, and 23% versus 3% (pconventional samples. Co-resistance rates of ESBL positive isolates were not different between conventional and organic samples (co-trimoxazole 56%, ciprofloxacin 14%, and tobramycin 2%), except for tetracycline, 73% and 46%, respectively, pconventional meat samples harbored 4 MLST types also reported in humans and 5 of 10 organic samples harbored 3 MLST types also reported in humans (2 ST10, 2 ST23, ST354). In conclusion, the majority of organic chicken meat samples were also contaminated with ESBL producing E. coli, and the ESBL genes and strain types were largely the same as in conventional meat samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest numbers of TI induction trial

  9. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  10. Sampling method and location affect recovery of coliforms and Escherichia coli from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, the first to determine whether numbers of recovered bacteria differed due to sampling method used or due to location on carcass sampled (breast or leg quarters) and the second to determine if numbers of bacteria differed between the front (ventral) and back (dorsal) side of the carcass. In both experiments, eviscerated broiler carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant just before the final inside-outside bird washer. In experiment 1, carcasses (3 in each of 4 replicate trials) were separated into leg quarters and breast quarters (n = 48) and either rinsed or ground and stomached for microbiological sampling. In experiment 2, for 3 replicate trials of 4 carcasses each, necks, wings, and legs were manually removed; the remaining trunks were cut through the sides to produce front (ventral) and back (dorsal) halves (n = 24); and then rinsed. For both experiments, coliforms and Escherichia coli were enumerated. In experiment 1, significantly higher numbers (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered by rinsing than by grinding from both breast and leg quarters. Leg quarters were found to have higher bacterial numbers than breasts from grind samples, but no quarter differences were found for rinse samples. In experiment 2, higher (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered from the dorsal carcass half compared with the ventral half. Bacterial counts of broiler carcasses are affected by both the sampling method used and by carcass location sampled.

  11. Oral human papillomavirus in men having sex with men: risk-factors and sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R H Read

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is becoming more common. We examined prevalence and risk factors for oral HPV among men who have sex with men (MSM and compared sampling and transport methods. METHODS: In 2010, 500 MSM (249 HIV-positive attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre answered a questionnaire, swabbed their mouth and throat and collected a gargled oral rinse sample. Half the oral rinse was transported absorbed in a tampon (to enable postage. HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and genotyped by Roche Linear Array®. Men with HPV 16 or 18 were retested after six months. RESULTS: Any HPV genotype was detected in 19% (95% confidence intervals (CI 15-25% of HIV-infected men and 7% (95% CI 4-11% of HIV-negative men (p100 partners. Lifetime oral-penile sex partner numbers were significantly associated in a separate model: aOR 2.8(1.2-6.3 for 26-100 partners and 3.2(1.4-7.2 for>100 partners. HPV 16 and 18 persisted in 10 of 12 men after a median six months. Sensitivities of sampling methods compared to all methods combined were: oral rinse 97%, tampon-absorbed oral rinse 69%, swab 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Oral HPV was associated with HIV infection, smoking, recent tooth-brushing, and more lifetime tongue-kissing and oral sex partners. The liquid oral rinse sample was more sensitive than a tampon-absorbed oral rinse or a self-collected swab.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2014-02-03

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (Pantioxidant in raw chicken meats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  14. Development of Local Chicken Production Based on Local Feed Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of local chicken production based on local feed ingredient is in line with the vision of Indonesian goverment to fulfill meat and egg national requirement based on local resources. There are two big problem which become stumblingblock in developing local chicken production. The first problem is the difficulty to get day old chick of local chicken. This problem can be solved by integrating breeder institutions belong to goverment with research institution and with local chicken producer association. The second problem is the low performance of local chicken. To improve local chicken performance, it can be done by improving the breed, feed and management. Several research results show that good performance of local chicken were obtained by inclusion of local feed ingredients in the ration. Therefore, development of local chicken production based an local feed resources can be applied.

  15. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Carcass mass and fat content of the native chicken lines were less than in a ... Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations of minced carcass .... characteristics and consumer acceptability of meat from native chicken lines.

  16. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  17. Zn-doped etch-and-rinse model dentin adhesives: Dentin bond integrity, biocompatibility, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Fonseca, Beatriz Maria; Pucci, César Rogério; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; Persici, Erasmo De Souza; Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo de Paiva

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed a 6 month resin/dentin bond's durability and cytotoxic effect of Zn-doped model dentin adhesives. The mechanical and physicochemical properties were also tested. A model etch-and-rinse single-bottle adhesive was formulated (55wt.% Bis-GMA, 45wt.% HEMA, 0.5wt.% CQ, 0.5wt.% DMAEMA) and Zinc methacrylate (Zn-Mt) or ZnO nanoparticles (ZnOn) were added to the model's adhesive, resulting in three groups: Group Control (control model adhesive); Group Zn-Mt (1wt.% Zn-Mt incorporated to adhesive) and Group ZnOn (1wt.% ZnOn incorporated to adhesive). The microtensile bond strength (mTBS) was assessed after 24h or 6 months in water storage. Mechanical properties (diametral tensile strength/DTS, flexural strength/FS, flexural modulus/FM, resilience modulus/RM, and compressive strength/CS) and physicochemical properties (polymerization shrinkage/PS, contact angle/CA, water sorption/WS, and water solubility/WS) were also tested. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with SRB biochemical assay. No significant difference in the DTS, FS, FM, CS, CA, WS, and WS were found when 1% of ZnOn or Zn-Mt was added to the model dentin adhesive. Group Zn-Mt decreased the RM of adhesive. Groups Zn-Mt and ZnOn decreased the PS of adhesives. Group ZnOn reduced the cytotoxicity of adhesive. Group ZnOn preserved mTBS after 6 months storage without degradation areas as seen by SEM analysis. The 1wt.% ZnOn may preserve the integrity of the hybrid layer and may reduce cytotoxicity and polymerization shrinkage of model dentin adhesive. The addition of Zn-Mt to the adhesive had no beneficial effects. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of rinse water from zinc phosphate coating by batch and continuous electrocoagulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobya, M; Demirbas, E; Dedeli, A; Sensoy, M T

    2010-01-15

    Treatment of spent final rinse water of zinc phosphating from an automotive assembly plant was investigated in an electrochemical cell equipped with aluminum or iron plate electrodes in a batch mode by electrocoagulation (EC). Effects of the process variables such as pH, current density, electrode material and operating time were explored with respect to phosphate and zinc removal efficiencies, electrical energy and electrode consumptions. The optimum operating conditions for removal of phosphate and zinc were current density of 60.0 A/m(2), pH 5.0 and operating time of 25.0 min with Al electrode and current density of 60.0 A/m(2), pH 3.0 and operating time of 15.0 min with Fe electrode, respectively. The highest phosphate and zinc removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were 97.7% and 97.8% for Fe electrode, and 99.8% and 96.7% for Al electrode. The electrode consumptions increased from 0.01 to 0.35 kg electrode/m(3) for Al electrode and from 0.20 to 0.62 kg electrode/m(3) for Fe electrode with increasing current density from 10.0 to 100.0 A/m(2). The energy consumptions were 0.18-11.29 kWh/m(3) for Al electrode and 0.24-8.47 kWh/m(3) for Fe electrode in the same current density range. Removal efficiencies of phosphate and zinc were found to decrease when flow rate was increased from 50 to 400 mL/min in continuous mode of operation. The morphology and elements present in the sludge was also characterized by using SEM and EDX.

  19. Consumer Likelihood to Purchase Chickens with Novel Production Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, John C.; Pesek, John D., Jr.; Pan, Xiqian

    2007-01-01

    Typical supermarket chickens are produced with novel or controversial attributes. This continues despite contrasting growth in consumer interest in organic and natural foods. This study surveyed Delaware consumers’ likelihood to purchase chicken given different attributes: free range, given antibiotics, irradiated, fed genetically modified (GM) fee, GM chicken, and price. Examining conjoint analysis data with a heteroskedastic two-limit tobit model, GM chicken and other novel attributes wer...

  20. The ethics of human-chicken relationships in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Flick, Catherine; Fothergill, B. Tyr

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the historical place that chickens have held in media depictions and as entertainment, analyse several types of representations of chickens in video games, and draw out reflections on society in the light of these representations. We also look at real-life, modern historical, and archaeological evidence of chicken treatment and the evolution of social attitudes with regard to animal rights, and deconstruct the depiction of chickens in video games in this light.

  1. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Zebin Zhang; Changsheng Nie; Yaxiong Jia; Runshen Jiang; Haijian Xia; Xueze Lv; Yu Chen; Junying Li; Xianyao Li; Zhonghua Ning; Guiyun Xu; Jilan Chen; Ning Yang; Lujiang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we det...

  2. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Gomes de Sá

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum from 629 chickens on 39 family farms in seven municipalities in the semiarid region, Pernambuco, Brazil, and to identify risk factors associated with T. gondii infection. The risk factors were studied in 421 samples from 29 farms. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were investigated by indirect fluorescent antibody test with a 1:16 cutoff. The frequency of positive chickens was 27.9% (176/629 and 94.8% of the farms studied had chickens infected by T. gondii. Multivariate analysis showed variables significantly associated with anti-T. gondii antibodies in serum: slaughter of animals on the farm, reproductive disorders in sheep, consumption of fetal adnexa and placentas by chickens, presence of sheep in the property and birth of sheep the property. The results suggest that there is a complex relationship between general management practices for different animal species raised on the same farm and the prevalence of T. gondii infection in chickens. In addition, the results draw attention to the risk of human infection by T. gondii via consumption of infected chicken meat, because the farming conditions and the low human development indices observed in the region studied result in inappropriate meat preparation practices.

  3. Pathogenicity and immunosuppresive properties of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Murmu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effects of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 500 broiler chickens were vaccinated with the virus through oral route at 10 and 17 days of age (102-103 EID50/dose. Chickens were also vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (Hitchner B1 orally at 14 and 21 days old. Chickens were euthanized (at 12, 14, 16, 20, 23, 26 days of age after measuring body weight. Bursa of Fabricius was examined for any gross lesion, weighed and processed for histological investigations. Bursa to body weight ratio and bursal lesion scoring were made to evaluate pathogenicity of the virus. Blood samples were analyzed for antibody response to ND vaccine virus using HI test. Results showed that the GM-97 strain of IBDV induced mild to moderate depletion of lymphoid cells in the center of bursal follicles and non-significant difference in bursa to body weight ratio amongst vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. Chickens responded well to ND vaccine by mounting high level of serum NDV specific HI antibody titers. It can be concluded from the present study that GM-97 strain of IBDV has mild pathogenicity but is not immunosuppressive.

  4. Comparative metagenomics reveals host specific metavirulomes and horizontal gene transfer elements in the chicken cecum microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complex microbiome of the ceca of chickens plays an important role in nutrient utilization, growth and well-being of these animals. Since we have a very limited understanding of the capabilities of most species present in the cecum, we investigated the role of the microbiome by comparative analyses of both the microbial community structure and functional gene content using random sample pyrosequencing. The overall goal of this study was to characterize the chicken cecal microbiome using a pathogen-free chicken and one that had been challenged with Campylobacter jejuni. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparative metagenomic pyrosequencing was used to generate 55,364,266 bases of random sampled pyrosequence data from two chicken cecal samples. SSU rDNA gene tags and environmental gene tags (EGTs were identified using SEED subsystems-based annotations. The distribution of phylotypes and EGTs detected within each cecal sample were primarily from the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, consistent with previous SSU rDNA libraries of the chicken cecum. Carbohydrate metabolism and virulence genes are major components of the EGT content of both of these microbiomes. A comparison of the twelve major pathways in the SEED Virulence Subsystem (metavirulome represented in the chicken cecum, mouse cecum and human fecal microbiomes showed that the metavirulomes differed between these microbiomes and the metavirulomes clustered by host environment. The chicken cecum microbiomes had the broadest range of EGTs within the SEED Conjugative Transposon Subsystem, however the mouse cecum microbiomes showed a greater abundance of EGTs in this subsystem. Gene assemblies (32 contigs from one microbiome sample were predominately from the Bacteroidetes, and seven of these showed sequence similarity to transposases, whereas the remaining sequences were most similar to those from catabolic gene families. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This analysis has

  5. A chicken consultation with ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M

    2005-04-15

    In Madison I once worked with two postdoctoral fellows who had spent their youth in New York City and who, when asked what birds they knew both responded "why, pigeons and LBJ's!" (little brown jobbies). Despite their undoubted brilliance, they clearly had an educational deficiency not fixed by buying eggs and poultry at a grocery store. Though of enormous economic and nutritional importance to humans, turkeys and chickens constitute only a minute fraction of the disappearing avian life in our ecology. One could easily teach an entire middle or high school biology course around the reproduction, embryology, evolution, genetics, anatomy, special adaptations, virology, bacteriology, taxonomy, behavior, and extinctions of birds, as paradigmatic of all of life. Where would developmental or evolutionary biology be without the Galapagos finches, chick embryo, or neurobiology without the Zebra Finch? The modifications of the original red jungle fowl of India and South East Asia into hundreds of races through artificial selection and breeding practices provide as beautiful an example of developmental plasticity, well-known to Darwin, as the domestic dog, cat, laboratory mice, and guinea pigs. In what follows I have begun to repay my indebtedness to my mentor Emil Witschi who introduced me to developmental biology, physiology, and genetics and its historical study on the basis of birds (and amphibians); and to Mark Leppert, Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Utah for collaborative support, and bird-watching fieldtrips. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojian; Brisbin, Jennifer; Yu, Hai; Wang, Qi; Yin, Fugui; Zhang, Yonggang; Sabour, Parviz; Sharif, Shayan; Gong, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0) and high bile salt (0.3-1.5%) and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7) CFU/chick) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4) CFU/chick) next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures) were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10) in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in vivo can be one of the strategies for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens.

  7. The potency of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) 3 protein as growth promoter for chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Iswati, Sri; Hidajati, Nove; Damayanti, Ratna

    2017-09-01

    The long-term objective of this study was to produce STAT synthetic protein in chicken during growth period resulting from the increase of growth hormone (GH) as growth promoter. This study used ten male chicken Lohman from PT. Multibreeder Indonesia. The chicken were kept within batteried cage, with a capacity of one chicken in each cage. The chickens were fed twice a day, at 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. with the amount of feed 10% less than standard. On day 21 the chicken were slaughtered to obtain the samples, i.e., adipose, liver and muscles for the following examinations (1) isolation of STAT-3 signaling protein from adipose, liver and muscles of the chicken, (2) analysis of STAT-3 signaling protein using SDS-PAGE method, and (3) identification of STAT-3 signaling protein using Western blot method by means of protein detection using electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels. Results of examination on protein in hepatic, muscle and adipose of chickens in growth period revealed that STAT protein was positively present in those tissues. This finding was followed-up with SDS-PAGE examination, from which we found the presence of protein band between the markers of 116 kDa and 14.4 kDa. The protein band was supposedly the STAT-3 protein. To prove that protein band formed was the STAT-3, Western blot examination was conducted using rabbit poly