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Sample records for chicken embryo femoral

  1. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  2. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  3. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

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    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  4. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  5. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  6. The effects of X-rays on chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of the chickens embryo changes in the course of its 21 days of development. A period of relatively high resistance in the early stages of development (1. to 3. day of incubation), is followed by an increase of sensitivity from the 4. day onwards. In 1- to 3-day-old embryos, X-rays cause nonspecific malformations in those organs which are in a phenocritical period at the moment of irradiation. In mature embryos (4. to 20. day of incubation) characteristic biochemical changes in the metabolism of proteins and amino-acids as well as the nitrogen excretion can be observed as the predominant radiation effects. (orig.)

  7. ADAPTATION OF EIMERIA TENELLA (LOCAL ISOLATE SPOROZOITES IN CHICKEN EMBRYOS

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    Masood Akhtar, M. M. Ayaz, C.S. Hayat, M. Ashfaq1 and I. Hussain1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Emieria (E tenella ( local isolate} oocysts were recovered from the cases of chicken coccidiosis. Oocysts were sporulated in 2.5 per cent potassium dichromate solution at 37°C with 60 per cent humidity. Excystation of the sporulated oocysts was done with sodium hypochlorite. Sporozoites were released by treating with 1 percent Trypsin ( 1:250 followed by sodium taurocholate at 41 ºC, The final concentrations of the sporozoites were maintained at 1.8x 103-2.0 x 103per 0.1 ml. Ten chicken embryos (12 days old were inoculated each with 0.1 mi suspension of sporozoites into the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM along with penicillin and streptomycin, The embryos were maintained at 41ºC with daily candling. Death of the embryo occurred on 5th day post inoculation in six out of ten embryos. Severe hemorrhages were seen on all dead embryos. Total numbers of oocysts harvested from the CAM were 6.1 x 104-7.2 x 104 per ml. The remaining four embryos died on the 7th day post-inoculation and had mild haemorrhages. Total numbers of oocysts harvested were 3.0 x 104-3.5x104

  8. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo...-serum mixture shall be inoculated into each of at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1)...

  9. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

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    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  10. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were recorded in chicken embryos incubated for 19 or 20 days (E19/E20). Responses occurred within the first 16 ms following the stimulus onset. The evoked potentials disappeared following bilateral labyrinthectomy, but persisted following cochlear destruction alone, thus demonstrating that the responses were vestibular. Approximately 8 to 10 response peaks could be identified. The first 4 positive and corresponding negative components (early peaks with latencies birds. Mean response threshold for anesthetized embryos was -15.9dBre 1.0 g/ms, which was significantly higher (P birds (-23.0dBre 1.0 g/ms). Latency/intensity functions (that is, slopes) were not significantly different between embryos and 2-week-old animals, but amplitude/intensity functions for embryos were significantly shallower than those for 2-week-old birds (P function that occurs following 19 to 20 days of incubation. The recording of vestibular evoked potentials provides an objective, direct and noninvasive measure of peripheral vestibular function in the embryo and, as such, the method shows promise as an investigative tool. The results of the present study form the definitive basis for using vestibular evoked potentials in the detailed study of avian vestibular ontogeny and factors that may influence it.

  11. Increase of uric acid synthesis in irradiated chicken's embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several important intermediate and end products of uric acid metabolism as well as their corresponding enzymatic reactions were studied in 16 day-old chicken embryos which had been one or more times irradiated or respectively treated with ammonium chloride. After sublethal X-irradiation and at the time of the second irradiation with 800 R, the activity of the glutamine synthetase and the xanthin dehydrogenase in the kidneys of the embryos was increased. In contrast to this the glutamate dehydrogenase activity was moderately decreased. Two hours after the main irradiation the uric acid values as well as the amount of fixed nitrogen in the blood serum of previously-irradiated embryos are noticeably higher than the comparative data in non-previously irradiated animals. The glutamic acid values increase after the second irradiation, but still remain lower than with the non-previously irradiated animals. I achieved concuring ressults when I treated the embryos with ammonium chloride instead of radiation. (orig./MG)

  12. In situ DNA transfer to chicken embryos by biolistics

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    Luciana A. Ribeiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilized chicken eggs were bombarded with a biolistic device. Transient expression of the lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter was assessed after in situ gene transfer using this approach. The influence of different pressures, vacuum levels and particles was tested. Survival rate improved as particle velocity decreased, but resulted in lower levels of expression. The best survival and expression were obtained with gold particles, a helium gas pressure of 600 psi and a vacuum of 600 mmHg. Under these conditions, all bombarded embryos showed b-galactosidase activity, indicating that this was an effective method for transformation of chicken embryos.Ovos fertilizados de galinha foram bombardeados através da técnica de biobalística. A expressão transiente do gene lacZ, sob o controle do promotor humano citomegalovírus, foi verificada após a transferência in situ. Diferentes níveis de pressão de gás hélio, vácuo e tipos de partículas foram testados. A taxa de sobrevivência aumentou à medida que a velocidade das partículas diminuíram, entretanto, o nível de expressão foi menor. Os melhores resultados, combinando taxa de sobrevivência e expressão, foram obtidos com partículas de ouro, 600 libras por polegada ao quadrado de hélio e 600 mmHg de vácuo. Nestas condições, todos os embriões bombardeados apresentaram atividade da b-galactosidase, indicando que esta técnica é eficiente para a transformação de embriões de galinhas.

  13. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

  14. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  15. Proteomic Changes in the Plasma of Broiler Chickens with Femoral Head Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Okimoto, Ronald; Rath, Narayan C

    2016-01-01

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers. We isolated two differentially expressed low molecular weight proteins and identified them by MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting as fibrinogen- and fetuin-derived peptides, respectively. These peptides were reduced in birds susceptible to femoral head problems. Quantitation of LC-MS/MS spectra showed elevated levels of gallinacin-9, apolipoprotein A1, and hemoglobin and reduced levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and SPINK7 proteins in FHN. These results suggest that the bodyweight and the lipid profiles along with the above proteins can be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of FHN. PMID:27147818

  16. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Rani Gilhare; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Ashish Kumar; Surendra Kumar Naik; Tarini Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...

  17. Accumulation and diffusion of crystallin inside single fiber cells in intact chicken embryo lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Peetermans, J A; Foy, B.D.; Tanaka, T

    1987-01-01

    The use of microscope laser light-scattering spectroscopy allows for the measurement of dynamic properties of intracellular particles inside single fiber cells at different locations in the intact chicken embryo lens. Profiles of the diffusive properties of the delta-crystallin proteins across the lens are reported for developing chickens from day 5 to day 37. A clear decrease of the diffusion is observed in the lens nucleus relative to the cortex beginning with day 10.

  18. Onset of meiosis in the chicken embryo; evidence of a role for retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman Peter; Bowles Josephine; Roeszler Kelly N; Smith Craig A; Sinclair Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Meiosis in higher vertebrates shows a dramatic sexual dimorphism: germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. Here we report the molecular analysis of meiosis onset in the chicken model and provide evidence for conserved regulation by retinoic acid. Results Meiosis in the chicken embryo is initiated late in embryogenesis (day 15.5), rel...

  19. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes

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    Liheng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ, high concentration of glucose (high-glucose, or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4, and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT. In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes.

  20. [Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 in chicken embryos of different sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Feng, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ping; Huang, Pan; Li, Shi-Jun; Peng, Xiu-Li; Gong, Yan-Zhang

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the expression and functions of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (cdk2ap1) screened by suppression subtractive hybridization in chicken embryo development, a pair of primers was designed to amplify the cdk2ap1 fragment by RT-PCR and subsequently the fragment obtained was cloned into the plasmid pGEM-T. Sense and antisense probes labeled with digoxigenin were generated using SP6 and T7 RNA polymerases, respectively, and used to examine cdk2ap1 expression in chicken embryos of both sexes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In both sexes, cdk2ap1 was expressed in the head mesenchyme, rhombencephalon, optic vesicles, spinal neural tube, and forelimb of 4.0-day-old embryos and the expression in males was significantly higher than that in females. In addition, in the genital ridge and hindlimb of the 4.0-day-old chicken embryo, cdk2ap1 was obviously expressed in the males but not in females. It is supposed that cdk2ap1 may play a role in the sexual differentiation and development of gonad of chicken embryo. PMID:19819846

  1. Identification of the Sex of Earlier Embryos from Generic Hybrids of Chicken-Quail by Wpkci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ai-jun; MA Wen-xia; LI Da-quan; MENG Qing-mei

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a protocol was deveolped the sex of earlier embryos of chicken(♂)-quail(♀)hybrids and successfully tested the sex proportion of each period (66-120 h). We acquired cross bred eggs by artificial insemination, hatched them in the same batch according to the standard hatching condition of chicken, and collected earlier living embryos at 66,72,78, 84,90,96,102,108,114, and 120 h randomly. We adopted RT-PCR protocol and multiple PCR, made the known sex quail as the external control, employed β-actin as the internal control, and used primers that were designed according to conservative area of gene Wpkci of quail to identify the sex of earlier hybrid embryos. The results indicated that the primer of Wpkci can be used to identify the sex of hybrid embryos accurately; there were more male than female in earlier embryos, the sex proportion of earlier embryos compared with academic numerical value was significantly different (P0.05). In the present study, we concluded that a simple, fast, credible and stable protocol to identify the sex of earlier hybrids embryos had been established by using primer of Wpkci; in earlier embryos, the death rate of female was higher than that of male and there was no fluctuant peak.

  2. Exploring the chicken embryo as a possible model for studying Listeria monocytogenes pathogenicity

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    Jonas eGripenland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Many different animal models exist to study L. monocytogenes pathogenicity, and we have investigated the chicken embryo as an infection model: What are the benefits and possible drawbacks? We have compared a defined wild-type strain with its isogenic strains lacking well-characterized virulence factors. Our results show that wild-type L. monocytogenes, already at a relatively low infection dose (~5 x 102 cfu, caused death of the chicken embryo within 36 hours, in contrast to strains lacking the main transcriptional activator of virulence, PrfA, or the cytolysin LLO. Surprisingly, strains lacking the major adhesins InlA and InlB caused similar mortality as the wild-type strain. In conclusion, our results suggest that the chicken embryo is a practical model to study L. monocytogenes infections, especially when analyzing alternative virulence pathways independent of the InlA and InlB adhesins. However, the route of infection might be different from a human infection. The chicken embryo model and other Listeria infection models are discussed.

  3. Are Chicken Embryos Endotherms or Ectotherms? A Laboratory Exercise Integrating Concepts in Thermoregulation and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Sara M; Noveral, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    This investigative laboratory exercise uses the different relations between ambient temperature and metabolic rate in endotherms and ectotherms as a core concept to answer the following question: What thermoregulatory mode is employed by chicken embryos? Emphasis is placed on the physiological concepts that can be taught with this exercise,…

  4. Molecular diagnosis and adaptation of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus on chicken embryo fibroblast cell

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    Yogender Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To collect Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV infected bursae based on postmortem findings of clinical samples followed by molecular confirmation and adaptation on chicken embryo fibroblast cell. Material and Methods: Enlarged bursae were processed to make 10% suspension in phosphate buffer saline and were used for viral RNA isolation to carryout VP2 gene fragment amplification using RT-PCR technique. Suspension was also used for adaptation of IBDV on chicken embryo fibroblast cells prepared from 11 day old chicken embryos. Infective titer of virus was calculated using Reed and Muench method. Results: Fifteen dead birds suspected of IBD infection were collected from different local poultry farms of Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh. After post-mortem, twelve enlarged bursae sample were used for total RNA isolation which was used for amplification of VP2 gene. Out of twelve, eleven were found positive for VP2 gene amplification. Virological characterization of PCR positive sample was done on chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture and various cytopathic effects like rounding of cells, cellular detachment and vacuolation were shown by five IBD field isolates after 48 hours on 4th passage. TCID50 per ml of the adapted virus on 4th passage at 48 hours after infection was 1.46 x 107 . Conclusion: VP2 gene amplification using RT-PCR technique is a specific target for IBDV detection. Passaging of highly virulent IBDV field isolates in cell culture leads to attenuation of virus which can be exploited as a cell culture adapted vaccine candidate.

  5. A biolistic process for in vitro gene transfer into chicken embryos

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    L.A. Ribeiro

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken embryos kept in culture medium were bombarded using a high helium gas pressure biolistic device. To optimize the factors that affect transformation efficiency, the lacZ gene under control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter was used as a reporter gene. There was an inverse relationship between survival rate and transformation efficiency. The best conditions obtained for high embryo survival and high transformation efficiency were achieved with 800 psi helium gas pressure, 500 mmHg vacuum, gold particles, an 8 cm DNA-coated microparticle flying distance to the embryo and embryo placement 0.5 cm from the center of the particle dispersion cone. Under these conditions, transformation efficiency was 100%, survival rate 25% and the number of expression units in the embryo body cells ranged from 100 to 1,000. Expression of green fluorescent protein was also detected in embryos bombarded under optimal conditions. Based on the results obtained, the biolistic process can be considered an efficient method for the transformation of chicken embryos and therefore can be used as a model system to study transient gene expression and tissue-specific promoters.

  6. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J;

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  7. Location of 64K collagen producer chondrocytes in developing chicken embryo tibiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of a new low-molecular-weight collagen by cultured chicken embryo chondrocytes has been recently demonstrated. In this paper the authors report results on the location of chondrocytes synthesizing this new collagen (64K collagen) in the developing chicken embryo. The 64K collagen is synthesized in very large amounts by cells concentrated at the diaphysis of 9-day-old and at the epiphysis of 17-day-old embryo tibiae. These regions are characterized by a remodeling of the cartilage matrix leading to the replacement of the cartilage with bone tissue; therefore, this collagen appears to be a marker of a specific developmental stage of chondrocytes. The origin of cells competent for the synthesis of the 64K collagen is also discussed

  8. Evaluation of biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. using the chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Bednarczyk, Marek; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (cat's claw) was evaluated by application of the chicken embryo model. Among three groups of eggs (n = 360) with twelve-day old embryos, two were injected with different doses of cat's claw extracts (0.0492 and 0.492 mg/200 lambda). To the third control group 200 lambda of physiological salt was applied. All eggs were incubated in conventional forced-air apparatus until hatched. Hatchability, chicken weight and wholesomeness were analyzed. Selected parameters of blood including number of erythrocytes (RBC), number of leukocytes (WBC), mean red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin concentration (HGB), mean amount of cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and embryo weight (MAS) were assayed and compared. Significant differences with ANOVA were observed for MCV (P = 0.002), MCHC (P = 0.00001) and MCH (P = 0.02). Applying the chicken embryo model brought new information about the biological activity of U. tomentosa showing an unfavourable effect on some morphological blood parameters.

  9. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect

  10. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of infectious bursal disease in chickens and causes a significant economic loss for the poultry industry. Little is understood about the mechanism involved in the host responses to IBDV infection. For better understanding the IBDV......-host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...

  11. Bulk elastic properties of chicken embryos during somitogenesis

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    Glazier James A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present measurements of the bulk Young's moduli of early chick embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 10. Using a micropipette probe with a force constant k ~0.025 N/m, we applied a known force in the plane of the embryo in the anterior-posterior direction and imaged the resulting tissue displacements. We used a two-dimensional finite-element simulation method to model the embryo as four concentric elliptical elastic regions with dimensions matching the embryo's morphology. By correlating the measured tissue displacements to the displacements calculated from the in-plane force and the model, we obtained the approximate short time linear-elastic Young's moduli: 2.4 ± 0.1 kPa for the midline structures (notocord, neural tube, and somites, 1.3 ± 0.1 kPa for the intermediate nearly acellular region between the somites and area pellucida, 2.1 ± 0.1 kPa for the area pellucida, and 11.9 ± 0.8 kPa for the area opaca.

  12. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in Chicken Embryos and Hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxi...

  13. Canine Distemper Virus Utilizes Different Receptors to Infect Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts and Vero cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Xiu Liang; Pei-fu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Inducing animal viruses to adapt to chicken embryos or chicken embryo fibroblasts(CEF)is a common method to develop attenuated live vaccines with full security.Canine distemper virus(CDV)also does this,but the mechanisms and particular receptors remain unclear.Virus overlay protein blot assays were carried out on CEF membrane proteins,which were extracted respectively with a Mem-PERTM kit,a radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer or a modified co-immunoprecipitation method,and revealed a common 57 kDa positive band that differed from the 42-kDa positive band in Vero cells and also from those receptors reported in lymphocytes and293 cells,indicating a receptor diversity of CDV and the possibility of the 57-kDa protein acting as a receptor that is involved in adaptive infection of CDV Kunming strain to CEF.

  14. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  15. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in avian sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, S.

    1981-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation was examined in whole cell extracts from normal and avian sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. The addition of serum or epidermal growth factor to serum-starved normal cells resulted in increased 32P labeling of a Mr 30,000 protein. In extracts from cells transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of Schmidt-Ruppin virus, subgroup A, and grown at the permissive temperature, the protein was phosphorylated regardless of serum starvation. This Mr 30,00...

  16. Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grodzik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with l-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND and l-glutamine (Gln on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2 and differentiation (MyoD1. Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  17. Proliferation of exogenously injected primordial germcells (PGCs) into busulfan-treated chicken embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Fumta; N.Fujihara

    1999-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of busulfan treatment on the proliferation of chicken primordialgerm cells (Fgcs) in vivo, focusing on the preferential settlement of PGCs onto the germinal ridges of chicken em-bryos. Methods: Bustdfan (250 rig/egg) was injected into the egg white of freshly oviposited fertilized eggs, whichwere then incubated. Embryonic developnent and viability were examined, and exogenous PGCs collected from embry-onic blood vessels were injected into the germinal crescent region of recipient enthryos. The nttmber of PGCs residedonto germinal ridges of the right and left sides were compared. Results: Bustdfan had a slight harmful effect on theembryo viabihty and the PGCs proliferation. The number of PGCs resided onto the left side of germinal ridges wasslightly higher as compared with the right side. Conclusion: Busulfan suppressed the viability of embryos and the pro-liferation of endogenous PGCs in the recipient embryos. However, the number of exogenous PGCs proliferated washigher in embryos treated with busnlfan than those without busulfan. Data also suggest the possibihty of a preferentialresidence of PCCs toward the left side of the germinal crescent region as compared with the right, which may be due toa more advanced functional development of the left gonad than the right. (Asian JAndro11999 Dec; 1 : 187 - 190)

  18. Embryotoxic effects of eight organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide on three-day chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, A.; Hemminki, K.; Vainio, H.

    1984-02-01

    Nine peroxides used in rubber processing were tested for embryotoxicity in 3-day chicken embryos using the air chamber method. The potencies were expressed by the ED/sub 50/ for the total embryotoxic effect of the chemicals, including deaths and malformations, up to Day 14 of the incubation. The range of the ED/sub 50/'s was from 0.13 to 2.7 ..mu..moles per egg and the order of the potencies was as follows: cyclohexanoneperoxide > cumolhydroperoxide > ethylmethylketoneperoxide > dibenzoylperoxide > acetylacetoneperoxide > perbenzoic acid-tert-butylester > dicumylperoxide > dialauroylperoxide > hydrogen peroxide. All nine peroxides caused malformations at a moderate frequency. The maximum percentage of malformed embryos of the treated varied from the 16% of perbenzoic acid-tert-butylester to the 56% of dicumylperoxide. The high percentage caused by the latter could, however, result from slow diffusion of high lethal doses from the air chamber to the embryo.

  19. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng Zuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens.

  20. Comparison of pretectal genoarchitectonic pattern between quail and chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma eMerchán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Regionalization of the central nervous system is controlled by local networks of transcription factors that establish and maintain the identities of neuroepithelial progenitor areas and their neuronal derivatives. The conserved cerebral Bauplan of vertebrates must result essentially from conserved patterns of developmentally expressed transcription factors. We have previously produced detailed molecular maps for the alar plate of prosomere 1 (the pretectal region in chicken (Ferran et al., 2007, 2008, 2009. Here we compare the early molecular signature of the pretectum of two closely related avian species of the family Phasianidae, Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail and Gallus gallus (chicken, aiming to test conservation of the described pattern at a microevolutionary level. We studied the developmental pretectal expression of Bhlhb4, Dbx1, Ebf1, Gata3, Gbx2, Lim1, Meis1, Meis2 Pax3, Pax6, Six3, Tal2, and Tcf7l2 (Tcf4 mRNA, using in situ hybridization, and PAX7 immunohistochemistry. The genoarchitectonic profile of individual pretectal domains and strata was produced, using comparable section planes. Remarkable conservation of the combinatorial genoarchitectonic code was observed, fundamented in a tripartite anteroposterior subdivision. However, we found that at corresponding developmental stages the pretectal region of G. gallus was approximately 30% larger than that of C. japonica, but seemed relatively less mature. Altogether, our results on a conserved genoarchitectonic pattern highlight the importance of early developmental gene networks that causally underlie the production of homologous derivatives in these two evolutionarily closely-related species. The shared patterns probably apply to sauropsids in general, as well as to more distantly related vertebrate species.

  1. Differential expression of genes for aromatase and estrogen receptor during the gonadal development in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, O; Kikuchi, H; Kikuchi, T; Mizuno, S

    1998-04-01

    In birds, differentiation of embryonic gonads is not as strictly determined by the genetic sex as it is in mammals, and can be influenced by early manipulation with a sex steroid hormone. Thus administration of an aromatase inhibitor induces testis development in the genetic female, and administration of estrogen induces a left ovotestis in the genetic male embryo. Another feature of avian gonadogenesis is that only the left ovary develops in most species. Molecular mechanisms underlying these features at the level of gene expression have not been elucidated. In this paper, we present evidence that a gene for aromatase cytochrome P-450, an enzyme required for the last step in the synthesis of estradiol-17beta, is expressed in medullae of the left and right gonads of a female chicken embryo, but not in those of a male chicken embryo, and that an estrogen receptor gene is expressed only in epithelium (and cortex later, in the female) of the left, not the right, gonad of both sexes, but the expression in the male left gonad is temporary and restricted to an early stage of development. Differential expression of these two genes serves well to explain the above features of gonadal development in birds. Furthermore, in ovo administration of estradiol-17beta from the 5th to the 14th day of incubation does not cause expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad of chicken embryos of either sex, suggesting that the absence of expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad is not the result of down-regulation, but may be regarded as an important cause of the unilateral ovarian development. PMID:9584834

  2. [Lentivirus Delivery of the Short Hairpin RNA Targeting NDV P Gene Inhibits Production of the Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts and Chicken Embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Xu, Chuantian; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yanyan; Huang, Qinghua; Hu, Beixia; Zhang, Xiumei

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-induced RNA degradation can inhibit viral infection, and has been investigated extensively for its efficacy as antiviral therapy. The potential therapeutic role of lentiviral-mediated short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) replication in vivo has been explored less often. We constructed two recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against the phosphoprotein (P) of the NDV, RNAi-341 and RNAi-671. Recombinant shRNA lentivirus vectors were co-transfected into 293T cells, along with helper plasmids, to package the recombinant shRNA lentivirus. Lentivirus-based shRNAs were titrated and transduced into NDV-susceptible chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chick embryos. Antiviral activity against the NDV strain was evaluated by virus titration and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 strongly suppressed transient expression of a FLAG-tagged P fusion protein in 293T cells. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 NDV reduced virus titers by 66.6-fold and 30.6-fold, respectively, in CEFs 16 h after infection. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 reduced virus titers in specific pathogen-free chick embryos by 99% and 98%, respectively, 48 h after infection. Both shRNAs inhibited accumulation of not only P-gene mRNA, but also nucleocapsid, M-, F-, HN-, and L-gene mRNA. RNAi-341 silenced P-gene mRNA more potently than RNAi-671. These results suggest that shRNAs silencing the P gene had substantial antiviral properties and inhibited NDV replication in CEFs and chick embryos.

  3. Bisphenol-A Induces Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Gharibi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress mechanisms are involved in the embryotoxicity. The objective of this study was to assess hepatotoxicity of bisphenol-A (BPA in chicken embryos.Materials and Methods: Fertile eggs were randomly divided into 4 groups; three experimental and one control groups, (N=15, for each group. Embryos were administered 50, 100 and 200 PPM BPA, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C with a relative humidity of 63%. The experiment was terminated on day 20 of incubation. Then, the embryos were decapitated and livers of embryos were collected for biochemical analysis. The total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, carotenoid and total protein levels were measured by spectrophotometer.Results: The result of the present study indicated that the levels of total antioxidant in the livers of embryos exposed to 200 PPM BPA were higher than control and other groups, as well as the levels of MDA compared to control group (p<0.05. The levels of GSH, total carotenoids and total protein were higher in all groups exposed to BPA than control group (p<0.05. In addition, protein concentration in 200 PPM group was higher than of other groups (p<0.001.Conclusion: So far, BPA may lead to induce toxic response of oxidative system in liver throughout embryonic period.

  4. Phenotypic developmental plasticity induced by preincubation egg storage in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Sylvia R; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    The developing chicken blastoderm can be temporarily maintained in dormancy below physiological zero temperature. However, prolonged preincubation egg storage impairs normal morphological and physiological development of embryos in a potential example of fetal programming (in this case, "embryonic programming"). We investigated how preincubation egg storage conditions (temperature, duration, hypoxia, and hypercapnia) affects viability, body mass, and physiological variables and functions in day 15 chicken embryos. Embryo viability was impaired in eggs stored for 2 and 3 weeks, with the effects greater at 22°C compared to 15°C. However, embryo size was reduced in eggs stored at 15°C compared with 22°C. Phenotypic change resulting from embryonic programming was evident in the fact that preincubation storage at 15°C diminished hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell concentration ([RBC]), and hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Storage duration at 15°C more severely affected the time course (2, 6, and 24 h) responses of Hct, [RBC], and [Hb] to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by submersion compared with storage duration at 22°C. The time-specific regulation of acid-base balance was changed progressively with storage duration at both 22 and 15°C preincubation storages. Consequently, preincubation egg storage at 22°C resulted in poor viability compared with eggs stored at 15°C, but size and physiological functions of embryos in eggs stored for 1-2 weeks were worse in eggs stored in the cooler than stored under room conditions. Avian eggs thus prove to be useful for examining developmental consequences to physiology of altered preincubation thermal environment in very early stages of development (embryonic programming). PMID:26908714

  5. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  6. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  7. shRNA-triggered RNAi inhibits expression of NDV NP gene in chicken embryo fibroblast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Dingfei LI; Anjing FU; Li MA; Falong YANG; Cheng TANG

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a powerful tool for identifying gene functions. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) is an ideal model for studying the interaction between avian viruses and their hosts. To establish a methodological platform for RNAi studies in CEF, three plasmid vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeted against the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) NP gene were constructed. One of them, ndvl, was proven effective on blocking viral replication in CEF and chicken embryos. Four hours prior to infec-tion with NDV, the CEF was transfected with the plas-raids by Silent-fect. An unrelated shRNA sequence (HK) was used in mock transfection. The expression of a potent shRNA resulted in up to 2.3, 21.1 and 9.8 fold decreases in NP gene expression at 3, 6 and 9 h post infection in CEF, respectively. The ndvl was able to completely inhibit the replication of the virus in CEF within 48 post infection. Furthermore, the pathological changes in CEF caused by NDV were delayed, and the degree of pathological changes was lighter compared with the mock transfection in the presence of ndvl. When the complex of shRNA-Silent-fect and NDV was co-injected into the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old embryonated eggs with 105 or 106 ELD50 NDV, NDV replication was decreased by 94.14% and 62.15% after 17 h, respectively. These find-ings suggest that the newly synthesized NP protein is crit-ical for NDV transcription and replication and provide a basis for identifying the functions of viral genes and screening for effective siRNAs against viruses in CEF and chicken embryo by RNAi.

  8. Reverse transcriptase activity in chicken embryo fibroblast culture supernatants is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus EAV-0 RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Weissmahr, R N; Schüpbach, J; Böni, J

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown that live attenuated virus vaccines produced on chicken-derived cells contain low levels of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT). In both virus and corresponding control harvests produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts, these activities were present at significantly higher concentrations than in the vaccines. In order to identify the putative retrovirus sequence responsible for this activity, a novel method for the selective PCR amplification of particle-associ...

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  10. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mattsson

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic

  11. Recombinant Mouse Canstatin Inhibits Chicken Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Angiogenesis and Endothelial Cell Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong HOU; Tian-Yun WANG; Bao-Mei YUAN; Yu-Rong CHAI; Yan-Long JIA; Fang TIAN; Jian-Min WANG; Le-Xun XUE

    2004-01-01

    Human canstatin, a 24 kD fragment of the α2 chain of type Ⅳ collagen, has been proved to be one of the most effective inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth. To investigate in vivo antiangiogenesis activity and in vitro effects on endothelial cell proliferation of recombinant mouse canstatin, the cDNA of mouse canstatin was introduced into an expression vector pQE40 to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pQE-mCan. The recombinant mouse canstatin efficiently expressed in E. coli M 15 after IPTG induction was monitored by SDS-PAGE and by Western blotting with an anti-hexahistidine tag antibody. The expressed mouse canstatin, mainly as inclusion bodies, accounted for approximately 35% of the total bacterial proteins. The inclusion bodies were washed, lysed and purified by the nickel affinity chromatography to a purity of approximately 93%. The refolded mouse canstatin was tested on the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), and a large number of newly formed blood vessels were significantly regressed. In addition, recombinant mouse canstatin potently inhibited endothelial cell proliferation with no inhibition on non-endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the recombinant mouse canstatin effectively inhibited angiogenesis of the chicken embryo in a dose-dependent manner and specially suppressed in vitro the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  12. Differential gene expression in femoral bone from red junglefowl and domestic chicken, differing for bone phenotypic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundeberg Joakim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is frequently observed among aging hens from egg-producing strains (layers of domestic chicken. White Leghorn (WL has been intensively selected for egg production and it manifests striking phenotypic differences for a number of traits including several bone phenotypes in comparison with the wild ancestor of chicken, the red junglefowl (RJ. Previously, we have identified four Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting bone mineral density and bone strength in an intercross between RJ and WL. With the aim of further elucidating the genetic basis of bone traits in chicken, we have now utilized cDNA-microarray technology in order to compare global RNA-expression in femoral bone from adult RJ and WL (five of each sex and population. Results When contrasting microarray data for all WL-individuals to that of all RJ-individuals we observed differential expression (False discovery rate adjusted p-values Conclusion We report the identification of 779 differentially expressed transcripts, several residing within QTL-regions for bone traits. Among differentially expressed transcripts, those encoding structural ribosomal proteins were highly enriched and all had lower expression levels in WL. In addition, transcripts encoding four translation initiation and translation elongation factor proteins also had lower expression levels in WL, possibly indicating perturbation of protein biosynthesis pathways between the two populations. Information derived from this study could be relevant to the bone research field and may also aid in further inference of genetic changes accompanying animal domestication.

  13. In Ovo Administration of Silver Nanoparticles and/or Amino Acids Influence Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression in Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat K. Bhanja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 did not differ among amino acids, NanoAg and uninjected controls in the non-LPS groups, but increased by many folds in the LPS treated NanoAg, Cys and Cys+NanoAg groups. In LPS treated spleens, TNF-α expression was also up-regulated by NanoAg, amino acids and their combinations, but interleukin-10 (IL-10 expression was down-regulated in Thr, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2 expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4 expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that NanoAg either alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken.

  14. Genome-Wide Characterization of RNA Editing in Chicken Embryos Reveals Common Features among Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome. PMID:26024316

  15. Cultivation and Characterization of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Gao, Ding Zhang, Muhammad Shahzad, Kerong Zhang, Liru Zhao and Jiakui Li*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding on the biological properties of endothelial cells (ECs, a method for the isolation and identification in vitro culture of avian pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs is described. The isolated and cultured cells from chick embryos were identified by cellular morphology and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that the cultured cells exhibited typical cobblestone morphology viewed under an inverted microscope; and were bound with Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin and stained positive for CD31 and factor VIII-related antigen. In conclusion, the findings of present study for the isolation and cultivation of PMVECs may allow more detailed analysis of their biological properties, and provide a valuable model for studying pathological processes including pulmonary hypertension, ascites and pulmonary vascular remodeling in broiler chickens.

  16. Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo using laser Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozdova, M. A.; Stiukhina, E. S.; Sdobnov, A. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Postnov, D. E.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results on in ovo application of developed Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 9-13 days chicken embryos was used as a biological model that allows an easy access to both arterial and venous vessels of different size. The key point of our study was to find out how the periodic and aperiodic pulsations of blood flow (which are inevitable in living organism) will affect the LDA functions and measuring capability. Specifically, we (i) developed the technique to extract and refine the pulse rhythm from the signal received from a vessel, and (ii) analyzed the changes in power spectra of LDA signal that are caused by heart beating and considerably complicate the reliable measurement of Doppler shift. Our main conclusion is that the algorithm of LDA data processing need to be improved, and this possibly can be done by counting the information on current phase of cardiac cycle.

  17. Transcriptional response of chicken embryo cells to Newcastle disease virus (D58 strain) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kirubaharan, J John; Chandran, N Daniel Joy; Gnanapriya, N

    2013-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) in chicken causes significant economic loss for the poultry industry worldwide. The mechanism involved in host response to NDV infection is not well understood. For better understanding of the virus-host interaction; transcriptional profile of some genes of chicken embryo (CE) cells infected with NDV vaccine strain D58 was established using quantitative RT-PCR SYBR Green method. The relative standard curve method was used to measure the level of transcripts of the cellular genes against an endogenous control (β actin) gene. Among the genes studied, IFN α, IFN γ, MHC I and DDX 1 were up-regulated while IL 6 was down regulated. The expression of viral genes (M and F) in the infected CE cells was also confirmed by relative quantification. The host cellular genes involved in pro-inflammatory response, interferon-regulated proteins and the cellular immune response were affected by NDV infection, indicating involvement of complex signaling pathways of host cell responses to the infection. Thus, this study contributes to the understanding of the pathogenesis of ND and provides an insight into the virus-host interaction. PMID:24426287

  18. Effect of copper nanoparticles on metabolic rate and development of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Sawosz, E.; Vadalasetty, K. P.;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of an in ovo injection of CuNano and the timing of injection on metabolic rate (O consumption and heat production, HP) and development of layer hatchlings. On day 1 of incubation, 192 fertile eggs from 29-week-old Lohmann breeder strain ch...... embryos and depressed the development of organs; however, it did not affect YFBW, immunoglobulin concentrations and the expression of immuno-related genes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of an in ovo injection of CuNano and the timing of injection on metabolic rate (O consumption and heat production, HP) and development of layer hatchlings. On day 1 of incubation, 192 fertile eggs from 29-week-old Lohmann breeder strain...... chickens were distributed into four groups that were administered colloidal CuNano on: day 1 and/or 10. Gaseous exchange was measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and HP was calculated for 16- and 19-day-old embryos. Yolk free body weight (YFBW) at 24h after hatching and the relative organ...

  19. High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Molenaar

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST on glucose metabolism in broiler chicken embryos. Broiler eggs were incubated at a high (38.9°C or normal (37.8°C EST from day 10.5 of incubation onward and were injected with a bolus of [U-(13C]glucose in the chorio-allantoic fluid at day 17.5 of incubation. After [U-(13C]glucose administration, (13C enrichment was determined in intermediate pools and end-products of glucose metabolism. Oxidation of labeled glucose occurred for approximately 3 days after injection. Glucose oxidation was higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment from day 17.6 until 17.8 of incubation. The overall recovery of (13CO2 tended to be 4.7% higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment. An increase in EST (38.9°C vs 37.8°C increased (13C enrichment in plasma lactate at day 17.8 of incubation and (13C in hepatic glycogen at day 18.8 of incubation. Furthermore, high compared to normal EST resulted in a lower yolk-free body mass at day 20.9 (-2.74 g and 21.7 (-3.81 g of incubation, a lower hepatic glycogen concentration at day 18.2 (-4.37 mg/g and 18.8 (-4.59 mg/g of incubation, and a higher plasma uric acid concentration (+2.8 mg/mL/+43% at day 21.6 of incubation. These results indicate that the glucose oxidation pattern is relatively slow, but the intensity increased consistently with an increase in developmental stage of the embryo. High environmental temperatures in the perinatal period of chicken embryos increased glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic glycogen prior to the hatching process. This may limit glucose availability for successful hatching and could impact body development, probably by increased gluconeogenesis from glucogenic amino acids to allow anaerobic glycolysis.

  20. Investigation of the Effects of Pre-Incubation Formaldehyde Fumigation on the Tracheal Epithelium of Chicken Embryos and Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    HAYRETDAĞ, Sibel; KOLANKAYA, Dürdane

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-incubation formaldehyde fumigation on the tracheal epithelium of chicken embryos and chicks. Throughout the study pre-incubation formaldehyde fumigation was applied to 18-day-old embryos and 1-day-old chicks only once, at 1 of 2 different concentrations (3x, 42 ml of formalin and 21 g of potassium permanganate per m3 and 4x, 56 ml of formalin and 28 g of potassium permanganate per m3) for 1 of 2 different durations (20 min and 40 min). Tracheal ...

  1. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6% and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%, 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05% and 5 could not be typed (23.8%. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%, and 3 were type D (14.3%. The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  2. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality

    OpenAIRE

    Loyau, Thomas; Berri, Cecile; Bedrani, Larbi; Metayer-Coustard, Sonia; Praud, Christophe; Duclos, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie; RIDEAU, Nicole; Everaert, N.; Yahav, S.; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8 degrees C, 5...

  3. A Tentative Mechanism of Solubilization of Neuropathy Target Esterase from Chicken Embryo Brain by Phospholipase A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Seifert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathy target esterase is a membrane-bound enzyme linked to organophosphate-induced distal neuropathy. Here we report a tentative mechanism of its solubilization from chicken embryo brains by using phospholipase A2. The enzyme was released from brain membranes after degradation of their structural phospholipids initiated by phospholipase A2. L-α-lysophosphatidylcholine, tested as a representative product of phospholipid hydrolysis, was identified as a new efficient detergent for solubilization of the neuropathy target esterase.

  4. Toxicity of pristine graphene in experiments in a chicken embryo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawosz E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz,1 Slawomir Jaworski,1 Marta Kutwin,1 Anna Hotowy,1 Mateusz Wierzbicki,1 Marta Grodzik,1 Natalia Kurantowicz,1 Barbara Strojny,1 Ludwika Lipinska,2 André Chwalibog3 1Division of Nanobiotechnology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Evaluation of the potential cytotoxicity of graphene is a key factor for medical applications, where flakes or a surface of graphene may be used as bioactive molecules, drug carriers, or biosensors. In the present work, effects of pristine graphene (pG on the development of a living organism, with an emphasis on morphological and molecular states of the brain, were investigated using a chicken embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into the control group and groups administered with pG suspended in milli-Q water at concentrations of 50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, 500 µg/L, 1,000 µg/L, 5,000 µg/L, and 10,000 µg/L (n=30 per group. The experimental solutions were injected in ovo into the albumin and then the eggs were incubated. After 19 days of incubation, the survival, weight of the body and organs, and blood serum biochemical indices were measured. The brain samples were collected for microscopic examination of brain ultrastructure and measurements of gene and protein expression. Survival of embryos was significantly decreased after treatment with pG, but the body and organ weights as well as biochemical indices were not affected. In all treatment groups, some atypical ultrastructures of the brain were observed, but they were not enhanced by the increasing concentrations of pG. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen at the messenger ribonucleic acid level was downregulated, and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive nuclei was significantly reduced in the 500–10,000 µg

  5. Standard-curve competitive RT-PCR quantification of myogenic regulatory factors in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Alvares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the most sensitive method used to evaluate gene expression. Although many advances have been made since quantitative RT-PCR was first described, few reports deal with the mathematical bases of this technique. The aim of the present study was to develop and standardize a competitive PCR method using standard-curves to quantify transcripts of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, Myf-5, Myogenin and MRF4 in chicken embryos. Competitor cDNA molecules were constructed for each gene under study using deletion primers, which were designed to maintain the anchorage sites for the primers used to amplify target cDNAs. Standard-curves were prepared by co-amplification of different amounts of target cDNA with a constant amount of competitor. The content of specific mRNAs in embryo cDNAs was determined after PCR with a known amount of competitor and comparison to standard-curves. Transcripts of the housekeeping ß-actin gene were measured to normalize the results. As predicted by the model, most of the standard-curves showed a slope close to 1, while intercepts varied depending on the relative efficiency of competitor amplification. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR method permitted the detection of as few as 60 MyoD/Myf-5 molecules per reaction but approximately 600 molecules of MRF4/Myogenin mRNAS were necessary to produce a measurable signal. A coefficient of variation of 6 to 19% was estimated for the different genes analyzed (6 to 9 repetitions. The competitive RT-PCR assay described here is sensitive, precise and allows quantification of up to 9 transcripts from a single cDNA sample.

  6. Higher levels of CO2 during late incubation alter the hatch time of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Roulston, N; Bergoug, H; Romanini, C E B; Garain, P; Eterradossi, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Demmers, T G M

    2015-01-01

    1. It has been reported that the increasing CO2 tension triggers the embryo to pip the air cell and emerge from the egg. However, the mechanism by which higher CO2 concentrations during the last few days of incubation affect chick physiology and the hatching process is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CO2 concentrations up to 1% during pipping, on the onset and length of the hatch window (HW) and chick quality. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler eggs (600 eggs per batch) were incubated in two small-scale custom-built incubators (Petersime NV). During the final 3 d of incubation, control eggs were exposed to a lower CO2 concentration (0.3%), while the test eggs experienced a higher CO2 concentration programme (peak of 1%). 3. There were no significant differences in blood values, organ weight and body weight. There was also no difference in hatchability between control and test groups. However, a small increase in the chick weight and the percentage of first class chicks was found in the test groups. Furthermore, plasma corticosterone profiles during hatching were altered in embryos exposed to higher CO2; however, they dropped to normal levels at d 21 of incubation. Importantly, the hatching process was delayed and synchronised in the test group, resulting in a narrowed HW which was 2.7 h shorter and 5.3 h later than the control group. 4. These results showed that exposing chicks to 1% CO2 concentration during pipping did not have negative impacts on physiological status of newly hatched chicks. In addition, it may have a significant impact on the physiological mechanisms controlling hatching and have benefits for the health and welfare of chickens by reducing the waiting time after hatching. PMID:25900009

  7. Acclimation to hypothermic incubation in developing chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus): I. Developmental effects and chronic and acute metabolic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Juli L; Burggren, Warren W

    2004-04-01

    Chronic exposure to a low incubation temperature clearly slows the development of poikilothemic chicken embryos (or any other poikilotherms), but little is known about the more subtle developmental effects of temperature, especially on physiological regulatory systems. Consequently, two populations of chicken embryos were incubated at 38 degrees C and 35 degrees C. When compared at the same development stage, incubation temperature had no significant impact on embryonic survival or growth. Moreover, the relative timing of major developmental landmarks (e.g. internal pipping), expressed as a percentage of development, was unaffected by temperature. The ability to maintain the rate of oxygen consumption ((O(2))) during an acute drop in ambient temperature (T(a)) improved from Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stages 39-40 to 43-44 in the 38 degrees C but not the 35 degrees C populations. Late stage (HH43-44) embryos incubated at 38 degrees C could maintain (O(2)) (approximately 27-33 micro l g(-1) min(-1)) during an acute drop in T(a) to approximately 30 degrees C. However, at the same stage 35 degrees C embryos acutely measured at 38 degrees C were unable to similarly maintain their (O(2)), which fell as soon as T(a) reached 36 degrees C. Thus, while hypothermic incubation does not affect gross development (other than would be predicted from a simple effect of Q(10)), there is a significant delay in the relative timing of the onset of thermoregulatory ability induced by hypothermic incubation. PMID:15037648

  8. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Dang D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C. jejuni strains are capable of invading the CEICs and stimulate these cells in a pro-inflammatory manner and during this interaction the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes ciaB, dnaJ and racR is increased. Furthermore, incubation of bacteria with conditioned cell- and bacteria-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under in vitro culture condition C. jejuni strains of both human and chicken origins can invade avian host cells with a pro-inflammatory response and that the virulence-associated genes of C. jejuni may play a role in this process.

  9. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor pathway genes in chicken embryo fibroblasts from chickens resistant and susceptible to Marek's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the innate immune defense mechanisms against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the role of TLR in non-MHC genetic resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in the chicken is yet to be elucidated. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells from MD susceptible and resistant lines were infected either with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or treated with polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of dsRNA, and the expression of TLR and pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied at 8 and 36 h posttreatment by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Findings of the present study reveal that MDV infection and polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid treatment significantly elevated the mRNA expression of TLR3, IL6, and IL8 in both susceptible and resistant lines. Furthermore, basal expression levels in uninfected CEF for TLR3, TLR7, and IL8 genes were significantly higher in resistant chickens compared with those of susceptible chickens. Our results suggest that TLR3 together with pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a significant role in genetic resistance to MD.

  10. Identification, purification, and characterization of phosphotyrosine-specific protein phosphatases from cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrosine phosphorylation catalyzed by a unique class of protein kinases is an important process in both normal cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation. In this study, phosphoprotein phosphatases specific for the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine residues were partially purified from secondary chicken embryo fibroblasts, using 32P-labeled immunoglobulin G. The soluble activity was purified by using DEAE-cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose column chromatography and gel filtration, and at least three enzyme species of apparent Mr 55,000 (pTPI), 50,000 (pTPII), and 95,000 (pTPIII) were resolved. All three enzymes possessed somewhat similar properties. They had a pH optimum of about 7.4, they were inhibited by Zn2+, vanadate, ATP, and ADP, and they were unaffected by divalent metal cations, EDTA, and F- under standard assay conditions employing a physiological ionic strength. These properties suggest that they represent a class of enzymes distinct from well-known phosphoseryl-phosphothreonyl-protein phosphatases and that dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins may be carried out by a unique family of phosphoprotein phosphatases. Transformation by Rous sarcoma virus resulted in a small increase in phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity

  11. Embryotoxicity of organic extracts from airborne particulates in ambient air in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1986-07-01

    A fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), prepared from an organic extract of airborne particulate matter, was separated into nine subfractions by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The embryotoxicity of each of these fractions was investigated and analysis for PAHs by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The ninth subfraction, with coronene as its main component, had the strongest toxic effects on chicken embryos per m/sup 3/ of air. Of the remaining eight subfractions, three had the greatest toxicity: the second fraction with benzofluoranthenes and benzo(e)pyrene as the main components, the fourth fraction having PAH-estimated compounds in small amounts, and the fifth fraction with indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene as the main ingredients had the greatest toxicity. These findings indicate PAHs to be responsible for embryotoxicity but the total amounts were not necessarily proportional to it. For further characterization of toxicity, the effects of each PAH and/or quantification of other embryotoxic compounds possibly present in small amounts should be investigated.

  12. Applications of Tol2 Transposon-Mediated Gene Transfer for Stable Integration and Conditional Expression of Electroporated Genes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    Because of the high accessibility to developing embryos, avian embryos (chicken and quail) have long been used as a good model animal to study embryogenesis in vertebrates, especially amniotes (reviewed in Wolpert, 2004). The techniques used for “classical” avian embryology included tissue transplantations, tissue ablations, and cell-labeling by vital dye. At the end of the last century, the in ovo electropora tion technique was developed by Nakamura and his colleagues, and this modern method opened a way to study the roles of developmental genes directly in living embryos (Funahashi et al., 1999) reviewed in (Nakamura et al., 2004; Yasuda et al., 2000; Yasugi and Nakamura, 2000). This powerful technique allows us to introduce genes (DNA, RNA, morpholino) into embryos in a tissue-specific way by targeting a restricted area of embryonic tissues. Thus, the electroporation technique using chickens has provided numerous novel insights into the understanding of early development in vertebrates, making the chicken a unique model animal.

  13. Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Kalantary, Sima

    2011-09-01

    There are several reports indicating linkages between exposures to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields and abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development. Based on our previous published research carried out at the Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white leghorn hen eggs were investigated. Three hundred healthy fresh fertilized eggs (55-65 gr) were divided into three groups of experimental (n = 50), control (n = 75), and sham (n = 75). Experimental eggs (inside the coil) were exposed to 3 different intensities of 1.33, 2.66, and 7.32 mT and sham groups were located inside the same coil with no exposure, for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were all incubated in an incubator (38 ± 0.5(°)C, 60% humidity) for 14 days. 14-day old chicken embryos were removed by C-sections, and the brains of all embryos of all groups were fixed in formalin(10%), stained with H&E and TUNEL assay, for studying the histopatholog and process of apoptosis. The brains of other embryos were prepared for Scanning Electeron Microscope. Results showed electromagnetic fields have toxic effects on brain cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells and degeneration of brains' tissues of exposed chicken embryos. These findings suggest that the electromagnetic fields induce brain damages at different levels.

  14. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-10-01

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.

  15. Assessment of angiogenic properties of biomaterials using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angiogenic potential of a biomaterial is a critical factor for successful graft intake in tissue engineering. We developed a modified, rapid and reproducible chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay to evaluate the ability of biomaterials in inducing blood vessel density. Five biomaterials including one-layer porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), two-layer SIS, four-layer vacuum pressed (VP) SIS, polyglycolic acid (PGA) and PGA modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were analyzed. A circular section (1.2 mm diameter) of each biomaterial was placed near a group of blood vessels in the CAM. Blood vessels around the biomaterials were captured with black and white images at 96 h post implantation; and the images were subjected to densitometry evaluation. One-layer SIS induced a significant increase in blood vessel density as compared to the cellulose nitrate negative control, and had the greatest increase in blood vessel density as compared to four-layer VP SIS, PGA, or PLGA modified PGA. Although two-layer SIS has enhanced physical structure for surgical manipulation, its induction in blood vessel density was significantly lower than the one-layer SIS. Stripping the SIS proteins or incubating one-layer SIS with neutralizing antibodies against basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) resulted in decreased angiogenesis. Consistent with results obtained from bladder augmentation animal models, these results confirmed that angiogenic growth factors were present in SIS and affected the angiogenic potential of biomaterials. These data also demonstrated that the CAM assay can be used to ascertain methodically the angiogenic potential of biomaterials

  16. In Ovo administration of silver nanoparticles and/or amino acids influence metabolism and immune gene expression in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanja, Subrat K.; Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Mehra, Manish;

    2015-01-01

    Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers...... but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr) or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control...... embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ among amino acids, Nano...

  17. Sex-dimorphic gene expression and ineffective dosage compensation of Z-linked genes in gastrulating chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of sex determination and dosage compensation mechanisms in model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and M. musculus. Strikingly, the mechanism involved in sex determination and dosage compensation are very different among these three model organisms. Birds present yet another situation where the heterogametic sex is the female. Sex determination is still poorly understood in birds and few key determinants have so far been identified. In contrast to most other species, dosage compensation of bird sex chromosomal genes appears rather ineffective. Results By comparing microarrays from microdissected primitive streak from single chicken embryos, we identified a large number of genes differentially expressed between male and female embryos at a very early stage (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 4, long before any sexual differentiation occurs. Most of these genes are located on the Z chromosome, which indicates that dosage compensation is ineffective in early chicken embryos. Gene ontology analyses, using an enhanced annotation tool for Affymetrix probesets of the chicken genome developed in our laboratory (called Manteia, show that among these male-biased genes found on the Z chromosome, more than 20 genes play a role in sex differentiation. Conclusions These results corroborate previous studies demonstrating the rather inefficient dosage compensation for Z chromosome in birds and show that this sexual dimorphism in gene regulation is observed long before the onset of sexual differentiation. These data also suggest a potential role of non-compensated Z-linked genes in somatic sex differentiation in birds.

  18. Bisphenol S alters embryonic viability, development, gallbladder size, and messenger RNA expression in chicken embryos exposed via egg injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L

    2016-06-01

    Amid concerns about the toxicological effects and environmental prevalence of bisphenol A (BPA), efforts to find suitable, safer replacement alternatives are essential. Bisphenol S (BPS) is a potential chemical substitute for BPA; however, few studies are available confirming that it has a more desirable ecotoxicological profile. In the present study, BPS was injected into the air cell of unincubated, fertilized chicken embryos at 6 concentrations ranging from 0 μg/g to 207 μg/g egg to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Concentrations of BPS increased in a dose-dependent manner in whole-embryo homogenates, and exposure to the highest dose, 207 μg/g, resulted in decreased pipping success (estimated median lethal dose  = 279 μg/g; 95% confidence interval = 161-486 μg/g). Exposure to BPS also reduced growth metrics including embryo mass and tarsus length, whereas the most pronounced phenotypic effect was the concentration-dependent, significant increase in gallbladder size at concentrations ≥52.8 μg/g. These adverse phenotypic outcomes were associated with the modulation of gene targets from a chicken ToxChip polymerase chain reaction array, which are involved with xenobiotic metabolism, lipid homeostasis, bile acid synthesis, and the thyroid hormone pathway. Expression levels of 2 estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin, were too low at the sampling time point assessed (i.e., pipping embryos) to quantify changes, and no effects were observed on circulating free thyroxine or bile acid concentrations. The present study provides novel, whole-animal toxicological data for a BPA replacement alternative that is not well characterized. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1541-1549. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Endogenous expression of ASLV viral proteins in specific pathogen free chicken embryos: relevance for the developmental biology research field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canto-Soler M Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF eggs in combination with RCAS retrovirus, a member of the Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus (ASLV family, is of standard practice to study gene function and development. SPF eggs are certified free of infection by specific pathogen viruses of either exogenous or endogenous origin, including those belonging to the ASLV family. Based on this, SPF embryos are considered to be free of ASLV viral protein expression, and consequently in developmental research studies RCAS infected cells are routinely identified by immunohistochemistry against the ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Contrary to this generally accepted notion, observations in our laboratory suggested that certified SPF chicken embryos may endogenously express ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Since these observations may have significant implications for the developmental research field we further investigated this possibility. Results We demonstrate that certified SPF chicken embryos have transcriptionally active endogenous ASLV loci (ev loci capable of expressing ASLV viral proteins, such as p19 and p27, even when those loci are not capable of producing viral particles. We also show that the extent of viral protein expression in embryonic tissues varies not only among flocks but also between embryos of the same flock. In addition, our genetic screening revealed significant heterogeneity in ev loci composition even among embryos of the same flock. Conclusions These observations have critical implications for the developmental biology research field, since they strongly suggest that the current standard methodology used in experimental studies using the chick embryo and RCAS vectors may lead to inaccurate interpretation of results. Retrospectively, our observations suggest that studies in which infected cells have been identified simply by pan-ASLV viral protein expression may need to be considered with caution. For future studies, they

  20. A study upon the influence of cyclophosphamide treatment on the red blood cells of the chicken embryo (Short Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Anca HAS-LAZAU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the effect of cyclophosphamide on the eveloping red blood cells of the 3-4 days old chicken embryo, when the hematopoiesis is at its peack, located at the vitelline sack level.I have chosen to work with the chicken embryo red blood cells because they have an intense mitotic activity as well as a tumoural cell-like behaviour.It is vital to know the particularities of the cell cycle of the healthy and tumoural cells, keeping in mind that most of the cytostatics act upon the cell which are developing their cell cycle (Menkes B., Prelipceanu O., Checiu I., Căpălnăşan I. 1979.The cyclophosphamide is not stage-dependent, as it acts in all the stages of the cell cycle, its mutagen effect being accompanied also by a cell cycle stopping (Paşca C., Crăciun C., Ardelean A. 2000.Cyclophosphamide supply determines retrenchment of the cell division, transforming the normal cells into multinucleated cells, with normal ploydia. The cyclophosphamide is a cytostatic using for cancer therapy (Schiavoni G., Mattei F., Di Pucchio T., Santini S. M., Bracci L., Berardelli F., Proietti F. 2000.Reshearches have done lots of studies along the years both on mice and rats, concerning the effects of cyclophosphamide on: thymus and burse fabricio ( Giurgea R., Toma V., 1977, stromal cells of bone marrow (Anton E. 1997, pulmonary thrombocytopoiesis (Sulkowki S., Sulkowska M., Musiatowikz B. 1997.

  1. Application of CdTe/ZnSe quantum dots in in vitro imaging of chicken tissue and embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulick, Amitava; Blazkova, Iva; Milosavljevic, Vedran; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kopel, Pavel; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed to synthesize CdTe/ZnSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) in an easy way and to explore the possibilities of its application in in vitro imaging of chicken tissue and embryo. The QDs were prepared using microwave irradiation with different temperatures, which is a very easy and less time-consuming method. Subsequently, these QDs were characterized by spectrofluorimetry, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering measurement. A blueshifting of the emission was found when ZnSe was deposited on CdTe QDs. The QDs showed its fluorescence emission quantum yields up to 25%. They were applied into chicken embryos and breast muscle tissues to study their efficiency in in vitro imaging. All the QDs of different color were able to visualize in in vitro imaging. The highest fluorescence intensity was detected in the case of red QDs prepared at 100°C. The green and red QDs were possible to detect up to the depth of 3 and 4 mm of the tissue, respectively. PMID:25476270

  2. QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU YunSong; ZHANG AiQian; GAO ChangAn; PENG SuFen; WANG LianSheng

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls con-geners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might he related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.

  3. QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might be related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.

  4. In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, J.E. de; Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der; Linde, I.B. van de; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for compa

  5. CELO病毒与包涵体肝炎%Chicken embryo lethal orphan virus and inclusion body hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤雪; 王云峰

    2005-01-01

    CELO病毒(Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan Virus,CELOV)即鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,属于腺病毒科,禽腺病毒属,鸡腺病毒Ⅰ型,归于腺病毒A群。1954年Yates等人首次报告从鸡胚中分离到一种新病毒,并于1957年命名为鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,简称CELO病毒。由于CELO病毒具有禽腺病毒属各种的主要生物学特性及抗原特性,1982年国际病毒学分类委员会(ICTV)第四次报告把CELO病毒确定为禽腺病毒属的代表种。

  6. Different modes of electrogenic Na+ absorption in the coprodeum of the chicken embryo: role of extracellular Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, M; Krattenmacher, R; Hoffmann, B; Clauss, W

    1991-01-01

    Transepithelial electrogenic Na+ transport (INa) was investigated in the coprodeum of 20-days-old chicken embryos in Ussing chambers. Short circuit current (Isc) and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were 14.7 +/- 4.8 microA.cm-2 (n = 12) and 0.53 +/- 0.09 k omega.cm-2 (n = 12), respectively. INa was calculated from changes in Isc by substitution of mucosal Na+ by (N-methyl-D-glucamine) (NMDG). Isc inversed during Na+ removal, and INa was found to be 27.8 +/- 4.7 microA.cm-2 (n = 12). Amiloride (100 mumol.l-1) inhibited only about 60% of INa. Analysis of Isc fluctuations revealed a Lorentzian component in the power density spectrum with a corner frequency of about 57 Hz. This component was not correlated to INa, and its origin is still unclear. Removal of mucosal Ca2+ increased INa about 2.5-fold due to an increase of the amiloride-insensitive component of INa in additionally investigated adult tissues. The results clearly show that this is due to a non-selective cation channel with an "apparent" order of selectivity Cs+ greater than Na+ = K+ greater than Rb+ greater than Li+. The Ca2+ concentration required to block 50% of the Isc was about 18 mumol.l-1. The IscCa could also be suppressed by other divalent cations such as Mg2+ and Ba2+. Additionally, an INa-linked Lorentzian component occurred which dominated the control spectrum with a significantly higher corner frequency (about 88 Hz). The results indicate that Na+ absorption in the coprodeum of the chicken embryo is more complex than in adult hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1658090

  7. Intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor β superfamily signaling localize to endosomes in chicken embryo and mouse lenses in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Shunsuke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocytosis is a key regulator of growth factor signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the localization to endosomes of intracellular mediators of growth factor signaling may be required for their function. Although there is substantial evidence linking endocytosis and growth factor signaling in cultured cells, there has been little study of the endosomal localization of signaling components in intact tissues or organs. Results Proteins that are downstream of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway were found on endosomes in chicken embryo and postnatal mouse lenses, which depend on signaling by members of the TGFβ superfamily for their normal development. Phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1, pSmad2, Smad4, Smad7, the transcriptional repressors c-Ski and TGIF and the adapter molecules Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA and C184M, localized to EEA-1- and Rab5-positive vesicles in chicken embryo and/or postnatal mouse lenses. pSmad1 and pSmad2 also localized to Rab7-positive late endosomes. Smad7 was found associated with endosomes, but not caveolae. Bmpr1a conditional knock-out lenses showed decreased nuclear and endosomal localization of pSmad1. Many of the effectors in this pathway were distributed differently in vivo from their reported distribution in cultured cells. Conclusion Based on the findings reported here and data from other signaling systems, we suggest that the localization of activated intracellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily to endosomes is important for the regulation of growth factor signaling.

  8. Effect of silver nanoparticles and hydroxyproline, administered in ovo, on the development of blood vessels and cartilage collagen structure in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Iwona; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kutwin, Marta; Jaworski, Sławomir; Chwalibog, André

    2015-01-01

    It has been considered that concentrations of certain amino acids in the egg are not sufficient to fully support embryonic development of modern broilers. In this study we evaluated embryo growth and development with particular emphasis on one of the major components of connective tissue, collagen. Experiments were performed on Ross 308 chicken embryos from 160 fertilised eggs. Experimental solutions of silver nanoparticles (Ag), hydroxyproline solution (Hyp) and a complex of silver nanoparticles with hydroxyproline (AgHyp) were injected into albumen, and embryos were incubated until day 20. An assessment of the mass of embryo and selected organs was carried out followed by measurements of the expression of the key signalling factors' fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Finally, an evaluation of collagen microstructure using scanning electron microscopy was performed. Our results clearly indicate that Hyp, Ag and AgHyp administered in ovo to chicken embryos did not harm embryos. Comparing to the control group, Hyp, Ag and the AgHyp complex significantly upregulated expression of the FGF-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Hyp, Ag and, in particular, the complex of AgHyp significantly increased blood vessel size, cartilage collagen fibre lattice size and bundle thickness. The general conclusion from this study is that AgHyp treatment may help to build a stronger and longer lasting form of collagen fibres. PMID:25530495

  9. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos...... was calculated at an age of 10, 13, 16 and 19 days. Gas exchange was below 10 ml/h for RO and LA by an age of 10-13 days, increasing steeply to a "peak" on day 16 and then slowing down between 16 and 19 days. The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. HE...... followed the pattern of gas exchange, with a mean around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19. The main source of HE was oxidized fat. In addition to respiration experiments chemical analyses were carried out on 60 eggs from RO and 60 from LA. Prior to chemical analyses...

  10. Temperature and CO2 during the hatching phase. II. Effects on chicken embryo physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Anker, van den I.; Molenaar, R.; Pol, van der C.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of eggshell temperature (EST) and carbon dioxide concentration during only the hatching phase on physiological characteristics of embryos and chicks. Three groups of eggs were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until d 19 of incubation (E19). From

  11. [Use of colchicine in studying the proliferative activity of chicken embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V I; El Zajat, M

    1977-07-01

    Manifestation of mitotic activity of colchicin in 4- and 5-day-old chick embryos was studied under different modes of colchicin injection into the eggs. Three methods were tested: colchicin solution was injected into the serous-amniotic cavity (1) and into the yolk sac (2) and also by dripping on the serous membrane over the enbryo (3). Perfect metastatic effect was observed only when colchicin was used in concentration of 1 X 10(-4) g/ml and injected by the third mehtod. Increase in the solution volume over 0.1 ml resulted in a greater percentage of embryo death. Lack of a definite inhibitory action after colchicin injection into the serous-amniotic cavity might be explained by decrease of the substance concentration as a result of its dilution by the cavity fluid. A complete lack of blocked mitoses in the embryo tissues after colchicin injection into the yolk sac can be explained, according to the authors, by the presence, in the yolk, of a great number of ovoflavins capable to inhibit mitotic activity of colchicin.

  12. Evaluation of sildenafil pressurized metered dose inhalers as a vasodilator in umbilical blood vessels of chicken egg embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Hiranphan, Phetai; Laphanayos, Kampanart; Srichana, Teerapol

    2014-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. The delivery of sildenafil directly to the lung could have several advantages over conventional treatments for pulmonary hypertension because of the local delivery, a more rapid onset of response, and reduced side effects. The major problem of sildenafil citrate is its limited solubility in water. Sildenafil citrate was complexed with cyclodextrins (CDs) to enhance its water solubility prior to development as an inhaled preparation. Four sildenafil citrate inhaled formulations were prepared with the aid of HP-β-CD (#1), α-CD (#2) and γ-CD (#3) and their effects were compared with the formulations without CDs (#4). The sildenafil citrate pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) used ethanol as a solvent, PEG400 as a stabilizing agent, sorbitan monooleate as a surfactant and HFA-134a as a propellant. All formulations consisted of sildenafil citrate equivalent to a sildenafil content of 20μg/puff. These products were evaluated according to a standard guideline of inhalation products. Vasodilation testing was performed to investigate the efficacy of sildenafil pMDIs in relieving a vasoconstricted umbilical blood vessel of the chicken egg embryo. The sildenafil contents of the pMDI formulations #1-#3 were within the acceptance criteria (80-120%). The emitted doses (ED) were 102.3±11.5%, the fine particle fractions (FPF) were 60.5±5.6% and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were 2.3±0.3μm. The vasodilatory activity of those formulations reduced umbilical blood pressure by 67.1-73.7% after treatment by intravenous injection whereas only a 50.1-58.0% reduced blood pressure was obtained after direct spraying of the sildenafil pMDI containing CDs. With sildenafil formulations of a pMDI without CD the blood pressure was reduced by only 39.0% (P-valuevessels of chicken egg embryos after spraying sildenafil-CDs pMDIs was

  13. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM increased cell proliferation (6% at 7 days (p 4.92 nM increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30% at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of  Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell proliferation in human cell lines at concentrations higher than 4.92 n

  14. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P slaughter age, TM chickens were 1.4% lighter and exhibited 8% less relative abdominal fat pad than controls. Breast muscle yield was enhanced by TM, especially in females, but without significant change in breast meat characteristics (pH, color, drip loss). Plasma glucose/insulin balance was affected (P 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long term as a possible adaptation for heat tolerance, without affecting breast meat quality. This study highlights the value of 2 new heritable characters involved in thermoregulation for further broiler selection. PMID:23736053

  15. Effect of silver nanoparticles and hydroxyproline, administered in ovo, on the development of blood vessels and cartilage collagen structure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Iwona; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2015-01-01

    It has been considered that concentrations of certain amino acids in the egg are not sufficient to fully support embryonic development of modern broilers. In this study we evaluated embryo growth and development with particular emphasis on one of the major components of connective tissue, collage......, in particular, the complex of AgHyp significantly increased blood vessel size, cartilage collagen fibre lattice size and bundle thickness. The general conclusion from this study is that AgHyp treatment may help to build a stronger and longer lasting form of collagen fibres....... microscopy was performed. Our results clearly indicate that Hyp, Ag and AgHyp administered in ovo to chicken embryos did not harm embryos. Comparing to the control group, Hyp, Ag and the AgHyp complex significantly upregulated expression of the FGF-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Hyp, Ag and...

  16. Growth and Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in the DF-1 Cell Line and Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyaperumal Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs, and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50. The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production.

  17. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  18. Roles of Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 in the inflammatory response to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in DF-1 cells and in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhao, Chengcheng; Hu, Qingchuang; Sun, Jianjun; Peng, Xiuli

    2016-06-01

    While Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen that causes chronic respiratory diseases in chicken, the molecular mechanism of MG infection is not clear. In this study, we investigated the roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and 6 (TLR6) in MG infection. We found that TLR2 type 2 (TLR2-2) and TLR6 had differential expressions in chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1 cells), where TLR6 was highly expressed, but TLR2-2 was barely expressed. Upon MG infection, TLR6 expression was upregulated, followed by upregulation of downstream factors, MyD88, NF-κB, IL2, IL6, and TNF-α. Knockdown of TLR6 expression by shRNA abolished the MG-induced inflammatory responses. More interestingly, in the presence of TLR6, TLR2-2 didn't respond to MG infection in DF-1 cells. When TLR6 was knocked down by shRNA, however, TLR2 was upregulated upon MG infection, which was followed by upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Finally, we tested effects of the MG infection on expression of TLR2-2 and TLR6 in the lungs and trachea tissues of chicken embryos. We found both TLR2-2 and TLR6 were upregulated upon MG infection, followed by upregulation of the downstream NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses. This study was the first to report the differential roles of TLR2-2 and TLR6 in MG-infected DF-1 cells and chicken embryos. PMID:26797426

  19. Sex-dependent gene expression in early brain development of chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigson Michael

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms. Results Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head that may be independent of morphological differentiation of the gonads. Genes located on the sex chromosomes (ZZ in males and ZW in females were common among the differentially expressed genes, several of which (WPKCI-8, HINT, MHM non-coding RNA have previously been implicated in avian sex determination. A majority of the identified genes were more highly expressed in males. Three of these genes (CDK7, CCNH and BTF2-P44 encode subunits of the transcription factor IIH complex, indicating a role for this complex in neuronal differentiation. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into sexually dimorphic gene expression in the embryonic chicken brain and its possible involvement in sex differentiation of the nervous system in birds.

  20. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and ATP on expression of chosen genes involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane; Hotowy, Anna; Jaworski, Sławomir; Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we hypothesised that silver nanoparticles could be used as a protective carrier for ATP as well as an active agent. ATP and/or an ATP complex with Nano-Ag would be delivered to the muscle cells as a gene expression regulator and promoter of growth and development of embryo breast muscle. A collection of 160 broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPase (ATP1A1), which may indicate that an extra energy source can enhance molecular mechanisms of muscle cell proliferation. Nano-Ag also up-regulated expression of FGF2, VEGF, ATP1A1 and, also up-regulated expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD1), affecting cell differentiation. The results indicate that ATP and Nano-Ag may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. PMID:23952606

  1. Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN-α).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Efstathios S; Robey, Rebecca C; Skinner, Natalie G; Tomlinson, Christopher D; Goodbourn, Stephen; Skinner, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Viruses that infect birds pose major threats-to the global supply of chicken, the major, universally-acceptable meat, and as zoonotic agents (e.g. avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9). Controlling these viruses in birds as well as understanding their emergence into, and transmission amongst, humans will require considerable ingenuity and understanding of how different species defend themselves. The type I interferon-coordinated response constitutes the major antiviral innate defence. Although interferon was discovered in chicken cells, details of the response, particularly the identity of hundreds of stimulated genes, are far better described in mammals. Viruses induce interferon-stimulated genes but they also regulate the expression of many hundreds of cellular metabolic and structural genes to facilitate their replication. This study focusses on the potentially anti-viral genes by identifying those induced just by interferon in primary chick embryo fibroblasts. Three transcriptomic technologies were exploited: RNA-seq, a classical 3'-biased chicken microarray and a high density, "sense target", whole transcriptome chicken microarray, with each recognising 120-150 regulated genes (curated for duplication and incorrect assignment of some microarray probesets). Overall, the results are considered robust because 128 of the compiled, curated list of 193 regulated genes were detected by two, or more, of the technologies.

  2. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction

  3. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhat, Amani [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Buick, Julie K.; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.; O' Brien, Jason M. [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L.; Chiu, Suzanne [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction.

  4. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  5. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  6. Changes in strain and blood flow in the outflow tract of chicken embryo hearts observed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenhe; Du, Linlin; Wang, Qiaoyun; Chu, Zhongdi; Zang, Xuan; Wang, Fengwen; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the use of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in visualizing and quantifying changes in cardiac wall strain and blood-flow velocities under normal and altered hemodynamic conditions in chicken embryos at an early stage of development, focusing on the heart outflow tract (OFT). OCT imaging allowed in vivo evaluation strain and strain rate of the myocardium of the OFT through analyzing the periodic variation of the myocardial wall thickness. We found that alterations in hemodynamic conditions, through OFT banding, Changed strain and blood-flow velocities through the OFT as expected.

  7. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage

  8. Chemical characterization of a polar portion in the neutral fraction derived from airborne particulate extracts responsible for the embryotoxicity in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected with a high-volume air sampler between June 1984 and May 1985 on the roof top of the authors institute. The tar material extracted was separated into six fractions by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were then tested for their embryotoxicities by a chicken embryo assay. A moderately polar fraction per weight and a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the greatest toxicity for chicken embryos. When the polar fraction was purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the purified fraction was 3.7 times more toxic than the original polar fraction. To determine the responsible components for the toxicity, the purified fraction as well as the original fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characterized components were classified into oxygenated PAHs (containing ketones, quinones, and aldehydes), nitrogen-containing PAHS, diphenyl-substituted aliphatic ketones (or diketones), and esters of aliphatic acids.

  9. Viral proliferation and expression of tumor-related gene in different chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with different tumorigenic phenotypes of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yajin; Liu, Litao; Niu, Yujuan; Qu, Yue; Li, Ning; Sun, Wei; Lv, Chuanwei; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Guihua; Liu, Sidang

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induced formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. To identify the molecular pathological mechanism underlying changes in host susceptibility and tumor classification induced by these two types of ALV-J strains, chicken embryo fibroblasts derived from chickens with different genetic backgrounds (broiler breeders and laying hens) and an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) were prepared and infected with strain NX0101 or HN10PY01, respectively. The 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and levels of ALV group-specific antigen p27 and heat shock protein 70 in the supernatant collected from the ALV-J infected cells were detected. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of tumor-related genes p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 in ALV-J-infected cells were quantified. The results indicated that the infection of ALV-J could significantly increase mRNA expression levels of p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 Strain HN10PY01 exhibited a greater influence on the three tumor-related genes in each of the three types of cells when compared with strain NX0101, and the TCID50 and p27 levels in the supernatant collected from HN10PY01-infected cells were higher than those collected from NX0101-infected cells. These results indicate that the infection of the two ALV-J strains influenced the gene expression levels in the infected cells, while the newly isolated strain HN10PY01 showed higher replication ability in cells and induced higher expression levels of tumor-related genes in infected cells. Furthermore, virus titers and expression levels of tumor-related genes and cellular stress responses of cells with different genetic backgrounds when infected with each of the two ALV-J strain were different

  10. Viral proliferation and expression of tumor-related gene in different chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with different tumorigenic phenotypes of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yajin; Liu, Litao; Niu, Yujuan; Qu, Yue; Li, Ning; Sun, Wei; Lv, Chuanwei; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Guihua; Liu, Sidang

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induced formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. To identify the molecular pathological mechanism underlying changes in host susceptibility and tumor classification induced by these two types of ALV-J strains, chicken embryo fibroblasts derived from chickens with different genetic backgrounds (broiler breeders and laying hens) and an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) were prepared and infected with strain NX0101 or HN10PY01, respectively. The 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and levels of ALV group-specific antigen p27 and heat shock protein 70 in the supernatant collected from the ALV-J infected cells were detected. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of tumor-related genes p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 in ALV-J-infected cells were quantified. The results indicated that the infection of ALV-J could significantly increase mRNA expression levels of p53, c-myc, and Bcl-2 Strain HN10PY01 exhibited a greater influence on the three tumor-related genes in each of the three types of cells when compared with strain NX0101, and the TCID50 and p27 levels in the supernatant collected from HN10PY01-infected cells were higher than those collected from NX0101-infected cells. These results indicate that the infection of the two ALV-J strains influenced the gene expression levels in the infected cells, while the newly isolated strain HN10PY01 showed higher replication ability in cells and induced higher expression levels of tumor-related genes in infected cells. Furthermore, virus titers and expression levels of tumor-related genes and cellular stress responses of cells with different genetic backgrounds when infected with each of the two ALV-J strain were different

  11. Study on Injection of Zedoary Turmeric Volatile Oil against Newcastle Disease Virus in SPF Chicken Embryo Inoculation%莪术油注射液鸡胚接种抗新城疫病毒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学理; 鄢长庆; 刘珂飞; 杨明; 杨明霞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the inhibiting and killing effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the newcastle disease virus. [ Method] The inhibitory effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the multiplication of the newcastle disease virus was determined by the SPF chicken embryo culture and hemagglutination test. [ Result] The zedoary turmeric volatile oil had no toxicity effect on the SPF chicken embryo. Inoculating SPF chicken embryo synchronously with the zedoary turmeric volatile oil and the virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit the reproduction of the newcastle disease virus in the SPF chicken embryo. [Conclusion] The study provided the theoretical basis for the application of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil in the Veterinary Clinical.%[目的]探讨莪术油对新城疫病毒的抑制和杀灭作用.[方法]用鸡胚培养法和血凝试验,测定莪术油对鸡新城疫病毒增殖的抑制作用.[结果]莪术油对鸡胚无毒性作用;莪术油与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城疫病毒在鸡胚中的增殖.[结论]结果为莪术油在兽医临床上的应用提供了理论依据.

  12. 不同酶酶解鸡胚蛋白工艺比较研究%Comparative Studies of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Chicken Embryo Protein by Different Proteases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琼; 张培正; 高伟; 孙合美

    2011-01-01

    以鸡胚蛋白为底物,通过单因素及正交试验,确定菠萝蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶对鸡胚蛋白水解的最佳工艺。结果表明:菠萝蛋白酶酶解鸡胚蛋白最佳工艺条件为底物质量分数6%、酶解温度55℃、pH5、酶解时间6h、酶与底物质量比([E/S])为1.5%,水解度可达45.53%;胰蛋白酶酶解鸡胚蛋白最佳工艺条件为底物质量分数6%、酶解温度55℃、pH5、酶解时间6h、酶与底物质量比([E/S])为1.5%,水解度可达38.17%。菠萝蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶在最佳水解条件下水解度分别为45.53%、38.17%,可溶性蛋白含量分别为20.15、22.69mg/mL,多肽含量分别为62.55、50.26mg/mL。菠萝蛋白酶比胰蛋白酶更适宜酶解鸡胚蛋白。%The optimal process conditions for hydrolyzing chicken embryo protein by trypsin or bromelain were determined using one-factor-at-a-time combined with orthogonal array design method. Under the optimal process conditions, the degree of hydrolysis of chicken embryo protein by trypsin and bromelain were 45.53% and 38.17%, and the resulting hydrolyates contained 20.15 mg/mL and 22.69 mg/mL soluble protein and 62.55 mg/mL and 50.26 mg/mL polypeptides, respectively. These results demonstrate that bromelain is more suitable to hydrolyze chicken embryo protein than trypsin.

  13. The opisthonephric blood vascular system of the chicken embryo as studied by scanning electron microscopy of microvascular corrosion casts and critical point dried preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, H; Splechtna, H

    1989-06-01

    Microvascular corrosion casts of chicken embryos between four and 19 days after fertilization have been prepared. The developing kidney was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The injection technique and resin composition were modified in order to facilitate the complete replication of native blood vascular systems of specimens as small as 15 mm body length. The development of the opisthonephros was followed from near the beginning of its function until a vascular development comparable to the adult situation was reached. Critical point dried glomeruli show the differentiation of the glomerular visceral epithelium (podocytes) from initially epithelioid to highly branched forms. The embryonic kidney (cranial part of the opisthonephros-mesonephros) shows a construction-principle resembling amphibians that is entirely different from the definitive excretory organ (caudal part of the opisthonephros-metanephros). PMID:2814402

  14. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  15. Femoral hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 18 patients with femoral hernia assessed by herniography is presented. Although a palpable lump was present in 11 patients (61%), the diagnosis of a femoral hernia was not made before herniography. Surgical exploration was performed in 12 patients and a femoral hernia was found and repaired with beneficial outcome in 9 of them. In conclusion: herniography is of value for the diagnosis of a femoral hernia in patients with obscure groin pain. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression....... jejuni strains are capable of invading the CEICs and stimulate these cells in a pro-inflammatory manner and during this interaction the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes ciaB, dnaJ and racR is increased. Furthermore, incubation of bacteria with conditioned cell- and bacteria......-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s) secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under...

  17. 贝氏隐孢子虫鸡胚培养方法研究%Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts cultured in chicken embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 张云; 张素梅; 菅复春; 宁长申; 张龙现

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a the chicken embryo culture method acquiring a large number of Cryplosporidium baileyi oocysts for anti-Cryptosporidium drug screening and its vitro culture, in which some conditions containing the effect of temperature, inoculum dose, excystation and recovery time were considered. The 9-day-old chicken embryos were innoculated with 3×105 oocysts in allantoic cavity and incubated for a further 168 hours at 37℃, 38℃ and 40℃ , respectively, in which the number of reproduction of oocysts was not significant different(P>0. 05). Innoculated with 3×105 oocysts the reproduction rates of oocysts was similar compared with innoculated with 1×106oocysts(P>0. 05) and innoculated with 3 ×105 oocysts treated by 0. 75% synthetic sodium taurocholate the number of reproduction of oocysts was not significant different compared with innoculated with 3×105 oocysts treated by 0. 75% synthetic sodium taurocholate(P>0. 05). But the number of reproduction of oocysts incubated for a further 168h was more than incubated for a further 144h and 192h(P<0. 05). The conclusions were that recovery time was vital factor in collecting more C. Baileyi oocysts. Oocysts excystation was unnecessary and it was suitable that chicken embryos innoculate with 3×105 oocysts at 40℃.%目的 建立能稳定获得大量贝氏隐孢子虫(Cryptosporidium baileyi)卵囊的鸡胚培养方法,应用于抗隐孢子虫药物筛选和C.baileyi体外传代培养研究.方法 研究鸡胚培养温度、卵囊接种量、卵囊脱囊处理和卵囊回收时间对C.baileyi卵囊在鸡胚中增殖量的影响.结果 C.baileyi卵囊经尿囊腔接种9日龄鸡胚后在37 ℃、38 ℃、40 ℃条件下培养168 h,各组鸡胚尿囊液中卵囊量差异不显著(P>0.05),但随着培养温度升高卵囊增殖量呈增加趋势.卵囊接种量分别为3.0×105个/枚和1.0×106个/枚,鸡胚40 ℃培养168 h,尿囊液中卵囊增殖倍数差异不显著(P>0.05).

  18. Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Marek’s Disease Vaccines Derived from Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Dhanutha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the endogenous ALVs in cell associated MD vaccine. Chicken embryo fibroblast cell associated Marek’s disease vaccine was tested for possible contamination with Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs. Initially the vaccine cell lysate was tested for presence of group specific antigen (p27 of ALVs by ELISA and found positive for GSA. Subsequently total DNA and RNA was isolated from vaccine CEFs and analyzed by PCR and RT-PCR using primers specific for ALV subgroups A-E and J. Subgroup specific PCR and RT-PCR revealed that the CEFs were positive for ALV-E and negative for all other exogenous ALV subgroups (ALV-A, B, C, D and J. Envelope gp85 gene sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the ALV sequences found in CEFs of MD vaccine were belongs to endogenous ALV-E. Further this sequence has high homology with endogenous loci ev-1, ev-3 and ev-6. Amplification of genomic DNA with endogenous virus locus specific primers revealed that the CEFs of MD vaccine possess ev-1 and ev-6 and negative for ev-3, ev-9 and ev-21. In conclusion, the data in this study clearly demonstrated that the cell associated commercial MD vaccine tested was contaminated with an endogenous subgroup E and also possess ev-loci such as ev1 and ev-6.

  19. The constitutive activation of the CEF-4/9E3 chemokine gene depends on C/EBPbeta in v-src transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagliardi, M; Maynard, S; Bojovic, B;

    2001-01-01

    The CEF-4/9E3 chemokine gene is expressed constitutively in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) transformed by the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). This aberrant induction is controlled at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Transcriptional activation depends on multiple elements of the CEF......-4 promoter composing a Src-responsive-Unit or SRU. The SRU includes a TPA responsive element, a PRDII/kappaB domain and a CAAT box. In this report, we identify C/EBPbeta as a component of the trans-acting factor interacting with the CAAT box of the CEF-4 promoter. In addition, we show that C....../EBPbeta (designated Delta184-C/EBPbeta) in RSV-transformed CEF. Delta184-C/EBPbeta decreased the accumulation of the CEF-4 mRNA and activation of the CEF-4 promoter by pp60(v-src). The induction of the Cox-2 gene (CEF-147) was also reduced by Delta184-C/EBPbeta. The effect of the dominant negative mutant was observed...

  20. Establishment of chicken embryo culture system and in vivo electroporation methods%鸡胚培养及活体电转基因方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慈清; 毛会丽; 林俊堂

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立和优化鸡胚胎带壳培养(in ovo culture)、去壳培养(ex ovo culture)和活体原位电转基因(in vivo electroporation)等技术.方法 鸡胚孵化第2~3天,带壳培养至2~3 d和去壳培养至5~6d,分别在脊髓和大脑视顶部位,在电压18V、电流60mA、间隔90ms和电脉冲6次(60ms/次)的条件下进行定时定位活体电转基因.结果 带壳和去壳培养样本数分别为20个和10个,成活率分别是85%和80%,胚胎发育至2~3 d和5~6 d在脊髓和视顶部位转染样本数分别为11个和10个,阳性表达率为54.5%和60%.结论 成功建立和优化了鸡胚培养和活体定时定位电转基因的方法.%Objective To establish the methods of in ovo and ex mo culture of chicken embryo as well as in vivo electroporation. Methods Fertile eggs were incubated for two to three days(E2-E3) , and in ovo electroporation in spinal cord at E2-E3, and ex ovo electroporation in the tectum of brain at E5-E6 for spatial and temporal gene transformation with the parameter such as volt 18V, current 60mA, pause 90ms, and pulse 60ms for six times were carried out. Results The number of samples were 20 eggs for in ovo culture and 10 eggs for ex ovo culture. The survival rate of the embryos at E2-E3 was 85% for in ovo culture and 80% for ex ovo culture. The number of samples were 11 in spinal cord at E2-E3 (in mo electroporation) and 10 in brain tectum at E5-E6 (ex ovo electroporation). The positive electroporation rate was 54.5% in spinal cord at E2-E3 (in ovo) and 60% in brain tectum at E5-E6 (ex ovo). Conclusion The methods of in ovo and ex ovo culture of chicken embryos and in vivo electroporation are established successfully.

  1. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-catenin on the livers of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Farivar, Shirin; Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh

    2011-09-01

    Reports have demonstrated occurrences of abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development due to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article was designed to investigate the effects of sinusoidal EMF on the histopathology, apoptosis, and expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes of the livers of preincubated White Leghorn chicken embryos, based on our published experiments. 300 healthy, fresh fertilized eggs were divided into control (n = 70), sham (n = 70), and four experimental (1-4,days 13, 14, 5, and 19, n = 40) groups. Experimental eggs were exposed to the most effective intensity in a coil with 7.32 mT density, and sham groups were also located in the same coil with no exposure, both for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were then incubated in an incubator (37°C, humidity 60%) for 13,14,15, and 19 days. Livers of 13-15 and 19 day-old chicken embryos were removed by C-section and fixed in formalin (10%), stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and TUNEL for histopathological and apoptosis studies. Others were used for investigating c-Fos and β-Catenin expressions, using RT-PCR. Results showed extensive hemorrhages all over the chicken embryos' bodies and livers, more lymphoid tissues, disturbed parenchymal tissues, sinusoid denaturation, vesiculizad cytoplasm, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and a decrease on the levels of expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes in experimental groups of 1-4, comparing control and sham groups.

  2. Expression of Sex-Related Genes in Chicken Embryos During Male-to-Female Sex Reversal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Li-xiu; XIN Rui; CHE Yi; XU Shi-qing

    2013-01-01

    Sex emerges out of a delicate dance between a variety of promale, anti-male, and possibly profemale genes. To investigate the role that sex-related genes play in sex determination and gonadal differentiation of fowl, we constructed a male-to-female sex-reversal model of chick induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) at onset of incubation (E0). The results of semi-quantitative PCR showed that the expression of Sf1, the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 gene, was put forward from E7d to E5d and up-regulated during E5-7d;the Dmrt1, the double sex and the Mab-3 related to transcription factor 1 gene, was down-regulated during E3-7d. Meanwhile, anti-Müllerian hormone gene (Amh) expressed at a similar level in the genetic females and sex-reversal females before E7d, while no expression products of the three female-specific genes Wpkci, Fet1 and Foxl2 were detected in male-to-female embryos. These findings suggest that the expression of some certain sex-related genes, induced by the exogenous estrogen during period of sex determination and gonadal differentiation, results in the male-to-female sex reversal. Moreover, high activity of Sf1 gene during E5-7d might be related to the profemale process, while low activity of Dmrt1 gene during E3-5d might be anti-male. The expression activity of Amh gene might only contribute to the promale process after E7d, however, it is possibly not an anti-female gene in chick embryos.

  3. Detection of CD2 expression in chicken hematogenic embryo yolk sac lymphoid cells prior to thymus genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyu Zhou; Jigui Wang; Weiquan Liu; Rongxiu Liu; Yuehu Pei

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoid mononuclear cells from chick embryos at stage 16 were collected prior to fetal liver and thymus genesis to study the differentiation and function of the hematogenic yolk sac and to detect whether CD2 occurs on the surface of lymphoid mononuclear cells.The phenotype and functional activity of the cell surface protein E receptor and the ultrastructure of embryonic E+ cells were compared with those of mature T cells.Our results indicate 99.36% homology between the E receptors of embryonic lymphocytes and mature T cells.Other similarities,including molecular distribution,motivation,the ability to form an erythrocyte rosette,the structure of the receptor-ligand complex,and the conformation of the signal channel,were detected between embryonic lymphocytes and mature CD2-expressing T cells.These results indicate that CD2 is already expressed prior to fetal fiver and thymus genesis and that its expression is not dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  4. In vitro microarray analysis identifies genes in acute-phase response pathways that are down-regulated in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason M; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) is one of the most highly detected perfluoroalkyl compounds in wild bird tissues and eggs. Although PFUdA does not affect hatching success, many PFCs are known to impair post-hatch development and survival. Here we use microarrays to survey the transcriptional response of cultured chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH) to PFUdA for potential targets of PFUdA action that could lead to developmental deficiencies in exposed birds. At 1 μM and 10 μM PFUdA significantly altered the expression of 346 and 676 transcripts, respectively (fold-change>1.5, pfgg), thrombin (f2), plasminogen (plg), and protein C (proC), in the liver of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to PFUdA. The expression of fga, f2, and proC were down-regulated in embryo livers (100 or 1000 ng/g, pfgg) was up-regulated and plg was not significantly affected. Our results demonstrate the utility of CEH coupled with transcriptome analysis as an in vitro screening tool for identifying novel effects of toxicant exposure. Additionally, we identified APR suppression as a potentially important and environmentally relevant target of PFUdA. These findings suggest in ovo exposure of birds to PFUdA may lead to post-hatch developmental deficiencies, such as impaired inflammatory response.

  5. Development of a SYBR green real-time qPCR assay for detection of Cryptospo- ridium baileyi cultured in chicken embryo%Real-timeqPCR检测鸡胚中贝氏隐孢子虫方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 张素梅; 张云; 赵青玉; 宁长申; 张龙现

    2012-01-01

    为检测鸡胚中贝氏隐孢子虫,本研究根据GenBank公布的贝氏隐孢子虫和原鸡18SrRNA基因序列设计针对贝氏隐孢子虫的特异性引物,并以贝氏隐孢子虫卵囊基因组DNA为模板,建立检测贝氏隐孢子虫SYBRGreen实时荧光定量PCR(Real—timeqPCR)方法,同时对贝氏隐孢子虫在鸡胚中培养7d后尿囊膜和尿囊液样品中虫体DNA进行检测。结果表明,建立的SYBRGreenreal—timeqPCR方法可特异性检测到贝氏隐孢子虫,建立的标准曲线线性关系良好(R2=0.998),卵囊基因组DNA检测阈值为10个卵囊,重复检测结果显示试验重现性较好。该方法成功检测到尿囊膜和尿囊液中虫体DNA。本研究建立了快速、特异的定量检测鸡胚中贝氏隐孢子虫real—timeqPCR方法,可用于对贝氏隐孢子虫在鸡胚中繁殖规律分析和抗隐孢子虫药物筛选等研究。%In order to detect Cryptosporidium baileyi in chicken embryo,real-time qPCR method was established with primers designed according C. baileyi and chicken 18S rRNA gene from Gen- Bank. This method was validated on chorioallantoic membrane and allantoic fluid samples which were collected at 7 d after C. baileyi oocysts were innoculated. The results showed that amplifica- tion of DNA from C. baileyi oocyst were detected and cells of chorioallantoic membrane were not. Standard curves of real-time qPCR was precise (R2 =0. 998). The sensitivity of the assay was 10 oocysts in PBS. In summary, a rapid and specific real-time qPCR method for the detection of C. baileyi in chicken embryo samples has been developed,which could be served as a valuable tool for evaluating reproduction and assessing potential drug against C. baileyi cultured in chicken embryo.

  6. 鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎性别的DNA分子鉴定%DNA Molecular Sex Identification for Chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail (Coturnix coturnix) Hybrids Early Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炜; 范丽娜; 翟曼君; 赵宗胜; 李青峰; 梁耀伟; 米拉

    2013-01-01

    According to our previous research, there was an obvious relationship between the early death of chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail(Cotumix cotunux) hybrids and sex differentiation. Meanwhile, current widespread adapted methods to indentify sex differentiation stayed at RNA level, experimental steps complicated and easy to make mistakes, and RNA samples, which are needed to be measured, was quite difficult to preserved longer, but could not be simply employed. So it is necessary to find a more simple and accurate way to identify the early embryo's sexing. In this study, there were two sections for CHD (chromobox-helicase-DNA binding) gene DNA level sex determination, at first,a total of 116 chicken-quail hybrid embryos at different incubate stages (2.5~5 d) was treated as experiment group and 10 mg embryonic organs were used to DNA extraction; then the DNA extraction from blood of 60 sex-known quails (male and female were half-and-half) was regarded as control. Wpkci (W-linked protein kinase C inhibitor) for mRNA level was known as a mature method to identify sexing, and then it is used to check the result of embryos' sex determination in our research. The result showed that CHD 2550F/2718R could identify the sex of chicken-quail hybrid embryos accurately. The amplication size of male embryo tissues was 613 bp and two bands in female were 613 and 446 bp, respectively. The experimental results provide basic data for the chicken-quail hybrids sex determination mechanism.%鸡(Gallus gallus)与鹌鹑(Coturnix coturnix)属间杂交胚胎早期死亡与性别分化存在着一定的关系,寻找简单、准确的早期胚胎性别鉴定方法是深入研究其死亡分子机制的前提.本实验室前期使用Wpkci引物从mRNA水平对早期胚胎进行准确的性别鉴定,而RNA提取对样品质量要求较高,鉴定程序较复杂.因此需要建立更加简单快捷的方法,对鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎进行准确性别鉴定.本

  7. Desenvolvimento folicular de embriões de frangos de corte de diferentes genótipos expostos ao estresse térmico crônico Folicular development of chicken broiler embryos of different genotypes, exposed to chronic thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Dahlke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as alterações tegumentares (morfogênese da pena, em embriões de frangos de corte de linhagens de diferentes padrões de crescimento, obtidos de ovos incubados sob diferentes temperaturas. Os ovos foram obtidos de matrizes das linhagens Cobb 500 e ISA JA57, distribuídos proporcionalmente em três incubadoras. Do primeiro (D1 ao sexto dia (D6 de incubação, utilizou-se uma temperatura padrão (37,8°C. A partir do sétimo dia (D7 e até o momento do nascimento aos 21 dias (D21, uma das incubadoras teve a temperatura reduzida para 36,8°C (fria e uma outra alterada para 38,8°C (quente. A terceira incubadora foi mantida a 37,8°C (controle. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (temperatura de incubação e linhagem. A temperatura de incubação e a linhagem não alteraram a densidade dos folículos da pena (número médio de folículos por área de 337,5µm² nas regiões femural e dorsopélvica dos embriões até os 11 dias (D11. Entretanto, observou-se aumento na densidade folicular na região dorsal dos embriões aos 16 dias (D16 devido ao aumento da temperatura, permanecendo até o momento do nascimento. É possível oncluirque embriões incubados em temperatura acima da recomendada (38,8°C apresentam uma maior densidade de folículos na região dorsopélvica. Apesar disso, a morfogênese dos folículos permaneceu inalterada.The objective of this research was to evaluate the tegument modification (feather morphogenesis in embryos of broiler chicken, of different growth standard breeder lines, obtained from eggs incubated under different temperatures. Eggs of Cobb 500 and ISA JA57 breeders lines, were proportionally distributed in three incubators. From the first (D1 to the sixth day (D6 of incubation, temperature was maintained standard at 37.8°C. From the seventh day (D7 until the moment of the birth on the twenty one days (D21, temperature was reduced to 36

  8. Quality assessment of report gene green fluorescence protein in chicken embryo in vivo electroporation%鸡胚活体原位电转基因技术报告基因绿色荧光蛋白质量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慈清; 毛会丽; 郭志坤; 林俊堂

    2012-01-01

    Objective The method of in vivo electroporation has been set up successfully and we further analyzed the effect of report gene green fluorescence protein(GFP) on the morphology of developing chicken embryos after in vivo electrop oration , and also analyzed the expression of ct-smooth muscle actin y (α-SMA) and neurofilament during chicken embryonic development. Methods pCAGGS-GFP was transformed into chicken embryos with in ovo culture at 3days and ex ovo culture at 3-5days. In 24hours after in vivo electroporation, GFP-positive embryos were selected under stereo fluorescence microscope, and the GFP-negative embryos served as controls. Five embryos were analayzed for each group, r luorescence immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the expression of α-SMA and neuroiilament in chicken spinal cord and tectum. Results At different stages of chicken embryos and different time after in vivo electroporation, the expression of a-smooth muscle actin and neurofilament did not show difference in experimental group and wild type, as well as in GFP-positive area and GFP-negative area. The morphology of embryos was not changed after electroporation with pCAGGS-GFP either. Conclusion GFP as a report gene to in vivo electroporation for chicken embryos does not affect the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and neurofilament, as well as no effect on the morphology of chicken embryos, so GFP can well serve as a report gene for chicken embryo in vivo electroporation.%目的 在成功建立鸡胚活体原位电转基因技术的基础上,探讨报告基因绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)的表达及其在鸡胚发育过程对胚胎形态结构影响,分析α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-SMA)和神经丝蛋白(NF)的表达情况.方法 活体原位电转基因技术将pCAGGS-GFP质粒转入带壳培养第3天和第3天去壳培养至第5天的鸡胚,在电转基因24h后荧光体视显微镜观察,选择对照组和阳性表达胚胎,每组各5个胚胎,冷冻切片后进行荧光免疫

  9. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Egloff, Caroline; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  10. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  11. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  12. 微量全血PCR技术鉴定雏鸡及鸡胚性别%Sex Identification with Direct Whole Blood PCR Amplification in Chicklings and Chicken Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治利; 秦清明; 施振旦; 陈海南; 黄群山

    2012-01-01

    为了便于常规PCR技术在鸡性别鉴定上的推广和应用,本研究以成年家鸡全血为模板,应用常规PCR反应缓冲液和Tap DNA聚合酶直接进行PCR扩增,对50μL PCR反应体系中的血样(0.05~4.0 μL)和Tap DNA聚合酶的使用量(0.05~1.5 uL),以及循环次数(30~40)进行了优化,在此基础上对血样的抗凝剂和保存温度进行了探讨,并对62只1日龄雏鸡、80枚12日龄和80枚16日龄鸡胚的血样直接PCR进行了性别鉴定.结果表明,采集血样时可以使用ACD、肝素或EDTA作为抗凝剂,血样可以在4、-20或-80℃至少保存3个月;使用0.1μL全血就能完成雏鸡和鸡胚性别鉴定,全血PCR鉴定性别与性腺性别的符合度为100%.与常规PCR相比,全血PCR节约了检测成本,提高了检测效率,减少了交叉污染可能.%For facilitation of conventional PCR technology to identify chicken sex, this study took the whole blood of adult chicks as a sample by the conventional PCR reaction mix and Tap DNA polymerase for direct PCR amplification, optimization was conducted in adult chicken whole blood (from 0. 05 to 4. 0 μL) , Tap DNA polymerase (from 0. 05 to 1. 5 μL) and cycle number (from 30 to 40) in 50 μL direct PCR amplification system. Anti-coagulant selection and storage temperature of blood sample were evaluated, sex was identified with direct whole blood PCR amplification and compared with gonadal sex in 62 of 1-day-old chicklings, 80 of 12-day-old and 80 of 16-day-old chicken embryos, respectively. The results showed that sex identification with direct PCR amplification with 0. 1 μL whole blood sample was fully consistent with the gonadal sex, therefore it was accuracy in chicklings and chicken embryos. ACD, heparin or DETA could be adopted as anticoagulant and blood samples could be stored at 4, -20 or -80 ℃ for 3 months at least. Compared with conventional PCR, the direct whole blood PCR could be economic, efficient and low possible of cross-contamination.

  13. 转基因DT40细胞导入早期鸡胚后的分布及绿色荧光蛋白表达的研究%The Distribution and Green Fluorescent Protein Expression of Transfected Chicken DT40 Cells after Transplanted into Early Chicken Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 赵晨; 燕丽; 靳文静; 张文新; 李赞东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the genetically modified somatic cells can survive and express foreign gene for a long time after being transplanted into avian embryo. Methods Chicken DT40 cells as a cell vehicle for delivering foreign protein were transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, and were introduced into early chicken embryos via blood vessel microinjection at 65 - 70 h of incubation at 38. 5 ℃.. The manipulated eggs were continued to incubate at same condition. The chimerisms of the transplanted DT40 cells were preliminarily observed under fluorescence microscopy at the different stages in the embryos and the hatchlings. Meanwhile, the chimeric positions of the donor DT40 cells and the expression of GFP were further examined by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Results The results showed that fluorescent-labeled DT40 cells embed in the different organs of the recipients including brain, heart, liver, etc. And can survive before chicken hatch and the GFP gene can be expressed normally. Conclusion Long-term survival of the donor DT40 cells in recipient and normal expression of the GFP gene imply that this approach can be explored for continuous production of target protein in the host chicken, which may provide a basis for avian immune tolerance research and the production of bioreactor.%目的 为了研究经过基因修饰的体细胞导入到禽类胚胎以后,供体细胞及外源基因是否能在受体胚胎中成活并且外源基因是否可以长期表达.方法 筛选得到稳定整合绿色荧光蛋白基因的鸡DT40细胞作为外源蛋白的运载工具,通过血管微注射的方法将其导入到于38.5℃温度条件下孵化65~70 h的鸡胚中,并将操作后的鸡胚在原孵化条件下继续孵化.在孵化的不同时期取移植了DT40细胞的嵌合体胚胎在荧光显微镜下观察荧光细胞的存活与分布情况.并通过PCR以及免疫组织化学方法检测供体细胞在受

  14. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  15. 贝氏隐孢子虫鸡胚和雏鸡增殖模型筛选抗隐孢子虫药物试验%Evaluation of curative anticryptosporidial activity of four kinds of potential drugs in chick embryo and chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素梅; 赵金凤; 黄磊; 张龙现; 宁长申; 菅复春; 齐萌; 王俊霞; 李寒松

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effect of oocyst multiplication and pathogenicity of Cryplosporidium baileyi derived from chicken in chick embryo and chicken by compound sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfadimidine, diclazuril and azithromycin,the anticryptosporidial activity of these potential drugs were observed in chick embryo and chicken infected artificially with C. baileyi oocyst from chicken. The develepment of chick embryo and Cryptosporidium baileyi were both evaluated,and the number of oocysts in chick embryo were counted. In addition, main clinical symptoms of cough,sneezing,dyspnea, pattern of shedding oocysts, weight gains, morbidity and mortality in chicken infected with the oocysts were observed. The results showed that the number of oocysts in chick embryo treated with compound sulfame-thoxydiazine, sulfadimidine, diclazuril and azithromycin in comparison to control were 15.O5 %, 88. 71 %,77.42 % and 68.82 %, respectively. Moreover, compound sulfamethoxydiazine can reduce morbidity ( 20 % ), mortality ( 13.13 %)and clinical signs of respiratory tract disease observed in chickens orally inoculated 40 × 101 oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi at 4 days of age (30 chickens/group). It was also found that the intensity of oocyst discharge from chickens in treated group with compound sulfamethoxydiazine was lower than that in untreated group. Sulfamethoxydiazine may be recommended in the prevention of avian cryptosporidiosis,as the compound is administered continuously in an adapted dose.%为探讨复方磺胺对甲氧嘧啶、磺胺二甲基嘧啶、地克珠利和阿奇霉素4种药物对鸡胚和雏鸡人工感染模型中鸡源贝氏隐孢子虫的作用,筛选有效防治隐孢子虫药物,采用鸡胚培养和人工感染雏鸡模型,分别以各组鸡胚发育状况、鸡胚中卵囊量、雏鸡精神状态、排卵囊规律、体质量变化、发病率、死亡率等为观察指标,考察这4种药物对隐孢子虫的作用.结果显示,使用复

  16. Proliferation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts%传染性法氏囊病病毒在鸡胚成纤维细胞中的增殖规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小楠; 张焕容

    2014-01-01

    为建立传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)弱毒鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)感染模型,用10日龄鸡胚制备原代 CEF,经过继代培养制备继1代 CEF,接种 IBDV 弱毒后观察细胞病变情况,采用 SYBR Green Ⅰ实时荧光定量反转录 PCR(qRT-PCR)方法检测 IBDV 在继1代 CEF 中病毒拷贝数并绘制病毒增殖曲线。结果显示,IBDV 接种继1代 CEF 后,36 h 开始出现细胞病变,60 h 时出现明显的细胞病变,表现为细胞间隙增宽,细胞变圆聚集和细胞大量脱落。荧光定量 RT-PCR 检测感染 CEF 12、24、36、48、60、72、96、120、156 h的病毒培养液,结果显示病毒拷贝数分别为1.70×107、3.72×107、7.41×107、1.20×108、4.80×107、1.51×107、9.33×106、7.76×106和2.24×106 copies/μL,其中 CEF 感染 IBDV 48 h 时病毒拷贝数最高。结果表明,成功建立了 IBDV 弱毒 CEF 感染模型,为进一步研究 IBDV 的致病机理、病毒与细胞的相互作用以及疫苗研究奠定了基础。%The aim of the study was to establish an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV )infection model in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF).CEF were prepared with 10-day old chicken embryo and passaged once.The cytopathic effect (CPE)of IBDV in once-passaged CEF was observed and the dynamic growth of IBDV in CEF was detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR)based on SYBR Green Ⅰ. The results showed that CPE first appeared at 36 h post IBDV infection,and the most obvious CPE such as the cell gap increasing,net-balloon filamentation and exfoliated CEF appeared at 60 h post IBDV infec-tion.The real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the viral RNA loads of IBDV were 1.70×10 7 ,3.72× 107 ,7.41×107 ,1.20×108 ,4.80×107 ,1.51×107 ,9.33×10 6 ,7.76×10 6 and 2.24×10 6 copies per mi-croliter in cultured virus suspension collected at 12,24,36,48,60,72,96,120 and 156 h post IBDV in-fection,respectively,the highest amount appeared

  17. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  18. Tgfβ2 and 3 are coexpressed with their extracellular regulator Ltbp1 in the early limb bud and modulate mesodermal outgrowth and BMP signaling in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Porrero Juan A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor β proteins (Tgfβs are secreted cytokines with well-defined functions in the differentiation of the musculoskeletal system of the developing limb. Here we have studied in chicken embryos, whether these cytokines are implicated in the development of the embryonic limb bud at stages preceding tissue differentiation. Results Immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 indicates that signaling by this pathway is active in the undifferentiated mesoderm and AER. Gene expression analysis shows that transcripts of tgfβ2 and tgfβ3 but not tgfβ1 are abundant in the growing undifferentiated limb mesoderm. Transcripts of tgfβ2 are also found in the AER, which is the signaling center responsible for limb outgrowth. Furthermore, we show that Latent Tgfβ Binding protein 1 (LTBP1, which is a key extracellular modulator of Tgfβ ligand bioavailability, is coexpressed with Tgfβs in the early limb bud. Administration of exogenous Tgfβs to limb buds growing in explant cultures provides evidence of these cytokines playing a role in the regulation of mesodermal limb proliferation. In addition, analysis of gene regulation in these experiments revealed that Tgfβ signaling has no effect on the expression of master genes of musculoskeletal tissue differentiation but negatively regulates the expression of the BMP-antagonist Gremlin. Conclusion We propose the occurrence of an interplay between Tgfβ and BMP signaling functionally associated with the regulation of early limb outgrowth by modulating limb mesenchymal cell proliferation.

  19. 龙葵碱对人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型血管生成的影响%Effects of Solanine on the human colon cancer in chicken embryo transplantation model angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桃; 谢铭; 贺新媛; 杨雪峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish chicken embryo transplantation model of human colon cancer and to research the effect of so‐lanine on angiogenesis .Methods Cases with chicken embryos were divided into the low‐,mid‐and high dose solanine group and con‐trol group ,with 10 cases in each groups ,and then the cultured human colon cancer cell line HT‐29 cell lines were inoculated to the chicken embryo villus allantois membrane (CAM ) .We observed the characteristics of the transplanted tumor in CAM angiogenesis by the stereo microscope .Image analysis software of Image‐pro plus 6 .0 and immunohistochemical method were used to observe the effect of different dose of solanine on angiogenesis .Results HT‐29 cell lines were inoculated to CAM 3-5 days ,a large number of blood vessels concentrated in tumors ,growing into or acrossing the surface of tumors .While tumors also rapidly growed .We took photo on the 5th day after receiving medicine and did imaging analysis .Then we calculated the area of angiogenesis in experimental group ,which was significantly lower than that of the control group ,quantitatively in a dose‐dependent manner .There were signifi‐cant differences among the groups(P<0 .01) .Microvascular density of 3 different dose of solanine was significantly lower than that of the control group by immunohistochemical method ;the expression of Ki‐67 antigen index decreased gradually ,which was highest in the control group ,and there were significant differences among the groups (P<0 .01) .Conclusion Solanine could inhibit angio‐genesis induced by human colon cancer HT‐29 cell lines obviously ,thus inhibiting the growth of tumor and providing an important basis for the treatment of anti‐tumor angiogenesis .%目的:建立人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型,研究龙葵碱对其血管生成的影响。方法将鸡胚分为对照组和低剂量组、中剂量组、高剂量组(均n=10),将培养的人结肠癌细胞系HT‐29

  20. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. PMID:26957629

  1. Atherosclerotic femoral artery aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Schroeder, T V

    1996-01-01

    Based on a clinical suspicion of an increase in the proportion of deep femoral aneurysms, we reviewed the case records of patients who underwent reconstructive procedures for femoral aneurysms to investigate if this could be confirmed and explained by selection of patient or modality of diagnosis...

  2. Structural Analysis of the Angiogenesis in the Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoelst, Eva

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, the poultry sector is in search of ways to monitor chicken embryonic growth, health and quality, as to control and optimize the incubation conditions, especially the gas concentrations. One of the parameters of chicken development which may change under different gas concentrations is the angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), the organ for gas exchange of the chicken embryo. To be able to perform large incubation experiments under different gaseous condi...

  3. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  4. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  5. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  6. Femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

  7. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  8. Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citak, Musa; Jagodzinski, Michael; Krettek, Christian; Huefner, Tobias [Hannover Medical School, Trauma Department, Hannover (Germany); Citak, Mustafa [BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Surgery, Bochum (Germany); Kendoff, Daniel; O' Loughlin, Padhraig F. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Orthopaedic Department, New York, NY (United States); Tavassol, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  10. Acute femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients with traumatic femoral neck fracture were studied with MR imaging (0.5 T, Magnetom, Siemens): unenhanced (multiecho, TR/TE = 1,600/30--240 [repetition time/echo time, msec]; gradient echo, TR/TE = 315/14, θ = 90 degrees) and Gd-DTPA enhanced (0.1 mM/kg body weight, Magnevist, Schering; gradient echo, TR/TE = 315/14, θ = 90 degrees). MR images were compared with clinical-radiographic findings. Digital subtraction angiography of the femoral head (FH) in five patients showed complete interruption of blood supply to the FH in three patients (signal intensity of FH did not increase on postcontrast images) and intact FH arteries in two patients (FH signal increased on postcontrast images, as did the healthy-side signal)

  11. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contrast arthrography orMagnetic Resonance Imaging is indicated when radiological features are questionable and to disclose thepresence and location of the femoral head and any cartilagenous anlage. The disorder is more commonlyunilateral and is apparent at birth. However, bilateral involvement is rarely seen. Therapy of the disorder isdirected towards satisfactory ambulation and specific treatment depending on the severity of dysplasia.

  12. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  13. Prospective evaluation of femoral head viability following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone scans of 33 patients (pts) with recent subcapital fractures (fx) of the femur were evaluated prospectively to determine their value in predicting femoral head visability. Each of the 33 pts (ll men, 22 women, age range 30-92) had a pre-operative bone scan within 72 hrs of the fx (23 pts within 24 hrs). Anterior and posterior planar views of both hips and pinhole views (50% of pts) were obtained 2 hrs after administration of Tc-99m HDP. The femoral head was classified as perfused if it showed the same activity as the opposite normal side or if it showed only slightly decreased activity. Femoral heads showing absent activity were classified as nonperfused. Overall, 20 of the 33 pts showed a photopenic femoral head on the side of the fx. Only 2 pts showed increased activity at hte site of the fx. Internal fixation of the fx was performed in 23 pts, 12 of whom had one or more follow-up scans. Five of these 12 pts showed absent femoral head activity on their initial scan, but 2 showed later reperfusion. The other 7 pts showed good perfusion initially, with only 1 later showing decreased femoral head activity. The other 10 pts (7 of whom had absent femoral head activity) had immediate resection of the femoral head and insertion of a Cathcart prosthesis. The results suggest that femoral head activity seen on a bone scan in the immediate post-fx period is not always a reliable indicator of femoral head viability. Decreased femoral head activity may reflect, in part, compromised perfusion secondary to post-traumatic edema, with or without anatomic disruption of the blood supply

  14. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  15. Scintigraphical observation of femoral head in femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In IO cases of femoral neck fracture treated with prosthetic replacement, the preopera tive sup(99m)Tc-MDP scintigraphs were investigated and then compared with each histological findings of the extracted femoral head. The appearances of the scintigraphs were classified into following 3 patterns; increased activity pattern of sup(99m)Tc-MDP uptake in the overall femoral head (type I) in 4 cases, deficient activity pattern at the lateral side correspond to weight-bearing area (type II) in 2 cases and considerably deficient activity pattern in the whole femoral head (type III) in remaining 4 cases. Histological examination of the extracted femoral heads revealed the narrow part of ischemic necrosis in type I. However type II showed extensive necrosis in the portion of deficient activity by scintigraphs and in type III, the femoral heads except articular cartilage were entirely necrotic. This classification of sup(99m)Tc-MDP scintigraphy is correlated with the degree of femoral head necrosis and it can be emphasized that the preoperative scintigraphy is a useful method to select osteosynthesis or prosthetic replacement treatment, etc. (author)

  16. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline;

    2002-01-01

    encompassing the entire cDNA of 3 kb. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 201 amino acids. The cytoplasmic domain is identical with that of mammalian syndecan-2, and highly similar to those of Xenopus laevis and zebrafish syndecan-2. The transmembrane domain is identical with that of mammalian...... and zebrafish syndecan-2, and highly similar to that of Xenopus laevis syndecan-2. The ectodomain is 45-62% identical with that of zebrafish, Xenopus laevis and mammalian syndecan-2. Two coding single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed. In vitro transcription and translation yielded a product of 30 k......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  17. Electroporation, an alternative to biolistics for transfection of Bombyx mori embryos and larval tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Luc Thomas

    2003-01-01

    There are few powerful techniques available to transfect insect tissues. We previously used biolistics to transfect Bombyx mori embryos, and larval and pupal tissues (Thomas J-L et al. 2001. Journal of Insect Science 1/9, Kravariti L et al. 2001. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 31: 473–479). As the main limitation was the irregularity in results we explored electroporation as an alternative technique by adapting techniques used for chicken embryos to B. mori embryos. By injecting th...

  18. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  19. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  20. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  1. Evaluation of the suitability of six host genes as internal control in real-time RT-PCR assays in chicken embryo cell cultures infected with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Bang, Dang Duong; Handberg, Kurt;

    2005-01-01

    and GAPDH had a lower expression level in CE cell cultures. Also, beta-actin showed no significant variation in both normalized and non-normalized assays and virus dose-independent of inoculation, while other genes did. beta-Actin was further successfully used as an internal control to quantitate Bursine-2......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) can cause disease in chickens characterized by immunosuppression and high mortality. Currently, real-time RT-PCR has been used to quantitate virus-specific RNA and to better understand host response to infection. However, normalization of quantitative real...... following a 7-day IBDV infection. The CE cells were inoculated with various multiplicity of infection (MOI) of IBDV vaccine strain Bursine-2, the expression of genes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR-based on cDNA synthesized from either normalized (100 ng) or non-normalized (10 mu l) total RNA...

  2. Effect of angiogenesis on Solanine and VEGF antibody in chicken embryo transplantation model of human colon cancer cells%龙葵碱联合VEGF抗体对人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型血管生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 邓冬雪; 张桃; 宁伟伟; 郑兴斌; 谢铭

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立人结肠癌鸡胚移植模型,探讨龙葵碱、VEGF抗体及两者联合对人结肠癌细胞诱导肿瘤血管生成及肿瘤增殖的影响。方法将人结肠癌H T‐29细胞鸡胚移植模型分为实验组和对照组,实验组加入龙葵碱、V EG F抗体和龙葵碱+VEGF抗体混合液,对照组加入磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)液。通过立体显微镜照相、IPP 6.0图像分析软件分析图片;免疫组织化学方法检测CD34抗原和ki‐67抗原,观察龙葵碱、VEGF抗体和龙葵碱联合VEGF抗体对肿瘤血管生成及肿瘤增殖的影响。结果肿瘤血管面积、CD34抗原和ki‐67抗原表达:龙葵碱+VEGF抗体组明显优于单药VEGF抗体组和龙葵碱组,VEGF抗体组优于龙葵碱组,3组均明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论龙葵碱、VEGF抗体及两者联合时均能抑制人结肠癌 HT‐29细胞系诱导的肿瘤血管生成及肿瘤增殖,为抗肿瘤血管生成提供了一种新途径。%Objective To establish model of the chicken embryo transplantation of human colon cancer cells ,and investigate the effect of Solanine、VEGF antibody and Solanine combined with VEGF antibody on human colon cancer cells induce tumor angio‐genesis and tumor proliferation .Methods The model of the chicken embryo transplantation of human colon cancer HT‐29 cells were divided into three experimental group and control group .We added to the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane with Sola‐nine、VEGF antibody and Solanine+ VEGF antibody mixture ,PBS was added to the control group .Then we analysed picture through the stereomicroscope and IPP 6 .0 image analysis software ,using immunohistochemistry envision method to detect of CD34 antigen and ki‐67 antigen ,and observing effect of Solanine group ,VEGF antibody group ,Solanine+ VEGF antibody group and the effect on the tumor angiogenesis and tumor proliferation .Results The tumor angiogenesis ,CD34 antigen and ki‐67 antigen

  3. Neuroglobin mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Globin protein family plays an important role in storing and transporting oxygen.As a newly reported globin,the revealed function of neuroglobin includes binding and storing oxygen as well as facilitating the utilization of oxygen in neuronal cells.In the Dresent study,mutations in exons of chicken Ngb gene were identified with the method of sequencing and created restriction site PCR in Tibet chicken and other four lowland chicken breeds.The mutations of Lys-2224(E4)-Asn and Ser-2279(E4)-Gly were identified in exon 4 of the gene.The Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation existed only in Tibet chicken and the mutation frequencies increased with increasing altitude.Analysis of the haplotype and diplotype of the two mutations in Tibet chicken populations of different altitudes showed that the frequencies of TG haplotype and TTGG diplotype also increased with increasing altitude,while the reverse tendency was found on GGAA diplotype.Under the hypoxic simulation incubation,the main haplotype was TG in living embryos and GA in dead embryos.The results showed that the Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation may be a specific mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken.

  4. Replacement of primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) by the DF-1 cell line for detection of avian leucosis viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der R.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Oei, H.L.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    International regulations prescribe that the absence of avian leucosis viruses (ALV) in avian live virus vaccines has to be demonstrated. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special SPF chicken lines are normally used for detection of ALV. The suitability of the DF-1 cell line for ALV-dete

  5. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhongzan; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Geng, Heyuan; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electropho...

  6. Gambaran Patologi Bursa Fabricius Embrio Ayam Pascavaksinasi Gumboro Secara In Ovo Menggunakan Vaksin Lokal dan Komersial (PATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF BURSA FABRICIUS CHICKEN EMBYROS AFTER IN OVO VACCINATED WITH LOCAL AND COMMERSIAL GUMBORO VACCINES)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani; Dewi Ratih Agung Priyono; Wasmen Manalu

    2015-01-01

    Bursa Fabricius is a target organ of gumboro virus infection which is often damaged after vaccinationusing hot intermediate gumboro live vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic effect oflocal and commercial gumboro vaccines . As many as 45 embryo chicken eggs at nine day old were used inthis research, then grouped into three groups of 15 embryos chicken eggs each, these were: Embryo chickeneggs without vaccination (Group I), vaccinated with IBD intermediate plus commercial...

  7. Pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have seen two cases of traumatic subcapital fractures of the femoral neck which resembled pathologic fractures on plain radiography. We have named this entity pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck and offer suggestions for why it occurs. (orig.)

  8. 益气化瘀解毒方含药血清对鸡胚尿囊膜血管生成的影响%Study on Influence of Prescription of Strengthening Qi and Resolving Stasis and Eliminating Toxin on Serum Chicken Embryos Allantoic Membrane Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜文辉; 曾普华; 潘敏求; 唐珍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨益气化瘀解毒含药血清对鸡胚尿囊膜血管生成的影响.方法:取孵育7d的种蛋制成CAM模型,加入益气化瘀解毒整方高、中、低3个剂量组的含药血清,继续孵育3d,固定标本,拍照,计数新生毛细血管数目.结果:高、中、低剂量组与不含药血清组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);高、中剂量组与低剂量组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);高、中剂量组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)结论:益气化瘀解毒方能抑制CAM血管新生,具有抗血管生成作用.%Objective: To study the influence of prescription of strengthening Qi and resolving stasis and eliminating toxin on serum chicken embryos allantoic membrane angiogenesis. Methods :Eggs incubated for 7d were made into CAM model,joined high,medium and low doses of the serum containing medicine,and they were continuely to incubate for 3d. The specimens were fixed,took pictures,and the number of new blood capillary was counted. Results:The high,medium and low dose groups and no medicine group comparison differences were statistically significant (P 0. 05 ). Conclusion : The prescription of strengthening Qi and resolving stasis and e-liminating toxin can inhibit CAM angiogenesis, and has the antiangiogenic effect.

  9. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, YUE; AI, Zi Sheng; Shao, Jin; Yang, Tieyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures. Methods: Eighty-six patients with femoral neck fractures were treated using three parallel cannulated screws between May 2004 and January 2011. The shortening of the femoral neck in the horizontal (X), vertical (Y), and along the resultant along the (Z) vector (XÆ, YÆ, ZÆ) was measured on anteroposterior radiographs corrected by screw diameter and ...

  10. Multidisciplinary Inquiry-Based Investigation Learning Using an Ex Ovo Chicken Culture Platform: Role of Vitamin A on Embryonic Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Gould, Russell A.; Curran, Susan; Archer, Shivaun D.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development offers a unique perspective on the function of many biological processes because of embryos' heightened sensitivity to environmental factors. This hands-on lesson investigates the effects of elevated vitamin A on the morphogenesis of chicken embryos. The active form of vitamin A (retinoic acid) is applied to shell-less (ex…

  11. Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus replication in chicken embryos by miRNAs delivered by recombinant avian adeno-associated viral vector%重组禽腺联病毒介导的miRNA抑制传染性法氏囊病病毒在鸡胚内的复制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹏鹏; 王永娟; 孙怀昌; 张鑫宇; 夏晓莉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]We studied the inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV ) replication in chicken embryos by recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV)-delivered VP1- and VP2-specific microRNAs (miRNAs).[Methods and Results]We co-transfected AAV-293 cells with the VP1- or VP2 gene-specific miRNA expression vector pAITR-RFPmiVP1 or AITR-RFPmiVP2E, AAAV packaging vector pcDNA-ARC and adenovirus helper vector pHelper, resulting in recombinant virus rAAAV-RFPmiVP1 or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E.We also generated the recombinant viruses rAAAV-RFP (without miRNA expression cassette) and rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con ( expressing control miRNA ) using the same method as the control purpose.Electron microscopy showed that the recombinant viruses had a typical morphology of AAV.We confirmed the presence of miRNA expression cassette in the recombinant viral genomes by using PCR.Our poly (A)-tailed RT-PCR showed correct expression of the miRNAs in the rAAAV-transduced DF-1 cells.We inoculated the recombinant viruses individually into 8-day-old SPF chicken embryos and then challenged them using Lukert strain IBDV on day 2 after inoculation.Our IBDV titration assay showed that the 50% tissue culture infectious dose ( TCID50) of rAAAV-RFP- or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con-inoculated group was 8.0 log10, whereas the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP1-inoculated group decreased to 1.0 and 0.8 log10 on day 3 and 6 after challenge, respectively.Similarly, the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E-inoculated group decreased to 1.5 and 2.0 log10, respectively.[Conclusion]These data suggest that rAAAV can transduce efficiently chicken embryos and the expressed VP1- and VP2-specific miRNAs can inhibit the replication of IBDV efficiently.%[目的]在鸡胚水平上探索VP1和VP2基因特异miRNA抑制传染性法氏囊病病毒(infectious bursaldisease virus,IBDV)复制的可行性.[方法与结果]将表达VP1基因特异miRNA重组载体pAITR-RFPmiVP1或VP2基因特异miRNA重组载体pAITR-RFPmiVP2E

  12. Maintenance of chicken embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the methods we have used to show that chicken leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells in an undifferentiated state in culture. Recombinant chicken LIF (rchLIF) was expressed as a fusion protein linked to glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified to greater than 90% purity in two chromatography stages, the first an affinity step using the GST tail, which was cleaved before further purification by gel chromatography. Chicken ES cells were obtained by culturing chicken blastodermal cells isolated from stage X embryos of freshly laid chicken eggs. These cells can be maintained in media containing rchLIF for at least 9 d without any other cytokines or feeder cells. Chicken ES cells were characterized by the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1 and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1. In addition, the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 by LIF, which is sufficient to maintain the undifferentiated state of ES cells, was detected by Western blotting analysis. PMID:16845981

  13. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  14. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  15. Effect of microgravity on primordial germ cells (PGCs) in silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Li, Zandong

    2011-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of germline cells, display a variety of antigens during their migration to target gonads. Here, we used silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos subjected to space microgravity to investigate the influence of microgravity on PGCs. The ShenZhou-3 unmanned spaceship carried nine fertilized silk chicken eggs, named the flight group, returned to Earth after 7 days space flight. And the control group has the same clan with the flight group. PGCs from flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos were examined during migration by using two antibodies (2C9 and anti-SSEA-1), in combination with the horseradish peroxidase detection system, and using periodic acid-Schiff's solution (PAS) reaction. After incubation for about 30 h, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in the germinal crescent of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 2-2.5 days, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in embryonic blood vessels of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 5.5 days, PGCs in the dorsal mesentery and gonad could also be identified in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos by using SSEA-1 and 2C9 antibodies. Based on location and PAS staining, these cells were identified as PGCs. Meanwhile, at the stage of PGCs migration and then becoming established in the germinal ridges, no difference in SSEA-1 or 2C9 staining was detected between female and male PGCs in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. Although there were differences in the profiles of PGC concentration between male and female embryos during the special circulating stage, changing profile of PGCs concentration was similar in same sex between flight and control group offspring embryos. We concluded that there is little effect on PGCs in offspring embryos of microgravity-treated chicken and that PGC development appears

  16. Ontogeny and the developing change of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone cells of chicken embryos%鸡胚胎腺垂体卵泡刺激素细胞的发育及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉琴; 刘英; 袁学军; 刘靖闻; 陈慧; 吴瑜瑜

    2012-01-01

    应用免疫组织化学方法,对发育的第3.5~20.5天鸡胚腺垂体卵泡刺激素(FSH)细胞的发生及其在发育过程中的变化规律进行了研究。结果,鸡胚发育的中期(第10.5天),可观察到少量明显的FSH细胞分布于腺垂体后叶,随着胚胎的发育,FSH细胞数量显著增加(P〈0.05),发育的第16.5天FSH细胞数量增加到了整个孵化期的最大值,分布于垂体后叶的腹侧,前叶仅有少量零散的FSH细胞;在发育的第18.5天至出生期FSH细胞数量显著减少。早期FSH细胞体积小、细胞浆少、细胞核大,单个或团状分布,随着胚龄的增加,细胞体积增大、细胞浆增多、细胞浆浓染。结果表明,鸡胚胎腺垂体FSH细胞发生于胚胎发育的中期,细胞的增殖和分化过程发生在胚胎发育的中后期;FSH细胞分布于垂体后叶腹侧。%The present study is to determine ontogeny of chick embryonic pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) cells and their change during developing embryos.The pituitary glands were collected on day 3.5 to 20.5 of incubation,respectively.The expression and distribution of pituitary FSH cells were then detected by the immunohistochemical method.The experimental results demonstrated that scattered and clarity immunopositive FSH cells were first detected in caudal lobe of pituitary gland on day 10.5,and then dramatically increased(P0.05).FSH cells increased to a peak on day 16.5,and distributed caudal lobe,only scattered FSH cells distributed cephalic lobe of pituitary gland.On day 18.5 FSH cells decreased.In the early stage,the volume of FSH cells was smaller,there was less cytoplasmic and bigger nuclear,and light staining;in the mid-incubation and later,the volume become bigger,the cells became intensive staining.These results suggested that the ontogeny of FSH cells is in the middle stage and that the proliferation and differentiation of FSH cells occur during middle and late stage.

  17. Screening of Chinese Herbal Medicines Resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to Chicken Escherichia coli and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Methed] Conven- tional punch method, test tube method and plate dilution method were adopted for in vitro susceptibility test of chicken E, coil strains O5 and O8 using 13 kinds of Chi- nese herbal medicines including Sanguisorba officinalis, Coptis chinensis, Anemar- rhena asphodeloides, Strobilanthes cusia, Agastache rugosa, etc.; chicken embryo inoculation experiment was adopted to screen Chinese herbal medicines resistant to chicken infectious laryngotracheitis virus. [Result] Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba Taraxaci, Anemarrhena asphode- Ioides, Scutellaria baicalensis and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain O5; Sanguisorba officinalis, Fructus mume, Rheum officinale, Coptis chinensis, Herba taraxaci and Rhizoma Fagopyri Cymosi had ideal antibacterial effect against chicken E. coil strain 08; other Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively poor or no antibacterial effect. Results of chicken embryo inoculation experiment showed that nine kinds of Chinese herbal medicines showed relatively strong anti-lLTV effect, including Forsythia suspensa, Radix Isatidis, Fofium isatidis, Flos Ionicerae, Radix codonopsis, Radix astragali, Atractylodes, Radix gly- cyrrhizae, and Pericarpium granati. [Conclusion] The study laid the foundation for fur- ther development of Chinese herbal compound preparations to treat chicken cofibacil- Iosis, infectious laryngotracheitis and other bacterial, viral diseases.

  18. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  19. The preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures for virus isolation, propagation, and titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennion, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken tracheal organ cultures (TOCs), comprising transverse sections of chick embryo trachea with beating cilia, have proved useful in the isolation of several respiratory viruses and as a viral assay system, using ciliostasis as the criterion for infection. A simple technique for the preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures in glass test tubes, in which virus growth and ciliostasis can be readily observed, is described.

  20. Processing chicken at slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    POŽÁRKOVÁ, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Composition of poultry flesh and its purpose on human nutrition is described in this work. The quality and factors which affects quality are described further. HACCP system takes also important role. The end of this thesis is focused on poultry meat markets. The aim of this thesis was to study and describe chicken slaughtering process and processing of chicken carcass and determine the major share of the fleshy parts of broiler chicken carcass which means shares of breast muscles and tight mu...

  1. Changes in thickness of each layer of developing chicken cornea after administration of caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hieronim Bartel; Dariusz Tosik; Monika Kujawa-Hadryś

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the presentation of changes in thickness of each layer of a developing cornea, that came into being under an influence of caffeine which was administered to chicken embryos. Research materials were 26 chicken embryos from breeding eggs that had been incubated. Breeding eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30) in which Ringer liquid was given, and experimental (n=30) in which teratogenic dose of caffeine was administrated - 3.5 mg/egg. In 36th hour of incubati...

  2. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangang; Geng Heyuan; Shao Yuhao; Han Zongxi; Cao Zhongzan; Liu Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel e...

  3. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  4. Superselective intra-arterial DSA in patients with femoral head necrosis and femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospective study includes 25 patients without pathology of the femoral head for the evaluation of the normal femoral head perfusion. In addition 34 patients with femoral head necrosis underwent i.a. DSA preoperatively before pedicled pelvic bone grafting. 15 patients after pelvic bone graft operation and 7 patients with medial femoral head fracture were also examined via superselective DSA. In cases with femoral head necrosis a rarefaction or interruption of the rami nutricii proximales, or an occlusion of the medial circumflex femoral artery were observed. Patients with medial femoral neck fracture showed an interruption of the rami nutricii proximales of the femoral head. Postoperative DSA - after pedicled pelvic bone graft - revealed a regular arterial graft perfusion in 82%. (orig.)

  5. Unusual Contents of the Femoral Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Alzaraa

    2011-01-01

    Different contents in the femoral hernia have been reported in the literature, but herniation of the fallopian tube in a femoral hernia is very rare due to its normal anatomical position. Case Presentation. A female patient was admitted to the surgical ward for a lump in the right groin. Clinical examination confirmed a right femoral hernia. The patient underwent surgery to repair the hernia. Intraoperatively, the right uterine tube was found in the hernia. The tube was reduced back into the ...

  6. Evaluation of perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated 13 patients for femoral neck fracture. They consisted of 2 males and 11 females, and were classified according to Garden stage classification; Stage I, 3 cases; Stage II, 2 cases; Stage III, 2 cases; Stage IV, 4 cases. Two trochanteric fracture cases were used by control. We evaluated perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy, which is considered useful for evaluation of perfusion of the femoral neck before operation. (author)

  7. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  8. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  9. Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal femoral angle measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right...

  10. Development of transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we demonstrated the successful production of transgenic chickens expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene. Replication-defective recombinant retroviruses produced from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus vector system were injected beneath the blastoderm of non-incubated chicken embryos (stage X). From 129 injected eggs, 13 chicks hatched after 21 days of incubation. All hatched chicks were found to express vector-encoded EGFP gene, which was under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter and boosted post-transcriptionally by woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element sequence. Green fluorescent signals, indicative of the EGFP gene expression, were detected in various body parts, including head, limb, eye, toe, and several internal organs. Genomic incorporation of the transgene was also proven by Southern blot assay. Our results show the exceptional versatile effectiveness of the EGFP gene as a marker in the gene expression-related studies which therefore would be very helpful in establishing a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies on embryo development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors

  11. Introduction of DT40 cells into chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariko Toba; Fumio Ebara; Hiroki Furuta; Yuichi Matsushimal; Yasuo Kitagawa; Noboru Fujihara

    2001-01-01

    To examine the transfection of exogenous genes into chick embryos, applying the characteristics of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced chicken B cell line DT40 to the production of chimeric birds. Methods: The DT40cells incorporated with exogenous gene (lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli β-galactosidase: β-gal) were introduced into chick embryos by the injection of cells into stage X blastoderm. Manipulated eggs were incubated for 3 (trial 1 ) or 6 (trial 2) days, and the expression of lacZ DNA was detected by a histochemical staining method of β-galactosidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The survival rates of the manipulated embryos incubated for 3 days (stage 18-20: trial 1) and 6 days (stage 28, 30: trial 2) were about 42% and 38%, respectively.The expression rates of the lacZ gene in the embryos in the trials 1 and 2 were about 60% and 23%, respectively, for the survived embryos. Conclusio: The rate of embryonic viability and expression rate of introduced genes were not so high, but it suggested the possibility of utilizing the DT40 cells as a vector for carrying exogenous genes into chick embryos.

  12. Ectopic expression of Cvh (Chicken Vasa homologue) mediates the reprogramming of chicken embryonic stem cells to a germ cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavial, Fabrice; Acloque, Hervé; Bachelard, Elodie; Nieto, M Angela; Samarut, Jacques; Pain, Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    When they are derived from blastodermal cells of the pre-primitive streak in vitro, the pluripotency of Chicken Embryonic Stem Cells (cESC) can be controlled by the cPouV and Nanog genes. These cESC can differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, but they only weakly colonize the gonads of host embryos. By contrast, non-cultured blastodermal cells and long-term cultured chicken primordial germ cells maintain full germline competence. This restriction in the germline potential of the cESC may result from either early germline determination in the donor embryos or it may occur as a result of in vitro culture. We are interested in understanding the genetic determinants of germline programming. The RNA binding protein Cvh (Chicken Vasa Homologue) is considered as one such determinant, although its role in germ cell physiology is still unclear. Here we show that the exogenous expression of Cvh, combined with appropriate culture conditions, induces cESC reprogramming towards a germ cell fate. Indeed, these cells express the Dazl, Tudor and Sycp3 germline markers, and they display improved germline colonization and adopt a germ cell fate when injected into recipient embryos. Thus, our results demonstrate that Vasa can drive ES cell differentiation towards the germ cell lineage, both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head Occurred after Stent Placement of Femoral Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Shimatani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH that occurred after stent angiography of femoral artery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO of left inferior limb in a 76-year-old woman. No case of late collapse of femoral head as a complication of endovascular procedure such as stent placement has been previously documented. We considered that ONFH occurred after detaining stent at a junction of left deep femoral artery for the treatment of the ischemia of left lateral and medial femoral circumflex artery.

  14. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla;

    . The pattern of curves for gas exchange was identical for RO and LA, but on a lower level for LA. The energy expenditure followed the pattern of curves for gas exchange, with a mean value around 50 J/h on day 10, increasing to 528 (RO) and 402 (LA) J/h on day 19 (Figure 1). The main source of EE was oxidized...... fat contributing with nearly 100 % to the total EE. Since oxidised fat was the main energy fuel the content of fat in eggs decreased with 2.0 (RO) and 1.6 g (LA) during the incubation period. It can be concluded that the pattern of gas exchange and thereby the pattern of energy expenditure......It can be expected that different growth performance between different lines of broilers, or even between individuals, may already be expressed during embryonic life. Considering that 1/3 of broiler's life takes place during the prenatal phase quantitative determinations of energy expenditure (EE...

  15. Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Aige-Gil, Vicente; Murillo-Ferrol, Narciso

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

  16. The femoral sulcus in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraj, Krishna; Bartlett, John

    2009-05-01

    The position of the femoral sulcus relative to the midline of the distal femoral resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was studied to determine if centralized placement of the femoral component on the distal femur was justified in terms of aligning the prosthetic sulcus with the native femoral sulcus. The location of the femoral sulcus was studied in 112 consecutive patients undergoing TKA. The mean sulcus position was 0.7 mm lateral to the midline of the distal femoral resection (SD 1.4, 95% CI, 0.5-1.0 mm). However, the variation in sulcus positions ranged from 4 mm medial to 4 mm lateral to the midline. The mean sulcus position in valgus knees was 1.0 mm lateral to the midline (SD 1.8), and that in varus knees was 0.7 mm lateral to the midline (SD 1.2) (P = 0.501). It appears prudent to centre the femoral component on the native sulcus rather than the midline of the distal femoral resection, so as to ensure accurate alignment of the prosthetic sulcus with the native sulcus and to encourage normal patella tracking.

  17. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  18. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  19. Detection of chicken embryo lethal orphan virus and egg drop syndrome virus by multiplex polymerase chain reaction%鸡胚致死孤儿病毒和鸡减蛋综合症病毒多重PCR 检测方法的建立及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑菁; 付瑞; 李晓波; 王吉; 卫礼; 巩薇; 岳秉飞; 贺争鸣

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立鸡胚致死孤儿病毒( CELO)和鸡减蛋综合症病毒( EDS)的多重PCR检测方法并进行初步应用。方法参照GenBank提供的基因序列,设计了2对特异性引物分别扩增CELO长纤突蛋白和EDS六邻体蛋白的基因序列,建立检测CELO和EDS的多重PCR方法,考察该方法的特异性和敏感性,并使用该方法检测流感疫苗主种子批病毒是否存在外源性禽腺病毒的污染。结果该多重PCR方法成功扩增得到了两条特异性目的条带,并经测序验证。该方法特异性好,灵敏度显示核酸最低检测量可达10-4μg/mL。使用该方法检测12批次流感疫苗主种子批病毒,外源性禽腺病毒的检测结果均为阴性。结论成功建立鸡胚致死孤儿病毒和鸡减蛋综合症病毒的多重PCR检测方法,灵敏度高,特异性好。在流感疫苗主种子批病毒的外源性禽腺病毒的检测中具有很高的使用价值和应用前景。%Objective To establish multiplex PCR assay for detection of chicken embryo lethal orphan virus (CELO)and egg drop syndrome virus (EDS).Methods According to GenBank gene sequence , two pairs of specific primers designed were amplified CELO long fiber protein and EDS hexon protein gene sequence .The specificity and sensitivity of multiplex PCR were tested .We also use the multiplex PCR to detect exogenous CELO and EDS in influenza virus.Results Two target bands have been successfully amplified and verified by sequencing .The specificity of the method is better , and the sensitivity is 10 -4μg/mL.The results of detecting exogenous CELO and EDS in 12 influenza virus were negative .Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay for detection of CELO and EDS was established successfully , which have good specificity and high sensitivity , and have high value and application prospect for detecting exogenous CELO and EDS in influenza virus .

  20. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  1. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  2. Tension free femoral hernia repair with plug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milivoje Vukovi; Neboja Moljevi; Sinia Crnogorac

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the conventional technique involves treatment of femoral hernia an approximation inguinal ligament to pectineal ligament. In technique which uses mesh closure for femoral canal without tissue tension. Method: A prospective study from January 01. 2007-May 30. 2009. We analyzed 1 042 patients with inguinal hernia, of which there were 83 patients with 86 femoral hernia. Result: Femoral hernias were present in 7.96% of cases. Males were 13 (15.66%) and 70 women (84.34%). The gender distribution of men: women is 1:5.38. Urgent underwent 69 (83%), and the 14 election (17%) patients. Average age was 63 years, the youngest patient was a 24 and the oldest 86 years. Ratio of right: left hernias was 3.4:1. With bilateral femoral hernias was 3.61% of cases. In 7 patients (8.43%) underwent femoral hernia repair with 9 Prolene plug. Conclusions: The technique of closing the femoral canal with plug a simple. The plug is made from monofilament material and is easily formed. This technique allows the reduction of recurrence and can be used safely, quickly and easily in elective and emergency situations.

  3. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  4. Variations of femoral condyle shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscević, Mirza; Hebibović, Mujo; Smrke, Dragica

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study is to mathematically approximate the shape of the femoral articulating line and compare radiuses of condylar curves within and between males and females. Ten male and ten female participants were included in the study. Radiuses of medial and lateral condylar curves were calculated from the side view knee X-ray by original mathematical equation. Average radiuses of condylar curves were between 4.5 and 1.7 cm medially, and between 3.2 and 1.8 cm laterally, for 0 degrees and 90 degrees flexion contact point respectively. Males had longer curve radiuses of both condyles (p knee geometry, and other ellipsoidal structures in human body, like wrist, scull segments, dental arches, etc.

  5. Embracing fixator for treating periprosthetic femoral fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先龙; 章玮; 眭述平; 将垚; 曾炳芳

    2001-01-01

    @@Femoral fractures in the presence of other intramedullary implants are uncommon. These fractures are difficult to manage and the presence of other intramedullary implants creates a complex problem. The rate of these fractures has increased due to an increase in the number of patients having total hip arthroplasty (THA) and the use of various new techniques for femoral fractures.1-5 Literature on the treatment of femoral fractures with other intramedullary implants is rare.2,3 From 1995 to 1998, we reduced these fractures openly and fixed them with a shape memory alloy sawtooth-arm embracing fixator (EF), and the outcomes were satisfactory.

  6. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  7. Femoral anteversion measured by ultrasonography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic and real-time ultrasound measurements of femoral anteversion were compared in an anatomic study of 20 dried adult femurs. The real anteversion (AV) angle was determined by biplanar radiography. In four ultrasound measurements, the linear transducer was kept either horizontal or tilted. The measuring lines were either the anterior tangent of the femoral head-greater trochanter or the anterior tangent of the femoral neck. With the tilted transducer, the correlation between the head-trochanter AV angle and the real AV angle was high (r=0.9452), and slightly less when the anterior neck AV angle was used (r=0.9142). The clinical relevance is that the tilted transducer technique with the head-trochanter tangent is recommended for AV screening in patients with clinical signs of increased femoral anteversion. In adults 8.50 has to be subtracted in order to obtain an approximation of the real AV angle. (orig.)

  8. Limited Quadricepsplasty for Contracture during Femoral Lengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Khakharia, Saurabh; Fragomen, Austin T.; Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Extension contracture of the knee is a common complication of femoral lengthening. Knee flexion exercises to stretch the contracture with physical therapy can be effective but take a prolonged amount of time to work and place increased stress across the patellofemoral joint. We developed a minimal-incision limited quadricepsplasty surgical technique to treat knee extension contracture secondary to femoral lengthening and retrospectively reviewed 16 patients treated with this procedure. The me...

  9. Laparoscopic repair of an incarcerated femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yagan Pillay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A femoral hernia is a rare, acquired condition, which has been reported in less than 5% of all abdominal wall hernias, with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Presentation of case: We report a case in a female patient who had a previous open inguinal herniorrhaphy three years previously. She presented with right sided groin pain of one month duration. Ultrasound gave a differential diagnosis of a recurrent inguinal hernia or a femoral hernia. A transabdominal preperitoneal repair...

  10. Mini-mesh repair for femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Kulacoglu

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Femoral hernia consists only 4% of all primary groin hernias. It is described as “the Bête Noire of Hernias” because of its nature and anatomy which is difficult to understand for the surgeons and tendency to recurrence. Although there is some large series of femoral hernia in the literature, few studies prospectively comparing repair techniques especially for this type of hernia has been published. A new technique named mini-mesh repair is described here. PRESENTATION OF CAS...

  11. Hygroma following endovascular femoral aneurysm exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Morten; Pedersen, Brian Lindegaard; Lönn, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal segments is a suggested alternative to open surgical repair. Careful selection of patients for endovascular treatment of SFA aneurysms is mandatory.......Endovascular treatment of aneurysms in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal segments is a suggested alternative to open surgical repair. Careful selection of patients for endovascular treatment of SFA aneurysms is mandatory....

  12. Clinical experience of ioxaglate in femoral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Mine, H.; Iwai, T. (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    Painless femoral angiography could be performed in patients under slight analgesic premedication by using ioxaglate (320 mg I/ml). Slower flow of ioxaglate resulted in longer segments of the arteries being filled by the contrast column than by using iothalamate, which was confirmed by serial whole-limb angiography. The dynamic characteristics of ioxaglate, in addition to marked reduction of pain, fulfilled the requirements for its use as a contrast medium in femoral or peripheral angiography.

  13. Femoral Bone Plug in Total Knee Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Ettore; Regazzola, Gianmarco M V; Murena, Luigi; Ronga, Mario; Cherubino, Paolo; Surace, Michele F

    2015-10-01

    The intramedullary alignment guides used in total knee replacement disrupt the intramedullary vessels, resulting in greater postoperative blood loss. The use of an autologous bone plug to seal the intramedullary femoral canal has been shown to be effective in reducing postoperative bleeding. The authors present a simple technique to create a bone plug from the anterior chamfer femoral cut to perfectly seal the intramedullary canal of the femur. PMID:26488774

  14. Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel Hieronim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells.

  15. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Construction of the mammalian expressing vector pEGFP-N1-P53 and its expression successful in chicken fibroblast cells and blastoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z; Li, Z H; Lei, X Q; Xu, T S; Zhang, X H; Li, Y J; Zhang, G M; Xi, S M; Yang, Y B; Wei, Z G

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) pEGFP-N1-P53 eukaryotic expression vector, which contains the human tumor suppressor p53, was constructed and transfected into chicken fibroblast cells and stage-X blastoderm to analyze the transfection efficiency. The complementary DNA of the human p53 gene was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from human peripheral blood and inserted into the pEGFP-N1 vector by HindIII and BamHI double digestion. The pEGFP-N1-P53 vector was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblasts by Lipofectamine 2000 liposomes, and the transfection efficiency was analyzed by fluorescence microscope after 36 h of transfection. The stage-X blastoderm was also transfected by blastoderm injection using Lipofectamine 2000 liposomes at room temperature after 12-24 h; then hatching occurred until seventh day, and the transfection efficiency was analyzed by fluorescence microscope in the dead embryo. A total of 90 hatching eggs were transfected by the pEGFP-N1-P53 vector, and 20 chicken embryos expressed the reporter gene, which indicated that recombinant pEGFP-N1-P53 could be transfected and expressed in stage-X blastoderm by liposomes. Chicken embryo fibroblasts were transfected and expressed the reporter gene. The pEGFP-N1-P53 vector was constructed successfully and could be transfected and expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts and stage-X blastoderms efficiently. PMID:25730031

  17. Differential Expression Levels of Genes Related to Myogenesis During Embryogenesis of Quail and Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ban, Yaowei Liang, Zongsheng Zhao§*, Xiaojun Liu§ and Qingfeng Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the expression dynamics of genes during myogenesis in quail and chicken. Real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA expressions of MyoD, MyoG, MLP and MSTN in breast muscle of quail and chicken embryos during the period of embryonic days E7-17. Results showed that expression profiles of each gene displayed similar trend in the experiment period between quail and chicken, however, the expression concentration between the two species differed at the same time detected. MyoD mRNA expression in quail was significantly lower in the early phase of the experiment period (E7-9 (P<0.01 on E7; P<0.05 on both E8 and E9. For MyoG and MLP, the mRNA expressions were both lower in quail than that in chicken during the experiment period. Additionally, the embryonic day when quail reached its peak expression was earlier than that in chicken (MyoG: quail E12 vs. chicken E13; MLP: quail E14 vs. chicken E15, and the peak expression for both in quail was significantly lower than that in chicken (P<0.01 for both. For MSTN, expression in quail was significantly higher in quail than that in chicken at each time detected (P<0.01. It is concluded that differential expression of these genes might or at least partially contributed to the different development of muscle development in quail and chicken.

  18. Early diagnosis for segmental collapse of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain an early prediction for segmental collapse of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture, we have studied in 53 cases of the femoral neck fracture using 99mTC-MDP scintimetry. According to the radionuclide uptake ratio of the femoral heads, we can estimate the gravity of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head after fracture and recognize the repair process in the necrotic head. Fifty-three cases of fresh fracture were examined by sequential scintigraphy before operation and during follow up examinations after operation. The radionuclide uptake were all increased in 3 to 4 months after operation as comparing with that done before operation. The uptake ratios in 37 cases decreased gradually and approached 1 in 12 months after operation. All of them have an excellent result during follow up examination 36 months after surgery. The uptake ratios in 19 cases were also increased after operation, but still maintained at a high level in 6 to 12 months. They all showed radiographical signs of segmental collapse 18 to 24 months after operation. These results showed that uptake ratio of the radionuclide bone imaging is able to predict the occurrence of segmental collapse of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture. The time of the diagnosis by scintigraphy for segmental collapse of the femoral head is earlier than that by radiography. (authors). 5 refs., 1 tab

  19. Oxygen diffusion in fish embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2002-01-01

    All vertebrate embryos pass through a developmental period of remarkably low morphological variability. This period has been called phylotypic period. During the phylotypic period, organogenesis takes place, including blood vessel development. Before the phylotypic period, the embryos

  20. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  1. Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head. Methods Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging. Results An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis. Conclusion Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve

  2. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  3. Transcriptome-wide investigation of genomic imprinting in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Dehais, Patrice; Cristobal, Magali San; Marsaud, Nathalie; Vignoles, Florence; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Beaumont, Catherine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Vignal, Alain; Morisson, Mireille; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism by which alleles of some specific genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin manner. It has been observed in mammals and marsupials, but not in birds. Until now, only a few genes orthologous to mammalian imprinted ones have been analyzed in chicken and did not demonstrate any evidence of imprinting in this species. However, several published observations such as imprinted-like QTL in poultry or reciprocal effects keep the question open. Our main objective was thus to screen the entire chicken genome for parental-allele-specific differential expression on whole embryonic transcriptomes, using high-throughput sequencing. To identify the parental origin of each observed haplotype, two chicken experimental populations were used, as inbred and as genetically distant as possible. Two families were produced from two reciprocal crosses. Transcripts from 20 embryos were sequenced using NGS technology, producing ∼200 Gb of sequences. This allowed the detection of 79 potentially imprinted SNPs, through an analysis method that we validated by detecting imprinting from mouse data already published. However, out of 23 candidates tested by pyrosequencing, none could be confirmed. These results come together, without a priori, with previous statements and phylogenetic considerations assessing the absence of genomic imprinting in chicken. PMID:24452801

  4. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  5. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  6. Transgenic Chickens Overexpressing Aromatase Have High Estrogen Levels but Maintain a Predominantly Male Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Luke S; Morris, Kirsten R; Wise, Terry G; Cummins, David M; O'Neil, Terri E; Cao, Yu; Sinclair, Andrew H; Doran, Timothy J; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterized steroidogenic pathway, which is a multistep process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. Ectopic overexpression of aromatase in male chicken embryos induces gonadal sex reversal, and male embryos treated with estradiol become feminized; however, this is not permanent. To test whether a continuous supply of estrogen in adult chickens could induce stable male to female sex reversal, 2 transgenic male chickens overexpressing aromatase were generated using the Tol2/transposase system. These birds had robust ectopic aromatase expression, which resulted in the production of high serum levels of estradiol. Transgenic males had female-like wattle and comb growth and feathering, but they retained male weights, displayed leg spurs, and developed testes. Despite the small sample size, this data strongly suggests that high levels of circulating estrogen are insufficient to maintain a female gonadal phenotype in adult birds. Previous observations of gynandromorph birds and embryos with mixed sex chimeric gonads have highlighted the role of cell autonomous sex identity in chickens. This might imply that in the study described here, direct genetic effects of the male chromosomes largely prevailed over the hormonal profile of the aromatase transgenic birds. This data therefore support the emerging view of at least partial cell autonomous sex development in birds. However, a larger study will confirm this intriguing observation. PMID:26556534

  7. Transgenic Chickens Overexpressing Aromatase Have High Estrogen Levels but Maintain a Predominantly Male Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Luke S; Morris, Kirsten R; Wise, Terry G; Cummins, David M; O'Neil, Terri E; Cao, Yu; Sinclair, Andrew H; Doran, Timothy J; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterized steroidogenic pathway, which is a multistep process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. Ectopic overexpression of aromatase in male chicken embryos induces gonadal sex reversal, and male embryos treated with estradiol become feminized; however, this is not permanent. To test whether a continuous supply of estrogen in adult chickens could induce stable male to female sex reversal, 2 transgenic male chickens overexpressing aromatase were generated using the Tol2/transposase system. These birds had robust ectopic aromatase expression, which resulted in the production of high serum levels of estradiol. Transgenic males had female-like wattle and comb growth and feathering, but they retained male weights, displayed leg spurs, and developed testes. Despite the small sample size, this data strongly suggests that high levels of circulating estrogen are insufficient to maintain a female gonadal phenotype in adult birds. Previous observations of gynandromorph birds and embryos with mixed sex chimeric gonads have highlighted the role of cell autonomous sex identity in chickens. This might imply that in the study described here, direct genetic effects of the male chromosomes largely prevailed over the hormonal profile of the aromatase transgenic birds. This data therefore support the emerging view of at least partial cell autonomous sex development in birds. However, a larger study will confirm this intriguing observation.

  8. Embryonic development and inviability phenotype of chicken-Japanese quail F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid incompatibility, including inviability and sterility, is important in speciation; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown in vertebrates. Crosses between male chickens and female Japanese quails using artificial insemination can generate intergeneric hybrids; however, the hatching rate is low, and hatched hybrids are only sterile males. Hybrid development is arrested frequently during the early embryonic stages, and the sex ratio of living embryos is male-biased. However, the development and sex ratio of hybrid embryos have not been comprehensively analyzed. In the present study, we observed delayed embryonic development of chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage, compared with that of chickens and quails. The survival rate of hybrids decreased markedly during the blastoderm-to-pre-circulation stage and then decreased gradually through the subsequent stages. Hybrid females were observed at more than 10 d of incubation; however, the sex ratio of hybrids became male-biased from 10 d of incubation. Severely malformed embryos were observed frequently in hybrids. These results suggest that developmental arrest occurs at various stages in hybrid embryos, including a sexually non-biased arrest during the early stage and a female-biased arrest during the late stage. We discuss the genetic basis for hybrid inviability and its sex bias. PMID:27199007

  9. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  10. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  11. Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the localization and to compare methods for isolation of minute Ascaridia galli larvae in chicken intestine. Firstly, six 7-week-old layer pullets were orally infected with 2,000 embryonated A. galli eggs and necropsied either at 3, 5 or 7 days post infection...

  12. Laparoscopic repair of an incarcerated femoral hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Yagan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A femoral hernia is a rare, acquired condition, which has been reported in less than 5% of all abdominal wall hernias, with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Presentation of case We report a case in a female patient who had a previous open inguinal herniorrhaphy three years previously. She presented with right sided groin pain of one month duration. Ultrasound gave a differential diagnosis of a recurrent inguinal hernia or a femoral hernia. A transabdominal preperitoneal repair was performed and the patient made an uneventful recovery. Discussion Laparoscopic repair of a femoral hernia is still in its infancy and even though the outcomes are superior to an open repair, open surgery remains the standard of care. The decision to perform a laparoscopic trans abdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair was facilitated by the patient having previous open hernia surgery. The learning curve for laparoscopic femoral hernia repair is steep and requires great commitment from the surgeon. Once the learning curve has been breached this is a feasible method of surgical repair. This is demonstrated by the fact that this case report is from a rural hospital in Canada. Conclusion Laparoscopic femoral hernia repair involves more time and specialized laparoscopic skills. The advantages are a lower recurrence rate and lower incidence of inguinodynia. PMID:26581083

  13. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  14. A STUDY ON THE PATTERNS OF CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chitra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Many different patterns have been described to classify the origins of circumflex femoral arteries by many authors since from 1860.The aim of the present study was to classify the circumflex femoral arteries in 100 lower limbs of adult cadavers of both sexes following the recent classification and to compare with the previous studies. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 lower limbs of 50 embalmed human adult cadavers (Male: 37, Female: 13 were dissected and observed for the origins of circumflex femoral arteries in femoral triangle in routine educational dissection in the period of 2005-2009 Results: The medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries have been classified into three different patterns based on the levels of their origin. Pattern I: Both arteries arose from the profunda femoris artery (56%. Type Ia, medial circumflex femoral artery origin was proximal to the lateral circumflex femoral artery origin (69%; Type Ib, lateral circumflex femoral artery origin was proximal to medial circumflex femoral artery origin (16 %; Type Ic, both arteries arose from a common trunk or at same level (14%. Pattern II: One of the arteries arose from the femoral artery and the other from the profunda femoris artery (36%. Type IIa, the medial circumflex femoral artery arose from the femoral artery (75% and Type IIb, the lateral circumflex femoral artery arose from the femoral artery (25%.Pattern III: Both arteries arose from the femoral artery (7%. The medial circumflex femoral artery was absent in a female cadaver on right side. Conclusion: In every pattern or type, there was significantly unilateral higher occurrence than bilateral occurrence. A precise knowledge of the circumflex femoral arteries in relation to the profunda femoris artery is important in surgical interventions of the hip region

  15. CRISPR/Cas9 Targets Chicken Embryonic Somatic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo and generates Phenotypic Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bonsrah, Kwaku Dad; Zhang, Dongcheng; Newgreen, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved. We also achieved targeted modification by homology-directed repair (HDR), producing MEN2A and MEN2B mutations of the RET gene. We also targeted DGCR8 in neural cells of the chicken embryo by in vivo electroporation. After FACS isolation of transfected cells, we observed appropriate sequence changes in DGCR8. Wholemount and frozen section antibody labelling showed reduction of DGCR8 levels in transfected cells. In addition, there was reduced expression levels of DGCR8-associated genes DROSHA, YPEL1 and NGN2. We also observed morphological differences in neural tissue and cardiac-related tissues of transfected embryos. These findings demonstrate that precisely targeted genetic manipulation of the genome using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be extended to the highly adaptable in vivo chicken embryo model. PMID:27694906

  16. In ovo administration of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate positively influences chicken performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mroczek-Sosnowska, Natalia; Łukasiewicz, Monika; Wnuk, Agnieszka;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Copper (Cu) is a key trace mineral involved in a variety of physiological processes, and is commonly used in poultry production. However, regardless of the inclusion level the majority of Cu is excreted with poultry faeces. We hypothesise that in ovo administration will allow for better...... utilisation of Cu during embryo development than when supplied post-natally with feed to growing chickens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of in ovo administration of NanoCu and copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) on broiler chicken performance. RESULTS: The study showed the positive influences...

  17. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondary ischemic necrosis of femoral head due to loss of blood supply following to femoral neck fracture is well known. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuricals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the evaluation of vascularity of the femoral head. The authors made a comparative study of scintigraphic findings and operative findings of 28 cases of femoral neck fracture treated at Kyung Hee University Hospital from April 1980 to May 1984. The results were as follows: 1. In 16 cases of proven avascular necorsis of femoral head, scintigraphy showed absent or decreased activity in 14 cases (87.5%), while radiography showed increased density in 10 cases (62.5%). 2. In 12 cases of proven vital femoral head, scintigraphy showed increased activity in 9 cases (75%) and radiography showed decreased density in 9 cases (75%). 3. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy was an excellent and useful method for assessing bone vitality of femoral head

  18. Emergency intravenous access through the femoral vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R S; Uhlig, P N; Gross, P L; McCabe, C J

    1984-04-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of femoral venous catheterization for resuscitation of critically ill patients in the emergency department setting. From May 1982 to April 1983, 100 attempts were made at percutaneous insertion of a large-bore catheter into the femoral veins of patients presenting to our emergency department in cardiac arrest or requiring rapid fluid resuscitation. Eighty-nine attempts were successful. Insertion was generally considered easy, and flow rates were excellent. The only noted complications were four arterial punctures and one minor groin hematoma. This study suggests that short-term percutaneous catheterization of the femoral vein provides rapid, safe, and effective intravenous access. PMID:6703430

  19. Participation of osteoporosis in femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to measure bone mineral contents of the proximal femur. First, 62 specimens of cancellous bones of the proximal femur obtained at operation were burnt for mineral determination after preoperative QCT measurement to evaluate the relationship between QCT values and ash weight. The findings indicated that QCT measurement of proximal femur was as useful as that of the lumbar spine. Next, 10 groups of 50 men and 50 women ranging in age from the 5th to the 9th decade were tested to define the control mean and range of QCT mineral content of proximal femur, to compare with 32 cases of femoral neck fracture. In women with femoral neck fracture, QCT values of the femoral neck were less than those of the same normal age group except for cases of medial fracture in the 9th decade. This measurement might provide an index for fracture risk. (author)

  20. Selective arteriography in femoral head fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice between conservative and radical operation in case of femoral neck fractures is very important because it is the determining factor for a successfull therapy. In case of epiphysial necrosis, an endoprosthesis as well as an osteosynthesis will be carried out. Selective arteriography of the medical circumflex artery represents the most reliable study to establish, immediately after the fractures, the possible presence of a post-traumatic ischemic necrosis. Angiography, as a reliable diagnostic tool, has to be carried out in the most selective way and needs the image subtraction technique. The authors report their preliminary results on the reliability of angiography in the femoral epiphyseal ischemic necrosis diagnosed by comparing the results of angiography with the wood light test carried out on the surgically removed femoral head

  1. Optimizing Stability in Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ye; Hao, Jiandong; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing stability of femoral neck fracture fixation is important in obtaining a successful outcome. The mechanical problems and strategies for achieving optimal stability differ depending on patients' age and degree of osteoporosis. Femoral neck fractures in younger adults usually result from high-energy trauma and have a vertical fracture pattern. Strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include placing additional screws at right angles to the fracture plane and medial buttress plate augmentation. In elderly patients, screw position relative to the intact cortical femoral neck bone is of critical importance. Additional strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include the concept of length stable fixation, use of adjunctive calcium phosphate cement, and use of novel fixed angle fixation implants. PMID:26488776

  2. Micromotion of cemented and uncemented femoral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D W; O'Connor, D O; Zalenski, E B; Jasty, M; Harris, W H

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the initial stability of cemented and uncemented femoral components within the femoral canals of cadaver femurs during simulated single limb stance and stair climbing. Both types were very stable in simulated single limb stance (maximum micromotion of 42 microns for cemented and 30 microns for uncemented components). However, in simulated stair climbing, the cemented components were much more stable than the uncemented components (76 microns as against 280 microns). There was also greater variation in the stability of uncemented components in simulated stair climbing, with two of the seven components moving 200 microns or more. Future implant designs should aim to improve the initial stability of cementless femoral components under torsional loads; this should improve the chances of bony ingrowth. PMID:1991771

  3. Osteochondritis dissecans in bilateral lateral femoral condyle in knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Zekcer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The osteochondritis dissecans (OCD is a disease of unknown cause that classically affects the knee lateral border of the medial femoral condyle. We present a rare case of OCD in bilateral lateral femoral condyle.

  4. Femoral lipectomy increases postprandial lipemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Cox-York, Kimberly A; Erickson, Christopher B; Law, Christopher K; Anderson, Molly K; Wang, Hong; Jackman, Matthew R; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2015-07-01

    Femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) appears to be cardioprotective compared with abdominal SAT, possibly through better triglyceride (TG) sequestration. We hypothesized that removal of femoral SAT would increase postprandial TG through a reduction in dietary fatty acid (FA) storage. Normal-weight (means ± SD; BMI 23.9 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) women (n = 29; age 45 ± 6 yr) were randomized to femoral lipectomy (LIPO) or control (CON) and followed for 1 yr. Regional adiposity was measured by DEXA and CT. A liquid meal labeled with [(14)C]oleic acid was used to trace the appearance of dietary FA in plasma (6-h postprandial TG), breath (24-h oxidation), and SAT (24-h [(14)C]TG storage). Fasting LPL activity was measured in abdominal and femoral SAT. DEXA leg fat mass was reduced after LIPO vs. CON (Δ-1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.5 kg, P fat area (-39.6 ± 36.6 vs. 4.7 ± 14.6 cm(2), P fat mass and CT visceral fat area were unchanged. Postprandial TG increased (5.9 ± 7.7 vs. -0.6 ± 5.3 × 10(3) mg/dl, P fat remained reduced 1 yr following lipectomy and was accompanied by increased postprandial TG and reduced femoral SAT LPL activity. There were no changes in storage of meal-derived FA or visceral fat. Our data support a protective role for femoral adiposity on circulating TG independent of dietary FA storage and visceral adiposity. PMID:25968576

  5. A correlation between femoral neck shaft angle to femoral neck length

    OpenAIRE

    gujar, subhash moolchand; Vikani, Sanjay; Parmar, Jigna; Bondre, K V

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of proximal end of femur is a prerequisite for a complete understanding of the mechanics of the hip joint and serves as a basis for the treatment of pathological condition of the hip and femur. A total of 250 adult femora were used to  measure femoral neck shaft angle, femoral neck length & femoral total length at S.B.K.S Medical institute, Vadodara. The neck shaft angle range from 116o to 150o with means of 136.3o & no significant side difference. The neck le...

  6. Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zustin, Jozef; Sauter, Guido [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Pathology, Hamburg (Germany); Hahn, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); Morlock, Michael M. [TUHH Hamburg University of Technology, Biomechanics Section, Hamburg (Germany); Ruether, Wolfgang [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Orthopaedics, Hamburg (Germany); Amling, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral

  7. External fixation of complex femoral shaft fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Zlowodzki, M; Prakash, J. S.; Aggarwal, N. K.

    2006-01-01

    Conversion of temporary external fixation to an intramedullary nail within the first 2 weeks after a femoral shaft fracture is standard practice. However, due to financial constraints, in large parts of the world external fixation of femoral shaft fractures is often the definitive treatment. Out of 60 fractures, 47 were followed-up for a minimum period of 39 weeks. The average follow-up time was 75 weeks. Fourteen fractures were closed, and 33 open. Forty-four fractures united at an average o...

  8. Occult, massive hematomas following antegrade femoral angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small groin hematomas are not uncommon after percuatenous antegrade femoral angioplasty (PAFA) and are usually apparent clinically. The authors describe three patients of 235 who underwent PAFA, in whom occult, massive hemorrhage was detected after the procedure. All patients underwent fluoroscopically guided antegrade punctures, with adequate hemostasis achieved after the procedure. CT revealed extraperitoneal hematomas in two patients. One patient required surgical intervention with ligation of the inferior epigastric artery. The authors postulate that these hematomas arose due to inadvertent injury to a branch of the common femoral artery during the puncture. The radiologist should be aware of the chance occurrence of this occult, potentially life-threatening complication

  9. Isolation, cultivation and identification of chicken embryonic stem cells%鸡胚胎干细胞的分离、培养和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安静; 杜立新

    2003-01-01

    SNL cells (permanent line of irradiated mouse fibroblast cells), primary mice embryonic fibroblasts (PMEF)cells and primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts (PCEF) cells were respectively used as the feeder cells for chicken embryonic stem cell culture. The isolated blastoderm cells from the stage X embryos of chicken were cultured in Dulercco' s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, 1 000 IU/ml), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF 10 ng/ml) and stem cell factor (SCF, 5 ng/ml). The alkaline phosphatase (AKP) test, differentiation experiment in vitro and chimeric chicken production were carried out. The resuts showed that culture on feeder layer of PMEF yielded high quality CES cell colonies. The shape of typical CES clone showed as follows: nested aggregation (clone) with clear edge and round surface as well as close arrangement within the clone. Strong positive AKP reactive cells were observed. On the other hand, the fourth passage CES cells could differentiate into various cells in the absence of feeder layer cells and LIF in vitro. The third and fourth passage cells were injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient embryos at stage X. The manipulated embryos were incubated until hatching. Of 269 Hailan embryos injected with CES cells of Shouguang Chickens, 8.2% (22/269) survived to hatching, 3 feather chimeras had been produced, which suggests that an effective culture systems were established and it could promote the growth of CES cells and maintain them in an undifferentiated state.

  10. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  11. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  12. Early roentgenological grading of femoral shortening is correlated to the late outcome after femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using orthoradiography, the distance between the centre of the femoral head and the intercondylar notch was assessed at regular intervals in 144 patients who were followed for a 2-year period after osteosynthesis of a femoral neck fracture. Late complications, such as segmental collapse and non-union, occurred in 27% of the patients. The degree of femoral shortening was significantly correlated to the incidence of late complications. At 1 month, femoral shortening of more than 5 mm was observed in 85% of patients who developed late complications, and in only 5% of patients without such complications. Thus, the observation of a shortening of more than 5 mm predicted a greater than 6-fold increase of the incidence of late complications. The prognostic accuracy of this observation 1 month after treatment was 92%. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Low Dose Radiation Upon Antioxidant Parameters in Skeletal Muscle of Chick Embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs with low dose ionizing radiation upon lipid peroxide (TBARS) level, glutathione (GSH) level, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle of chick embryo and newly hatched chicks. The eggs of a heavy breeding chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the irradiated chick embryos, there was a control group of non-irradiated chick embryos. The antioxidant parameters were measured in breast muscle (m. pectoralis superficialis) and thigh muscle (m. biceps femoris) of chick embryos on 1, 3, 6, 24 and 72 h after egg irradiation. All parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Lipid peroxidation, GSH level and CAT activity decreased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the first hour after irradiation, while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the thigh muscle on the 1st hour after irradiation. CAT activity decreased in the breast muscle of chick embryos on the hour 24 after irradiation. The GSH level increased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the hour 72 after irradiation while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the breast muscle. At the same time CAT activity decreased in breast muscle while lipid peroxidation decreased in thigh muscle. The obtained results showed that acute irradiation of chicken eggs on the 19th day of incubation with the dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation could be an oxidative stress in both types of muscles immediately after irradiation. However, at the one-day old chicks (72 hours after irradiation) this dose could have a stimulating effect upon GSH level in both breast and thigh muscle.(author)

  14. Femoral neck version affects medial femorotibial loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, T A; Digas, Georgios; Bikos, Ch; Karamoulas, V; Magnissalis, E A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of the possible effect that femoral version may have on the bearing equilibrium conditions developed on the medial tibiofemoral compartment. A digital 3D solid model of the left physiological adult femur was used to create morphological variations of different neck-shaft angles (varus 115, normal 125, and valgus 135 degrees) and version angles (-10, 0, and +10 degrees). By means of finite element modeling and analysis techniques (FEM-FEA), a virtual experiment was executed with the femoral models aligned in a neutral upright position, distally supported on a fully congruent tibial tray and proximally loaded with a vertical only hip joint load of 2800 N. Equivalent stresses and their distribution on the medial compartment were computed and comparatively evaluated. Within our context, the neck-shaft angle proved to be of rather indifferent influence. Reduction of femoral version, however, appeared as the most influencing parameter regarding the tendency of the medial compartment to establish its bearing equilibrium towards posteromedial directions, as a consequence of the corresponding anteroposterior changes of the hip centre over the horizontal tibiofemoral plane. We found a correlation between femoral anteversion and medial tibiofemoral compartment contact pressure. Our findings will be further elucidated by more sophisticated FEM-FEA and by clinical studies that are currently planned. PMID:24959355

  15. Femoral fractures in the extremely elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Giulio; Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Ghilardi, Marco; Bianchi, Maria Giulia; Ceglia, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    Summary At the Trauma Unit of Pisa we performed an observational study reviewing nineties that about 200 patients were treated and underwent surgery for femoral neck fracture from 1998 to 2005. The clinical and radiographic results obtained were discrete, with a mortality of 42.5%, the survivors are still having a good quality of life. PMID:22461814

  16. Sequential changes in the femoral head after intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck. MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors obtained T1-weighted MRI images of the femoral head after fracture of the femoral neck and classified the signals into four patterns to investigate the sequential changes of the femoral head. The T1-weighted MRI images obtained initially after femoral neck fracture showed a normal pattern in 10 of the 15 hip joints studied. MRI images obtained subsequently still showed the normal signal pattern in eight of the 10 hip joints which had shown the normal pattern in the first MRI, while two of the 10 joints subsequently showed a band pattern. The joint with the homogeneous pattern in the first MRI subsequently showed a band pattern. Of the three joints with an inhomogeneous pattern in the first MRI, two joints showed a subsequent band pattern, and the other a normal pattern. The joints which showed a band pattern continued to show a similar band pattern. Eventually, all hip joints studied showed a normal or band pattern within six months after intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck. The joints which showed a band pattern in the first MRI continued to show a similar band pattern in the subsequent MRI, without any change. Collapse occurred in one hip joint which showed an extensive band pattern. Plain X-rays showed collapse of one of the joints with a band pattern in the MRI image. It was therefore suggested that necrosis may be present histologically in the femoral head after fracture of the femoral neck even when no abnormalities are present in plain X-rays. Based on the above results, it is considered necessary to follow-up patients with femoral neck fracture with MRI for at least six months until the normal or band pattern is observed. (K.H.)

  17. Early prediction of avascular necrosis of the femoral head following femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of acute fracture of the femoral neck remains an unsolved problem. Fifty-three patients are presented using 99mTc phosphate scintigraphy with quantitative computer interpretation to predict the viability of the femoral head following acute fracture. The accuracy of prediction was 92.5%; the scans were incorrect in four patients. Armed with a safe, simple diagnostic procedure and a greater than 90% accurate prognosis, a rational program of treatment can be prescribed for the individual patient

  18. Rotational Position of Femoral and Tibial Components in TKA Using the Femoral Transepicondylar Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietti, Paolo; Sensi, Lorenzo; Cuomo, Pierluigi; Ciardullo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Proper femoral and tibial component rotational positioning in TKA is critical for outcomes. Several rotational landmarks are frequently used with different advantages and limitations. We wondered whether coronal axes in the tibia and femur based on the transepicondylar axis in the femur would correlate with anteroposterior deformity. We obtained computed tomography scans of 100 patients with arthritis before they underwent TKA. We measured the posterior condylar angle on the femoral side and ...

  19. Reproductive characteristics of transgenic (TG) chickens carrying an exogenous gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FumioEbara

    1999-01-01

    An exogenous gene (lacZ/MiwZ) introduced into the germinal crescent region (GCR) of avian embryos was con-finned to be successfully transferred to the gonads via the primordial germ ceils (PGCs). Following hatching, the chinkswere raised until the stage of sexual maturation. The incorporation of MiwZ DNA was detected in male and female trans-genic chickens, respectively. The normal male and female transgenic birds were subjected to artificial insemfution according to routine methods. Fertilized eggs obtained from female transgenic chickens were incubated for 7"2 h and the em-bryos removed from the yolk were examined by X-gal staining to detect the introduction of MiwZ in the offspring. As a result,

  20. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication

  1. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  2. Contribution to the method for determining femoral neck axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck axis plotting is of great significance in measuring parameters that define femoral head-neck junction sphericity in the group of patients with the femoroacetabular impingement. Literature methods of femoral neck axis determination have weaknesses associated with the risk of obtaining inaccurate values of certain parameters. Objective. Method of plotting of the femoral neck axis by two parallel lines that belong to the medial quarter of the femoral neck is proposed. Method was tested on the anatomic specimens and the respective radiograms. Methods. A total of 31 anatomic specimens of the proximal femur and respective radiographs were used, on which three axes of the femoral neck were plotted; accordingly, alpha angle value was determined and tested with corresponding parametric tests, with the measurement error of less than 5% and the strength of the applied tests of 80%. Results. Alpha angle values obtained by plotting femoral neck axis using the literature and methods we have proposed were not significantly different in our series, and, in more than a half of the specimens, the two axes overlapped each other. Conclusion. The advantage of the proposed method does not depend on the position of the femoral head rotation center in relation to the femoral neck, which favors proposed method for measuring the angles of femoral head sphericity in patients with the femoral head translation. Disadvantage of the study is a small sample size for valid conclusions about the applicability of this method in clinical practice.

  3. Moderate Heat Challenge Increased Yolk Steroid Hormones and Shaped Offspring Growth and Behavior in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Bertin; Marine Chanson; Joël Delaveau; Frédéric Mercerand; Erich Möstl; Ludovic Calandreau; Cécile Arnould; Christine Leterrier; Anne Collin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature--within the thermotolerance range--would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laying hens were raised under a...

  4. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  5. The Association of Femoral Neck Stress Fractures with Femoral Acetabular Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marc R.; Goldin, Michael; Anderson, Christian; Fredericson, Michael; Stevens, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if there is an increased incidence of femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) in patients presenting with stress fractures of the femoral neck. Methods: After IRB approval, the imaging studies of 25 athletes (22 females, 3 males, mean age 26, range 19 - 39 years) with femoral neck stress injuries were assessed for the presence of features suggesting FAI, including acetabular retroversion, coxa profunda, abnormal femoral head-neck junction, fibrocystic change, os acetabulae, labral tear and chondral injury. All subjects had to have an adequate AP Pelvis radiograph, a lateral radiograph of the affected hip, and an MRI of the affected hip. The alpha angle, anterior offset ratio, and center to edge (CE) angle were measured on radiographs. The grade of stress injury was determined on MR images. All images and measurements were made by a musculoskeletal fellowship trained radiologist, a fellowship trained orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic sports medicine fellow and a physical medicine and rehabilitation resident. Charts were reviewed to determine treatment of the stress fracture, outcome and final follow up, as well as to determine if the patient had any further treatment for their hip. Results: Of the 25 hips (18 right, 7 left) with femoral neck stress reactions, 9 were grade 2 (bone marrow edema), 5 were grade 3 (high T2 and low T1 marrow signal), and 11 were grade 4 (stress fracture). Twenty patients (80%) had coxa profunda - where the floor of the cotyloid fossa touches or extends beyond the ilioischial line (incidence in general population is 15.2% of males, and 19.4% of females). Coxa profunda, defined by the floor of the cotyloid fossa touching or extending beyond the ilioischial line and a center edge angle of more than 35o, was present in 28% of subjects. Acetabular retroversion as assessed by the crossover sign was present in 42% (normal incidence is 5% of population). Center edge angle was greater than 35o in 20% and greater than 40 o

  6. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  7. Cryopreservation of embryos: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Florent

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation (liquid nitrogen, -196°C) is the only safe and cost-effective option for long-term -conservation of genetic resources of non-orthodox seed species. Cryopreservation protocols have been developed for various materials including seeds, dormant buds, cell suspensions, calli, apices, zygotic, and somatic embryos of numerous plant species. Zygotic embryos or embryonic axes of almost 100 different species and somatic embryos of almost 40 different species from both temperate and tropical climates, comprising crops, fruit, and forest trees as well as wild species, whose seeds displayed orthodox, intermediate, and recalcitrant storage characteristics, have been successfully cryopreserved. With zygotic embryos and embryonic axes, the desiccation technique has been used with the majority of the species tested, leading to highly variable survival and recovery after freezing, especially during earlier experiments. More recently, new cryopreservation techniques viz. encapsulation-dehydration and vitrification have been employed, leading to generally improved results. With somatic embryos, different cryopreservation methods have been used viz. desiccation, pre-growth-desiccation, encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification, and droplet-vitrification. There are also a few examples of the utilisation of slow controlled freezing, which correspond to the earlier experiments performed with somatic embryos. The development and application of cryopreservation is significantly more advanced for somatic embryos, in comparison with zygotic embryos, mainly because of the different origin and characteristics of the species treated. In most cases, zygotic embryos originate from tropical, wild species, for which knowledge and techniques relevant to the development of cryopreservation protocols are limited, or even non-existent. By contrast, somatic embryos are generally produced from cultivated species, which have already been studied extensively

  8. Differential gene expression of phosphoglyceric kinase (PGK) and hypoxic adaptation in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CunFang; YUAN CunZhong; ZHANG Lao; WU ChangXin; LI Ning

    2007-01-01

    Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the Phosphoglyceric Kinase (PGK) gene were discovered based on comparison of the sequences from an altiplano chicken breed (Tibetan chicken) and two lowland breeds (White Leghorn and Shouguang chicken). Gel-shift results indicate that one of these SNPs, an A→G mutation at position 59 in exon10, is able to bind hypoxia-induced factor-I (HIF-1),functioning as a hypoxia response element (HRE). The mutant gene results in M→T mutation at position 379 amino acid. The combined activity of this HRE and HIF-1 could increase correspondingly under a hypoxic stimulus. Hypoxia leads to increased death rates of chicken embryos; while the M→T mutation described herein is prevalent in healthy embryos grown under hypoxic conditions, thus it may represent an adaptation to hypoxia. Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription PCR results revealed that HIF-1 upregulates the transcript level of the glycolytic enzyme PGK in the brain and skeletal muscle of animals subjected to hypoxia. Thus, a large amount of ATP is produced by increased glycolysis,allowing the organism to meet energy metabolism demands. As such, we believe this SNP to be an adaptation to the external anoxic environment.

  9. Molecular Characteristics of S1 Gene of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Chicken Proventriculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-qin; ZHOU Ji-yong; John Dikki; SHEN Xing-yan; CHEN Ji-gang; ZHANG De-yong

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus was isolated from swollen proventriculi of clinically ill chicken. Thesuspected virus samples (2/97, 3/97, 1/98) were adapted in SPF chicken embryos for virus isolation andidentification. All the virus isolates were able to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes after treatment with trypsin,and interfer with the reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chicken embryos, and have low antigenic relat-edness values with reference positive IBV. The isolates 2/97, 3/97, 1/98 RNAs extracted from the allantoicfluid of inoculated embryonated eggs were converted to cDNA by reverse transcription with 3'-primer of S1gene of (IBV). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with two primers which span the S1 gene.Amplified product of 1.93 kb was subjected to EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ digestion and the fragments obtainedwere the same as expected size. The PCR product was ligated to pBlueScript-SK (+) vector, and its nucleotidesequence was determined by the dideoxy-mediated chain termination method. Nucleotide sequence analysisshowed 73.6 - 99.7 % homology between the isolated IBV and the IBV strains in GenBank. The homology ofamino acid was 71.4 - 99.4 %.

  10. Differential gene expression of phosphoglyceric kinase (PGK) and hypoxic adaptation in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the Phosphoglyceric Kinase (PGK) gene were discov- ered based on comparison of the sequences from an altiplano chicken breed (Tibetan chicken) and two lowland breeds (White Leghorn and Shouguang chicken). Gel-shift results indicate that one of these SNPs, an A→G mutation at position 59 in exon10, is able to bind hypoxia-induced factor-l (HIF-1), functioning as a hypoxia response element (HRE). The mutant gene results in M→T mutation at position 379 amino acid. The combined activity of this HRE and HIF-1 could increase correspondingly under a hypoxic stimulus. Hypoxia leads to increased death rates of chicken embryos; while the M→T mutation described herein is prevalent in healthy embryos grown under hypoxic conditions, thus it may repre- sent an adaptation to hypoxia. Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription PCR results revealed that HIF-1 upregulates the transcript level of the glycolytic enzyme PGK in the brain and skeletal mus- cle of animals subjected to hypoxia. Thus, a large amount of ATP is produced by increased glycolysis, allowing the organism to meet energy metabolism demands. As such, we believe this SNP to be an adaptation to the external anoxic environment.

  11. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  12. Research of blastocyte-like structure in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; YANG Ning; LI Ning; PAN Qiuzhen; LI Junying; HAN Hongbing; SUN Shufeng; YANG Jun; XU Shuguang; TIAN Liang; LIAN Zhengxing

    2005-01-01

    The chicken embryo is a classic model used to investigate embryonic development, gene expression, and tissue differentiation, and is also an important research tool in studying the animal functional genomics. The whole blastoderms of fresh unincubated eggs from White Leghorn chickens were collected with a paper ring, mechanically broken into small pieces and cultured in medium. Then the small pieces would develop into blastocyte-like structures (BLS), which could be facilitated by an addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the primary culture and their diameter was nearly doubled from 12 to 24 h. The additional yolk had no positive effect on the development in the first 12 h but encouraged the BLSs attaching and inner cells differentiating instead in 24 h. The inner cells of the BLS showing a high alkaline-phosphatase activity similar to those in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and also expressing a large amount of the specific stage embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) on the surface, which was known to be the characteristic of non-differentiated mouse and avian ES cells, could finally differentiate into nerve-like cells, fibroblast cells and so on in the medium. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) facilitated the cells' proliferation and prevented differentiation in the suspended culture of the BLSs. So we drew the conclusion that the BLS obtained from broken blastoderm can be used to amplify avian ES cells so as to initiate a new method of producing transgenic chickens.

  13. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  14. Ethical euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Herr, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs are suggested as an alternative to mammalian models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is widely used for examination of angiogenesis, xenotransplants and for virus production. Unfortunately, it is mostly not taken into account, that the chick embryo's ability to experience pain starts to develop at day 7 of breeding. In our view, this model is only in accordance with the 3 R principles, if an appropriate anesthesia of the chick embryo in potentially painful procedures is provided. Although many experimental approaches are performed on the none-innervated CAM, the euthanasia of the embryo strongly requires a more human technique than the usually used freezing at -20°C, decapitation or in ovo fixation with paraformaldehyde without prior anesthesia. However, protocols regarding feasible and ethical methods for anesthesia and euthanasia of avian embryos are currently not available. Therefore, we established an easy and reliable method for the euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

  15. Auxin control of embryo patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, B.K.; Weijers, D.

    2009-01-01

    Plants start their life as a single cell, which, during the process of embryogenesis, is transformed into a mature embryo with all organs necessary to support further growth and development. Therefore, each basic cell type is first specified in the early embryo, making this stage of development exce

  16. Femoral head fracture without hip dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya K Aggarwal; Ashwani Soni; Daljeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries.We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high energy trauma due to road traffic accident.He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39.He received cementless total hip replacement.At latest follow-up of 2.3 years,functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95.Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now.The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity,possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries.

  17. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  18. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  19. Spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula due to femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Pandey, Anand; Kumar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula is a rare entity. We encountered a case of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula in the groin region due to femoral hernia. A 60-year-old man presented with spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula in the left groin region without signs of peritonitis. He was kept on conservative treatment, but on third postadmission day, he developed a swelling in his right groin, which became firm and irreducible with signs of intestinal obstruction. On exploratory laparotomy, b...

  20. Fracture of femoral total hip replacement components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomechanical factors responsible for fatigue fracture of femoral total hip component stems were studied by laboratory loading simulations using implants which were instrumented with strain gauges. Stress levels were low when the prosthesis was rigidly fixed in acrylic along its entire length. Significantly higher stresses were recorded in stems which were loose in the acrylic or which were fixed in their distal portion only

  1. Femoral midshaft fractures: expandable versus locked nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Tao; Song, Yu-Chen; Zhou, Xiao-Zhong; Zhou, Hai-Bin; Luo, Zong-Ping; Dong, Qi-Rong

    2015-04-01

    Femoral midshaft fracture is one of the most common clinical injuries and is often caused by high-energy traffic accidents. Intramedullary nailings, plates, and external fixators are all used as treatment alternatives for a variety of patients depending on fracture location, displacement, comminution, soft tissue condition, and local tradition. Locked intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment method for most diaphyseal fractures and has good clinical results. The goal of this study was to compare expandable and locked intramedullary nailing for the treatment of AO type 32A and 32B1 femoral midshaft fractures. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 46 patients (33 men and 13 women; mean age, 32.3 years; range, 22-52 years) with femoral midshaft fractures who were divided into 2 groups-one treated with an expandable intramedullary nailing method and the other with a conventional locked intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups were compared with respect to operation time, fluoroscopic time, amount of estimated blood loss, hospitalization time, healing time, and complications. Patients were followed for at least 1 year. The results of this study showed that all of the patients achieved bone union within 12 to 24 months. Expandable nailing performed better than locked nailing in operation time, fluoroscopic time, amount of estimated blood loss, and healing time (P<.001). There was no difference in hospitalization time and no visible shortening or severe complications were observed in either group. Based on the results of this study, the expandable intramedullary nailing is an easy and effective treatment for AO type 32A and 32B1 diaphyseal femoral fractures. PMID:25901625

  2. Femoral Neck Version Affects Medial Femorotibial Loading

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Papaioannou; Georgios Digas; Ch. Bikos; Karamoulas, V.; E. A. Magnissalis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of the possible effect that femoral version may have on the bearing equilibrium conditions developed on the medial tibiofemoral compartment. A digital 3D solid model of the left physiological adult femur was used to create morphological variations of different neck-shaft angles (varus 115, normal 125, and valgus 135 degrees) and version angles (−10, 0, and +10 degrees). By means of finite element modeling and analysis techniques (F...

  3. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  4. Radiofrequency ablation of two femoral head chondroblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petsas, Theodore [Department of Radiology, University of Patras (Greece); Megas, Panagiotis [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Patras (Greece)]. E-mail: panmegas@med.upatras.gr; Papathanassiou, Zafiria [Department of Radiology, University of Patras (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous bone tumor. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for pain relief and prevention of further growth. Open surgical techniques are associated with complications, particularly when the tumors are located in deep anatomical sites. The authors performed RF ablation in two cases of subarticular femoral head chondroblastomas and emphasize its positive impact. The clinical course, the radiological findings and the post treatment results are discussed.

  5. Viability of bovine demi embryo after splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo derived from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Imron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo embryo production was limited by number of donor, wide variability respond due to superovulation program and also immunoactifity of superovulation hormone (FSH. Splitting technology could be an alternative to increase the number of transferrable embryos into recipien cows. Splitting is done with cutting embryo becoming two equal pieces (called demi embrio base on ICM orientation. The objective of this research was to determine the viability of demi embryo obtained from embryo splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo. The results showed that demi embryos which performed blastocoel reexpansion 3 hours after embryo splitting using fresh and frozen thawed embryos were 76.9 and 76.2% respectively. Base on existention of inner cell mass (ICM, the number of demi embryos developed with ICM from fresh and frozen thawed embryos were not significantly different (90.6 and 85.7% respectively. The cell number of demi embryo from fresh embryos splitting was not different compared with those from frozen thawed embryos (36.1 and 35.9 respectively. These finding indicated that embryo splitting can be applied to frozen thawed embryos with certain condition as well as fresh embryos.

  6. MR imaging in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that conventional determination of the degree of epiphyseal slipping is not exact. Radiography and CT provide no information about the growth plate, joint effusion, or possible epiphyseal reattachment. Ten patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis were examined in both hip joints by means of frontal T1-weighted and opposed long TR gradient-echo (GRE) sequences and parasagittal T1-weighted images along the femoral neck. Normal measurements were established in 12 healthy adolescents. The authors imaged in various positions and different parasagittal angles to rule out errors due to positioning. Exact determination of the epipyseal angle was enabled by drawing a ventral tangent to the femoral neck. The average MR imaging angle was 40.3 degrees in epiphyseolysis and 66.0 degrees on the unaffected side. Healthy male juveniles reached 77.9 degrees at age 13-17 years and 69.9 degrees at age 5-9 years. Conventional measurements on Lauenstein projection gave measurements of 55.6 degrees for epiphyseolysis and 85.7 degrees on the unaffected side. Errors due to positioning are lower than 4 degrees

  7. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  8. Prophylactic pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis: does it affect proximal femoral morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Gerard R; Campbell, Donald M; Wilson, Neil I L; Maclean, Jamie G B

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to determine whether prophylactic pinning of the unaffected hip in unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis affects the proximal femoral morphology. Twenty-four hips prophylactically pinned were compared with 26 cases observed. The articulotrochanteric distance (ATD) and the trochanteric-trochanteric distance (TTD) were measured. Postoperative radiographs were compared with final follow-up radiographs. The final TTD : ATD ratio was higher (P=0.048) in the pinned group, suggesting relative coxa vara/breva. There was a smaller difference between the two hips in the prophylactically pinned group (0.7) as opposed to those observed (1.47). Prophylactic pinning does not cause growth to stop immediately but alters the proximal femoral morphology.

  9. A Novel Ex Ovo Banding Technique to Alter Intracardiac Hemodynamics in an Embryonic Chicken System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vinal; Junor, Lorain; Balhaj, Marwa; Eberth, John F; Potts, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    The new model presented here can be used to understand the influence of hemodynamics on specific cardiac developmental processes, at the cellular and molecular level. To alter intracardiac hemodynamics, fertilized chicken eggs are incubated in a humidified chamber to obtain embryos of the desired stage (HH17). Once this developmental stage is achieved, the embryo is maintained ex ovo and hemodynamics in the embryonic heart are altered by partially constricting the outflow tract (OFT) with a surgical suture at the junction of the OFT and ventricle (OVJ). Control embryos are also cultured ex ovo but are not subjected to the surgical intervention. Banded and control embryos are then incubated in a humidified incubator for the desired period of time, after which 2D ultrasound is employed to analyze the change in blood flow velocity at the OVJ as a result of OFT banding. Once embryos are maintained ex ovo, it is important to ensure adequate hydration in the incubation chamber so as to prevent drying and eventually embryo death. Using this new banded model, it is now possible to perform analyses of changes in the expression of key players involved in valve development and to understand the role of hemodynamics on cellular responses in vivo, which could not be achieved previously. PMID:27213265

  10. MR evaluation of femoral neck version and tibial torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, James Karl; Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California, San Diego, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pring, Maya E. [Rady Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Abnormalities of femoral neck version have been associated with a number of hip abnormalities in children, including slipped capital femoral epiphysis, proximal femoral focal deficiency, coxa vara, a deep acetabulum and, rarely, developmental dysplasia of the hip. Orthopedic surgeons also are interested in quantifying the femoral neck anteversion or retroversion in children especially to plan derotational osteotomies. Historically, the angle of femoral version and tibial torsion has been measured with the use of radiography and later by CT. Both methods carry with them the risks associated with ionizing radiation. Techniques that utilize MR are used less often because of the associated lengthy imaging times. This article describes a technique using MRI to determine femoral neck version and tibial torsion with total scan times of approximately 10 min. (orig.)

  11. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG)

  12. Computerized tomography in evaluation of decreased acetabular and femoral anteversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography has received a new importance. It has been shown that decreased anteversion of femur and acetabulum, when both have decreased angles, are causing pain and osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Operative treatment should be performed before osteoarthritis develops. Exact measurements therefore are necessary. The investigation should be performed in prone position to have the pelvis lying in a defined and normal position. Femoral torsion is measured between the transverse axis of the knee and the femoral neck. The transverse axis for measurement of the femoral anteversion is defined by a rectangular line to the sagittal plane. For evaluation of the femoral anteversion in total the angle of the condyles has to be added to the femoral neck angle when the knee is found in internal rotation. Acetabular anteversion should be measured at the level where the femoral head is still in full contact and congruence with the anterior margin of the acetabulum. (orig.)

  13. Management of femoral artery pseudoaneurysm due to addictive drug injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 王三明; 陈小东

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study surgical management for patients with femoral pseudoaneurysm resulting from addictive druginjection.Methods: Clinical data of 34 patients with femoral pseudoaneurysm resulting from addictive drug injection were retrospectively reviewed.Results: Thirteen patients underwent bypass graft ( end to side) of external iliac artery and superficial femoral artery using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE).Three patients who had an autogenous saphenous vein graft in situs, one of whom was then performed an ePTFE graft when rupture and bleeding occurred at the anastomotic site. Color Doppler image showed patent grafted blood vessels in all the patients after operation. Eighteen patients had their femoral arteries ligated. Limbs of all the 34 patients were saved.Conclusions: Ligating femoral artery is an effective way to treat femoral artery pseudoaneurysm if autogenous saphenous vein graft or artificial vessel graft is notapplicable.

  14. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment. PMID:26895726

  15. Operative Management of Crossover Femoral-femoral Graft Erosion into Bladder: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiani, Karan; Mahdy, Ayman

    2016-09-01

    Erosion of vascular grafts is not uncommon as seen in the recent literature. There have been many case reports documenting the work up and management of erosion of these grafts into bowel. We report a case of a crossover femoral-femoral graft that eroded into the anterior bladder wall and was incidentally found as an adherent bladder stone during cystoscopy. We demonstrate the importance of having a high level of clinical suspicion for eroding vascular grafts when preoperative imaging shows close proximity of graft to bladder. PMID:27462547

  16. Isolated common femoral artery aneurysm: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Saurabh; Nalachandran, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Isolated aneurysm of common femoral artery is a rare occurrence. They may mimic other common conditions like groin lymph nodes or groin hernia. Case presentation Here we present a case of 61-years-old Chinese gentleman who presented with a right groin lump, which was suspected to be groin hernia but turned out common femoral artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was surgically excised and a prosthetic vascular repair was done. Conclusion Isolated common femoral artery aneurysms are rare ...

  17. Hypoxia sensing in the fetal chicken femoral artery is mediated by the mitochondrial electron transport chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoer, Bea; Cogolludo, Angel L; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco;

    2010-01-01

    -induced relaxation was abolished or significantly reduced by the mETC inhibitors rotenone (complex I), myxothiazol and antimycin A (complex III), and NaN(3) (complex IV). The complex II inhibitor 3-nitroproprionic acid enhanced the hypoxic relaxation. In contrast, the relaxations mediated by acetylcholine, sodium...... nitroprusside, or forskolin were not affected by the mETC blockers. Hypoxia induced a slight increase in ROS production (as measured by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-fluorescence), but hypoxia-induced relaxation was not affected by scavenging of superoxide (polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase) or H(2)O(2......) (polyethylene glycol-catalase) or by NADPH-oxidase inhibition (apocynin). Also, the K(+) channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium (nonselective), diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (voltage-gated K(+) channel 1.5), glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel), iberiotoxin (large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel...

  18. Deletion of Indian hedgehog gene causes dominant semi-lethal Creeper trait in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sihua; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yanyun; Yi, Guoqiang; Li, Junying; Lian, Ling; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Creeper trait, a classical monogenic phenotype of chicken, is controlled by a dominant semi-lethal gene. This trait has been widely cited in the genetics and molecular biology textbooks for illustrating autosomal dominant semi-lethal inheritance over decades. However, the genetic basis of the Creeper trait remains unknown. Here we have utilized ultra-deep sequencing and extensive analysis for targeting causative mutation controlling the Creeper trait. Our results indicated that the deletion of Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene was only found in the whole-genome sequencing data of lethal embryos and Creeper chickens. Large scale segregation analysis demonstrated that the deletion of IHH was fully linked with early embryonic death and the Creeper trait. Expression analysis showed a much lower expression of IHH in Creeper than wild-type chickens. We therefore suggest the deletion of IHH to be the causative mutation for the Creeper trait in chicken. Our findings unravel the genetic basis of the longstanding Creeper phenotype mystery in chicken as the same gene also underlies bone dysplasia in human and mouse, and thus highlight the significance of IHH in animal development and human haploinsufficiency disorders. PMID:27439785

  19. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  20. Low cost labeling with highlighter ink efficiently visualizes developing blood vessels in avian and mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Yuta; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2013-12-01

    To understand how blood vessels form to establish the intricate network during vertebrate development, it is helpful if one can visualize the vasculature in embryos. We here describe a novel labeling method using highlighter ink, easily obtained in stationery stores with a low cost, to visualize embryo-wide vasculatures in avian and mice. We tested 50 different highlighters for fluorescent microscopy with filter sets equipped in a standard fluorescent microscope. The yellow and violet inks yielded fluorescent signals specifically detected by the filters used for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) detections, respectively. When the ink solution was infused into chicken/quail and mouse embryos, vasculatures including large vessels and capillaries were labeled both in living and fixed embryos. Ink-infused embryos were further subjected to histological sections, and double stained with antibodies including QH-1 (quail), α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and PECAM-1 (mouse), revealing that the endothelial cells were specifically labeled by the infused highlighter ink. Highlighter-labeled signals were detected with a resolution comparable to or higher than signals of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-lectin and Rhodamine-dextran, conventionally used for angiography. Furthermore, macroconfocal microscopic analyses with ink-infused embryos visualized fine vascular structures of both embryo proper and extra-embryonic plexus in a Z-stack image of 2400 μm thick with a markedly high resolution. Together, the low cost highlighter ink serves as an alternative reagent useful for visualization of blood vessels in developing avian and mouse embryos and possibly in other animals.

  1. [Isolated true aneurysm of the deep femoral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon du Mont, L; Holzer, T; Kazandjian, C; Saucy, F; Corpataux, J M; Rinckenbach, S; Déglise, S

    2016-07-01

    Aneurysms of the deep femoral artery, accounting for 5% of all femoral aneurysms, are uncommon. There is a serious risk of rupture. We report the case of an 83-year-old patient with a painless pulsatile mass in the right groin due to an aneurysm of the deep femoral artery. History taking revealed no cardiovascular risk factors and no other aneurysms at other localizations. The etiology remained unclear because no recent history of local trauma or puncture was found. ACT angiography was performed, revealing a true isolated aneurysm of the deep femoral artery with a diameter of 90mm, beginning 1cm after its origin. There were no signs of rupture or distal emboli. Due to unsuitable anatomy for an endovascular approach, the patient underwent open surgery, with exclusion of the aneurysm and interposition of an 8-mm Dacron graft to preserve deep femoral artery flow. Due to their localization, the diagnosis and the management of aneurysms of the deep femoral artery can be difficult. Options are surgical exclusion or an endovascular approach in the absence of symptoms or as a bridging therapy. If possible, blood flow to the distal deep femoral artery should be maintained, the decision depending also on the patency of the superficial femoral artery. In case of large size, aneurysms of the deep femoral artery should be treated without any delay. PMID:27289256

  2. Treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-qiang; HAN Yi-sheng; LI Xin-kui; LI Ming-quan; WEI Yi-yong; WU Zi-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment options and causes of misdiagnosis of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures. Methods: Among 20 patients with ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, 19 were treated operatively and 1 was treated conservatively. Sixteen cases of femoral shaft fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with compressive plate, and 2 cases were treated with interlocking intramedullary nailing. Eighteen femoral neck fractures were treated with cannulated screws. Another patient was treated with proximal femoral nail to fix both the neck and shaft. Delayed diagnosis for femoral neck frac tures occurred in 2 cases preoperatively. Results: A total of 19 patients were followed up. The follow up period ranged from 5 to 48 months with an average of 15 months. All the fractures were healed. Conclusion: For case of femoral shaft fracture caused by high energy injury, an AP pelvic film should be routinely taken. Once the femoral neck fracture is recognized, operative reduction and fixation should be performed in time. Femoral neck and shaft fractures should be fixed separately.

  3. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  4. Non-surgical embryo transfer in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Embryo transfer in pigs has been performed surgically for a long time. However, a less invasive, non-surgical, procedure of embryo transfer could be a valuable tool for research (to study embryo survival and embryo-uterus interactions) and practical applications (export, prevention of disease transm

  5. Persistent knee complaints after retrograde unreamed nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Moumni, Mostafa; Schraven, Pim; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde nailing is an attractive method for stabilisation of femoral shaft fractures in cases of polytrauma, ipsilateral pelvic, acetabular, tibial and femoral neck fractures, bilateral femoral fractures, obese and pregnant patients. However, retrograde nailing may result in complaints about the

  6. To study the role of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the femoral head vascularity in intracapsular femoral neck fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Abhishek, E-mail: abhiortho27@gmail.co [Department of Orthopedics, 513, Thermal Colony, Sector-22, Faridabad 121005, Haryana (India); Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew [Department of Orthopedics, St Stephen' s Hospital, Tis hazari, Delhi, New Delhi 110054 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote

  7. Study on the proximal femoral parameters in the healthy Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of proximal femoral parameter in the healthy Chinese and provide anatomic basis for the design and research of the domestic prosthesis. Methods: One hundred computed radiographs perpendicular to the hip joint were selected randomly and the proximal femoral parameter were measured by means of Unisight software. These parameters include diameter of femoral head, length of femoral neck, neck-shaft angle, offset, high of femoral head, the width of bone medullary cavity at the plane of lesser trochanter, 20mm above and below the lesser trochanter, diameter and height of the narrow cavity, canal flare index(CFI) and metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI). The proximal femoral parameters among the Chinese, American and European were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the proximal femoral parameters between ours and American and European, especially in aspect of offset, height of femoral head, diameter of femoral head, the width of bone medullary cavity at the plane of lesser trochanter, 20mm above and below the lesser trochanter and diameter of the narrow cavity. The percentage of funnel-shaped femora (CFI>4.7) in our group was larger than that of the American or the European (P<0.01), which was 20%, 8%, and 11.5% respectively, but there was no significant difference between ours and other domestic scholar's. Conclusion: Computed radiograph system facililates to the research of the morphology of the proximal femur and the measurement of relative parameters and the survey of the characteristics of Chinese femoral. It is important for research and manufacture of the domestic prosthesis fitting the features of the femurs of the Chinese femoral to set up a database of the healthy Chinese proximal femora. (authors)

  8. Biogeometry of femoral neck for implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwa J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of fracture neck femur with three cannulated cancellous screws in an apex proximal configuration is practised in many parts of the world. Methods : Dimensions of femoral neck at the middle of transcervical neck using CT scan (live neck and vernier caliper (dry cadeveric neck in 20 subjects respectively were measured. Results : Inferior half of the neck is narrower than superior half. Conclusion : Biogeometry of the neck of femur does not accomodate two inferior screws and thus fixation of fracture neck femur with three canulated cancellous screws in an apex distal configuration is recommended.

  9. Eosinophilic granuloma of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takahiro; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Ogura, Koichi; Imanishi, Jungo; Hozumi, Takahiro; Funata, Nobuaki

    2011-05-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma occurs almost exclusively in the diaphysis or metaphysis, when tubular bones are affected. The investigators present an extremely rare case of eosinophilic granuloma arising at the epiphysis of the femoral head in an 8-year-old boy. Plain radiographs and computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion, suggesting chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. However, the findings on magnetic resonance images were different from typical features of chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. The lesion was curetted. Histological diagnosis was eosinophilic granuloma. Differential diagnoses of a radiolucent lesion at the epiphysis in a child should include, though quite rare, eosinophilic granuloma.

  10. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua

    2016-01-01

    Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection. PMID:27232188

  11. Femoral compressive neuropathy from iliopsoas haematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sneha Ganu; Yesha Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue virus. We reported a case of femoral compression neuropathy due to iliopsoas hematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever. Iliopsoas muscle hematoma can cause femoral neuropathy with resultant pain and paralysis. Such manifestations are not well documented in the literature. The pathogenesis of hematoma and compressive neuropathy with its appropriate management is discussed.

  12. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  13. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  14. Complete guidewire retention after femoral vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat, Bahar Gulcay; Guler, Sertac; Soyuduru, Murat; Guven, Ibrahim; Ramadan, Hayri

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used for various purposes in the emergency departments (ED). The main uses of CVCs in the EDs are emergent hemodialysis, in situations where peripheral vein catheterization cannot be achieved, and continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The complications related to CVC insertion are usually mechanical and observed in the near term after the procedure. Retained CVC guidewire after catheterization is a rare complication in the published reports and usually related with intra- or postoperative settings and jugular or subclavian vein. The present study reported a young female patient who underwent left femoral vein catheterization 6 months earlier in an intensive care unit of another hospital and was diagnosed with complete guidewire retention in the ED. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in published reports with a diagnosis of retained CVC guidewire with retrograde migration into the femoral vein. Surprisingly, the patient developed no thrombotic or embolic complication during this 6-month period. PMID:26657235

  15. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya A M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70

  16. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...

  17. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken p...

  18. Cyclic variations in incubation conditions induce adaptive responses to later heat exposure in chickens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Bedrani, L; Berri, C; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Coustham, V; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Hennequet-Antier, C; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Collin, A

    2015-01-01

    Selection programs have enabled broiler chickens to gain muscle mass without similar enlargement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems that are essential for thermoregulatory efficiency. Meat-type chickens cope with high ambient temperature by reducing feed intake and growth during chronic and moderate heat exposure. In case of acute heat exposure, a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality can occur. In order to alleviate heat stress in the long term, research has recently focused on early thermal manipulation. Aimed at stimulation of long-term thermotolerance, the thermal manipulation of embryos is a method based on fine tuning of incubation conditions, taking into account the level and duration of increases in temperature and relative humidity during a critical period of embryogenesis. The consequences of thermal manipulation on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens have been explored to ensure the potential application of this strategy. The physiological basis of the method is the induction of epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms that control body temperature in the long term. Early thermal manipulation can enhance poultry resistance to environmental changes without much effect on growth performance. This review presents the main strategies of early heat exposure and the physiological concepts on which these methods were based. The cellular mechanisms potentially underlying the adaptive response are discussed as well as the potential interest of thermal manipulation of embryos for poultry production.

  19. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  20. Outcomes of trochanteric femoral fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: an analysis of 100 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz MF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz,1 Mehmet Nuri Erdem,2 Zeliha Disli,3 Engin Burak Selcuk,4 Mustafa Karakaplan,1 Abdullah Gogus5 1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nisantasi University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Malatya Government Hospital, Malatya, Turkey; 4Department of Family Medicine, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 5Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: In this study, we aimed to report the results of a retrospective study carried out at our institute regarding cases of patients who had suffered proximal femoral fractures between January 2002 and February 2007, and who were treated with a proximal femoral nail. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive cases were included in the study. A case documentation form was used to obtain intraoperative data including age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of fracture according to Association for Osteosynthesis/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classification and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA physical status classification (ASA grade. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and at the 6th week; subsequent visits were organized on the 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month, and in patients with longer follow-up and annually postoperatively. The Harris score of hip function was used, and any change in the position of the implants and the progress of the fracture union, which was determined radiologically, was noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 77.66 years (range: 37–98 years, and the sex distribution was 32 males and 68 females. Seventy-three fractures were reduced by closed means, whereas 27 needed limited open reduction. The mean follow-up time for the study group was 31.3 months (range

  1. Characterization of recombinant Raccoonpox Vaccine Vectors in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, S.-H.; Iams, K.P.; Hall, J.S.; Kingstad, B.A.; Osorio, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. ?? American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.

  2. In Ovo Sexing of Domestic Chicken Eggs by Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Roberta; Preusse, Grit; Uckermann, Ortrud; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2016-09-01

    Male birds of egg-laying hen strains have no commercial value and are culled immediately after hatching, raising concerns for animal welfare. Existing experimental methods for in ovo sexing require taking samples and are applicable after embryos' sexual differentiation. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy enables contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. dom.) already at day 3.5 of egg incubation. A sexing accuracy of 90% was obtained by analyzing the spectra of blood circulating in the extraembryonic vessels. The measurement is damage-free and barely affects the hatching rate. Sex recognition is achieved before the onset of sensitivity. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy provides an alternative to the culling of 1-day-old male chicks in laying hen production. PMID:27512829

  3. Feminists on the inalienability of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carolyn; Baylis, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    The feminist literature against the commodification of embryos in human embryo research includes an argument to the effect that embryos are "intimately connected" to persons, or morally inalienable from them. We explore why embryos might be inalienable to persons and why feminists might find this view appealing. But, ultimately, as feminists, we reject this view because it is inconsistent with full respect for women's reproductive autonomy and with a feminist conception of persons as relational, embodied beings. Overall, feminists should avoid claims about embryos' being inalienable to persons in arguments for or against the commodification of human embryos. PMID:17111554

  4. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings in a 69-year-old obese man, who had subchondral insufficiency fracture both in the femoral head and medial femoral condyle. On plain radiographs, both lesions underwent subchondral collapse. Magnetic resonance images of the left hip showed a bone marrow edema pattern with associated low-intensity band on T1-weighted images, which was convex to the articular surface. The histopathologic findings in the hip and knee were characterized by the presence of a subchondral fracture with associated callus and granulation tissue along both sides of a fracture line. There was no evidence of antecedent osteonecrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the multiple occurrence of collapsed subchondral insufficiency fracture. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  6. Contralateral reversed distal femoral locking plate for fixation of subtrochanteric femoral fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paritosh Gogna; Reetadyuti Mukhopadhyay; Amanpreet Singh; Ashish Devgan; Sahil Arora; Amit Batra; Sushil Kumar Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur are being managed successfully with various intramedullary and extramedulary implants with reasonable success.However,these implants require precise placement under image intensifier guidance,which exposes the surgeon to substantial amount of radiation.It also restricts the management of these fractures at peripheral centers where facility of image intensifiers is not available.Keeping this in mind we designed this study to identify if contralateral reversed distal femoral locking plate can be used successfully without the use of image intensifier.Methods:Twenty-four consecutive patients (18 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 28 years (range 19-47 years) suffering subtrochanteric fractures of the femur underwent open reduction and internal fixation with reversed contralateral distal femoral locking plate.The outcome was assessed at the mean follow-up period of 3.2 years (range 2-4.6 years) using the Harris hip score.Results:Twenty-one fractures united with the primary procedure,with a mean time of consolidation being 11 weeks (range,9-16 weeks).One patient developed superficial suture line infection,which resolved with oral antibiotics.Another patient had a fall 3 weeks after surgery and broke the plate.Repeat surgery with reversed distal femoral locking compression plate was performed along with bone grafting and the fracture united.Two cases had nonunion,which went in for union after bone grafting.The mean Harris hip score at the time of final follow-up was 90.63 (range 82-97).Conclusion:The reversed contralateral distal femoral plate is a biomechanically sound implant,which when used for fixation of the subtrochanteric fractures with minimal soft tissue stripping shows results comparable to those achieved by using other extramedullary implants as well as intramedullary devices.The added advantage of this implant is its usability in the absence of an image intensifier.

  7. Analysis on Femoral Neck Fractures Using Morphological Variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that the femoral morphology has a major correlation to femoral neck fractures(FNF). Previous studies to analyze these correlations have relied on mechanical testing and finite element methods. However, these methods have not been widely applied to various femur samples and models. It is because of the availability of the samples from both patients and cadavers, and also of the geometric limitations in changing the shape of the models. In this study we analyzed femoral neck fractures using a parameterized femoral model that could provide flexibility in changing the geometry of the model for the wide applications of FNF analysis. With the parameterization a variety of models could be generated by changing four major dimensions: femoral head diameter(FHD), femoral neck diameter(FND), femoral neck length(FNL), and neck-shaft angle(NSA). We have performed FEA on the models to compute the stress distributions and reaction forces, and compare them with the data previously generated from mechanical testing. The analysis results indicate that the FND is significantly related with the FNF and the FHD is not significantly related with the FNF

  8. Treatment of postcatheterization femoral arteriovenous fistulas with simple prolonged bandaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tao; LIU Zhen-jiang; ZHOU Sheng-hua; SHEN Xiang-qian; LIU Qi-ming; FANG Zhen-fei; HU Xin-qun; LI Jiang; L(U) Xiao-lin

    2007-01-01

    Background The methods for the treatment of postcatheterization femoral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF-s) - simple observation, ultrasound guided compression, covered stents implantation and coil embolization have poor outcome.Surgery is the standard method for treatment of femoral AVFs, but it is a traumatic operation. In this study, we report the results of the treatment of postcatheterization femoral AVFs by simple prolonged compressing bandage.Methods To treat iatrogenic femoral AVFs caused by transfemoral catheterization, prolonged binding with elastic or common bandage was applied in 16 cases. Catheterization was performed in 7 cases for radiofrequency current catheter ablation, in 4 for occlusion of congenital heart disease, in 3 for percutaneous coronary intervention, in 1 for coronary angiography and in 1 for right heart catheterization.Results All iatrogenic femoral AVFs were healed after simple binding with elastic or common bandage for 4-46 days (mean (15±10) days). During the period of binding, local skins ulceration occurred at puncture site in two cases and femoral vein thrombus was found in one patient. During 6-24 months (mean (11.8±3.6) months) followup with colour Doppler ultrasonography, no recurrent arteriovenous shunting or other complications were observed.Conclusion The results suggest that simple prolonged bandaging for postcatheterization femoral AVFs is an effective and economical procedure.

  9. Analysis on Femoral Neck Fractures Using Morphological Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Sang; Park, Byoung Keon; Kim, Jay Jung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Je Wook [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    It has been reported that the femoral morphology has a major correlation to femoral neck fractures(FNF). Previous studies to analyze these correlations have relied on mechanical testing and finite element methods. However, these methods have not been widely applied to various femur samples and models. It is because of the availability of the samples from both patients and cadavers, and also of the geometric limitations in changing the shape of the models. In this study we analyzed femoral neck fractures using a parameterized femoral model that could provide flexibility in changing the geometry of the model for the wide applications of FNF analysis. With the parameterization a variety of models could be generated by changing four major dimensions: femoral head diameter(FHD), femoral neck diameter(FND), femoral neck length(FNL), and neck-shaft angle(NSA). We have performed FEA on the models to compute the stress distributions and reaction forces, and compare them with the data previously generated from mechanical testing. The analysis results indicate that the FND is significantly related with the FNF and the FHD is not significantly related with the FNF.

  10. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  11. Chicken cyclophilin A is an inhibitory factor to influenza virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of enhancing influenza resistance in domestic flocks is quite clear both scientifically and economically. Chicken is very susceptible to influenza virus. It has been reported that human cellular cyclophilin A (CypA impaired influenza virus infection in 293T cells. Whether chicken CypA (chCypA inhibits influenza virus replication is not known. The molecular mechanism of resistance in chicken to influenza virus remains to be studied. Results The chCypA gene was isolated and characterized in the present study. It contained an ORF of 498 bp encoding a polypeptide of 165 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.8 kDa sharing high identity with mammalian CypA genes. The chCypA demonstrated an anti-influenza activity as expected. ChCypA protein was shown to be able to specifically interact with influenza virus M1 protein. Cell susceptibility to influenza virus was reduced by over-expression of chCypA in CEF cells. The production of recombinant influenza virus A/WSN/33 reduced to one third in chCypA expressing cells comparing to chCypA absent cells. ChCypA was widely distributed in a variety of chicken tissues. It localized in cytoplasm of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cells. Avian influenza virus infection induced its translocation from cytoplasm into nucleus. ChCypA expression was not significantly up-regulated by avian influenza virus infection. The present study indicated that chCypA was an inhibitory protein to influenza virus replication, suggesting a role as an intrinsic immunity factor against influenza virus infection. Conclusion The present data demonstrates that chCypA possesses anti-influenza virus activity which allows the consideration of genetic improvement for resistance to influenza virus in chickens.

  12. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Daichi; Oishi, Isao; Makino, Ryuichi; Kurumisawa, Nozomi; Nakaya, Ryuma; Ono, Tamao; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-04-22

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  13. Cholesterol induces proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Meijuan; Lu, Zhenping; Yang, Mengmeng; Xie, Long; Zhang, Wenxin; Xu, Huiyan; Lu, Kehuan; Lu, Yangqing

    2016-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of sperm and eggs and may serve as suitable cells for use in research in developmental biology and transgenic animals. However, the long-term propagation of PGCs in vitro has so far been plagued by the loss of their germ cell characteristics. This is largely because of the scarcity of knowledge concerning cell division and proliferation in these cells and the poor optimization of the culture medium. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in proliferation of many types of cells, but little is known about its role in chicken PGCs. The results of the current study indicate that the proliferation of chicken PGCs increases significantly when cholesterol, a molecule that facilitates the trafficking of HH ligands, is supplemented in the culture medium. This effect was attenuated when an SHH antagonist, cyclopamine was added, suggesting the involvement of SHH signaling in this process. The characterization of PGCs treated with cholesterol has shown that these cells express germ-cell-related markers and retain their capability to colonize the embryonic gonad after re-introduction to vasculature of stage-15 HH embryos, indicating that proliferation of PGCs induced by cholesterol does not alter the germ cell characteristics of these cells. PMID:27269880

  14. Sequential scintimetry after femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five patients with recent cervical hip fractures were included in a prospective, clinical, radiographic and sequential scintimetric study. Striking changes in radionuclide uptake over the entire hip region on the fracture side were found during the first 5 postoperative months. Fractures that healed without complications showed the highest relative femoral head uptake at 1 week and a peak value at 6 weeks, followed by a gradual decline at the subsequent examinations. Fractures with complications (redisplacement, nonunion, or late segmental collapse) showed a lower initial uptake and a more gradual increase and only a slight tendency towards increased uptake after 3 months. The accuracy in predicting nonunion with scintimetric examination alone is high both at 1 and at 6 weeks, and the accuracy is almost equally high with combined scintimetric, radiographic, and clinical assessment 3-5 months postoperatively. (author)

  15. Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration of...... the drug and metabolite ranged from below the limit of quantification to 0.058 mg/kg (median 0.0098 mg/kg). This concentration range, which largely corresponds to published in vivo plasmalevels under therapy, may serve as a reference for judgment of postmortem cases involving risperidone. In one case......, risperidone was judged to be a contributing factor to death, and the sum of concentrations was 0.29 mg/kg. This concentration is of the same order of magnitude as observed for plasma levels in clinical intoxication cases. For the remaining seven cases, the cause of death was unclear. The measurements observed...

  16. Slipped upper femoral epiphysis with hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Deepa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy who had hemophilia A was reported with pain in the left thigh and hip on walking. He had no history of trauma. Severe hemophilia A is diagnosed with a Factor VIII level of < 1 iu/dl. The presumptive diagnosis was that of a spontaneous bleed into the hip joint. Factor VIII mutational analysis revealed a C to G substitution at nucleotide 6683 which results in a cystine change at codon 2194. However, the symptoms persisted and an X-ray demonstrated the presence of an acute on chronic slip of the upper femoral epiphysis. The patient was transferred to the center treating his hemophilia where the hip was pinned in situ under cover with Factor VIII. This case demonstrates the need to be aware of a possible traumatic diagnosis of hip pain in a hemophiliac child with a longstanding history of spontaneous bleeding into joints.

  17. Analysis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR) was used to assess 25 adolescents with known or suspected slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). CT/MPR localizes the epiphysis in three planes, establishing its relationship to the acetabulum and the metaphyseal neck. MPR facilitates measurements of head-neck angles, residusal head-neck contact, and relative retrovision. CT/MPR may establish the true age of the epiphyseal failure and can reveal subtle SCFE in the face of normal plain films. Patients often present with confusing histories; clues to the true age of failure include subtle signs of healing, remodeling, or new bone buttressing. Characterization of acute versus chronic conditions influences preoperative planning. Postoperatively, CT/MPR confirms early results and follows epiphyseal fusion and remodelling. It also detects complications, such as pin or graft migration avascular necrosis (AVN), or chondrolysis

  18. FEMORAL MONONEUROPATHY: COMPLICATING A DIFFICULT PELVIC URETEROLITHOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mehraban

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Femoral mononeuropathy is a complication of gynecological and urological operations. Tlte objective of this citse report is to bring to the attention of fellow urologists the very existence of this complication and offer measures to prevent it. A 48 year old obese worman with a 2 year history of frequent left renal colics, anil a nonfunction left kidney on IVP underwent a retrograde ureterogram study anil a transvaginal ureterolithotomy, in an exaggerated lithotomy position. Postoperatively, a left leg paralysis required 3 weeks of care and encouragement to heal. To prevent this complication, avoid putting too long and too much pressure by retractors on the psoas muscles. During the abdomino-perineal procedures, frequent change of retractor site and monitoring of distal arterial pulses would he helpful. Also, do not use the exaggerated lithotomy position for an extended period of time.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  20. Single-embryo transfer versus multiple-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerris, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the progress made in assisted reproductive technology, live birth rates remain disappointingly low. Multiple-embryo transfer has been an accepted practice with which to increase the success rate. This has led to a higher incidence of multiple-order births compared with natural conception, which not only increase the risk of mortality and morbidity to both mother and children but are also associated with social and economic consequences. Elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) was developed in an effort to increase singleton pregnancies in assisted reproduction. Studies comparing eSET with multiple-embryo transfer highlight the benefit of this approach and suggest that, with careful patient selection and the transfer of good-quality embryos, the risk of a multiple-order pregnancy can be reduced without significantly decreasing live birth rates. Although the use of eSET has gradually increased in clinical practice, its acceptance has been limited by factors such as availability of funding and awareness of the procedure. An open discussion of eSET is warranted in an effort to enable a broader understanding by physicians and patients of the merits of this approach. Ultimately, eSET may provide a more cost-effective, potentially safer approach to patients undergoing assisted reproduction technology.

  1. Embryo splitting: a role in infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C

    2001-01-01

    Embryo splitting may be used to increase the potential fertility of couples requiring IVF. Using cattle as a model, it is possible to increase pregnancy rates from 70% per transfer of good quality in-vivo-produced embryos, to 110% by transferring the two demi-embryos resulting from the bisection of one embryo. The 30-40% greater chance of conception would reduce costs for the government, health authorities and patients, and reduce stress, time and complications for women having IVF treatment. Embryo splitting may also provide donor embryos for infertile couples that cannot conceive naturally or with IVF. The shortage of children for adoption and donor embryos may be overcome by the production of demi-embryos.

  2. Aneurysm of the superficial femoral artery in an infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated arterial aneurysm in childhood is extremely rare. We report a 1-year-old girl with an aneurysm of the right superficial femoral artery, presenting as an asymptomatic mass of the thigh. The aneurysm involved the whole superficial femoral artery (9 cm in length), and surgical treatment would have required replacement of the affected artery. Conservative treatment was chosen, influenced by the patient's rapid growth at that time. Non-invasive, 3-D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful as an alternative to conventional angiography for detailed evaluation of the femoral arteries, including the aneurysm. (orig.)

  3. Ontogeny and the developing change of pituitary glycoprotein hormone α subunit(PGHα) cells of chicken embryos%鸡胚胎腺垂体糖蛋白激素α亚单位细胞的发育及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉琴; 刘英; 崔胜

    2011-01-01

    The present study was to determine ontogeny of chick embryonic pituitary glycoprotein hormoneα subunit(PGHα cells) and their change during the development of embryos.The pituitary glands were collected on day 3.5 to 20.5 of incubation,respectively.The expression and distribution of pituitary PGHα cells were then detected by the immunohistochemical method.The experimental results demonstrated that scattered and clarity immunopositive PGHα cells were first detected in cephalic lobe and caudal lobe of pituitary gland on day 6.5 of incubation,and then dramatically increased(P0.05) and distributed throughout the whole cephalic lobe,caudal lobe and pars tubercles of pituitary gland during the embryonic periods.In the early stage,the volume of PGHα cells was small with less cytoplasmic and bigger nuclear,and light staining as well;in the mid and later-incubation,the volume of cells became bigger with intensive staining.These results suggested that the ontogeny of PGHα cells is in the early stage,and the proliferation and differentiation of PGHα cells occur during the middle and late stages.%应用免疫组织化学方法,对第3.5~20.5天鸡胚腺垂体糖蛋白激素α亚单位(PGHα)细胞的发生及其在发育过程中的变化规律进行了研究。结果,鸡胚发育的早期(第6.5天),可观察到少量明显的PGHα细胞分布于腺垂体前、后叶,随着胚胎的发育,PGHα细胞数量显著增加(P〈0.05),分布于腺垂体前、后叶和结节部,且后叶PGHα细胞数多于前叶。早期PGHα细胞体积小、细胞浆少、细胞核大,随着胚龄的增加,细胞体积增大、细胞浆增多、细胞浆浓染。结果表明,鸡胚腺垂体PGHα细胞发生于胚胎发育的早期,细胞的增殖和分化过程发生在胚胎发育的中后期。

  4. Embryo temperature during incubation: practice and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.

    2008-01-01

    (Key words: incubation, embryo temperature, embryonic development, heat production, heat loss) Until recently, all incubator studies were performed using a constant machine temperature (MT). But it is embryo temperature (ET) that is of importance to the embryo, and not MT. In practice, MT is often

  5. Embryo growth in mature celery seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der P.

    1989-01-01

    Germination of celery seeds is slow, due to the need for embryo growth before radicle protrusion can occur. Germination rate was correlated with embryo growth rate. Celery seeds with different embryo growth rates were obtained with fluid density separation of a seed lot. Low density seeds germinated

  6. Free energy of multicomponent embryo formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurasov, Victor

    2002-01-01

    An expression for the free energy of embryo formation is constructed and analyzed. The Gibbs dividing surfaces method is used to attain a coincidence between Laplace formula for critical embryo and integral definitions of concenterations inside the embryo. A global structure of free energy is analyzed and some useful properties are extracted.

  7. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mantikou

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  8. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  9. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  10. Killer cells in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 51chromium (51Cr) release microcytotoxicity assay has been established for studying cell-mediated immunity in chickens to a potentially wide variety of antigens. The system investigated in detail uses thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells (Tg-CRBC) to analyse effector cell mechanisms operative in spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Obese strain (OS) chickens. A variety of technical parameters were investigated in order to optimise reliable, reproducible target cell preparation and to minimise spontaneous 51Cr-release. The final method adopted used tannic acid for coupling antigen to carefully selected donor erythrocytes of uniform MHC genotype. For the study of antibody dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Tg-CRBE were pre-sensitised with OS serum containing high titre Tg-autoantibody. Tannic acid-treated CRBC (TA-CRBC) served simultaneously as controls for the Tg specificity of direct cellular cytotoxicity (DCC) to Tg-CRBC, and also as target cells for natural, or spontaneous cellular cytotoxicity (SCC). With such an assay, cells capable of mediating Tg-specific DCC were demonstrated in the OS, but not in normal chickens. No differences in ADCC or SCC were observed when the two strains were considered as a whole, i.e. regardless of age, sex, MHC genotype or extent of disease. (Auth.)

  11. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  12. Preimplantation embryo-endometrial signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklenburg, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a common and distressing disorder. Chromosomal errors in the embryo are the single most common cause whereas uterine factors are invariably invoked to explain non-chromosomal miscarriages. These uterine factors are, however, poorly defined. The ability of a conceptu

  13. Quantitation of perfusion in ischemic necrosis of femoral head by fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide angiography of femoral head was measured in 10 normal controls and 12 cases of ischemic necrosis of femoral head (INFH) by fracture using 99mTc MDP bone imaging. The results demonstrated that, in normal subjects the difference of femoral perfusion index (FPI) of both femoral head was 0.4. The difference of FPI between both groups has statistical significance (P<0.001). Therefore, the measurement of perfusion index of femoral head has some help for INFH diagnosis

  14. Generation of cloned and chimeric embryos/offspring using the new methods of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzyszowska, Maria; Karasiewicz, Jolanta; Bednarczyk, Marek; Samiec, Marcin; Smorag, Zdzisław; Waś, Bogusław; Guszkiewicz, Andrzej; Korwin-Kossakowski, Maciej; Górniewska, Maria; Szablisty, Ewa; Modliński, Jacek A; Łakota, Paweł; Wawrzyńska, Magdalena; Sechman, Andrzej; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Mika, Maria; Lisowski, Mirosław; Czekalski, Przemysław; Rzasa, Janusz; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The article summarizes results of studies concerning: 1/ qualitative evaluation of pig nuclear donor cells to somatic cell cloning, 2/ developmental potency of sheep somatic cells to create chimera, 3/ efficient production of chicken chimera. The quality of nuclear donor cells is one of the most important factors to determine the efficiency of somatic cell cloning. Morphological criteria commonly used for qualitative evaluation of somatic cells may be insufficient for practical application in the cloning. Therefore, different types of somatic cells being the source of genomic DNA in the cloning procedure were analyzed on apoptosis with the use of live-DNA or plasma membrane fluorescent markers. It has been found that morphological criteria are a sufficient selection factor for qualitative evaluation of nuclear donor cells to somatic cell cloning. Developmental potencies of sheep somatic cells in embryos and chimeric animals were studied using blastocyst complementation test. Fetal fibroblasts stained with vital fluorescent dye and microsurgically placed in morulae or blastocysts were later identified in embryos cultured in vitro. Transfer of Polish merino blastocysts harbouring Heatherhead fibroblasts to recipient ewes brought about normal births at term. Newly-born animals were of merino appearance with dark patches on their noses, near the mouth and on their clovens. This overt chimerism shows that fetal fibroblasts introduced to sheep morulae/blastocysts revealed full developmental plasticity. To achieve the efficient production of chicken chimeras, the blastodermal cells from embryos of the donor breeds, (Green-legged Partridgelike breed or GPxAraucana) were transferred into the embryos of the recipient breed (White Leghorn), and the effect of chimerism on the selected reproductive and physiological traits of recipients was examined. Using the model which allowed identification of the chimerism at many loci, it has been found that 93.9% of the examined birds

  15. Embryo technologies in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, E L; Carnevale, E M; McCue, P M; Bruemmer, J E

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that zwitterionic buffers could be used for satisfactory storage of equine embryos at 5 degrees C. The success of freezing embryos is dependent upon size and stage of development. Morulae and blastocysts transfer. The majority of equine embryos are collected from single ovulating mares, as there is no commercially available product for superovulation in equine. However, pituitary extract, rich in FSH, can be used to increase embryo recovery three- to four-fold. Similar to human medicine, assisted reproductive techniques have been developed for the older, subfertile mare. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes from young, healthy mares into a recipient's oviduct results in a 70-80% pregnancy rate compared with a 30-40% pregnancy rate when the oocytes are from older, subfertile mares. This procedure can also be used to evaluate in vitro maturation systems. In vitro production of embryos is still quite difficult in the horse. However, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been used to produce several foals. Cleavage rates of 60% and blastocyst rates of 30% have been reported after ICSI of in vitro-matured oocytes. Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is a possible treatment for subfertile stallions. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes with 200,000 sperm into the oviduct of normal mares resulted in a pregnancy rate of 55-82%. Oocyte freezing is a technique that has proven difficult in most species. However, equine oocytes vitrified in a solution of ethylene glycol, DMSO, and Ficoll and loaded onto a cryoloop resulted in three pregnancies of 26 transfers and two live foals produced. Production of a cloned horse appears to be likely, as several cloned pregnancies have recently been produced. PMID:12499026

  16. Femoral neck fractures complicating gaucher disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In normal children, fractures of the femoral neck are uncommon and accompany severe trauma and multiple injuries elsewhere in the skeleton. In children with Gaucher disease, a rare hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism, midcervical or basicervical fractures can occur with minor or no trauma and without other injury to the skeleton. Three children with Gaucher disease who developed pathologic fractures of the femoral neck are described. In all three, the fractures occurred between five and nine years of age, and the fracture lines passed through areas of abnormal bone characterized by poorly defined patches of increased and decreased density and cortical thinning along the medial femoral necks. In the affected hips, there was no evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral heads at the time of injury. One child's fracture was preceeded by multiple bone 'crisis' localized to the proximal femora. (orig.)

  17. The quadratus femoris graft in old transcervical femoral fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delima D

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen patients with an old transcervical femoral fracture were treated with the quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone graft with supplementary autografting. The result was a good functional hip in 14 cases.

  18. Delayed appearance of hypaesthesia and paralysis after femoral nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landgraeber

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on a female patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the right knee and was given a continuous femoral nerve block catheter. The postoperative course was initially unremarkable, but when postoperative mobilisation was commenced, 18 hours after removal of the catheter, the patient noticed paralysis and hypaesthesia. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of femoral nerve dysfunction. Colour duplex sonography of the femoral artery and computed tomography of the lumbar spine and pelvis yielded no pathological findings. Overnight the neurological deficits decreased without therapy and were finally no longer detectable. We speculate that during the administration of the local anaesthetic a depot formed, localised in the medial femoral intermuscular septa, which was leaked after first mobilisation. To our knowledge no similar case has been published up to now. We conclude that patients who are treated with a nerve block should be informed and physician should be aware that delayed neurological deficits are possible.

  19. Femoral kontroll blant idrettsaktive kvinner : testutvikling og sammenheng med skadehistorikk

    OpenAIRE

    Østvold, Mattis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Non-contact knee injuries are often the topic of discussion in relation to injury prevention. The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized test and a standardized analysis method for quantifying changes in the femoral control in a simple but reliable way. We also wanted to quantify the relationship between femoral control and injury history in the sample. Method: Female athletes (n = 95, age = 18 ± 1 years old) who were active in various sports, conducted two weak links...

  20. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The s...

  1. Heterologous mesenchymal stem cells successfully treat femoral pseudarthrosis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Manoel; Silva Paulo; Alvarez Silva Lucas; Bonfim Danielle; Conilho Macedo Müller Lucas; Espósito Christiano; Schanaider Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of treating pseudarthrosis in rats by using bone marrow cell suspensions or cultures of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells Methods Thirty-eight specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1, Control, without surgical intervention; Group 2 (Placebo), experimental model of femoral pseudarthrosis treated only with saline solution; Group 3, experimental model of femoral pseudarthrosis treated with ...

  2. Osteochondral Fractures of the Lateral Femoral Trochlea in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Method: Between May 2012 and September 2014 cluster of five patients with large osteochondral fractures of the lateral femoral trochlea were treated at our institution. These all occurred in high level male athletes, one at a decathlete and the other four soccer players. The MRI scan showed a characteristic appearance of a large subchondral fracture involving most of the lateral femoral trochlea. All patients were symptomatic. The patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixatio...

  3. Periprosthetic subtrochanteric femoral fracture in a megaprosthesis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishya Raju

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】We report a rare case of periprosthetic posttraumatic fracture of subtrochanteric region of femur after a megaprosthesis of the knee, done for resistant nonunion of distal femur with secondary osteoarthrosis in a 51 years old man. Treatment with a locking femoral plate was able to achieve primary union with a good result. Key words: Periprosthetic fractures; Femur; Femoral fractures; Knee

  4. Brodie's abscess of the femoral neck simulating osteoid osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Yash; Maheshwari, Aditya V

    2007-10-01

    Subacute osteomyelitis (Brodie's abscess) is essentially a problem of diagnosis, and there may be considerable difficulty in distinguishing it from other benign and malignant bone lesions. Though reported in the metaphyseal region of the femur, Brodie's abscess is rarer in the femoral neck. The authors present a case of Brodie's abscess in the femoral neck, which clinico-radiologically simulated an osteoid osteoma. Retrospectively, the presence of a cortical sinus tract should have aroused suspicion.

  5. Influence of different prebiotics and mode of their administration on broiler chicken performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (P<0.05), especially during the first 21 days of life. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were increased upon prebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching. PMID:26936310

  6. Structural analysis of fibrinogen synthesized by cultured chicken hepatocytes in the presence or absence of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D L; Plant, P W; Pindyck, J; Mosesson, M W; Grieninger, G

    1983-03-30

    Hepatocyte monolayers, derived from chick embryos and cultured in chemically defined medium without hormones, synthesize and secrete fibrinogen that resembles chicken plasma fibrinogen immunochemically and structurally. Addition of a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, to the cultured cells resulted in an appreciable and relatively selective increase in fibrinogen synthesis. Autoradiography of fibrinogen that had been metabolically labelled with [35S]methionine and then subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, unreduced or under disulfide-reducing conditions, revealed that only dimeric forms of fibrinogen, containing undegraded A alpha, B beta, and gamma chains, were secreted under stimulated and unstimulated culture conditions. PMID:6830818

  7. Low field magnetic resonance imaging of femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen patients with cervical hip fractures were treated with internal fixation using titanium screws. The femoral head vitality was evaluated with 99Tcm-MDP scintigraphy and scintimetry within 2 weeks postoperatively and by serial low field magnetic resonance imaging (MR). Two patients with reduced radionuclide uptake (femoral head ratio < 1.0) developed radiographic signs of femoral head necrosis. MR disclosed the definite area of the necrosis at 2 and 12 months after fracture, respectively. In three of the patients with a high scintimetric uptake (femoral head ratio ≥ 1.0), MR revealed a focal decrease of the signal intensity in the femoral head or neck at 2, 3 and 7 months after fracture, respectively. The radiographs in one of these patients were normal at 7 months after fracture. The second one showed signs of necrosis at 16 months and the last one developed delayed/non-union. With a non-ferromagnetic osteosynthesis the healing course after femoral neck fracture can be studied with low field MR equipment without disturbing artifacts. The time period between ischaemia and definite abnormalities on MR may embrace several months. (orig.)

  8. Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tuck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric, symptomatic vertebral (91, and distal forearm (67 fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm2: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately, nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P=0.001, but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P=0.01. Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

  9. Femoral Component Survival in Hybrid Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clayton R; Perry, Kevin I

    2016-05-01

    Although the majority of North American surgeons perform total knee arthroplasty by cementing both the femoral and the tibial components, hybrid fixation with a press-fit femur and cemented tibia is an alternative form of total knee arthroplasty performed by some. Currently, there is a paucity of literature evaluating long-term outcomes after hybrid total knee arthroplasty. As such, the purpose of the current study was to describe the long-term results of total knee arthroplasty performed using the hybrid technique. The authors retrospectively reviewed a total of 77 hybrid total knee arthroplasties with at least 12 years of follow-up. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed to determine patient function and the incidence of femoral component failure after hybrid total knee arthroplasty. At the time of last follow-up, 76 of 77 (99%) of the femoral components remained in place without evidence of loosening. One femoral component failed due to aseptic loosening and was ultimately revised to a cemented femoral component without further complication. In addition, 1 tibial component and 2 patellar components failed due to aseptic loosening. Four tibial polyethylene liners were revised for polyethylene wear. In conclusion, press-fit fixation of the femoral component is a reliable and durable alternative to cemented fixation. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):181-186.]. PMID:27135453

  10. Gas exchange and hatchability of chicken eggs incubated at simulated high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, A H

    1985-02-01

    Chicken eggs laid at sea level were incubated at sea level (control conditions), at a simulated altitude of 5.5 km without any further measures (natural conditions), and at a simulated altitude of 5.7 km at optimal incubator gas composition (optimal conditions). Under optimal conditions the incubator relative humidity was 70% throughout incubation, the gas mixture supplied to the incubator contained 45% O2-55% N2, and the ventilation rate was reduced to 6% of control in order to maintain the normal air-space gas tensions and to compensate for the increased eggshell conductance at altitude. The embryos that developed under control conditions showed a normal CO2 production with 94% hatchability of fertile eggs. Under natural conditions at altitude all embryos died within a few days. Optimal conditions resulted in an almost normal gas exchange and in an improvement of hatchability from 0 to 81% of fertile eggs.

  11. Muskmelon embryo rescue techniques using in vitro embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Palenius, Hector Gordon; Ramírez-Malagón, Rafael; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2011-01-01

    Among the major cucurbit vegetables, melon (Cucumis melo) has one of the greatest polymorphic fruit types and botanical varieties. Some melon fruits have excellent aroma, variety of flesh colors, deeper flavor, and more juice compared to other cucurbits. Despite numerous available melon cultivars, some of them are exceedingly susceptible to several diseases. The genetic background carrying the genes for tolerance and/or resistance for those diseases is found in wild melon landraces. Unfortunately, the commercial melon varieties are not able to produce viable hybrids when crossed with their wild melon counterparts. Plant tissue culture techniques are needed to surpass those genetic barriers. In vitro melon embryo rescue has played a main role to obtain viable hybrids originated from commercial versus wild melon crosses. In this chapter, an efficient and simple embryo rescue melon protocol is thoroughly described. PMID:21207265

  12. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  13. Prevascular femoral hernia and its relation with inferior epigastric vessels: a rare presentation of the femoral hernia sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshnaq, Mohamed; Phan, Yih Chyn; Akhtar, Mansoor; Hamade, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with a 2-week history of a painful lump on his right groin. A diagnosis of an irreducible right femoral hernia was made. As such, an urgent operation was carried out on the same day, and the patient was found to have a rare prevascular femoral hernia in which the sac was lying over the femoral vessels and split by the inferior epigastric vessels into 2 components resembling 2 trouser limbs. The hernia sac presented in a different and challenging way that necessitated meticulous dissection and full orientation of the anatomy of the femoral triangle. Complete dissection and control of the inferior epigastric vessels, and complete reduction of the sac followed by repair with a prosthetic mesh plug were performed successfully. The patient was discharged home the next day. PMID:27090547

  14. A study of inoculation route and dosage levels on embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing tea mistlestoe (Scurrula oortiana extract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana has cytotoxic activity which is potential to be used in preventing viral induced-chicken tumor. The following study was designed to evaluate the effects of different inoculation routes, dosage levels, and strains of embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing the tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana antiviral activity. Proper inoculation route was examined by inoculation of the extract at dose level of 0,2 mg/egg into embryonated layer eggs via allantoic cavity, chorio-allantoic membrane, and yolk sac. Effect of dose level of tea mistlestoe extract on embryo development was examined in groups of embryonated broiler eggs inoculated with the extract at 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 mg/egg. Inoculation of tea mistlestoe extract into allantoic cavity was the safest procedure as indicated by the absence of embryos mortality, and faster embryo growth compared to those of chorio-allantoic membrane and yolk sac-inoculated eggs. The extract induced different growth effects when inoculated into embryonated layer or broiler eggs. Administration of the extract at dose levels between 0,02–200 mg/egg reduced significantly the weight of broiler embryoes, but not the relative weights of liver, heart and spleen. Administration of similar dosage in layer embryoes did not cause any significant difference in the embryoes weight. This study suggests that the study of antiviral activity of tea mistlestoe extract in embryonated chicken eggs should be carried out on embryonated eggs of layer breeds and the extract should be inoculated via allantoic cavity.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host....

  16. Reconstruction of femoral length from fragmentary femora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offei, Eric Bekoe; Osabutey, Casmiel Kwabena

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of femoral length (FL) from fragmentary femora is an essential step in estimating stature from fragmentary skeletal remains in forensic investigations. While regression formulae for doing this have been suggested for several populations, such formulae have not been established for Ghanaian skeletal remains. This study, therefore, seeks to derive regression formulae for reconstruction of FL from fragmentary femora of skeletal samples obtained from Ghana. Six measurements (vertical head diameter, transverse head diameter, bicondylar breadth, epicondylar breadth, sub-trochanteric anterior-posterior diameter, and sub-trochanteric transverse diameter) were acquired from different anatomical portions of the femur and the relationship between each acquired measurement and FL was analyzed using linear regression. The results indicated significantly moderate-to-high correlations (r=0.580–0.818) between FL and each acquired measurement. The error estimates of the regression formulae were relatively low (i.e., standard error of estimate, 13.66–19.28 mm), suggesting that the discrepancies between actual and estimated stature were relatively low. Compared with other measurements, sub-trochanteric transverse diameter was the best estimate of FL. In the absence of a complete femur, the regression formulae based on the assessed measurements may be used to infer FL, from which stature can be estimated in forensic investigations. PMID:27722014

  17. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  18. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti; Supar

    2007-01-01

    Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...

  19. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abdul

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA. Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4 with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5 suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in

  20. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  1. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  2. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  3. Isolation and number of circulated primordial germ cells (circulated-PGCs on stages of embryonic development of Gaok chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian primordial germ cell (PGCs show a unique migration pathway during early development. During the early embryonic development, as soon as the formation of blood vessels, PGCs enter the circulatory system and migrate to the gonadal primordial. The aim of this study was to examine the number of circulated-PGCs from Gaok chicken at different developmental stages of embryo. One hundred fertile eggs were divided into 5 groups and incubated in a portable incubator at 38oC and humidity 60%. Hatching was set according to the embryonic development stage between 14-18. The blood collection was done through the dorsal aorta using micropipette under microscope. The collected blood was grouped based on the embryonic stages and placed on a 1.5 ml eppendorf tube which had been filled with 1.000 µl of Calcium and Magnesium-free phosphate buffered saline (PBS -. The PGCs were then purified using nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. The results showed that the average number of circulated-PGCs per embryo from Gaok chicken were significantly affected by the stage of embryonic development (P < 0.05. The number of circulated-PGCs at stages 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 were 42.8 ± 8.9, 51.0 ± 5.8, 37.6 ± 5.9, 32.8 ± 3.6 and 32.6 ± 3.2, respectively. However, the number of circulated-PGCs was no different between stage of 17 and 18. At Gaok chicken, the number of circulated-PGCs reach the peak at stage 15, it is recommended that collection of PGCs embryonic chicken from blood circulation was the best on stage 15. This information is useful in efficiency production of germline chimera and to preserve PGCs of other Indonesian native chicken.

  4. Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazzam, Shafagh [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Orthopedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Dwek, Jerry R. [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center for Hip Preservation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, TriCity Medical Center, Oceanside, CA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    With recent changing approaches to the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the accurate radiographic assessment of maximum extent of displacement is crucial for planning surgical treatment. To determine what plane best represents the maximum SCFE displacement as quantified by the head-neck angle difference (HNAD), whether HNAD can quantitatively differentiate the SCFE cohort from the normal cohort, based on CT, and how Southwick slip angle (SSA) compares to HNAD. We reviewed 19 children with SCFE (23 affected hips) with preoperative CT scans and 27 age- and sex-matched children undergoing abdominal CT for non-orthopedic problems. Head-neck angle (HNA), the angle between the femoral epiphysis and the neck axis, was measured in three planes on each hip and the HNAD (affected - unaffected hip) was determined. SSA was measured on radiographs. The coronal HNAD (mean 8.7 ) was less than both the axial-oblique (mean 30.7 ) and sagittal (mean 37.4 ) HNADs, which were also greater than the HNADs of the normal cohort. Grouping HNAD measurements by SSA severity classification did not consistently distinguish between SCFE severity levels. Axial-oblique and sagittal planes best represent the maximum SCFE displacement while biplanar radiograph may underestimate the extent of the displacement, thereby potentially altering the management between in situ pinning and capital realignment. (orig.)

  5. Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent changing approaches to the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the accurate radiographic assessment of maximum extent of displacement is crucial for planning surgical treatment. To determine what plane best represents the maximum SCFE displacement as quantified by the head-neck angle difference (HNAD), whether HNAD can quantitatively differentiate the SCFE cohort from the normal cohort, based on CT, and how Southwick slip angle (SSA) compares to HNAD. We reviewed 19 children with SCFE (23 affected hips) with preoperative CT scans and 27 age- and sex-matched children undergoing abdominal CT for non-orthopedic problems. Head-neck angle (HNA), the angle between the femoral epiphysis and the neck axis, was measured in three planes on each hip and the HNAD (affected - unaffected hip) was determined. SSA was measured on radiographs. The coronal HNAD (mean 8.7 ) was less than both the axial-oblique (mean 30.7 ) and sagittal (mean 37.4 ) HNADs, which were also greater than the HNADs of the normal cohort. Grouping HNAD measurements by SSA severity classification did not consistently distinguish between SCFE severity levels. Axial-oblique and sagittal planes best represent the maximum SCFE displacement while biplanar radiograph may underestimate the extent of the displacement, thereby potentially altering the management between in situ pinning and capital realignment. (orig.)

  6. Femoral neck radiography: effect of flexion on visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, S.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Walter C Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Jhangri, G.S. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. Public Health Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Lambert, R.G.W. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept.of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Walter C Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: rglamber@cha.ab.ca

    2005-06-15

    To determine whether flexion improves radiographic visualization of the femoral neck when the femur is externally rotated. Five human femora, with varying neck-shaft and anteversion angles, were measured and immobilized. Degree of flexion required to bring the femoral neck horizontal was measured, varying the rotation. Next, one bone was radiographed in 16 positions, varying rotation in 15{sup o} and flexion in 10{sup o} increments. Radiographs were presented in randomized blinded fashion to 15 staff radiologists for scoring of femoral neck visualization. Following this, all 5 bones were radiographed in 4 positions of rotation and at 0{sup o} and 20{sup o} flexion, and blinded randomized review of radiographs was repeated. Comparisons between angles and rotations were made using the Mann-Whitney test. The flexion angle required to bring the long axis of the femoral neck horizontal correlated directly with the degree of external rotation ({rho} < 0.05). Visualization of the femoral neck in the extended position progressively deteriorated from 15{sup o} internal rotation to 30{sup o} external rotation ({rho} <0.01). However, when 20{sup o} flexion was applied to bones in external rotation, visualization significantly improved at 15{sup o} ({rho} <0.05) and 30{sup o} ({rho} <0.01). Flexion of the externally rotated femur can bring the femoral neck into horizontal alignment, and a relatively small amount (20{sup o}) of flexion can significantly improve radiographic visualization. This manoeuvre could be useful for radiography of the femoral neck when initial radiographs are inadequate because of external rotation of the leg. (author)

  7. Structural and functional studies of bioobjects prepared from femoral heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of examination of physicomechanical characteristics of samples of medial femoral head cuts are presented. The samples of medial femoral head cuts resected in 6 patients with coxarthrosis in primary endoprosthetic replacement of a coxofemoral joint have been tested for micro- and nanohardness. Young’s modulus and elemental composition of bone tissue have been investigated. To estimate the architectonics of cancellous tissue of the femoral head, adjacent cuts of the same patient have been analyzed. The porosity of bone tissue was estimated from macroscopic images obtained using macrophotography. The total porosity is calculated as the ratio of the total length of straight line segments overlapping pores to the total length of secants. A three-point bending test of the samples has shown that their strength changed from 0.187 to 1.650 MPa and their elasticity modulus changes from 1.69 to 8.15 MPa. The microhardness of the samples changes in the range 220–265 MPa and the average microhardness of medial femoral head cuts is 240 MPa. The elemental composition of medial femoral head cuts is represented by basic Ca, P, O, Na and Mg elements as well as by Sn, S, Fe, Cr, and C in microamounts. The atomic Ca to P ratio for bone tissue is 1.55. It is revealed that pores of the upper part of the femoral head have a more regular shape and in the lower part they are more elongated along the cut and occupy a larger volume. The lower part of the femoral head has a higher porosity (39 and 33%) than the upper part (34 and 30%). The total porosity of all samples does not exceed 37%

  8. Femoral component revision using extensively porous-coated cementless stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-dong; XIONG Yan; YAN Shi-gui; YANG Quan-sen; DAI Xue-song

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of extensively porous-coated femoral stem in revision of total hip arthroplasty (THA).Methods: From January 1999 to December 2003,fifteen hips of fifteen cases received revision of THA with extensively porous-coated femoral stem. There were six males and nine females. The average age was 66 years (ranging 58-82 years). The reason for the revision was aseptic loosening in 10 cases, septic loosening in 2, femoral shaft fracture around loose implant in 2, and femoral revision for malposition of the femoral component in 1. All the patients were clinically evaluated using Harris hip score and radiographically evaluated both preoperatively and postoperatively at regular follow-up intervals.Results: No patients were lost for follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 2.3 years (range, 1-5years). The average preoperative Harris hip score was 42points, which was improved to 89 points at latest follow-up.The latest follow-up showed that bone in-growth occurred in fourteen stems and solid fibrous fixation in one.Complications consisted of femoral shaft fracture in two cases (1 undisplaced distal femur fracture and 1 cortical perforation at the tip of the prosthesis), and postoperative dislocation in one. There was no mechanical failure of the stem in this study.Conclusions: Satisfactory results of short-term clinical and radiographic follow-up have been achieved in using extensively porous-coated femoral stem for revision of THA. It should be noticed that the straight, 203 mm stem should be used with caution in short people.

  9. Femoral Condyle Fracture during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Ozyurek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor,We have greatly enjoyed reading the case report entitled “‘Femoral Condyle Fracture during Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Case Report and a Review of Literature in the issue of Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2015;3(2 with great interest. We would like to commend the authors for their detailed and valuable work. Although various case reports have described postoperative distal femur fracture at a range of time intervals (1,2 intraoperative intra-articular distal femur fracture is a unique entity.However, we believe that some important additional observations seem necessary to be contributed through this study. In this article, the authors stated that, to the best of their knowledge, there is no other case report in the literature introducing a femoral condyle fracture during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction or revision reconstruction. Nevertheless, we would like to call the attention of the readers to the fact that that the literature contains one additional case report re‌porting on intraoperative distal femoral coronal plane (Hoffa fracture during primary ACL reconstruction (2. Werner BC and Miller MD presented of case report of an intraoperative distal femoral coronal plane (Hoffa fracture that occurred during independent femoral tunnel drilling and dilation in a primary ACL reconstruction. As in the their case, this type of fracture can occur with appropriately placed femoral tunnels, but the risk can increase with larger graft diameters in patients with smaller lateral femoral condyles The patient was treated with open reduction and internal fixation, without compromise of graft stability and with good recovery of function. We believe that tailoring graft size to the size of the patient is important to prevent similar adverse events.

  10. Structural and functional studies of bioobjects prepared from femoral heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirilova, I. A., E-mail: IKirilova@niito.ru; Podorozhnaya, V. T., E-mail: VPodorognaya@niito.ru [Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics n.a. Ya.L. Tsivyan, 17, Frunze, Novosibirsk, 630091 (Russian Federation); Sharkeev, Yu. P., E-mail: sharkeev@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Popova, K. S., E-mail: kseniya@ispms.tsc.ru; Uvarkin, P. V., E-mail: uvarkin@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Results of examination of physicomechanical characteristics of samples of medial femoral head cuts are presented. The samples of medial femoral head cuts resected in 6 patients with coxarthrosis in primary endoprosthetic replacement of a coxofemoral joint have been tested for micro- and nanohardness. Young’s modulus and elemental composition of bone tissue have been investigated. To estimate the architectonics of cancellous tissue of the femoral head, adjacent cuts of the same patient have been analyzed. The porosity of bone tissue was estimated from macroscopic images obtained using macrophotography. The total porosity is calculated as the ratio of the total length of straight line segments overlapping pores to the total length of secants. A three-point bending test of the samples has shown that their strength changed from 0.187 to 1.650 MPa and their elasticity modulus changes from 1.69 to 8.15 MPa. The microhardness of the samples changes in the range 220–265 MPa and the average microhardness of medial femoral head cuts is 240 MPa. The elemental composition of medial femoral head cuts is represented by basic Ca, P, O, Na and Mg elements as well as by Sn, S, Fe, Cr, and C in microamounts. The atomic Ca to P ratio for bone tissue is 1.55. It is revealed that pores of the upper part of the femoral head have a more regular shape and in the lower part they are more elongated along the cut and occupy a larger volume. The lower part of the femoral head has a higher porosity (39 and 33%) than the upper part (34 and 30%). The total porosity of all samples does not exceed 37%.

  11. Obtaining chicken primordial germ cells used for gene transfer: in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Sawicka, Dorota; Lakota, Paweł; Plucienniczak, Grazyna; Bednarczyk, Marek; Plucienniczak, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Recently, several attempts have been made to create a generation of transgenic chickens via chimeric intermediates produced by primordial germ cells (PGCs) transfer. This study aimed to compare the influences of different chicken PGCs isolated from circulating blood (bPGCs) or gonads (gPGCs), purification (ACK, Percoll or trypsin) and transfection methods (electroporation or lipofection) on the expression of transgenes in vitro and the migration of modified donor cells to the recipient gonads. The highest average frequency of pEGFP-N1 plasmid-transfected bPGCs (75.8%) was achieved with Percoll density gradient centrifugation and electroporation. After ammonium chloride-potassium (ACK) treatment and lipofection, in vitro transgene expression was only detected in 35.2% of bPGCs. Chimeric chickens were produced from these purified, transfected and cultured cells, and the transgene was detected in the gonads of 44 and 42% of the recipient embryos that had been injected with bPGCs and gPGCs, respectively. These data confirmed that the combination of PGC purification via Percoll centrifugation and electroporation was an effective method for producing transgenic chickens. Subsequently, we used this method with expression vectors for gene hIFNα 2a/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) under the control of the ovalbumin promoter to generate G0 transgenic chickens. Consequently, we observed that 4.9% of the hens and 3.5% of the roosters carried the hIFNα 2a gene, whereas 16.7% of the hens and 2.4% of the roosters carried the HBsAg gene, thus undisputedly confirming the exceptional effectiveness of the applied methods. PMID:25737138

  12. Obtaining chicken primordial germ cells used for gene transfer: in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Sawicka, Dorota; Lakota, Paweł; Plucienniczak, Grazyna; Bednarczyk, Marek; Plucienniczak, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Recently, several attempts have been made to create a generation of transgenic chickens via chimeric intermediates produced by primordial germ cells (PGCs) transfer. This study aimed to compare the influences of different chicken PGCs isolated from circulating blood (bPGCs) or gonads (gPGCs), purification (ACK, Percoll or trypsin) and transfection methods (electroporation or lipofection) on the expression of transgenes in vitro and the migration of modified donor cells to the recipient gonads. The highest average frequency of pEGFP-N1 plasmid-transfected bPGCs (75.8%) was achieved with Percoll density gradient centrifugation and electroporation. After ammonium chloride-potassium (ACK) treatment and lipofection, in vitro transgene expression was only detected in 35.2% of bPGCs. Chimeric chickens were produced from these purified, transfected and cultured cells, and the transgene was detected in the gonads of 44 and 42% of the recipient embryos that had been injected with bPGCs and gPGCs, respectively. These data confirmed that the combination of PGC purification via Percoll centrifugation and electroporation was an effective method for producing transgenic chickens. Subsequently, we used this method with expression vectors for gene hIFNα 2a/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) under the control of the ovalbumin promoter to generate G0 transgenic chickens. Consequently, we observed that 4.9% of the hens and 3.5% of the roosters carried the hIFNα 2a gene, whereas 16.7% of the hens and 2.4% of the roosters carried the HBsAg gene, thus undisputedly confirming the exceptional effectiveness of the applied methods.

  13. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  14. Radioactive labeling of proteins in cultured postimplantation mouse embryos. I. Influence of the embryo preparation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions for optimum incorporation of radioactive amino acids into proteins of cultured postimplantation mouse embryos were investigated under the aspect of using these proteins for two-dimensional electrophoretic separations followed by fluorography. The aim was to obtain highly radioactive proteins under conditions as physiological as possible. Embryos at Days 10, 11, and 12 of gestation were prepared in different ways and incubated for 4 h in Tyrode's solution containing [3H]amino acids (mixture) at a concentration of 27 microCi/ml medium. The preparations were: (a) yolk sac opened, placenta and blood circulation intact; (b) yolk sac and amnion opened, placenta and blood circulation intact (Day 10 embryos only); (c) placenta, yolk sac, and amnion removed (embryo naked); (d) naked embryos cut randomly into pieces (Day 10 embryos only). After incubation whole embryos or certain parts (tail, liver, rest body) were investigated by determining the radioactivity taken up by the protein. The results are given in dpm per mg protein per embryo. Radioactivity of proteins was about 3 times higher in naked embryos than in embryos left in their yolk sacs. This was true for all three stages investigated. However, the degree of radioactivity in the various parts of naked embryos differed by a factor of 15, whereas radioactivity was evenly distributed in embryos incubated in their yolk sacs. Therefore, embryos prepared according to the first method (see above) fulfilled the conditions required at the best

  15. In vitro embryo outgrowth is a bioassay of in vivo embryo implantation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Natalie K.; Hannan, Natalie J; David K. Gardner

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of embryo outgrowth on fibronectin as a low cost, high throughput alternative to embryo transfer to model embryo attachment and the initial stages of implantation. Methods: Following in vitro embryo culture, embryo quality was assessed via embryo transfer or embryo outgrowth with metabolic assessment. Results: This study shows that blastocysts attach to fibronectin at the same rate that they implant in vivo, and that the carbohydrate utilisation of e...

  16. Atypical femoral fractures and current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianye Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase in patients receiving bisphosphonates (BPs for treating osteoporosis, one of the clinical complications associated with its long-term use is atypical femoral fractures (AFFs. Although the absolute risk for AFFs is low and it was a consensus that AFFs were acceptable compared with the amount of osteoporotic fractures BPs have prevented, epidemiological studies have proved that BPs had a strong association with AFFs and possibly more people were going to suffer from this adverse effect with wide prescriptions of this drug. In addition, AFFs seemed to have impaired ability to heal. Thus, to understand the mechanism(s behind AFFs is important and desirable for considering preventive measures. This article reviewed the clinical features of AFFs as well as potential underlining pathological characteristics, such as the decreased turnover rate caused by BPs that led to multiple-level alternations, e.g., changes not only at cellular and tissue levels, but also related to changes in bone micro- and macrostructure and organic/inorganic contents, leading to potentially compromised mechanical properties of cortical bone when exposed to prolonged BP therapy. Severely suppressed bone turnover may also be the underlying mechanism for impaired fracture healing in patients with AFFs. The rising concerns about the risk for AFFs in nonosteoporotic patients receiving high-dose BPs to treat cancers were also discussed. Detailed investigation will help develop potential targeted pharmacological treatments such as parathyroid hormone. In addition, potential innovative internal fixation implants were discussed with regard to dynamic and biological fixation for enhancing AFF repair.

  17. Embryo toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the wood duck (Aix sponsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, T.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bursian, S.J.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Hinton, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) embryo to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by injecting the toxicant into their eggs. Six groups of wood duck eggs (n = 35 to 211 per trial) were injected with 0 to 4600 pg TCDD/g egg between 2003 and 2005. Injections were made into yolk prior to incubation, and eggs were subsequently incubated and assessed weekly for mortality. Significant TCDD-induced mortality was not observed through day 25 (90% of incubation). Liver, heart, eye, and brain histology were generally unremarkable. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, a biomarker of dioxin-like compound exposure, was induced by 12-fold in the 4600 pg/g treatment relative to controls. The median lethal dose for chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs we dosed identically to wood duck eggs was about 100 pg/g, similar to other assessments of chickens. Among dioxin-like compound embryo lethality data for 15 avian genera, the wood duck 4600 pg/g no-observed-effect level ranks near the middle. Because no higher doses were tested, wood ducks may be like other waterfowl (order Anseriformes), which are comparatively tolerant to embryo mortality from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans when exposed by egg injection. ?? 2008 US Government.

  18. Imaging Findings in Symptomatic Patients with Femoral Diaphyseal Stress Injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorou, S.J.; Theodorou, D.J.; Resnick, D. [Univ. of California, San Diego Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the imaging findings seen in symptomatic patients with stress injuries of the femoral diaphysis. Material and Methods: Seven patients (5 F, 2 M, age range 16 to 56 years, mean 38 years) underwent imaging evaluation of the symptomatic lower extremity due to an insidious onset of thigh or groin pain unrelated to trauma. Imaging studies included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven patients, bone scintigraphy in five, and computed tomography (CT) in three. Results: Radiographs depicted three frank fractures in two patients, and revealed findings of stress injury in six patients. Available scintigraphic and CT findings were abnormal. On MR images, a solitary fracture was seen in two patients; two patients presented with bilateral stress fractures of the femoral diaphysis; and all seven patients had the imaging features of stress injury. Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures (n=6) appeared as linear regions of T1- and T2-weighted low signal intensity, surrounded by diffuse bone marrow edema. Three of the six frank fractures, with an evident fracture line, were longitudinal and parallel to the cortical surface. Conclusion: Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures are often inconspicuous with conventional radiography. MRI depicts the changes of stress injury in the femoral diaphysis, and is particularly useful in documenting the presence, morphology, and extent of fracture(s), information valuable for definitive diagnosis and appropriate management.

  19. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  20. Femoral neck radiography: effect of flexion on visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether flexion improves radiographic visualization of the femoral neck when the femur is externally rotated. Five human femora, with varying neck-shaft and anteversion angles, were measured and immobilized. Degree of flexion required to bring the femoral neck horizontal was measured, varying the rotation. Next, one bone was radiographed in 16 positions, varying rotation in 15o and flexion in 10o increments. Radiographs were presented in randomized blinded fashion to 15 staff radiologists for scoring of femoral neck visualization. Following this, all 5 bones were radiographed in 4 positions of rotation and at 0o and 20o flexion, and blinded randomized review of radiographs was repeated. Comparisons between angles and rotations were made using the Mann-Whitney test. The flexion angle required to bring the long axis of the femoral neck horizontal correlated directly with the degree of external rotation (ρ o internal rotation to 30o external rotation (ρ o flexion was applied to bones in external rotation, visualization significantly improved at 15o (ρ o (ρ o) of flexion can significantly improve radiographic visualization. This manoeuvre could be useful for radiography of the femoral neck when initial radiographs are inadequate because of external rotation of the leg. (author)

  1. Analysis of Femoral Components of Cemented Total Hip- Arthroplasty

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    In cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), material chosen for femoral stem and cross section of stem itself, proved to be critical parameters for, stress distribution in the femoral components, interfacial stresses and micro movements. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), when used as a material for femoral stem, recorded large displacement as compared to Chromium alloy (CoCrMo) stems. This large displacement in case of Ti6Al4V caused the stem to bend inside the cement mantle, thus destroying it. Thus, CoCrMo proved to be a better in cemented THA. Failure in THA may occur at cement-stem or cement-bone interface, thus interfacial stresses and micro movements were analysed in the present study. Comparison between trapezium and circular cross section showed that, femoral stem with trapezium cross section underwent lesser amount of sliding and debonding, at both interfaces, as compared to circular cross section. Moreover, trapezium cross section also generated lower peak stresses in femoral stem and cortical femur. The pres...

  2. Evaluation of Bovine Embryo Biopsy Techniques according to Their Ability to Preserve Embryo Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cenariu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate three embryo biopsy techniques used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in cattle and to recommend the least invasive one for current use, especially when PGD is followed by embryo cryopreservation. Three hundred bovine embryos were biopsied by either one of the needle, aspiration or microblade method, and then checked for viability by freezing/thawing and transplantation to recipient cows. The number of pregnancies obtained after the transfer of biopsied frozen/thawed embryos was assessed 30 days later using ultrasounds. The results were significantly different between the three biopsy methods: the pregnancy rate was of 57% in cows that received embryos biopsied by needle, 43% in cows that received embryos biopsied by aspiration, and 31% in cows that received embryos biopsied by microblade. Choosing an adequate biopsy method is therefore of great importance in embryos that will undergo subsequent cryopreservation, as it significantly influences their viability after thawing.

  3. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we hav...

  4. Research on human embryos--a justification.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Brown

    1986-01-01

    The philosophical debate surrounding the moral status of the embryo has reached the public arena. The author of this paper examines some of the common arguments against embryo experimentation, including an influential article by Professor Ian Kennedy. He concludes that these arguments do not succeed in demonstrating that the intentional creation of embryos for research purposes is wrong, unless they also succeed in demonstrating that contemporary liberal abortion laws are also wrong. The auth...

  5. Outcome in children from cryopreserved embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, A. G.; D'Souza, S W; Cadman, J; Richards, B.; McKinlay, I A; Lieberman, B.

    1995-01-01

    A cohort of 91 children from cryopreserved embryos and 83 control children who were conceived normally had their development assessed using the Griffiths's scales of mental development. The controls (81 singletons and two twins) of a similar age, sex, and social class were selected from siblings, cousins, and peers of the cryopreserved embryo group (68 singleton, 20 twins, and three triplets). Children from cryopreserved embryos had a lower mean birth weight and mean gestational age and a hig...

  6. 9 CFR 98.16 - The embryo collection unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The embryo collection unit. 98.16... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.16 The embryo collection unit. Ruminant and swine embryos may...

  7. Effect of cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation on the hatching process of chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on fertilized chicken eggs was carried out to determine the effects of 60Co irradiation on the embryos, their fatality, and growth impairment or deformity, in particular. The experimental groups, consisting of 10 eggs each, recieved a 60Co irradiation of 50 to 2,000 rads on any one day between day 0 and day 20 of incubation. The larger the irradiation dose, the greater was the number of dead embryos. The fatality was higher in the groups receiving irradiation in the earlier stage (1st week). The resultant death was a chronic one. The irradiation also caused body weight decrease and growth impairment. A decrease in the brain and liver weights was noted, suggesting insufficiency in these organs. Deformity occurred in 4%, most of which involved impairments of skeletal growth, of the bones of the extremities and the bill, in particular. Administration of the SH amino acid, cysteine tended to alleviate the adverse effects of the 60Co irradiation. These results for fertilized chicken eggs suggest the possibility of abortion and the occurrence of deformities in human fetuses if they should be subjected to 60Co irradiation. (author)

  8. Changes in thickness of each layer of developing chicken cornea after administration of caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronim Bartel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the presentation of changes in thickness of each layer of a developing cornea, that came into being under an influence of caffeine which was administered to chicken embryos. Research materials were 26 chicken embryos from breeding eggs that had been incubated. Breeding eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was given, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine was administrated - 3.5 mg/egg. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through a hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with paraffin, eggs were put back into incubator. On 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphometric and morphological analysis. In experimental groups reduction of corneal thickness, thickening of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium as well as Bowman's and Descemet's membranes, decrease of thickness of corneal stroma in comparison with the control group have been observed. Caffeine causes thickness changes of all layers and decreases the total thickness of a developing cornea.

  9. Sex-specific effects of androgen and estrogen on proliferation of the embryonic chicken hypothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ailing; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2007-04-01

    Effects of androgen and estrogen on proliferation of hypothalamic neurons were evaluated by a chicken hypothalamic neuron-glia coculture model. Hypothalamic cells were dispersed from 17-day-old embryos and challenged with testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) alone or combined with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen, or aromatase inhibitor letrozole for 48 h. The neuron number was counted and the proliferating cells were identified by immunocytochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Results showed that both E2 and T stimulated proliferation of hypothalamic neurons. E2 showed more intensive effect on females and this promoting effect was abrogated by tamoxifen. T played more intensive effect on males and the effect was inhibited by flutamide, tamoxifen, or letrozole. The above results indicated that E2 stimulated neuron proliferation through estrogenic actions with more sensitive effect on females and T promoted neuron proliferation through both androgenic and estrogenic actions with more intense effect on males. These observations suggested that steroid hormones influence the proliferation of hypothalamic neurons in a sexually dimorphic manner during the development of chicken embryos. PMID:17873328

  10. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  11. Exencephaly in araucana chickens and silkie bantams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G L; Softly, A

    1985-01-01

    Exencephaly and hydranencephaly were diagnosed in two 6-week-old araucana chickens (Gallus domesticus) and one adult silkie bantam (Gallus domesticus). The chickens were presented with large, subcutaneous, cranial soft-tissue masses and exhibited neurological signs. There was partial aplasia of the frontal bones, resulting in herniation of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:4026741

  12. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  13. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham M Ittyachen; Mohan B Jose; Varghese Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  14. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  15. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  16. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process. PMID:26927602

  17. Stress fracture of the femoral neck in a child (stress fracture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral neck stress fracture is extremely rare in childhood. We report a case of femoral neck stress fracture in an 11-year-old girl. Differentials diagnosis and a brief review of the literature follow. (orig.)

  18. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  19. Femoral neck trabecular patterns predict osteoporotic fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we show that texture analysis of femoral neck trabecular patterns can be used to predict osteoporotic fractures. The study is based on a sample of 123 women aged 44-66 years with and without fractures. We analyzed trabecular patterns using the Co-occurrence Matrix texture analysis algorithm and compared the predictive utility of the textural data with densitometry. Logistic regression was used to estimate the predictive utility, exp(B), of clinical and textural data per standard deviation. Reproducibility was also demonstrated using paired films at 1-year intervals (CoV=4.5%). Bone mass estimated by DEXA measurements of the spine and hip were the most predictive of fractures giving a two-fold increase in fractures per s.d. bone mass loss (95% CI: 1.2-3.1, p<0.005). Age was also highly predictive with fracture risk increasing by 1.07-fold per year (95% CI: 1.01-1.14, p<0.02). Trabecular texture was found to give a lower, but significant, prediction of fracture of 1.5-fold per s.d. trabecular pattern loss (95% CI: 0.96-2.31, p<0.05). Combining age, weight, and trabecular texture increased the fracture prediction to 1.78-fold per s.d. (95% CI: 1.19-2.67). Combining trabecular texture with densitometry increased the predictive ability to 2.06-fold per s.d. (95% CI: 1.32-3.22) and combined with age and weight as well increased exp(B) to 2.1-fold per s.d. (95% CI: 1.32-3.35). This shows that osteoporotic trabecular texture changes can be ''measured.'' Moreover, the combination of age, weight, and trabecular texture is more predictive than either alone. We propose therefore that this trabecular texture analysis is both reproducible and clinically meaningful. The application of such methods could be used to improve the estimation of fracture risk in conjunction with other clinical data, or where densitometry data cannot be obtained (e.g., in retrospective studies)

  20. Effect of low-dose gamma-radiation upon hatchability and weight of chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Simpraga, M. [Zagreb Univ., Veterinary faculty (Croatia); Miljanic, S. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Although any dose of ionizing radiation has generally been recognized to be detrimental to living being, low dose ionizing radiation seems to invoke primary stimulative effects. Stimulatory effects of low dose ionizing radiation include many aspects such as growth, fecundity and longevity stimulation, accelerated development, enhance biological responses for immune systems, enzymatic repair, physiological functions, and the removal of cellular damage, including prevention and removal of cancers and other diseases. Low dose ionizing radiation might also cause changes in the concentration of some biochemical parameters in blood plasma of chickens such as changes in the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation before incubation and on the seventh day of incubation on hatchability of eggs and body weight of chickens. This study includes three independent experiments. In the first experiment, six-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Avian-line 34, were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. In the second experiments also involving six-hundred-line 34 eggs were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation on the seventh day of incubation. In the third experiment three-hundred eggs produced by a commercial flock of Ross 308 were irradiated by dose 0.30 Gy gamma irradiation before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. Hatchability was calculated in terms of all eggs divided with fertile eggs which hatched. The individual weights of the chickens were determined on the first and on the forty second day. Growth data were analyzed statistically by t-test. Irradiation of chicken eggs and embryos at rates o f 0.15 Gy increases

  1. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna;

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  2. Parallel manipulator robot assisted femoral fracture reduction on traction table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; Wang, J Q; Han, W

    2013-01-01

    The principle of femoral shaft fracture reduction is to restore its pre-fractured limb length and mechanical axis. The current documented treatment method with traction table reduction does not conform to the quantitative alignment and reduction. There is also a great amount of X-Ray radiation exposure to both surgeon and patient during the procedure. For this reason, we introduced an innovated Parallel Manipulator Robot (PMR) application: A Femoral Shaft Fracture Reduction with Parallel Manipulator Robot on Traction Table. With this application, the quantitative control on fracture reduction and alignment can be achieved and the radiation exposure to both surgeons and patients can be greatly reduced. PMID:24110820

  3. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  4. Avascular necrosis associated with nailing of femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with femoral neck fractures, one displaced and one undisplaced, are presented. Preoperative intravital staining with tetracycline and Tc-MDP scintimetry both showed intact femoral head circulation while Tc-MDP-scintimetry 1 week after operation showed pronounced circulatory deficiency. SR85-scintimetry performed at the same time was inconclusive. Segmental collapse was observed radiographically, 8 and 12 months postoperatively. The major vascular injury resulting in avascularity most probably occured during the procedure of osteosynthesis, and Tc-MDP-scintimetry was found suitable for early postoperative recognition of avascular necrosis in both fractures. (author)

  5. Traumatic hip dislocation with associated femoral head fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dortaj, H; Emamifar, A

    2015-01-01

    Dislocation of the hip is a critical injury that results from high-energy trauma. This paper describes a case of posterior dislocation of the right hip in a 35-year-old woman with associated ipsilateral femoral head fracture. Initial treatment included reduction of the right hip through posterior...... approach and fixation of the femoral head fracture with three absorbable screws. After 15-month follow-up, a full range of motion has been achieved and there are no signs of avascular necrosis, hip instability, or limping. The authors describe their method of surgery....

  6. Modul femur prosthesis for major upper femoral bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Koelner modul femur prosthesis MECROSET represents a device to be composed of standardised units. It allows the surgeon dealing with large bone defects of the upper femoral end to meet the special local requirements by building up the appropriate implant. This device may cope with bone losses of up to 22 cms, measured down from the tip of the major trochanter. Combination with ordinary cups is possible. Indications proven are upper femoral defects following disease, exchange of prosthesis and trauma. The ten patients thus provided did not show any complications during a 2-year period of observation. Long-term results are still to be awaited. (orig.)

  7. [Femoral head chondroblastoma and reconstruction with osteochondral allograft. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando-Díaz, C; Guzmán-Vargas, R; Rincon-Cardozo, D F; Mantilla-León, N; Camacho-Casas, J A

    2014-01-01

    Femoral head chondroblastoma is an infrequent tumor, accounting for approximately 1-2% of benign bone tumors. It occurs more frequently in young male patients. It's most frequent locations include the proximal humerus, proximal femur, distal femur and proximal tibia. The femoral head is the third most frequent site of this tumor. There is no specific treatment for this entity; reported treatments range from acetabular osteotomies and osteochondral grafts, to vascularized fibular grafts, all of them with good results. However, this tumor is clinically unpredictable if left untreated. We report a case managed with osteochondral graft and followed-up for three years after the surgical procedure.

  8. Patellofemoral dysbalance due to femoral deformities - diagnostic, therapy and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschas, Jörg; Strecker, Wolf; Harrer, Jörg; Ferner, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Anterior knee pain or patellofemoral instability are typical symptoms of patellofemoral dysbalance. Beside other reasons, this pathology can be caused by a femoral deformity. The two dimensions leading to this problems are torsional- and valgus deformities. This constellation often stays unrecognized. When diagnosed and analyzed, a femoral torsional or varization-osteotomy is the adequate treatment. Aim of this study was to show the diagnostic approach, the gold standard of therapy and the follow up results. Can patellofemoral stability be archived? Is the pain relief significant and how do clinical scores develop at the follow up? Materials and Methods: 33 femoral torsional osteotomies and 18 femoral varization osteotomies were included in this study, 5 of these were combined femoral varization and torsional corrections so that 46 knees are included in 41 patients, as 5 patients were operated on both legs. Major symptoms were patellofemoral dislocations in 28 cases and anterior knee pain in 26 cases. Beside clinical and radiographic evaluation full weight bearing long leg views and a torsional computertomography was always performed. Follow up examination was after 41 (6-113) months. Visual analog scala score, Japanese Knee Society Score, Tegner activity score and Lysholm score were taken before surgery and at the follow up. Results: Mechanical femorotibial valgus was on average 6,4° (5°-10°), femoral internal torsion was in average 40,9° (29°-66°; normal: 24°). Surgical treatment was performed with an arthroscopy followed by an acute femoral varization 7,2°(5°-10°) and / or external torsion osteotomy of 13.8° (5°-26°). Tegner activity score, Japanese knee society score and Lysholm score all significantly improved. Pain relief could be demonstrated as shown by a significant decrease of the VAS score. No further dislocation was reported during the follow up period. Conclusion: Valgus or torsional deformities of the femur frequently

  9. [Femoral head chondroblastoma and reconstruction with osteochondral allograft. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando-Díaz, C; Guzmán-Vargas, R; Rincon-Cardozo, D F; Mantilla-León, N; Camacho-Casas, J A

    2014-01-01

    Femoral head chondroblastoma is an infrequent tumor, accounting for approximately 1-2% of benign bone tumors. It occurs more frequently in young male patients. It's most frequent locations include the proximal humerus, proximal femur, distal femur and proximal tibia. The femoral head is the third most frequent site of this tumor. There is no specific treatment for this entity; reported treatments range from acetabular osteotomies and osteochondral grafts, to vascularized fibular grafts, all of them with good results. However, this tumor is clinically unpredictable if left untreated. We report a case managed with osteochondral graft and followed-up for three years after the surgical procedure. PMID:26016291

  10. Gene Transfer into the Chicken Auditory Organ by In Ovo Micro-electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsen, Lale; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Chicken embryos are ideal model systems for studying embryonic development as manipulations of gene function can be conducted with relative ease in ovo. The inner ear auditory sensory organ is critical for our ability to hear. It houses a highly specialized sensory epithelium that consists of mechano-transducing hair cells (HCs) and surrounding glial-like supporting cells (SCs). Despite structural differences in the auditory organs, molecular mechanisms regulating the development of the auditory organ are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and aves. In ovo electroporation is largely limited to early stages at E1 - E3. Due to the relative late development of the auditory organ at E5, manipulations of the auditory organ by in ovo electroporation past E3 are difficult due to the advanced development of the chicken embryo at later stages. The method presented here is a transient gene transfer method for targeting genes of interest at stage E4 - E4.5 in the developing chicken auditory sensory organ via in ovo micro-electroporation. This method is applicable for gain- and loss-of-functions with conventional plasmid DNA-based expression vectors and can be combined with in ovo cell proliferation assay by adding EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) to the whole embryo at the time of electroporation. The use of green or red fluorescent protein (GFP or RFP) expression plasmids allows the experimenter to quickly determine whether the electroporation successfully targeted the auditory portion of the developing inner ear. In this method paper, representative examples of GFP electroporated specimens are illustrated; embryos were harvested 18 - 96 hr after electroporation and targeting of GFP to the pro-sensory area of the auditory organ was confirmed by RNA in situ hybridization. The method paper also provides an optimized protocol for the use of the thymidine analog EdU to analyze cell proliferation; an example of an EdU based cell proliferation assay that combines immuno

  11. Treatment of Pediatric Open Femoral Fractures with External Fixator Versus Flexible Intramedullary Nails

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Aslani; Ali Tabrizi; Ali Sadighi; Ahmad R Mirbolook

    2013-01-01

      Background: In children, inappropriate treatment of open femoral fractures may induce several complications. A few studies have compared the external fixator with flexible intramedullary nails in high-grade open femoral fractures of children. The present study aims at comparing results of these two treatment methods in open femoral fractures. Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 27 patients with open femoral fractures, who were treated using either the external fixator (n=14) or T...

  12. Cell-autonomous sex differences in gene expression in chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M; Clinton, Mike; Hume, David A

    2015-03-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome-specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN-responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes.

  13. The Oct4 homologue PouV and Nanog regulate pluripotency in chicken embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavial, Fabrice; Acloque, Hervé; Bertocchini, Federica; Macleod, David J; Boast, Sharon; Bachelard, Elodie; Montillet, Guillaume; Thenot, Sandrine; Sang, Helen M; Stern, Claudio D; Samarut, Jacques; Pain, Bertrand

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) have been isolated from pregastrulation mammalian embryos. The maintenance of their pluripotency and ability to self-renew has been shown to be governed by the transcription factors Oct4 (Pou5f1) and Nanog. Oct4 appears to control cell-fate decisions of ESC in vitro and the choice between embryonic and trophectoderm cell fates in vivo. In non-mammalian vertebrates, the existence and functions of these factors are still under debate, although the identification of the zebrafish pou2 (spg; pou5f1) and Xenopus Pou91 (XlPou91) genes, which have important roles in maintaining uncommitted putative stem cell populations during early development, has suggested that these factors have common functions in all vertebrates. Using chicken ESC (cESC), which display similar properties of pluripotency and long-term self-renewal to mammalian ESC, we demonstrated the existence of an avian homologue of Oct4 that we call chicken PouV (cPouV). We established that cPouV and the chicken Nanog gene are required for the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of cESC. These findings show that the mechanisms by which Oct4 and Nanog regulate pluripotency and self-renewal are not exclusive to mammals.

  14. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  15. Factors that influence femoral neck length. Analysis of 1543 patients with advanced osteoarthritis of the hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Wybren; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is little known about the relationship between patient characteristic and the variance in geometrical properties of the femoral neck. The length of the femoral neck is relevant when considering a femoral neck preserving hip replacement. Based on surgical experience we h

  16. Significance of nitric oxide on the pathogenesis of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Steroid-induced femoral head necrosis is claimed to be an ischemic femoral head disease. But there is no discussion on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the idiopathic disease. The concentration of NO indirectly in serum with steroid induced avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) and in controls are studied in this article.

  17. Evaluation in femoral neck fracture scintimetry: modes of region of interest selection and influence on results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different sized ROIs within the femoral head and different modes of calculation were used in [/sup 99m/Tc]MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture. In preoperative scintimetry, correction for increased trochanteric uptake gave the best discrimination, whereas in postoperative scintimetry the direct ratio fractured/intact femoral head was superior. The change in ROI size had little influence

  18. 鸡新城疫山东强毒株的分离鉴定及致病性研究%Isolation,Identification and Pathogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Chickens of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋敏训; 李锋; 王莉莉; 黄兵; 牟建青; 杨英阁; 张秀美

    2001-01-01

    从山东省不同地区的发病鸡群中分离了6株病毒,经HA、HI试验、病毒回归试验和血清中和接种鸡胚试验确定所分离的毒株为新城疫病毒。分别对6个毒株的MDT、ICPI和IVPI进行了测定,结果表明这些毒株为鸡新城疫强毒,但各个毒株的致病性有所差异。%Six virus strains were isolated from affected chickens in some areas of Shandong province,and characterized as Newcastle disease virus by hemagglutination/hemagglutination-inhibition test,challenge with 6-week specific pathogen free(SPF) chickens and inoculation of embryos after neutralization using particular sera.Mean death time(MDT)of embryos,intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks(ICP)and intravenous pathogenicity index in 6-week-old chickens(IVPI)were determined respectively for isolates.The results showed that the six strains were highly vilulent and produced different pathogenicity in chickens and embryos.

  19. Early detection by sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following medial femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selected series of 24 patients with displaced medial femoral neck fracture, treated with closed reduction and osteosynthesis with cancellous bone screws (ASIF), were investigated. During an observation period of 6 to 26 months, serial hip joint scintigraphies were performed and compared with serial X-ray examinations. At the first scintigraphic examination performed on average 5-6 weeks after the fracture, two separate investigators found a decreased amount of activity or no activity in the femoral head of 10 and 8 patients, respectively. At the second scintigraphic examination performed on average 11.1 weeks after the fracture both investigators found no activity or a decreased amount of activity in 8 patients. This figure declined to 7 during the following period, because one patient with decreased activity was recorded as having normal activity 15 months after the fracture. These 7 patients all developed radiological signs of femoral head collapse on average 16.3 months after the fracture (range 5-26 months), whereas their scintigrams displayed decreased or absent tracer uptake on average 1.2 months after the fracture (P<0.01). None of the patients with initially normal or increased uptake later showed decreased or absent uptake during the study and none developed radiological collapse. It may be concluded that absent or decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate in the femoral head following medial femoral neck fracture indicates femoral head necrosis and a high risk of late segmental collapse, whereas normal or increased uptake implying preserved blood supply means that late segmental collapse will probably never develop. (author)

  20. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken...

  1. Femoral Condyles Tangential Views: An Effective Method to Detect the Screw Penetration of Femoral Condyles After Retrograde Nailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-Le Zheng; Xian Yu; Wei Chen; Yue-Ju Liu; Kun-Lun Yu; Tao Wu; Ying-Ze Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative knee soft tissue irritation is a common complication after retrograde nail fixation of femoral fractures.Distal locking screw prominence is one of the causes for soft tissue irritation.This study aimed to determine whether the use of the femoral condyles tangential views improve the diagnostic accuracy compared with anteroposterior (A-P) view in detecting distal locking screw penetrations during retrograde femoral nailing.Methods: The angle between the sagittal plane and lateral aspect of the condyle and the angle between the sagittal plane and medial aspect of condyle were measured on computed tomography (CT) images.After the angles were measured and recorded, cadaveric femurs were used in a simulated surgical procedure.The retrograde femoral nail was inserted into the femur and placed distal locking screws, which were left 2, 4, and 6 mm proud of the medial and lateral condyles for each femur.A-P view, lateral condyle tangential view and medial condyle tangential view were obtained.All fluoroscopic images were recorded and sent to three observers blinded to the experimental procedure to determine whether screws penetrated the condyle cortex or not.Results: According to the results of CT scan, the lateral condyle view was 20.88 ± 0.98° and the medial condyle view was 40.46 ± 3.14°.In the A-P view, we detected 0% at 2 mm penetration, 16.7% (lateral condyle screw) and 25.0% (medial condyle screw) at 4 mm, and 41.7% (lateral condyle screw) and 58.3% (medial condyle screw) at 6 mm.In the lateral tangential view, we detected 91.7% at 2 mm penetration of the lateral condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm.In the medial tangential view, we detected 66.7% at 2 mm penetration of the medial condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm.The femoral condyle tangential views provided significant improvement in detecting screw penetrations at all lengths (2, 4, and 6 mm) compared with the A-P view (P < 0.05).Conclusions: The femoral condyles

  2. Femoral Condyles Tangential Views: An Effective Method to Detect the Screw Penetration of Femoral Condyles After Retrograde Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Le Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative knee soft tissue irritation is a common complication after retrograde nail fixation of femoral fractures. Distal locking screw prominence is one of the causes for soft tissue irritation. This study aimed to determine whether the use of the femoral condyles tangential views improve the diagnostic accuracy compared with anteroposterior (A-P view in detecting distal locking screw penetrations during retrograde femoral nailing. Methods: The angle between the sagittal plane and lateral aspect of the condyle and the angle between the sagittal plane and medial aspect of condyle were measured on computed tomography (CT images. After the angles were measured and recorded, cadaveric femurs were used in a simulated surgical procedure. The retrograde femoral nail was inserted into the femur and placed distal locking screws, which were left 2, 4, and 6 mm proud of the medial and lateral condyles for each femur. A-P view, lateral condyle tangential view and medial condyle tangential view were obtained. All fluoroscopic images were recorded and sent to three observers blinded to the experimental procedure to determine whether screws penetrated the condyle cortex or not. Results: According to the results of CT scan, the lateral condyle view was 20.88 ± 0.98° and the medial condyle view was 40.46 ± 3.14°. In the A-P view, we detected 0% at 2 mm penetration, 16.7% (lateral condyle screw and 25.0% (medial condyle screw at 4 mm, and 41.7% (lateral condyle screw and 58.3% (medial condyle screw at 6 mm. In the lateral tangential view, we detected 91.7% at 2 mm penetration of the lateral condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm. In the medial tangential view, we detected 66.7% at 2 mm penetration of the medial condyle and 100% at 4 mm and 6 mm. The femoral condyle tangential views provided significant improvement in detecting screw penetrations at all lengths (2, 4, and 6 mm compared with the A-P view (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The femoral condyles

  3. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos I: Convergence of Embryos in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N C; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    According to the core-accretion scenario, planets form in protostellar disks through the condensation of dust, coagulation of planetesimals, and emergence of protoplanetary embryos. At a few AU in a minimum mass nebula, embryos' growth is quenched by dynamical isolation due to the depletion of planetesimals in their feeding zone. However, embryos with masses ($M_p$) in the range of a few Earth masses ($M_\\oplus$) migrate toward a transition radius between the inner viscously heated and outer irradiated regions of their natal disk. Their limiting isolation mass increases with the planetesimals surface density. When $M_p > 10 M_\\oplus$, embryos efficiently accrete gas and evolve into cores of gas giants. We use numerical simulation to show that, despite streamline interference, convergent embryos essentially retain the strength of non-interacting embryos' Lindblad and corotation torque by their natal disks. In disks with modest surface density (or equivalently accretion rates), embryos capture each other in the...

  4. The Study on Correlation Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IGF2 Gene and Body Fatness Traits in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; LI Hui; WANG Qi-gui; ZHAO Jian-guo; WANG Yu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of animal embryo. Some researches indicated that it affects the fat metabolism of poultry.This study was designed to investigate the effect of IGF2 on chicken fatness traits.Broiler, Hyline Brown layer and three native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Baier) were used in this research. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in broiler line at the age of 7 weeks. Primers for exon2 in IGF2 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing.The total χ2 test results showed that there was a significant difference (P< 0.01) in the frequency of genotype among breeds. A C/G mutation at base position 139 was found among individuals in broiler line and the least square analysis showed that BB genotype birds had significant lower (P< 0.05) abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat than AA or AB genotype birds. From the results we can conclude putatively that IGF2 gene is the major gene affecting the fatness traits of chicken or it links with the major gene,and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chicken for low abdominal fat.

  5. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  6. Immunocytochemical studies of chicken somatotrophs and somatotroph granules before and after hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Gibney, J A; Cain, L D; Perez, F M; Scanes, C G

    1993-05-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were used to gain information about the embryonic development of chicken somatotrophs before and after hatching. To localize growth hormone, anterior pituitary sections were incubated with growth-hormone antibody, and then an indirect peroxidase method was used for light microscopy and an immunogold method for electron microscopy. The earliest evidence of embryonic somatotrophs was seen at 12 days. At this stage somatotrophs were sparse (0.2% of parenchymal cells) and their granules were pleomorphic with elongated ovoid and lozenge shapes predominating. Few of the immunogold-labeled somatotroph granules of the embryo were spherical until 15 days after fertilization. At 18 days, most of the granules were spherical (their shape in the adult chicken). During the six days between the 15-day-old embryo and the 1-day-old chick, the number of gold particles per granule section approximately doubled suggesting an increase in growth hormone content of the granules. This rise was the result of increases in the size of the granule sections and in the concentration of gold particles in the sections. During the embryonic period of 12-20 days, somatotrophs were not more than 3.6% of the anterior pituitary cell population. During the following two days, between the 20-day-old embryo and the 1-day-old chick, the percentage of somatotrophs in the pituitary parenchymal cell population rose rapidly from 3.6% to 20.7% and then increased slowly to 24.6% during the period of 1-5 days after hatching.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  8. Embryo culture and rapid propagation of Syringa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Li-min; SU Bao-ling

    2003-01-01

    Embryo of lilacs (Syringa L) culture in vitro and the rapid propagation were studied. The orthogonal experiments, including the selection of basal medium, embryo age and other factors such as sugar, benzyladenine (BA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and glutamine (Gln), were carried out. The results indicated that the optimal medium for embryo culture was Monnier medium supplemented with NAA (0.001 mg@L-1), BA (0.1 mg@L-1), sugar (50 g@L-1), and Gln (400 mg@L-1), with a germination rate of 91.7% at least; the optimal embryo age was 50 d; and Gln had significant effects on the germination rate of embryo. Moreover, the optimal medium for subculture was MS+BA (2 mg@L-1)+NAA (0.001 mg@L-1)+Gln (0.5 mg@L-1), with the propagation coefficient of 3.6 at least.

  9. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  10. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  11. Osteochondrosis in the lateral femoral condyles of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteochondrosis of the lateral femoral condyles was diagnosed radiographically in an 8-month-old, female Arabian horse, which had been presented with a hindlimb lameness. The diagnosis was confirmed by gross and microscopic pathology. The location of the lesions was considered unusual for osteochondrosis in the horse

  12. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [National Naval Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Davidson, Richard [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  13. Quantifying lateral femoral condyle ellipticalness in chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Adam D; Pfisterer, Theresa

    2012-11-01

    Articular surfaces of limb bones provide information for understanding animal locomotion because their size and shape are a reflection of habitual postures and movements. Here we present a novel method for quantifying the ellipticalness (i.e., departure from perfectly circular) of the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), applying this technique to hominid femora. Three-dimensional surface models were created for 49 Homo sapiens, 34 Pan troglodytes and 25 Gorilla gorilla femora. Software was developed that fit separate cylinders to each of the femoral condyles. These cylinders were constrained to have a single axis, but could have different radii. The cylinder fit to the LFC was allowed to assume an elliptical cross-section, while the cylinder fit to the medial condyle was constrained to remain circular. The shape of the elliptical cylinder (ratio of the major and minor axes of the ellipse) was recorded, and the orientation of the elliptical cylinder quantified as angles between the major axis of the ellipse and the anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. Species were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparisons tests. Confirming qualitative descriptions, human LFCs are more elliptical than those of chimpanzees and gorillas. Human femora exhibit a narrow range for the angle between the major axis of the elliptical cylinder and femoral axes. Conversely, the chimpanzee sample is bimodal for these angles, exhibiting two ellipse orientations, while Gorilla shows no preferred angle. Our results suggest that like modern human femora, chimpanzee femoral condyles have preferentially used regions. PMID:23042636

  14. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  15. Management of a femoral fracture complicated by clostridial myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical case of clostridial myositis secondary to a comminuted femoral fracture is described. This case is unusual because, despite the severe degree of obvious muscle necrosis and gas production, the dog had minimal signs of systemic toxicity. Union of the fracture was achieved but six months postoperatively muscular contracture had resulted in permanent stifle extension

  16. Radionuclide scintimetry for diagnosis of complications following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintimetric study using Tc-99m MDP was made of 54 patients with delayed union, nonunion, or late segmental collapse of the femoral head, 4-92 months after femoral neck fracture. In radiographically verified collapse, the radionuclide uptake ratio between the femoral head on the fractured and on the intact side (HHR) was significantly higher than in fractures resulting in delayed union or nonunion. On the basis of scintimetric and radiographic findings, the patients with healing disturbances could be divided into three groups, characterized by the following features: (1) Satisfactory post-reduction position of the fracture without subsequent redisplacement and a high HHR, which as a rule turned out to be delayed union; (2) The same radiographic pattern but with a lower HHR, which in most cases resulted in nonunion; (3) Inadequate reduction or early redisplacement of the fracture with a high HHR, which resulted in nonunion. The fractional precision in discriminating between different types of disturbed fracture healing by means of skeletal scintimetry was 0.86 in this study. This non-invasive and technically simple method would therefore be a valuable complement to radiography in the assessment of healing, more than 4 months after fracture of the femoral neck. (author)

  17. Blood transfusion requirement in surgery for femoral artery aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    Audit of blood usage in various surgical specialities have shown that over-ordering of blood is widespread, causing unnecessary pressure on the transfusion facilities and giving growing concern over the expense of cross-matching blood. The aim of this study was to assess the blood transfusion req...... requirement in patients undergoing surgery for femoral artery aneurysms....

  18. Spontaneous Superficial Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in Behcet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ugurlucan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune multisystemic disorder on vasculitis base. Cardiovascular involvement is the most important predictor of morbidity and mortality. The treatment should be planned carefully for pathologies requiring interventions. In our report, we present a 45-year-old patient with spontaneous superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, our treatment strategy, and circumstances we faced.

  19. The Femoral Hernia-a rare hernia and its treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Hoeferlin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Hernias age protrusions through weak areas of our abdominal wall.The most common hernia is Inguinal Hernia in men.A rather rare hernia is the Femoral Hernia,a protrusion into the femotal canal next to the blood vessels in our groin (Picl).

  20. Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

    1996-11-01

    A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication.

  1. Femoral nailing in adults : doctor and patient reported outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Moumni, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of traumatic femoral shaft fractures using an unreamed nail is associated with good results. Both antegrade and retrograde unreamed nailing techniques result in high union rates and low rates of complications, such as non-union, deep infection and septic arthritis. These results are co

  2. MPR realignment increases accuracy when measuring femoral neck anteversion angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tommy Hemmert; Torfing, Trine; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    To compare two methods of measuring femoral neck anteversion angle (FNA): A 2D method used at Odense University Hospital until 2010, and a method labeled 3D-OUH. The latter method makes corrections to compensate for errors introduced by the individual placement of patients in the CT scanner....

  3. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, Jens-Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovement...

  4. The accuracy of CT - determined femoral neck anteversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish the accuracy of CT determination of femoral neck anteversion, two models were constructed; one an idealized Plexiglas model and the other from a real femur. Experiments were carried out by pre-setting angles on the phantoms, and then determining these angles by CT. The results, which show a high degree of accuracy, are analyzed statistically. (orig.)

  5. Chondroblastoma of the femoral head: management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, D P; Grimer, R J; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M; Abudu, A

    2010-03-01

    Chondroblastoma of the femoral head presents particular problems in treatment because the tumour is surrounded by articular cartilage on one side and epiphyseal plate on the other. Ten patients underwent treatment for a chondroblastoma involving the proximal femoral capital epiphysis. The patients were aged between eight and 19 years and in four the epiphysis was not yet fused. Five had curettage via a drill hole created up the femoral neck, of whom two developed local recurrence. Five had a direct approach to the chondroblastoma through the femoral neck, and there were no local recurrences in this group. Both patients with local recurrence were under 14 years of age-one was cured by a direct approach through the neck of the femur and the other by lifting a trap door of articular cartilage. Apart from one patient with a temporary leg length discrepancy, there were no other complications. We conclude that a direct approach is likely to lead to the best outcome for this rare condition.

  6. Periprosthetic subtrochanteric femoral fracture in a megaprosthesis of the knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Vaishya; Ajay Pal Singh; Abhishek Vaish

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of periprosthetic posttraumatic fracture of subtrochanteric region of femur after a megaprosthesis of the knee,done for resistant nonunion of distal femur with secondary osteoarthrosis in a 51 years old man.Treatment with a locking femoral plate was able to achieve primary union with a good result.

  7. Progressive slippage after pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James O; Smith, William J; Stanley, Earl A; Bueche, Matthew J; Karol, Lori A; Chambers, Henry G

    2002-01-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed seven cases of progressive slipped capital femoral epiphysis after screw fixation. All seven patients initially presented with chronic symptoms, and five had an acute exacerbation of symptoms with the appearance of an acute-on-chronic slip. Of the other two, one had obvious motion at the proximal femoral physis and the other had increased symptoms but did not have an obvious acute slip radiographically. All underwent percutaneous screw fixation. In four patients a single screw was placed, and in three patients two screws were placed. No patient became symptom-free after surgery. Slip progression was noted on average 5 months after treatment. Radiographs in all patients revealed an increase in slip severity and loss of screw purchase in the femoral neck while fixation in the proximal femoral epiphysis remained secure. One patient had hypothyroidism and another Cushing disease, both diagnosed after the slipped epiphysis. Slips occurring in children with underlying endocrinopathies, and unstable slips in children with a history of antecedent knee or hip pain (commonly called an acute-on-chronic slip) may be susceptible to screw fixation failure. In such patients, close radiographic follow-up, particularly in the presence of continued symptoms, is required to document slip progression and fixation failure as soon as possible.

  8. Femoral fractures : indications an[d] biomechanics of external fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Broekhuizen (Tom); B. van Linge

    1988-01-01

    textabstractInternal fixation can be carried out in various ways. For femoral shaft fractures, an (interlocking) nail is becoming increasingly popular, instead of open realignment of the fracture. External fixation, which has become a generally accepted method of treating fractures of the lower leg,

  9. Blood flow and microdialysis in the human femoral head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If it would be possible to detect lack of flow and/or the development of ischemia in bone, we might have a way of predicting whether a broken bone will heal. We established microdialysis (MD) and laser Doppler (LD) flow measurement in the human femoral head in order to be able to detect...

  10. Isolated femoral hypoplasia: an intrauterine differential diagnosis to campomelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, Friederike; Benz-Bohm, Gabriele [University of Cologne, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Schoenau, Eckard [University of Cologne, Department of Paediatrics, Cologne (Germany); Horwitz, A.Eldad [Klinikum Krefeld, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Krefeld (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    The isolated form of femoral bowing is an important differential diagnosis of campomelia. Therefore, knowledge of isolated anomalies is fundamental for prenatal diagnosis, especially for the differential diagnosis from severe syndromes. Four cases are presented to discuss the differential diagnosis of femoral bowing including a review of the literature. We report four newborn babies with unilateral bowing and shortening of the femur. Three had no further anomaly; one child had additional abnormalities due to coumarin embryopathy. The radiological findings were shortened femora with bowing and varus deformity and cortical thickening on the concave side. All other parts showed normal bone structure. The aetiology of femoral bowing is unknown. Early damage of the cartilaginous model followed by remodelling with thickening on the concave side of the bone similar to the healing of malaligned fractures is suspected. The isolated form of femoral bowing without any other anomalies has to be differentiated from complex and more often severe congenital syndromes such as campomelia. Postpartum radiological examination should be reduced to a single exposure of the affected limb and follow-up should be done by clinical examination. (orig.)

  11. Performance of CF/PA12 composite femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Melissa; Bureau, Martin N; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2008-02-01

    This study presents the microstructural and mechanical behavior of the CF/PA12 composite material developed as well as its biomechanical performance when used for the fabrication of femoral stems. The static tests were performed to evaluate the compressive and flexural modulus as well as the ultimate compressive and bending strength. It was found that CF/PA12 composite had bone-matching properties in the same order of magnitude as cortical bone in the femur. Density and void content measurements were also done to assess the consolidation quality. Dynamic fatigue testing was conducted on both CF/PA12 cylinders and femoral stems to evaluate the long term durability and mechanical reliability of the composite. Compression-compression cyclic loading was used at a frequency of 6 Hz with loads varying between 17 kN and 22 kN for the composite cylinders while a frequency of 10 Hz and load of 2300 N was employed for the femoral stems. Results indicate that the fatigue performance of CF/PA12 composite surpasses by far the required fatigue performance for total hip prosthesis (THP) stems. The overall performance of the CF/PA12 femoral stems confirms that this composite is an excellent candidate material for orthopedic applications such as THP stems. PMID:17619978

  12. Expiration induced femoral flow in neonatal coarctation of aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    McNicholl, B.; Kennedy, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    In a 3 day old infant with coarctation of the aorta a loud Doppler signal synchronous with expiration was present for some hours in the femoral vessels, with only barely audible signals synchronous with cardiac systole. It is suggested that in the presence of severe aortic constriction and temporary ductal closure, blood was pumped through the infradiaphragmatic arteries by increased intrathoracic expiratory pressure.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Chicken Embryo Somites to Analyze Cell Migration during Somitegenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Sarit; Taneyhill, Lisa; Wu, Chyong; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2013-03-01

    Somites develop as round segments on the sides of the neural tube and are responsible for the development of the vertebrae and other structures. Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Micropipette techniques, we were able to apply a known force to obtain data about the differences in the mechanical properties of the somites. Using contact mode in AFM, we obtained graphs that relate distance travelled by the cantilever versus deflection of the sample. We then used Matlab to analyze the data and find the material properties of the somites. We measured the Young's modulus of the anterior and posterior parts of the somites to be around 2 +/- 0.8 kPa, but further data is needed to finalize our conclusion. Finding the mechanical properties of the posterior and anterior parts of the somites helped us to mimic those mechanical properties on polyacrylamide gels with different stiffness to determine the physiological functions of the somites and predict any mechanical abnormalities that might affect the migration of stem cells. By observing the major steps of migration, we were able to better understand how cell migration orchestrates embryonic morphogenesis with respect to their known mechanical properties.

  14. Mechanical properties of femoral trabecular bone in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte Ingo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mechanical properties of canine trabecular bone is important for a better understanding of fracture mechanics or bone disorders and is also needed for numerical simulation of canine femora. No detailed data about elastic moduli and degrees of anisotropy of canine femoral trabecular bone has been published so far, hence the purpose of this study was to measure the elastic modulus of trabecular bone in canine femoral heads by ultrasound testing and to assess whether assuming isotropy of the cancellous bone in femoral heads in dogs is a valid simplification. Methods From 8 euthanized dogs, both femora were obtained and cubic specimens were cut from the centre of the femoral head which were oriented along the main pressure and tension trajectories. The specimens were tested using a 100 MHz ultrasound transducer in all three orthogonal directions. The directional elastic moduli of trabecular bone tissue and degrees of anisotropy were calculated. Results The elastic modulus along principal bone trajectories was found to be 11.2 GPa ± 0.4, 10.5 ± 2.1 GPa and 10.5 ± 1.8 GPa, respectively. The mean density of the specimens was 1.40 ± 0.09 g/cm3. The degrees of anisotropy revealed a significant inverse relationship with specimen densities. No significant differences were found between the elastic moduli in x, y and z directions, suggesting an effective isotropy of trabecular bone tissue in canine femoral heads. Discussion This study presents detailed data about elastic moduli of trabecular bone tissue obtained from canine femoral heads. Limitations of the study are the relatively small number of animals investigated and the measurement of whole specimen densities instead of trabecular bone densities which might lead to an underestimation of Young's moduli. Publications on elastic moduli of trabecular bone tissue present results that are similar to our data. Conclusion This study provides data about directional elastic

  15. Study of the anatomical position of the femoral nerve by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with fractured neck of femur: relevance to femoral nerve block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehmood, Shehzad

    2012-01-31

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the anatomical location of the femoral nerve in patients who have sustained fracture of the neck of femur, and its relevance to femoral nerve block technique. DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical study. SETTING: Orthopedic and Radiology departments of a regional hospital. SUBJECTS: 10 consecutive adult ASA physical status II and III patients (mean age, 78.5 yrs) and 4 adult healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: A T1 magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed of both upper thighs in patients and healthy volunteers successfully. MEASUREMENTS: The distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral artery and the midpoint of the femoral nerve, and the distance of the femoral nerve from the skin was measured at the mid-inguinal ligament, the pubic tubercle, and at the mid-inguinal crease. Data are shown as means (SD). Differences between both sides were compared using paired Student\\'s t-tests. P < 0.05 was significant. MAIN RESULTS: In patients the mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of femoral artery at the mid-inguinal crease on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 10.7 and 11.0, respectively (P = 0.87). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the mid-inguinal ligament on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 9.64 and 12.5, respectively (P = 0.03). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the pubic tubercle on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 8.74 and 10.49, respectively (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of the femoral nerve may be easier to perform at the mid-inguinal crease in patients with fractured neck of femur.

  16. Radiographic and functional results of osteosynthesis using the proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Suner; Erturer, Erden; Ozturk, Irfan; Toker, Serdar; Seckin, Faik; Akman, Senol

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the radiographic and functional results of the proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) system in patients with unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures. Methods: The study included 45 patients (25 women, 20 men; mean age 72 years; range 27 to 97 years) who underwent osteosynthesis using the PFNA for unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures. The fractures were in the right hip in 25 patients, and in the left hip in 20 patients. The fractures were classifie...

  17. STUDY ON NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND FEMORAL LENGTH OF SOUTH INDIAN FEMURS

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil Mohamad Khan; Shaik Hussain Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: Femoral nek anteversion describes the angle subtended by the femoral neck with reference to the transcondylar plane of the distal end of the femur and is usually 15° to 45°. This along with the neck shaft angle, hip axis length, femoral neck width influence the risk of femoral neck fracture. Femoral neck anteversion angle has to be taken into consideration when reduction and fixation is selected as a method of treatment. Objectives: The objectives of present study to find out ...

  18. Pentosan reduces osteonecrosis of femoral head in SHRSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Noriaki; Kumagai, Kenji; Osaki, Makoto; Murata, Masakazu; Tomita, Masato; Hozumi, Akira; Nozaki, Yoshihiro; Niwa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress is considered one of the main causes of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a steroid hormone and pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan), a heparin analog, in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) as a model of ONFH. One hundred twenty-three 13-week-old male SHRSP/Izm rats were divided into four groups: a control group (group C), pentosan-administered group (group P), steroid-administered group (group S), and group administered pentosan plus steroid (group PS). Methylprednisolone acetate, as the steroid hormone, at a dose of 4 mg (15 mg/kg) was administered at 15 weeks of age. Pentosan at a dose of 3 mg/day/kg was continuously administered intraperitoneally from 13 weeks of age for 4 weeks. Rats were sacrificed at 17 weeks of age, and heart blood and both femora were collected. Triglyceride levels were significantly lower in group PS than in group S, indicating that pentosan improves lipid metabolism. The incidence of histologic ONFH was significantly lower in group P, at 14.8% (10/71 femoral heads), than in group C, at 30.4% (17/56 femoral heads), and significantly lower in group PS, at 40.8% (29/71 femoral heads), than in group S, at 91.3% (42/46 femoral heads), indicating that pentosan markedly inhibits ONFH. Immunohistochemical staining for oxidative stress showed that the stainability was significantly lower in group PS than in group S. Pentosan seems to reduce the incidence of ONFH in SHRSP by improving lipid metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress.

  19. Analysis of Femoral Components of Cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shantanu; Harsha, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    There have been continuous on-going revisions in design of prosthesis in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) to improve the endurance of hip replacement. In the present work, Finite Element Analysis was performed on cemented THA with CoCrMo trapezoidal, CoCrMo circular, Ti6Al4V trapezoidal and Ti6Al4V circular stem. It was observed that cross section and material of femoral stem proved to be critical parameters for stress distribution in femoral components, distribution of interfacial stress and micro movements. In the first part of analysis, designs were investigated for micro movements and stress developed, for different stem materials. Later part of the analysis focused on investigations with respect to different stem cross sections. Femoral stem made of Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) resulted in larger debonding of stem at cement-stem interface and increased stress within the cement mantle in contrast to chromium alloy (CoCrMo) stem. Thus, CoCrMo proved to be a better choice for cemented THA. Comparison between CoCrMo femoral stem of trapezium and circular cross section showed that trapezoidal stem experiences lesser sliding and debonding at interfaces than circular cross section stem. Also, trapezium cross section generated lower peak stress in femoral stem and cortical femur. In present study, femur head with diameter of 36 mm was considered for the analysis in order to avoid dislocation of the stem. Also, metallic femur head was coupled with cross linked polyethylene liner as it experiences negligible wear compared to conventional polyethylene liner and unlike metallic liner it is non carcinogenic.

  20. Current concepts on osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Angeler, Joaquin; Gianakos, Arianna L; Villa, Jordan C; Ni, Amelia; Lane, Joseph M

    2015-09-18

    It is estimated that 20000 to 30000 new patients are diagnosed with osteonecrosis annually accounting for approximately 10% of the 250000 total hip arthroplasties done annually in the United States. The lack of level 1 evidence in the literature makes it difficult to identify optimal treatment protocols to manage patients with pre-collapse avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and early intervention prior to collapse is critical to successful outcomes in joint preserving procedures. There have been a variety of traumatic and atraumatic factors that have been identified as risk factors for osteonecrosis, but the etiology and pathogenesis still remains unclear. Current osteonecrosis diagnosis is dependent upon plain anteroposterior and frog-leg lateral radiographs of the hip, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Generally, the first radiographic changes seen by radiograph will be cystic and sclerotic changes in the femoral head. Although the diagnosis may be made by radiograph, plain radiographs are generally insufficient for early diagnosis, therefore MRI is considered the most accurate benchmark. Treatment options include pharmacologic agents such as bisphosphonates and statins, biophysical treatments, as well as joint-preserving and joint-replacing surgeries. the surgical treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head can be divided into two major branches: femoral head sparing procedures (FHSP) and femoral head replacement procedures (FHRP). In general, FHSP are indicated at pre-collapse stages with minimal symptoms whereas FHRP are preferred at post-collapse symptomatic stages. It is difficult to know whether any treatment modality changes the natural history of core decompression since the true natural history of core decompression has not been delineated. PMID:26396935

  1. Successful Return to Sport Following Distal Femoral Varus Osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod Babu; Degen, Ryan; Tetreault, Danielle; Krych, Aaron John; Williams, Riley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Distal femoral varus osteotomy is an effective treatment for unloading valgus knee malalignment; however, there is limited evidence on the ability for patients to return to athletics following this procedure. The purpose of this study is to report the functional outcomes and return to sport for athletic patients that underwent distal femoral varus osteotomy. Methods: A consecutive series of athletic patients that had undergone distal femoral varus osteotomy for symptomatic lateral compartment overload and valgus knee malalignment were prospectively reviewed. All patients had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Radiographs were assessed to determine pre-operative and post-operative alignment. Details regarding sport of interest, ability to return to sport, and timing of return were obtained from the patients. Prospective institutional registries were utilized to collect pre-operative and post-operative Marx Activity Scale and International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (IKDC) scores; these values were compared using paired t-tests with p soccer, 2 softball, 2 running, 1 football, 1 basketball, 1 ice hockey, 1 volleyball, 1 rowing) at a mean of 11 months (range: 9-13). Furthermore, all 13 patients demonstrated an improvement in both Marx Activity Scale and IKDC scores after surgery. The mean improvement in Marx Activity Scale was 7 (mean pre-op: 4, mean post-op: 11, p < 0.01), and the mean improvement in IKDC score was 36 (mean pre-op: 53, mean post-op: 89, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Valgus knee malalignment results in overload of the lateral compartment and can severely limit one’s ability to participate in athletic activities. Correction of valgus knee malalignment through distal femoral varus osteotomy - either medial closing wedge or lateral opening wedge - can reliably result in improvement in function and return to sport, provided that concomitant chondral, meniscal, and ligamentous pathology is addressed. Therefore, distal

  2. Nutritional effects of egg shell membrane supplements on chicken performance and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Huff, W E; Huff, G R

    2015-06-01

    Eggshell membranes (ESM) contain a variety of proteins and peptides which help in the development of embryo and provide protection to it. Many of the peptides and proteins associated with ESM have antimicrobial, immune-modulatory, and adjuvant properties. We hypothesized that the membrane byproducts from egg, provided as posthatch nutritional supplements to chickens, may improve their performance and immunity. To explore its effect, we fed 3 groups of broiler chicks with feed containing 0, 0.2, and 0.4% ESM from d 1 posthatch through 14 d and regular feed thereafter. The birds were individually weighed at the onset of the study and at weekly intervals until the termination at third wk when they were bled and euthanized. The relative weights of liver, spleen, bursa, and heart, hematology profiles, and clinical chemistry variables including serum IgM, IgG, and corticosterone concentrations were measured. The chickens in the ESM treated groups showed a statistically significant increase in BW with no impact on relative organ weights. Compared with controls, the WBC and lymphocyte percentage increased in chickens fed 0.4% ESM whereas the monocyte percentage decreased at both levels of ESM. Except for the serum protein which increased in ESM fed birds no other metabolic clinical chemistry variables showed any significant change. Both IgM and IgG(Y) levels were elevated and corticosterone levels reduced in chickens fed ESM supplemented diets. Our results suggest that ESM supplements during the early phases of growth may improve immunity and stress variables, and enhance their growth performance without any detrimental effect on other physiological parameters. PMID:25840966

  3. Identification of calcitonin expression in the chicken ovary: influence of follicular maturation and ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Maddineni, Sreenivasa B; Hendricks, Gilbert L; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2007-10-01

    Calcitonin (CALCA), a hormone primarily known for its role in calcium homeostasis, has recently been linked to reproduction, specifically as a marker for embryo implantation in the uterus. Although CALCA expression has been documented in several tissues, there has been no report of production of CALCA in the ovary of any vertebrate species. We hypothesized that the Calca gene is expressed in the chicken ovary, and its expression will be altered by follicular maturation or gonadal steroid administration. Using RT-PCR, we detected Calca mRNA and the calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA in the granulosa and theca layers of preovulatory and prehierarchial follicles. Both CALCA and Calca mRNA were localized in granulosa and thecal cells by confocal microscopy. Using quantitative PCR analysis, F1 follicle granulosa layer was found to contain significantly greater Calca mRNA and Calcr mRNA levels compared with those of any other preovulatory or prehierarchial follicle. The granulosa layer contained relatively greater Calca and Calcr mRNA levels compared with the thecal layer in both prehierarchial and preovulatory follicles. Progesterone (P(4)) treatment of sexually immature chickens resulted in a significantly greater abundance of ovarian Calca mRNA, whereas estradiol (E(2)) or P(4) + E(2) treatment significantly reduced ovarian Calca mRNA quantity. Treatment of prehierarchial follicular granulosa cells in vitro with CALCA significantly decreased FSH-stimulated cellular viability. Collectively, our results indicate that follicular maturation and gonadal steroids influence Calca and Calcr gene expression in the chicken ovary. We conclude that ovarian CALCA is possibly involved in regulating follicular maturation in the chicken ovary. PMID:17582014

  4. Isolation of avian reoviruses associated with diseases of chickens in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarasena, C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available During 1994-1999, infectious agents associated with different disease conditions were investigated in three separate outbreaks of disease in southern Thailand. The first outbreak was in native chickens from Nakhon Si Thammarat province resulting in sudden death with liver and kidney congestions. The second was in 38-day-old broilers from Krabi province. The lame birds showed signs of depression and bilateral hock joints swelling. The last case was in 19-week-old laying chickens from Phang-nga province manifested by depression, paleness and greenish-diarrhea. The causative agents were isolated in embryonating chicken eggs and chick embryo liver (CELi cells. A characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE of multinucleated syncytial cells and progressive detachment of cells from the monolayer into culture fluid was apparent in the first passage in CELi cells within 24 hours postinoculation (PI. The isolates were adapted to replicate in Vero cells and the CPE characterized by focal areas of cell fusion occurred 48 hours PI. The indirect fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens characterized by granular fluorescent masses in the cytoplasm of large multinucleated syncytial cells in both cell types. Cross-virus neutralization test revealed an antigenic relationship between the three separate isolates and avian reovirus strain S1133. Transmission electron microscopic study of 3 agents showed the nonenveloped, icosahedral particles, 60-80 nm in diameter with a double-capsid shell and it formed crystalline arrays in the cytoplasm of infected Vero cells. The viruses designated NK 917/ 37, Kb 538/40 and Pn 1212/42 were classified in the family Reoviridae. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus were also recovered from the lame bird of the second outbreak and considered as a secondary invader. These findings confirmed a variety of clinical signs caused by avian reovirus infection in three species of chicken in southern Thailand.

  5. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the succ ess of an embryo freezing and thawing program. Method: The relationship betwee n the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thawing program and the following factors was analyzed: maternal age, E2 level at the time of HCG trigg er, embryo storage time, number of thawed embryos transferred, presence of spons oring embryos and intact embryos. And the survival rate of thawed embryos with d ifferent morphology, cell stage and storage time was evaluated. Result: Tra nsfer with three or more than three thawed embryos resulted in pregnancy rates o f 38.5% and 35.7%, respectively, compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer th an t hree embryos. The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantl y increases pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program. No other fact or examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome. The survival rate of good morph ology embryos was higher than poor ones, but was not influenced by cell stage an d storage time. Conclusion: Embryo morphology before freezing, number of thaw ed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the o utcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.

  6. Prognostic precision in postoperative 99mTc-MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2-year follow-up regarding healing complications, such as redisplacement, nonunion, and segmental collapse of the femoral head, was performed in 306 patients operated on for femoral neck fracture and examined with 99mTechnetium-MDP scintimetry within 2 weeks postoperatively. Scintimetric evaluation was performed by selecting regions of interest over the femoral head on the fracture side and the intact side and by comparing the uptake. A femoral head ratio fractured/intact side thus was obtained. Of 199 patients with an intact femoral head uptake (ratio ≤ 1.0), 181 showed no signs of healing complications at 2 years, whereas 18 had developed healing complications. Of 107 cases with a deficient femoral-head uptake (ratio 99mTc-MDP scintimetry performed within 2 weeks from femoral neck fracture can predict the outcome of the healing course with a prognostic accuracy of 91 per cent. (author)

  7. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (Pincubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  8. Serum Peptide Changes in Chickens with Metabolic Skeletal Problems Associated with Lameness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasaputra, Komal S.; Liyanage, Rohana; Okimoto, Ron; Lay, Jackson O.; Rath, Narayan C.

    2011-06-01

    Serum proteins and peptides have potential as biomarkers since they form the structural and functional basis of tissues and are involved in metabolic and regulatory processes. Changes in their profiles or their breakdown products have been of interest as potential biomarkers. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and femoral head separation (FHS) are two metabolic skeletal problems in poultry that cause lameness. The objective of this study was to identify serum peptide changes associated with lameness in poultry that may be predictive of the disease and may help in eliminating these hereditary defects from the genetic pool. Serum peptides were extracted from six-wk-old chickens with or without the above leg problems using C18 magnetic beads and analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed peptides were analyzed in the m/z range of 1,000-10,000 using ClinproTool™ software. Twenty two peaks from TD and 20 from FHS affected chickens were compared with their respective controls. The spectral peaks were identified using mass spectrometry followed by a data base search. Some of the peptides identified were hemostasis associated breakdown products. No differentially expressed peptide was detected in FHS but a peptide with m/z 5308.1 was elevated in chickens with TD (p⩽0.05). It was identified as a fragment of alpha 1 type-XI isoform 1. Type XI collagen is a cartilage specific extracellular matrix protein that is involved in the organization of other collagens and maintains extracellular matrix integrity. Its breakdown product may indicate cartilage degeneration in tibial dyschondroplasia thus may serve as a surrogate marker for this problem.

  9. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  10. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J. [Laboratoire d' Immunologie et Parasitologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Youbicier-Simo, B.J. [Tecnolab, Chateau de l' Orbize, Dracy-le-Fort (France)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  11. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  12. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey...

  13. 鸡胚胎干细胞的分离及其嵌合体制备条件探索%Isolation of Chicken Embryonic Stem Cell and Exploring the Preparation Conditions of Chicken Chimeric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚妮; 杨海燕; 施青青; 张振韬; 郑蒙蒙; 王丹; 李碧春

    2012-01-01

    分离培养鸡胚胎干细胞(ESCs),体外培养传代后,进行碱性磷酸酶活性检测和SSEA-1染色鉴定;并用线性化的质粒pEGFP-N1转染鸡ESCs.受体种蛋经赤道面开窗后,将经转染的ESCs注射到受体鸡胚胚下腔,以便制作嵌合体鸡;对获得的嵌合体鸡分别提取血液和组织DNA后进行PCR检测.结果表明:5只存活的的嵌合体鸡血液中没有发生EGFP基因嵌合,但有4只嵌合体鸡的部分器官表达了EGFP基因,其中有2只鸡的性腺发生嵌合,表明利用赤道面开窗后对受体鸡进行胚下腔显微注射可以生产嵌合体鸡.%Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were separated and cultured in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP) and SSEA-1 staining was conducted to detected ESCs. Then, chicken ESCs were transfected with linearized plasmid pEGFP-Nl. The receptor eggs were drilled a window at the lateral shell of egg, then, the ESCs transfected with pEGFP-Nl was injected into chick embryo cavity so as to make chimeric chicken. The chimeric chicken was detected for both of blood and different tissue by PCR. The results showed five chimeric chicken were obtained in this study and found that four of them expressed EGFP gene in some organs, only two of them expressed EGFP gene in the gonad, indicating the chimeric chicken could be obtained through chick embryo cavity micro-injection by drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg.

  14. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used...... to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets...

  15. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relativ...

  16. Embryo Transfer (Techniques, Donors, and Recipients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick E; Jahnke, Marianna M

    2016-07-01

    Commercial embryo transfer has evolved as an art and as a science since the early 1970s. Today's multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a widely used reproductive tool on many farms and is performed by veterinarians throughout the world. Propagation of the female genomes of select donors, through embryo transfer, has allowed a rapid progression of genetic gain in many breeds, much like what happened with artificial insemination since the 1940s. Advancement of this technology is migrating to in vitro fertilization technology today, allowing a higher volume of offspring to be produced with sex selection in the laboratory. PMID:27140299

  17. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David Martin

    2008-05-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have towards future persons.

  18. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Kameka, Amber M.; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T.; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P.; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macropha...

  19. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that anti...

  20. Molecular genetics of chicken egg quality

    OpenAIRE

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Faultless quality in eggs is important in all production steps, from chicken to packaging, transportation, storage, and finally to the consumer. The egg industry (specifically transportation and packing) is interested in robustness, the consumer in safety and taste, and the chicken itself in the reproductive performance of the egg. High quality is commercially profitable, and egg quality is currently one of the key traits in breeding goals. In conventional breeding schemes, the more traits th...