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Sample records for chicken ciliary ganglion

  1. The morphology, topography and cytoarchitectonics of the ciliary ganglion in the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzimirska, Małgorzata

    2003-11-01

    The ciliary ganglion of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) is located between the posterior wall of the eyeball and the optic nerve. It is closely connected with the oculomotor nerve; in particular with its inferior branch. The ganglion has a cask-like shape and is adjacent to the inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve. From this ganglion postganglionic fibres emerge which are arranged in two fasciculi. These are termed the long ciliary nerves and the short ciliary nerves. A cross-section of the ciliary ganglion revealed two populations of cells: small ones - choroid cells and large ones - ciliary cells.

  2. Anatomical and histological data on the ciliary ganglion in the Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus Desmarest).

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    Nowak, Elzbieta; Kuder, Tadeusz; Szczurkowski, Aleksander; Kuchinka, Jacek

    2004-08-01

    The morphology and topography of the ciliary ganglion in the Egyptian spiny mouse were studied with use of histochemical and histological techniques. The ciliary ganglion of the Egyptian spiny mouse consisted of between 3 and 4 agglomerations of nerve cells. The largest was situated at the point where the ventral branch of the oculomotor nerve divides into two branches. The next two smaller aggregations were located on the superior and lateral surfaces of the optic nerve where it crossed the oculomotor nerve. From the main agglomerations of neurocytes arose between 3 and 4 intensively stained postganglionic cholinergic fibres. These followed the optic nerve to the eyeball. On the cross-sections of these bundles small agglomerations of neurocytes were observed. These decreased in size to only 2 or 3 cells towards the sclera. The ganglionic neurocytes in the largest ganglion varied from 15 to 30 microm in diameter. They were distributed uniformly over the whole surface of the sections. All the ganglia had connective capsules.

  3. Fetal calf serum-mediated inhibition of neurite growth from ciliary ganglion neurons in vitro.

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    Davis, G E; Skaper, S D; Manthorpe, M; Moonen, G; Varon, S

    1984-01-01

    Embryonic chick ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons cultured in fetal calf serum-containing medium have been previously reported to extend neurites on polyornithine (PORN) substrata precoated with a neurite-promoting factor (PNPF) from rat schwannoma-conditioned medium. On PORN substrata alone, however, no neuritic growth occurred. This was interpreted as evidence that PORN was an incompetent substratum for ciliary neuritic growth. In this study, we now find that an untreated PORN substratum allows neuritic growth in serum-free defined medium. When PNPF was added to PORN, a more rapid and extensive neuritic response occurred. After 5 hr of culture, a 60% neuritic response occurred on PNPF/PORN, whereas no neurons initiated neurites until 10-12 hr on PORN. The inhibitory effect of fetal calf serum noted above on PORN could be obtained in part by pretreating the substratum with serum for 1 hr. Maximal inhibitory effects in the PORN pretreatment were achieved after 30 min and were not further improved by treatments up to 4 hr. Bovine serum albumin was also found to inhibit neurite growth on PORN to about 60% of the inhibition obtained by an equivalent amount of serum protein. Fetal calf serum was shown to cause a 15% reduction in the percentage of neurons bearing neurites after its addition to 18-hr serum-free PORN cultures and to cause statistically significant reductions in neurite lengths measured 2 hr later.

  4. The ciliary margin zone of the mammalian retina generates retinal ganglion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Florencia; Murcia-Belmonte, Veronica; Coca, Yaiza; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Wang, Qing; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Khalid, Sania; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Herrera, Eloisa; Mason, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retina of lower vertebrates grows continuously by integrating new neurons generated from progenitors in the ciliary margin zone (CMZ). Whether the mammalian CMZ provides the neural retina with retinal cells is controversial. Live-imaging of embryonic retina expressing eGFP in the CMZ shows that cells migrate laterally from the CMZ to the neural retina where differentiated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) reside. As Cyclin D2, a cell-cycle regulator, is enriched in ventral CMZ, we analyzed Cyclin D2−/− mice to test whether the CMZ is a source of retinal cells. Neurogenesis is diminished in Cyclin D2 mutants, leading to a reduction of RGCs in the ventral retina. In line with these findings, in the albino retina, the decreased production of ipsilateral RGCs is correlated with fewer Cyclin D2+ cells. Together, these results implicate the mammalian CMZ as a neurogenic site that produces RGCs and whose proper generation depends on Cyclin D2 activity. PMID:28009286

  5. The Development of the Ciliary Epithelium in the Embryonic Chicken Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    experiment was to test the role of I extraocular tissues in eye growth. The periocular mesoderm ! I I was stripped away from a small area on one surface...Eichhorn and Barany , 1985). The cells in the pigmented and nonpigmented layers of the ciliary epithelium begin to differentiate from the adjacent...Statistics: The data from the individual chicken embryos in each experimental group were compared to each other and then pooled. Student’s T- test

  6. Variations in onset of action potential broadening: effects on calcium current studied in chick ciliary ganglion neurones.

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    Pattillo, J M; Artim, D E; Simples, J E; Meriney, S D

    1999-02-01

    1. The voltage dependence and kinetic properties of stage 40 ciliary ganglion calcium currents were determined using short (10 ms) voltage steps. These properties aided the interpretation of the action potential-evoked calcium current described below, and the comparison of our data with those observed in other preparations. 2. Three different natural action potential waveforms were modelled by a series of ramps to generate voltage clamp commands. Calcium currents evoked by these model action potentials were compared before and after alterations in the repolarization phase of each action potential. 3. Abrupt step repolarizations from various time points were used to estimate the time course of calcium current activation during each action potential. Calcium current evoked by fast action potentials (duration at half-amplitude, 0.5 or 1.0 ms) did not reach maximal activation until the action potential had repolarized by 40-50 %. In contrast, calcium current evoked by a slow action potential (duration at half-amplitude, 2.2 ms) was maximally activated near the peak of the action potential. 4. Slowing the rate of repolarization of the action potential (broadening) from different times was used to examine effects on peak and total calcium influx. With all three waveforms tested, broadening consistently increased total calcium influx (integral). However, peak calcium current was either increased or decreased depending on the duration of the control action potential tested and the specific timing of the initiation of broadening the repolarization phase. 5. The opposite effects on peak calcium current observed with action potential broadening beginning at different time points in repolarization may provide a mechanism for the variable effects of potassium channel blockers on transmitter release magnitude.

  7. Effects of axotomy on the expression and ultrastructural localization of N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule in the quail ciliary ganglion: an in vivo model of neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitti, R; De Stefano, M E; Edgar, D; Toschi, G

    1999-01-01

    Postganglionic nerve crush of the avian ciliary ganglion induces detachment of preganglionic terminals from the soma of the injured ciliary neurons, followed by reattachment at about the same time that the postganglionic axons regenerate to their targets. In order to determine the role played by cell adhesion molecules in this response, we have studied injury-induced changes in the amount and distribution of N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule, together with modifications in the expression of their messenger RNAs. Both N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivities associated with postsynaptic specializations decreased between one and three days following postganglionic nerve crush, preceding the detachment of the preganglionic boutons. Immunoreactivities subsequently increased between 13 and 20 days, in parallel with restoration of synaptic contacts on the ganglion cells and the progressive reinnervation of the peripheral targets. In contrast to the rapid decrease in immunoreactivity, the messenger RNA levels of N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule both increased after crush, and remained elevated throughout the 20-day period of the experiment. These results are consistent with roles for N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule in the maintenance of synaptic contacts. The rapid regulation of these proteins in injury-induced synaptic plasticity occurs at the post-transcriptional level, whereas longer term regulation associated with the re-establishment of synapses may be promoted by the increased levels of gene expression.

  8. Chicken retinal ganglion cells response characteristics: multi-channel electrode recording study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Aihua; (陈爱华); ZHOU; Yi(周; 艺); GONG; Haiqing; (龚海庆); LIANG; Peiji; (梁培基)

    2003-01-01

    The first stage of visual processing occurs in the retina, the function of which is to process the raw information obtained from the outside world. In the present study, the electrical activities of a group of retinal ganglion cells were recorded from a small functioning piece of retina, using multi-electrode array (MEA), and the action potentials were detected by applying nonlinear algorithm. By analyzing the ensemble retinal ganglion output characteristics, it is revealed that both firing rates and correlated activity between adjacent neurons in the retina contribute to visual information encoding.

  9. Differential regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in chicken retinal ganglion cells by light and circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Diego J; Garbarino-Pico, Eduardo; Díaz, Nicolás M; Silvestre, David C; Guido, Mario E

    2012-10-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) contain circadian clocks driving melatonin synthesis during the day, a subset of these cells acting as nonvisual photoreceptors sending photic information to the brain. In this work, the authors investigated the temporal and light regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity, a key enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The authors first examined this activity in RGCs of wild-type chickens and compared it to that in photoreceptor cells (PRs) from animals maintained for 48 h in constant dark (DD), light (LL), or regular 12-h:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle. AA-NAT activity in RGCs displayed circadian rhythmicity, with highest levels during the subjective day in both DD and LL as well as in the light phase of the LD cycle. In contrast, AA-NAT activity in PRs exhibited the typical nocturnal peak in DD and LD, but no detectable oscillation was observed under LL, under which conditions the levels were basal at all times examined. A light pulse of 30-60 min significantly decreased AA-NAT activity in PRs during the subjective night, but had no effect on RGCs during the day or night. Intraocular injection of dopamine (50 nmol/eye) during the night to mimic the effect of light presented significant inhibition of AA-NAT activity in PRs compared to controls but had no effect on RGCs. The results clearly demonstrate that the regulation of the diurnal increase in AA-NAT activity in RGCs of chickens undergoes a different control mechanism from that observed in PRs, in which the endogenous clock, light, and dopamine exhibited differential effects.

  10. Neuroprotection by α2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation after Excitotoxic Retinal Injury: A Study of the Total Population of Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Distribution in the Chicken Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effect of α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation on the total excitotoxically injured chicken retinal ganglion cell population. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was intraocularly injected at embryonic day 18 and Brn3a positive retinal ganglion cells (Brn3a+ RGCs) were counted in flat-mounted retinas using automated routines. The number and distribution of the Brn3a+ RGCs were analyzed in series of normal retinas from embryonic day 8 to post-hatch day 11 retinas and in retinas 7 or 14 days post NMDA lesion. The total number of Brn3a+ RGCs in the post-hatch retina was approximately 1.9x106 with a density of approximately 9.2x103 cells/mm2. The isodensity maps of normal retina showed that the density decreased with age as the retinal size increased. In contrast to previous studies, we did not find any specific region with increased RGC density, rather the Brn3a+ RGCs were homogeneously distributed over the central retina with decreasing density in the periphery and in the region of the pecten oculli. Injection of 5–10 μg NMDA caused 30–50% loss of Brn3a+ cells and the loss was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina. Pretreatment with brimonidine reduced the loss of Brn3a+ cells both 7 and 14 days post lesion and the protective effect was higher in the dorsal than in the ventral retina. We conclude that α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation reduced the impact of the excitotoxic injury in chicken similarly to what has been shown in mammals. Furthermore, the data show that the RGCs are evenly distributed over in the retina, which challenges previous results that indicate the presence of specific high RGC-density regions of the chicken retina. PMID:27611432

  11. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

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    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  12. Primary ciliary dyskinesia

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    Plavec Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with chronic respiratory diseases that last since the early childhood, primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD needs to be considered. Four patients reviewed in this paper were with typical disease history and clinical picture, as well as clear ciliary axonema damage. Complete examination was performed in all the patients, including bronchoscopy with bronchography, and the examination of the biopsy samples of respiratory airways’ mucous membrane, obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM. In two of the patients spermatozoa were also examined by TEM. Large anatomic deffects of airways were found in all the patients, but pulmonary function was normal (except in one case, representing one of PCD’s significant characteristics. First two cases fulfilled the criteria for Kartagener’s syndrome, which was initially sufficient for the diagnosis of PCD.

  13. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

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    Mary Anne Kowal Olm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of ciliary structure or function. It results in mucus accumulation and bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract which leads to chronic upper and lower airway infections, organ laterality defects, and fertility problems. We review the respiratory signs and symptoms of PCD, as well as the screening tests for and diagnostic investigation of the disease, together with details related to ciliary function, ciliary ultrastructure, and genetic studies. In addition, we describe the difficulties in diagnosing PCD by means of transmission electron microscopy, as well as describing patient follow-up procedures.

  14. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olm, Mary Anne Kowal; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Mauad, Thais

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of ciliary structure or function. It results in mucus accumulation and bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract which leads to chronic upper and lower airway infections, organ laterality defects, and fertility problems. We review the respiratory signs and symptoms of PCD, as well as the screening tests for and diagnostic investigation of the disease, together with details related to ciliary function, ciliary ultrastructure, and genetic studies. In addition, we describe the difficulties in diagnosing PCD by means of transmission electron microscopy, as well as describing patient follow-up procedures. PMID:26176524

  15. Primary ciliary dyskinesiatwo cases reports

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    Mohammad Sadegh Rezaee1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 22 December, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010AbstractPrimary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome are rare genetic disorders. There is a ciliary dysfunction in these disorders that cause recurrent infections in respiratory and sinus tracts associated with dextrocardia, chronic vasomotor rhinitis and dextrocardia. The aim of this paper is to report two rare cases of Primary ciliary dyskinesia, including one case of primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome for additional knowledge. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 85-89 (Persian.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: primary ciliary dyskinesia

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    ... inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome. Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ... Registry: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 17 Genetic Testing Registry: Kartagener syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: Primary ciliary dyskinesia Other ...

  17. Ciliary/Flagellar Protein Ubiquitination

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Long; Qiyu Wang; Kaiyao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Cilia/flagella are conserved eukaryotic organelles that play an important role in the control of cell motility and detection of environmental cues. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ciliary/flagellar assembly, maintenance, disassembly, and signal transduction are not yet completely understood. Recent studies demonstrated that post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, methylation, glutamylation, and ubiquitination are involved in these processes. In this mini ...

  18. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-loaded polyethylene glycol-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microbubbles combined with ultrasound for protection of retinal ganglion cells%载睫状神经营养因子聚乙二醇-乳酸/羟基乙酸共聚物微泡联合超声对视网膜神经节细胞的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文婷; 刘苏; 王志刚; 周希瑗

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prepare and observe the properties of ciliary neurotrophic factor-loaded polyethylene glycol-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid ultrasound contrast agents (CNTF-PEG-PLGA),and to assess the protection effect of CNTFloaded PEG-PLGA microbubbles combined with ultrasound on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve injury in rats.Methods CNTF-loaded PEG-PLGA ultrasound microbubbles were prepared using double emulsion technique,and the properties of the ultrasound microbubbles were observed.Totally 145 adult SD rats were randomly divided into 7 groups.After optic nerve injury,RGCs were retrograde labeled with the fluorescent tracer fluorogold (FG) to count RGCs number.The expressions of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) were detected by immunohistochemistry on the 3rd day,the 1st,the 2nd and the 4th week after optic nerve injury.The retinal pathological morphology change was observed at different times.Results CNTF-loaded PEG-PLGA ultrasound microbubbles were smooth and spherical with a mean size of (312.5± 57.35)nm,with the drug loading 0.298 μg/mg and encapsulation efficiency of 62.35%.There were 93.60%CNTF-PEG-PLGA release within 28 days.The results showed that after RGCs were retrograde labeled with FG,the RGCs count of group G was higher than that of other groups at every time,(all P<0.05),but less than group A (P<0.05).The expression of group G was higher than that of other groups (P<0.05) on the 1st,the 2nd and the 4th week after optic nerve injury.PEG-PLGA microbubbles did not induce any histology signs of ocular inflammation after their injection in the vitreous.Conclusion The ciliary neurotrophic factor-loaded PEG-PLGA microbubbles combined with ultrasound can protect retinal ganglion cells against after optic nerve injury in rats.%目的 制备载睫状神经营养因子(CNTF)的聚乙二醇(PEG)-乳酸/羟基乙酸共聚物(PLGA)超声微泡造影剂(CNTF-PEG-PLGA),观察其联合超声对视神经损伤大鼠视网膜神经节

  19. Nervous system and ciliary structures of Micrognathozoa (Gnathifera): evolutionary insight from an early branch in Spiralia

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    Worsaae, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that Gnathifera, comprising Rotifera, Gnathostomulida and Micrognathozoa, constitute the sister group to the remaining Spiralia (containing, e.g. flatworms, segmented worms and molluscs). Therefore, a better understanding of Gnathifera is central for unravelling the evolution of the highly diverse Spiralia. Here, we describe the previously unstudied nervous system and ciliary structures of Micrognathozoa, using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The nervous system is simple with a large brain, paired sub-esophageal ganglia, two trunk commissures, two pairs of ventral longitudinal nerves and peripheral nerves. The paired ventro-lateral nerve cords are confirmed to be a symplesiomorphy of Gnathifera (possibly even Spiralia), whereas the paired ventro-median nerves are not previously reported in Gnathifera. A pharyngeal ganglion is described for Micrognathozoa: a complex structure with two apical tufts of ciliary receptors, now shown to be shared by all Gnathifera. The ventral pattern of external ciliophores is re-described, and protonephridia with multi-ciliated collecting tubules similar to those of Rotifera are confirmed. A range of new details from a simple nervous system and complex set of ciliary structures in a microscopic metazoan are hereby unravelled. The many resemblances with Rotifera corroborate their close relationship, and shed more light on the evolution of Gnathifera. PMID:27853545

  20. [Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, E; Palazzo, S; Argirò, S; El, Oksha S; Riva, E

    2012-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  1. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  2. Expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor after induction of ocular hypertension in the retina of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiang; ZHANG Min; SONG Bei-wen; LU Bin; HU Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is mainly characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is believed to stimulate the regeneration of axons of retinal ganglion cells. The objective of our study was to detect the expression of CNTF in the retina of a rat glaucoma model with increased intraocular pressure (lOP).Methods The rat glaucoma model was set up by electrocoagulating at least three episcleral and limbal veins. The location and the expression level of CNTF were detected at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-surgery by immunohistochemistry, semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis.Results The rat glaucoma model with chronic, moderately elevated lOP was successfully produced. A minimum expression of CNTF was found in the ganglion cell layer of the retinas of the control group, and temporally increased expression and intensity of CNTF were found in the experimental retinas.Conclusion The expression of endogenous CNTF in the rat retina was found altered after the induction of ocular hypertension.

  3. The intraflagellar transport machinery in ciliary signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourão, André; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Lorentzen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    environmental cues necessary for organ development and maintenance of human health. Pathways reported to rely on the cilium organelle include Hedgehog, TGF-β, Wnt, PDGFRα, integrin and DNA damage repair signaling. An emerging theme in ciliary signaling is the requirement for active transport of signaling...

  4. An international registry for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Claudius; Lablans, Martin; Ataian, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to chronic upper and lower airway disease. Fundamental data on epidemiology, clinical presentation, course and treatment strategies are lacking in PCD. We have established an international PCD registry to realise an u...

  5. A safe method of ciliary sulcus fixation of foldable intraocular lens using a ciliary sulcus guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertuğrul; Gül, Adem; Birinci, Hakkı

    2016-08-01

    To describe a novel technique for implantation of intraocular lens in the absence of capsular support using a ciliary sulcus guide. Based on the anatomic knowledge of the ciliary sulcus and the sclera, a new instrument was developed to pierce the needle safely through the ciliary sulcus and sclera. While the foldable lens is stored inside the cartridge, the leading haptic is sutured with a cow-hitch knot. The needle is then inserted into the ciliary sulcus guide. The tip of the guide is inserted from the corneal incision and proceeded under the iris to touch and fit the ciliary sulcus. The needle is pushed from back side. The needle comes out at precise point at the sclera. Implantation of the lens was performed through a 2.8 mm clear cornea incision using the injector. The trailing haptic is tied after implantation, and then the same procedure is performed at the opposite side. We performed this technique to 15 aphakic eyes without sufficient capsular support. There was no bleeding or other intraoperative complication. All the points coming out the sclera were between 2 and 2.5 mm from the limbus. The ab interno technique for scleral fixation of IOL is quicker, easier and less traumatic then ab externo techniques. A new ciliary sulcus guide which is usable with both straight and curved needles eliminates the blind maneuvers of ab interno technique and makes this technique more safe and precise.

  6. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

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    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  7. Quantitative analysis of ciliary beating in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a pilot study

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    Papon Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare congenital respiratory disorder characterized by abnormal ciliary motility leading to chronic airway infections. Qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern based on digital high-speed videomicroscopy analysis has been proposed in the diagnosis process of PCD. Although this evaluation is easy in typical cases, it becomes difficult when ciliary beating is partially maintained. We postulated that a quantitative analysis of beat pattern would improve PCD diagnosis. We compared quantitative parameters with the qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern in patients in whom the diagnosis of PCD was confirmed or excluded. Methods Nasal nitric oxide measurement, nasal brushings and biopsies were performed prospectively in 34 patients with suspected PCD. In combination with qualitative analysis, 12 quantitative parameters of ciliary beat pattern were determined on high-speed videomicroscopy recordings of beating ciliated edges. The combination of ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities on transmission electron microscopy analysis with low nasal nitric oxide levels was the “gold standard” used to establish the diagnosis of PCD. Results This “gold standard” excluded PCD in 15 patients (non-PCD patients, confirmed PCD in 10 patients (PCD patients and was inconclusive in 9 patients. Among the 12 parameters, the distance traveled by the cilium tip weighted by the percentage of beating ciliated edges presented 96% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Qualitative evaluation and quantitative analysis were concordant in non-PCD patients. In 9/10 PCD patients, quantitative analysis was concordant with the “gold standard”, while the qualitative evaluation was discordant with the “gold standard” in 3/10 cases. Among the patients with an inconclusive “gold standard”, the use of quantitative parameters supported PCD diagnosis in 4/9 patients (confirmed by the identification of disease

  8. Chicken Art

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    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  9. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  10. Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links

    CERN Document Server

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...

  11. Recent advances in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Kitano, Masako; Ishinaga, Hajime; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Nakatani, Kaname; Masuda, Sawako; Nagao, Mizuho; Fujisawa, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disease inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The prevalence of PCD is estimated to be 1 in 20,000 live births. Congenital abnormality of the primary cilia results in situs inversus in 50% of patients. Decreased function of motile cilia causes chronic rhinosinusitis, otitis media with effusion, bronchiectasis and infertility. Cases with situs inversus are considered to show "Kartagener's syndrome", and diagnosis is not difficult. However, in cases without situs inversus, the diagnosis is much more troublesome. PCD without situs inversus is thus probably underdiagnosed. Prolonged chronic cough represents an important symptom that is seen in most patients. The diagnosis of PCD requires the presence of the characteristic clinical phenotypes and either: (1) specific ciliary ultrastructural defects identified by transmission electron microscopy in biopsy samples of respiratory epithelium; or (2) identification of mutation in one of the genes known to be associated with PCD. Nasal nitric oxide concentration is extremely low in PCD, and this could be useful for screening of the disease. At present, no fundamental therapies are available for PCD. Diagnosis in the early stages is important to prevent progression of bronchiectasis and deterioration of lung function by guidance for daily life, immunization, cessation of smoking and prompt therapy at the time of respiratory tract infection. Since PCD is inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner, genetic counseling is necessary after definite diagnosis.

  12. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  13. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  14. Ciliary extracellular vesicles: Txt msg orgnlls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Barr, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from cell surfaces to monitor the surrounding environment. In addition to its role as sensory receiver, the cilium also releases extracellular vesicles (EVs). The release of sub-micron sized EVs is a conserved form of intercellular communication used by all three kingdoms of life. These extracellular organelles play important roles in both short and long range signaling between donor and target cells and may coordinate systemic responses within an organism in normal and diseased states. EV shedding from ciliated cells and EV-cilia interactions are evolutionarily conserved phenomena, yet remarkably little is known about the relationship between the cilia and EVs and the fundamental biology of EVs. Studies in the model organisms Chlamydomonas and C. elegans have begun to shed light on ciliary EVs. Chlamydomonas EVs are shed from tips of flagella and are bioactive. C. elegans EVs are shed and released by ciliated sensory neurons in an intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependent manner. C. elegans EVs play a role in modulating animal-to-animal communication, and this EV bioactivity is dependent on EV cargo content. Some ciliary pathologies, or ciliopathies, are associated with abnormal EV shedding or with abnormal cilia-EV interactions, suggest the cilium may be an important organelle as an EV donor or as an EV target. Until the past few decades, both cilia and EVs were ignored as vestigial or cellular junk. As research interest in these two organelles continues to gain momentum, we envision a new field of cell biology emerging. Here, we propose that the cilium is a dedicated organelle for EV biogenesis and EV reception. We will also discuss possible mechanisms by which EVs exert bioactivity and explain how what is learned in model organisms regarding EV biogenesis and function may provide insight to human ciliopathies. PMID:26983828

  15. Identified Circadian Rhythm Genes of Ciliary Epithelium with Differential Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia Li; Dongcheng Lu; Jian Ge; Yanna Li; Yehong Zhuo; Sears ML

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To identify differential genes expressed in the rabbit ciliary epithelium duringthe circadian cycle of aqueous flow.Methods: Total RNA from ciliary epithelium of rabbits at 8AM (light on 1 hour) and8PM(light off 1 hour) were compared by differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaetion(DD RT-PCR), using 6 % denaturing polyacrylamide electro-phoresis, choose differential display bands, cut and reamplify with the same primer, cloneand sequence. Search the database of Genbank, prolong them with 5' RACE and 3'RACE technique then clone, sequence and search database of Genbank.Results: 93 Significant differences gene expression were detected between light on andlight off in the rabbit ciliary epithelium.Conclusion: Differential display is a powerful tool to screen differentially expressedgenes in circadian rhythm of ciliary epithelium.

  16. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling.

    OpenAIRE

    Loucks, Catrina M.; Bialas, Nathan J.; Dekkers, Martijn; Walker, Denise S.; Grundy, Laura J.; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P. Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Michel R Leroux

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-a...

  17. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Loucks, Catrina M.; Bialas, Nathan J.; Dekkers, Martijn P. J.; Walker, Denise S.; Grundy, Laura J.; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P. Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Michel R Leroux

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-a...

  18. Diagnosis by ultrastructural study of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgarejo-Moreno P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, also known as ciliary immotility (SIC syndrome is an inherited disorder that includes a group of diseases in which respiratory cilia are immobile, ciliary movement is dyskinetic and ineffective or no cilia . The aim of this study is to determine the ciliary ultrastructure in patients with suspected DCP. Method: In 8 patients with suspected DCP nasal mucosa biopsy is performed with endoscopy at the inferior turbinate in the middle third by the ENT service under local anesthesia. Results: Of the 8 cases studied in 2 cases no ciliary ultrastructural level defects were found. In two cases with abnormal ciliary ultrastructure is present Kartagener syndrome. In a case no cilia were observed in the nasal mucosa. Discussion: The DCP and SIC are synonymous terms from clinical and pathogenetic view: immobility and dyskinesia lead to an absence of mucociliary transport, stasis of respiratory secretions with their consequences: chronic infections of lower respiratory tract and from birth . The most common ultrastructural defect is the total or partial absence of dynein. Conclusions: The ultrastructural study allows the diagnosis of PCD because genetic diagnosis is complicated and therefore get an early diagnosis of this condition which serves to improve the morbidity and mortality of these patients.

  19. Ciliary genes are down-regulated in bronchial tissue of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Geremek

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, bronchiectasis and male infertility. The pulmonary phenotype in PCD is caused by the impaired motility of cilia in the respiratory epithelium, due to ultrastructural defects of these organelles. We hypothesized that defects of multi-protein ciliary complexes should be reflected by gene expression changes in the respiratory epithelium. We have previously found that large group of genes functionally related to cilia share highly correlated expression pattern in PCD bronchial tissue. Here we performed an explorative analysis of differential gene expression in the bronchial tissue from six PCD patients and nine non-PCD controls, using Illumina HumanRef-12 Whole Genome BeadChips. We observed 1323 genes with at least 2-fold difference in the mean expression level between the two groups (t-test p-value <0.05. Annotation analysis showed that the genes down-regulated in PCD biopsies (602 were significantly enriched for terms related to cilia, whereas the up-regulated genes (721 were significantly enriched for terms related to cell cycle and mitosis. We assembled a list of human genes predicted to encode ciliary proteins, components of outer dynein arms, inner dynein arms, radial spokes, and intraflagellar transport proteins. A significant down-regulation of the expression of genes from all the four groups was observed in PCD, compared to non-PCD biopsies. Our data suggest that a coordinated down-regulation of the ciliome genes plays an important role in the molecular pathomechanism of PCD.

  20. Ciliary and non-ciliary expression and function of PACRG during vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumberger Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Park2-co-regulated gene (PACRG is evolutionarily highly conserved from green algae to mammals. In Chlamydomonas and trypanosomes, the PACRG protein associates with flagella. Loss of PACRG results in shortened or absent flagella. In mouse the PACRG protein is required for spermatogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze (1 the expression patterns of PACRG during vertebrate embryogenesis, and (2 whether the PACRG protein was required for left-right (LR axis specification through cilia-driven leftward flow in Xenopus laevis. Methods PACRG cDNAs were cloned and expression was analyzed during early embryonic development of Xenopus, mouse, rabbit and zebrafish. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO mediated gene knockdown was applied in Xenopus to investigate LR development at the level of tissue morphology, leftward flow and asymmetric marker gene expression, using timelapse videography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results were statistically evaluated using Wilcoxon paired and χ2 tests. Results PACRG mRNA expression was found in cells and tissues harboring cilia throughout the vertebrates. Highly localized expression was also detected in the brain. During early development, PACRG was specifically localized to epithelia where leftward flow arises, that is, the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in Xenopus, the posterior notochord (PNC in mammals and Kupffer’s vesicle (KV in zebrafish. Besides its association with ciliary axonemes, subcellular localization of PACRG protein was found around the nucleus and in a spotty pattern in the cytoplasm. A green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion construct preferentially labeled cilia, rendering PACRG a versatile marker for live imaging. Loss-of-function in the frog resulted dose dependently in LR, neural tube closure and gastrulation defects, representing ciliary and non-ciliary functions of PACRG. Conclusions The PACRG protein is a novel

  1. Sphenopalatine ganglion neuromodulation in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Schoenen, Jean; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review the prospect of treating migraine with sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurostimulation. BACKGROUND: Fuelled by preliminary studies showing a beneficial effect in cluster headache patients, the potential of treating migraine with neurostimulation...... has gained increasing interest within recent years, as current treatment strategies often fail to provide adequate relief from this debilitating headache. Common migraine symptoms include lacrimation, nasal congestion, and conjunctival injection, all parasympathetic manifestations. In addition......, studies have suggested that parasympathetic activity may also contribute to the pain of migraineurs. The SPG is the largest extracranial parasympathetic ganglion of the head, innervating the meninges, lacrimal gland, nasal mucosa, and conjunctiva, all structures involved in migraine with cephalic...

  2. CCDC103 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disrupting assembly of ciliary dynein arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Becker-Heck, Anita; Castleman, Victoria H.; Al-Mutairi, Dalal; Liu, Yan; Loges, Niki T.; Pathak, Narendra; Austin-Tse, Christina; Sheridan, Eamonn; Schmidts, Miriam; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Häffner, Karsten; Hellman, Nathan; Chodhari, Rahul; Gupta, Amar; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Olale, Felix; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Schier, Alexander F.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Chung, Eddie MK; Reinhardt, Richard; Mitchison, Hannah M.; King, Stephen M.; Omran, Heymut; Drummond, Iain A.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to establish laterality1. Cilia motility defects cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, MIM 242650), a disorder affecting 1:15-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive cilia bending2. Despite progress in understanding the genetic basis of PCD, mutations remain to be identified for several PCD linked loci3. Here we show that the zebrafish cilia paralysis mutant schmalhanstn222 (smh) mutant encodes the coiled-coil domain containing 103 protein (Ccdc103), a foxj1a regulated gene. Screening 146 unrelated PCD families identified patients in six families with reduced outer dynein arms, carrying mutations in CCDC103. Dynein arm assembly in smh mutant zebrafish was rescued by wild-type but not mutant human CCDC103. Chlamydomonas Ccdc103 functions as a tightly bound, axoneme-associated protein. The results identify Ccdc103 as a novel dynein arm attachment factor that when mutated causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. PMID:22581229

  3. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Catrina M; Bialas, Nathan J; Dekkers, Martijn P J; Walker, Denise S; Grundy, Laura J; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Leroux, Michel R

    2016-07-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-associated ciliary components. Roles for protofilament ribbon-associated proteins in nonmotile cilia and cellular signaling have not been investigated. We show that PACRG localizes to a small subset of nonmotile cilia in Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting an evolutionary adaptation for mediating specific sensory/signaling functions. We find that it influences a learning behavior known as gustatory plasticity, in which it is functionally coupled to heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. We also demonstrate that PACRG promotes longevity in C. elegans by acting upstream of the lifespan-promoting FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and likely upstream of insulin/IGF signaling. Our findings establish previously unrecognized sensory/signaling functions for PACRG and point to a role for this protein in promoting longevity. Furthermore, our work suggests additional ciliary motility-signaling connections, since EFHC1 (EF-hand containing 1), a potential PACRG interaction partner similarly associated with the protofilament ribbon and ciliary motility, also positively regulates lifespan.

  4. Molecular modulation of airway epithelial ciliary response to sneezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Qing; Cowan, Andrew T; Lee, Robert J; Goldstein, Natalia; Droguett, Karla; Chen, Bei; Zheng, Chunquan; Villalon, Manuel; Palmer, James N; Kreindler, James L; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the mechanical force of a sneeze on sinonasal cilia function and determine the molecular mechanism responsible for eliciting the ciliary response to a sneeze. A novel model was developed to deliver a stimulation simulating a sneeze (55 mmHg for 50 ms) at 26°C to the apical surface of mouse and human nasal epithelial cells. Ciliary beating was visualized, and changes in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were determined. To interrogate the molecular cascades driving sneeze-induced changes of CBF, pharmacologic manipulation of intra- and extracellular calcium, purinergic, PKA, and nitric oxide (NO) signaling were performed. CBF rapidly increases by ≥150% in response to a sneeze, which is dependent on the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), calcium influx, and PKA activation. Furthermore, apical release of ATP is independent of calcium influx, but calcium influx and subsequent increase in CBF are dependent on the ATP release. Lastly, we observed a blunted ciliary response in surgical specimens derived from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis compared to control patients. Apical ATP release with subsequent calcium mobilization and PKA activation are involved in sinonasal ciliary response to sneezing, which is blunted in patients with upper-airway disease.

  5. A ternary complex comprising transportin1, Rab8 and the ciliary targeting signal directs proteins to ciliary membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugula, Viswanadh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sensory functions of cilia are dependent on the enrichment of cilium-resident proteins. Although it is known that ciliary targeting signals (CTSs) specifically target ciliary proteins to cilia, it is still unclear how CTSs facilitate the entry and retention of cilium-resident proteins at the molecular level. We found that non-ciliary membrane reporters can passively diffuse into cilia through the lateral transport pathway, and the translocation of membrane reporters through the ciliary diffusion barrier is facilitated by importin binding motifs and domains. Screening known CTSs of ciliary membrane residents uncovered that fibrocystin, photoreceptor retinol dehydrogenase, rhodopsin and retinitis pigmentosa 2 interact with transportin1 (TNPO1) through previously identified CTSs. We further discovered that a new ternary complex, comprising TNPO1, Rab8 and a CTS, can assemble or disassemble under the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of Rab8. Our study suggests a new mechanism in which the TNPO1–Rab8–CTS complex mediates selective entry into and retention of cargos within cilia. PMID:27633000

  6. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  7. Angioleiomyoma of the Ciliary Body:A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Zhongyao Wu; Yongping Li; Guanguang Feng; Hao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To report a rare case of angioleiomyoma of the ciliary body Methods :The clinical manifestation, imaging findings, histopathologic characteristics were analyzed in a 32-year-old male patient with angioleiomyoma of the ciliary body. Results:The tumor was removed intact with local resection. Histopathologic examination revealed that the tumor was full of vessels and it was composed of spindle cells with abundant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive for SMA and Desmin and negative for S100 and HMB-45. Conclusions: Angioleiomyoma of the ciliary body is a rare tumor that can be successfully treated with local surgical resection in this area. It needs to be differentiated from other tumors, especially malignant melanoma. Eye Science 2004;20:19-22.

  8. Conservation of ciliary proteins in plants with no cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Matthew E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cilia are complex, highly conserved microtubule-based organelles with a broad phylogenetic distribution. Cilia were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and many proteins involved in cilia function have been conserved through eukaryotic diversification. However, cilia have also been lost multiple times in different lineages, with at least two losses occurring within the land plants. Whereas all non-seed plants produce cilia for motility of male gametes, some gymnosperms and all angiosperms lack cilia. During these evolutionary losses, proteins with ancestral ciliary functions may be lost or co-opted into different functions. Results Here we identify a core set of proteins with an inferred ciliary function that are conserved in ciliated eukaryotic species. We interrogate this genomic dataset to identify proteins with a predicted ancestral ciliary role that have been maintained in non-ciliated land plants. In support of our prediction, we demonstrate that several of these proteins have a flagellar localisation in protozoan trypanosomes. The phylogenetic distribution of these genes within the land plants indicates evolutionary scenarios of either sub- or neo-functionalisation and expression data analysis shows that these genes are highly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen cells. Conclusions A large number of proteins possess a phylogenetic ciliary profile indicative of ciliary function. Remarkably, many genes with an ancestral ciliary role are maintained in non-ciliated land plants. These proteins have been co-opted to perform novel functions, most likely before the loss of cilia, some of which appear related to the formation of the male gametes.

  9. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.PICKARD; Patricia; J.SOLLARS

    2010-01-01

    A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina.These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(ipRGCs) express a photopigment,melanopsin,that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input.Although relatively few in number,ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels.Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate rather than vertebrate photoreceptors.ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions.ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN),a circadian oscillator and biological clock,and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle.ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body.ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina,providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light.Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries,current progress and directions for future investigation.

  10. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  11. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  12. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  13. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  14. Structural and functional lung disease in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Santamaria (Francesca); S. Montella (Silvia); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); G. Guidi (Guido); V. Casotti (Valeria); M. Maglione (Marco); P.A. de Jong (Pim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High-resolution CT (HRCT) scan data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) related lung disease are scarce. Study objectives: We evaluated the lung disease in children and adults with PCD by a modified Brody composite HRCT scan score to assess the prevalence of the structural ab

  15. Prostaglandin induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 In ciliary melanocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning-li; LU Qing-jun; LI Jun-hong; WANG Ling

    2008-01-01

    Background Latanoprost,a prostaglandin F2a analog,has been shown to be an effective intraocular pressure lowering agent which acts by inducing ciliary muscle cells to synthesise matrix metalloproteinases.However,the response of ciliary melanocytes to latanoprost has never been reported.This research has investigated the ability of latanoprost to induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in human ciliary melanocytes,and thereby advance the understanding of the mechanism of PGF2a in decreasing Intraocular pressure.Methods In vitro human ciliary melanocytes were treated for 48 hours with five different concentrations of latanoprost (100,150,200,500,and 1000 nmol/L).Ciliary melanocytes treated with 0.01% ethanel(vehicle)were used as a control.The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in ciliary melanocytes was determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining.Results Western blotting showed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in ciliary melanocytes was induced by latanoprost,and the level of expression was dependent on the concentration of latanoprost in the culture medium.Immunofluorescent staining showed that matrix metalloproteinase-1 was confined to the ciliary melanocyte cytoplasm.Conclusions Latanoprost induced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human ciliary melanocytes in a dose-dependent manner.Ciliary melanocytes,as well as ciliary muscle cells,may also play an important role in uveoscleral outflow modulation.

  16. Ciliary photoreceptors in the cerebral eyes of a protostome larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamaneck Yale J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a non-visual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results To test the hypothesis that protostome cerebral eyes employ exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors, we investigated the ultrastructure of the larval eyes in the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. We show that these pigment-cup eyes consist of a lens cell and a shading pigment cell, both of which are putative photoreceptors, deploying a modified, enlarged cilium for light perception, and have axonal connections to the larval brain. Our investigation of the gene expression patterns of c-opsin, Pax6 and otx in these eyes confirms that the larval eye spots of brachiopods are cerebral eyes that deploy ciliary type photoreceptors for directional light detection. Interestingly, c-opsin is also expressed during early embryogenesis in all potential apical neural cells, becoming restricted to the anterior neuroectoderm, before expression is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the eyes. Coincident with the expression of c-opsin in the presumptive neuroectoderm

  17. Detecting Determinism in Firing Activities of Retinal Ganglion Cells during Response to Complex Stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chao-Feng; ZHANG Ying-Ying; LIU Xue; LIANG Pei-Ji; ZHANG Pu-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Complex stimuli are used to probe the response properties of the chicken's retinal ganglion cells (GCs). Thecorrelation dimension method and the nonlinear forecasting method are applied to detect the determinism in the firing activities of the retinal GCs during response to complex stimuli.The inter-spike interval (ISI) series and the first difference of the ISI (DISI) series are analysed.Two conclusions are drawn.Firstly,the first difference operation of the ISI series makes it comparatively easier for determinism detection in the firing activities of retinal GCs.Secondly,the nonlinear forecasting method is more efficient and reliable than the correlation dimension method for determinism detection.

  18. Nonvisual ganglion cells, circuits and nonvisual pigments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Akbar Kashani; WANG Huai-zhou; WANG Ning-li

    2009-01-01

    @@ To the editor: WANG and his colleagues provided the evidence that "both melanopsin-containing and superior collicular retinal ganglion cells were damaged by chronic ocular hypertension, indicating that glaucomatous neural degeneration involves the non-image-forming visual pathway".

  19. The Pediatric Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jamal, Rana'a T; Cassoux, Nathalie; Desjardins, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To collect comprehensive data on choroidal and ciliary body melanoma (CCBM) in children and to validate hypotheses regarding pediatric CCBM: children younger than 18 years, males, and those without ciliary body involvement (CBI) have more favorable survival prognosis than young adults 18...... entered through a secure website and were reviewed centrally. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of females, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, cell type, and melanoma-related mortality. RESULTS: Cumulative frequency...... type, known for 35% of tumors, and TNM stage (I in 22% and 21%, II in 49% and 52%, III in 30% and 28%, respectively) were comparable for children and young adults. Melanoma-related survival was 97% and 90% at 5 years and 92% and 80% at 10 years for children compared with young adults, respectively (P...

  20. [A rare case of primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Cátia; Meireles, Cláudia; Bettencourt, Maria João; Ribeirinho, Augusto; Bentes, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disease with a clinical history of upper and lowers respiratory infections, rhinosinusitis and bronquitis associated with complete or partial situs inversus. The authors present a 78 -year -old male caucasian patient with rhinosinusitis, lower respiratory tract infection and dyspnea, chronic otitis with hearing deficit and infertility followed in Gastroenterology for dyspepsia and constipation. The radiological studies revealed agenesis of right frontal sinus; bronchial wall thickening; bronchiectasis; cecum and ascending colon located on the left and small bowel occupies right side of abdomen. He had no immunodeficiency, allergies, cystic fibrosis and others. We concluded primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy. For the rarity of this case we decided to present it.

  1. Connexins form functional hemichannels in porcine ciliary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The expression of connexins in the ciliary epithelium is consistent with gap junctions between the pigmented (PE) and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE) that form when connexon hemichannels from adjacent cells pair to form a channel. Here we present evidence that suggests undocked connexons may form functional hemichannels that permit exchange of substances between NPE and the aqueous humor. Intact porcine eyes were perfused via the ciliary artery and propidium iodide (PI) (MW 668) was added to the aqueous humor compartment as a tracer. After calcium-free solution containing PI was introduced into the aqueous humor compartment for 30 min, fluorescence microscopy revealed PI in the NPE cell layer. PI entry into the NPE was inhibited by calcium and by the connexin antagonist 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-AGA). Studies also were carried out with cultured porcine NPE. Under normal conditions, little PI entered the cultured cells but calcium-free medium stimulated PI accumulation and the entry was inhibited by 18-AGA. In cells loaded with calcein (MW 622), calcium-free solution stimulated calcein exit. 18-AGA partially suppressed calcein exit in calcium-free medium. Connexin 43 and connexin 50 proteins were detected by western blot analysis in both native and cultured NPE. In the intact eye, immunolocalization studies revealed connexin 50 at the basolateral, aqueous humor-facing, margin of the NPE. In contrast, connexin 43 was observed at the junction of the PE and NPE layer and on the basolateral membrane of PE. The results point to functional hemichannels at the NPE basolateral surface. It is feasible that hemichannels might contribute to the transfer of substances between the ciliary epithelium cytoplasm and aqueous humor.

  2. Meiotic chromosome behaviour in Cenchrus ciliaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Visser

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A basic chromosome number of x = 9 has been confirmed for Cenchrus ciliaris L. Polyploidy is common and levels vary from tetraploid to hexaploid. Aneuploidv is reported for a single specimen, where two chromosomes of a single genome were lost. Various meiotic irregularities were observed. The highest incidence of meiotic abnormalities was observed in the pentaploid specimens. This was attributed to their uneven polyploid level All specimens varied from segmental alloploid to alloploid.

  3. Photosynthesis of Digitaria ciliaris during repeated soil drought and rewatering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaYong Luo; XueYong Zhao; JingHui Zhang; YuLin Li; XiaoAn Zuo; DianChao Sun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte photosynthesis to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for vegetation sta-bility in semi-arid sandy lands. The responses of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual grass, Digitaria ciliaris, were measured through three soil drought and rewatering cycles. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 92%, 95%, and 63%at end of the three drought periods, respectively, water use efficiency (WUE) de-creased by 67%, 54%, and 48%, while the constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased by 1.08, 0.88, and 0.45 times. During those three cycles, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv′/Fm′) decreased by 55%, 51%, and 9%, the electron transport per cross section (ET0′/CS0′) decreased by 63%, 42%, and 18%, and the dissipation per cross section (DI0′/CS0′) increased by 97%, 96%, and 21%. These results indicated that D. ciliaris was subjected to photoinhi-bition and some non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, after four days of rewatering, its photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values. This capability to recover from drought may contribute to making the plant's use of water as efficient as possible. Furthermore, the photosynthesis decreased more slowly in the subsequent drought cycles than in the first cycle, allowing D. ciliaris to enhance its future drought tolerance after drought hardening. Thus, it acclimatizes itself to repeated soil drought.

  4. [THE STRUCTURE OF LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES OF THE CILIARY BODY OF THE HUMAN EYE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Bgatova, N P; Chernykh, V V; Trunov, A N; Pozhidayeva, A A; Konenkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the structural organization of interstitial spaces and vessels of the ciliary body of the human eye (n = 5) were studied. The ciliary body was found to contain wide interstitial spaces--tissue clefts bound by collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Organ-specific lymphatic capillaries were also demonstrated in the ciliary body. According to the present findings and the lymphatic region concept, the first 2 elements of the lymphatic region of the eye were described: tissue clefts--prelymphatics and lymphatic capillaries of the ciliary body. The third element of the lymphatic region are the lymph nodes of the head and neck.

  5. Culture of primary ciliary dyskinesia epithelial cells at air-liquid interface can alter ciliary phenotype but remains a robust and informative diagnostic aid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Hirst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns. METHODS: We retrospectively studied changes associated with ALI-culture in 158 subjects referred for diagnostic testing at two PCD centres. Ciliated nasal epithelium (PCD n = 54; non-PCD n  111 was analysed by high-speed digital video microscopy and transmission electron microscopy before and after culture. RESULTS: Ciliary function was abnormal before and after culture in all subjects with PCD; 21 PCD subjects had a combination of static and uncoordinated twitching cilia, which became completely static following culture, a further 9 demonstrated a decreased ciliary beat frequency after culture. In subjects without PCD, secondary ciliary dyskinesia was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The change to ciliary phenotype in PCD samples following cell culture does not affect the diagnosis, and in certain cases can assist the ability to identify PCD cilia.

  6. Internalization and synaptogenic effect of GH in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Mora, Janeth; Aizouki, Miray; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

    2016-08-01

    In the chicken embryo, GH gene expression occurs in the neural retina and retinal GH promotes cell survival and induces axonal growth of retinal ganglion cells. Neuroretinal GH is therefore of functional importance before the appearance of somatotrophs and the onset of pituitary GH secretion to the peripheral plasma (at ED15-17). Endocrine actions of pituitary GH in the development and function of the chicken embryo eye are, however, unknown. This possibility has therefore been investigated in ED15 embryos and using the quail neuroretinal derived cell line (QNR/D). During this research, we studied for the first time, the coexistence of exogenous (endocrine) and local GH (autocrine/paracrine) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In ovo systemic injections of Cy3-labeled GH demonstrated that GH in the embryo bloodstream was translocated into the neural retina and internalized into RGC's. Pituitary GH may therefore be functionally involved in retinal development during late embryogenesis. Cy3-labelled GH was similarly internalized into QNR/D cells after its addition into incubation media. The uptake of exogenous GH was by a receptor-mediated mechanism and maximal after 30-60min. The exogenous (endocrine) GH induced STAT5 phosphorylation and increased growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and SNAP-25 immunoreactivity. Ex ovo intravitreal injections of Cy3-GH in ED12 embryos resulted in GH internalization and STAT5 activation. Interestingly, the CY3-labeled GH accumulated in perinuclear regions of the QNR/D cells, but was not found in the cytoplasm of neurite outgrowths, in which endogenous retinal GH is located. This suggests that exogenous (endocrine) and local (autocrine/paracrine) GH are both involved in retinal function in late embryogenesis but they co-exist in separate intracellular compartments within retinal ganglion cells.

  7. Ganglion cell like cells, diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Shankar Ammanagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous swelling found on the left anterior axillary fold of a 41-year-old man. Gross examination of specimen excised from the dermis showed a well-circumscribed nodule histologically composed of spindle cells with interspersed ganglion cell like cells. On hematoxylin and eosine (H and E staining it was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, fully differentiated tumors that contain mature schwann cells, ganglion cells, fibrous tissue, and nerve fibers. They are commonly found along the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and sometimes in the adrenal medulla. However primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare tumor. Immunohistochemical workup revealed a fibroblastic origin and hence the case was diagnosed as fibromatosis with ganglion cell like fibroblasts. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of ganglioneuromas can occur in other cutaneous lesions and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be offered only on the basis of H and E.

  8. Seasonally Changing Cryptochrome 1b Expression in the Retinal Ganglion Cells of a Migrating Passerine Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Nießner

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes, blue-light absorbing proteins involved in the circadian clock, have been proposed to be the receptor molecules of the avian magnetic compass. In birds, several cryptochromes occur: Cryptochrome 2, Cryptochrome 4 and two splice products of Cryptochrome 1, Cry1a and Cry1b. With an antibody not distinguishing between the two splice products, Cryptochrome 1 had been detected in the retinal ganglion cells of garden warblers during migration. A recent study located Cry1a in the outer segments of UV/V-cones in the retina of domestic chickens and European robins, another migratory species. Here we report the presence of cryptochrome 1b (eCry1b in retinal ganglion cells and displaced ganglion cells of European Robins, Erithacus rubecula. Immuno-histochemistry at the light microscopic and electron microscopic level showed eCry1b in the cell plasma, free in the cytosol as well as bound to membranes. This is supported by immuno-blotting. However, this applies only to robins in the migratory state. After the end of the migratory phase, the amount of eCry1b was markedly reduced and hardly detectable. In robins, the amount of eCry1b in the retinal ganglion cells varies with season: it appears to be strongly expressed only during the migratory period when the birds show nocturnal migratory restlessness. Since the avian magnetic compass does not seem to be restricted to the migratory phase, this seasonal variation makes a role of eCry1b in magnetoreception rather unlikely. Rather, it could be involved in physiological processes controlling migratory restlessness and thus enabling birds to perform their nocturnal flights.

  9. Morphological and physiological species-dependent characteristics of the rodent Grueneberg ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBrechbühl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the mouse, the Grueneberg ganglion (GG is an olfactory subsystem implicated both in chemo- and thermo-sensing. It is specifically involved in the recognition of volatile danger cues such as alarm pheromones and structurally-related predator scents. No evidence for these GG sensory functions has been reported yet in other rodent species. In this study, we used a combination of histological and physiological techniques to verify the presence of a GG and investigate its function in the rat, hamster and gerbil comparing with the mouse. By scanning and transmitted electron microscopy, we found isolated or groups of large GG cells of different shapes that in spite of their gross anatomical similarities, display important structural differences between species. We performed a comparative and morphological study focusing on the conserved olfactory features of these cells. We found fine ciliary processes, mostly wrapped in ensheating glial cells, in variable number of clusters deeply invaginated in the neuronal soma. Interestingly, the glial wrapping, the amount of microtubules and their distribution in the ciliary processes were different between rodents. Using immunohistochemistry, we were able to detect the expression of known GG proteins, such as the membrane guanylyl cyclase G and the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel A3. Both the expression and the subcellular localization of these signaling proteins were found to be species-dependent. Calcium imaging experiments on acute tissue slice preparations from rodent GG demonstrated that the chemo- and thermo-evoked neuronal responses were different between species. Thus GG neurons from mice and rats displayed both chemo- and thermo-sensing, while hamsters and gerbils showed profound differences in their sensitivities. We suggest that the integrative comparison between the structural morphologies, the sensory properties and the ethological contexts supports species-dependent GG features prompted by the

  10. Clinical and genetic aspects of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Margaret W; Pittman, Jessica E; Carson, Johnny L; Ferkol, Thomas W; Dell, Sharon D; Davis, Stephanie D; Knowles, Michael R; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2009-07-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia. Most of the disease-causing mutations identified to date involve the heavy (dynein axonemal heavy chain 5) or intermediate(dynein axonemal intermediate chain 1) chain dynein genes in ciliary outer dynein arms, although a few mutations have been noted in other genes. Clinical molecular genetic testing for primary ciliary dyskinesia is available for the most common mutations. The respiratory manifestations of primary ciliary dyskinesia (chronic bronchitis leading to bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, and chronic otitis media)reflect impaired mucociliary clearance owing to defective axonemal structure. Ciliary ultrastructural analysis in most patients (>80%) reveals defective dynein arms, although defects in other axonemal components have also been observed. Approximately 50% of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia have laterality defects (including situs inversus totalis and, less commonly, heterotaxy, and congenital heart disease),reflecting dysfunction of embryological nodal cilia. Male infertility is common and reflects defects in sperm tail axonemes. Most patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a history of neonatal respiratory distress, suggesting that motile cilia play a role in fluid clearance during the transition from a fetal to neonatal lung. Ciliopathies involving sensory cilia, including autosomal dominant or recessive polycystic kidney disease, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Alstrom syndrome, may have chronic respiratory symptoms and even bronchiectasis suggesting clinical overlap with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

  11. Computational modelling elucidates the mechanism of ciliary regulation in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundhausen Christian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ciliary dysfunction leads to a number of human pathologies, including primary ciliary dyskinesia, nephronophthisis, situs inversus pathology or infertility. The mechanism of cilia beating regulation is complex and despite extensive experimental characterization remains poorly understood. We develop a detailed systems model for calcium, membrane potential and cyclic nucleotide-dependent ciliary motility regulation. Results The model describes the intimate relationship between calcium and potassium ionic concentrations inside and outside of cilia with membrane voltage and, for the first time, describes a novel type of ciliary excitability which plays the major role in ciliary movement regulation. Our model describes a mechanism that allows ciliary excitation to be robust over a wide physiological range of extracellular ionic concentrations. The model predicts the existence of several dynamic modes of ciliary regulation, such as the generation of intraciliary Ca2+ spike with amplitude proportional to the degree of membrane depolarization, the ability to maintain stable oscillations, monostable multivibrator regimes, all of which are initiated by variability in ionic concentrations that translate into altered membrane voltage. Conclusions Computational investigation of the model offers several new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of ciliary pathologies. According to our analysis, the reported dynamic regulatory modes can be a physiological reaction to alterations in the extracellular environment. However, modification of the dynamic modes, as a result of genetic mutations or environmental conditions, can cause a life threatening pathology.

  12. Melanopsin expressing human retinal ganglion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Christensen, Anders Tolstrup; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin belong to a heterogenic population of RGCs which regulate the circadian clock, masking behavior, melatonin suppression, the pupillary light reflex and sleep/wake cycles. The different functions seem...

  13. Cdc42 deficiency causes ciliary abnormalities and cystic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Huang, Liwei; McKenna, Sarah; Wilson, F Perry; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2013-09-01

    Ciliogenesis and cystogenesis require the exocyst, a conserved eight-protein trafficking complex that traffics ciliary proteins. In culture, the small GTPase Cdc42 co-localizes with the exocyst at primary cilia and interacts with the exocyst component Sec10. The role of Cdc42 in vivo, however, is not well understood. Here, knockdown of cdc42 in zebrafish produced a phenotype similar to sec10 knockdown, including tail curvature, glomerular expansion, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, suggesting that cdc42 and sec10 cooperate in ciliogenesis. In addition, cdc42 knockdown led to hydrocephalus and loss of photoreceptor cilia. Furthermore, there was a synergistic genetic interaction between zebrafish cdc42 and sec10, suggesting that cdc42 and sec10 function in the same pathway. Mice lacking Cdc42 specifically in kidney tubular epithelial cells died of renal failure within weeks of birth. Histology revealed cystogenesis in distal tubules and collecting ducts, decreased ciliogenesis in cyst cells, increased tubular cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, increased fibrosis, and led to MAPK activation, all of which are features of polycystic kidney disease, especially nephronophthisis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cdc42 localizes the exocyst to primary cilia, whereupon the exocyst targets and docks vesicles carrying ciliary proteins. Abnormalities in this pathway result in deranged ciliogenesis and polycystic kidney disease.

  14. Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.

  15. Clinical spectrum of primary ciliary dyskinesia in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretzayas, Andrew; Moustaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although the triad of bronchiectasis, sinusitis and situs inversus was first described by Kartagener in 1933, the clinical spectrum of primary ciliary dyskinesia is still under investigation. Heterotaxy defects as well as upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms are the main manifestations in childhood. It is now recognized that situs inversus is encountered in only half of patients. The first lower respiratory symptoms may be present from infancy as neonatal respiratory distress. The most common lower airway manifestations are chronic wet cough, recurrent pneumonia and therapy resistant wheezing. Patients are at risk of developing bronchiectasis which may even be the presenting finding due to delayed diagnosis. Upper respiratory tract infections such as nasal congestion, nasal drainage and recurrent sinusitis as well as otologic manifestations such as otitis media or otorrhea with conductive hearing loss are also often encountered. It seems that the type of ciliary ultrastructure defects and the involved mutated genes are associated to some extent to the clinical profile. The disease, even in nowadays, is not recognized at an early age and the primary care clinician should have knowledge of its clinical spectrum in order to select appropriately the children who need further investigation for the diagnosis of this disorder. PMID:26862502

  16. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: considerations regarding six cases of Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Alejandro Vega; Vega, Nelson de Araujo; Santos, Bruno Quirino Dos; Maia, Guilherme Tavares da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), previously known as immotile cilia syndrome, is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that includes various patterns of ciliary ultrastructural defects. The most serious form is Kartagener syndrome (KS), which accounts for 50% of all cases of PCD. The incidence of PCD ranges from 1:20,000 to 1:60,000. Since PCD causes deficiency or even stasis of the transport of secretions throughout the respiratory tract, it favors the growth of viruses and bacteria. As a result, patients have lifelong chronic and recurrent infections, typically suffering from bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, sinusitis, and infertility. Bronchiectasis and other chronic conditions infections can be the end result of the irreversible bronchial alterations, leading to chronic cor pulmonale and its consequences. Only half of the patients affected by PDC present all of the symptoms, a condition designated complete KS, compared with incomplete KS, typically defined as cases in which situs inversus does not occur. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed through transmission electron microscopy. Since there is no specific therapy for PCD, it is recommended that, upon diagnosis, secondary infections be treated with potent antibiotics and prophylactic interventions be implemented. In this paper, we report six cases of PCD (five cases of complete KS and one case of KS) and review the related literature, focusing on the diagnostic, therapeutic and clinical aspects of this disease.

  17. Regenerative Responses and Axon Pathfinding of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Chronically Injured Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungher, Benjamin J.; Ribeiro, Márcio; Park, Kevin K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury. Methods Optic nerve regeneration was induced by virally mediated (adeno-associated virus) ciliary neurotrophic factor (AAV-CNTF) administered either immediately or 56 days after optic nerve crush in wild-type or Bax knockout (KO) mice. Retinal ganglion nerve axon regeneration was assessed 21 and 56 days after viral injection. Immunohistochemical analysis of RGC injury signals and extrinsic factors in the optic nerve were also examined at 5 and 56 days post crush. Results In addition to sustained expression of injury response proteins in surviving RGCs, we observe axon regrowth in wild-type and apoptosis-deficient Bax KO mice following AAV-CNTF treatment. Fewer instances of aberrant axon growth are seen, at least in the area near the lesion site, in animals given treatment 56 days after crush injury compared to the animals given treatment immediately after injury. We also find evidence of long distance growth into a visual target in Bax KO mice despite postponed initiation of this regenerative program. Conclusions These studies provide evidence against an intrinsic critical period for RGC axon regeneration or degradation of injury signals. Regeneration results from Bax KO mice imply highly sustained regenerative capacity in RGCs, highlighting the importance of long-lasting neuroprotective strategies as well as of RGC axon guidance research in chronically injured animals. PMID:28324115

  18. Expression of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase in the human ciliary body and trabecular meshwork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-yi; MA Ning

    2012-01-01

    Background The role played by the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the aqueous humor dynamics is still unclear.This study was designed to investigate the expression and distribution of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and guanylate cyclase (GC) in human ciliary body,trabecular meshwork and the Schlemm's canal.Methods Twelve eyes after corneal transplantation were used.Expression of three NOS isoforms (i.e.neuronal NOS (nNOS),inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS)) and GC were assessed in 10 eyes by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal or polyclonal antibody of NOS and GC.Ciliary bodies were dissected free and the total proteins were extracted.Western blotting was performed to confirm the protein expression of 3 NOS isoforms and GC.Results Expression of 3 NOS isoforms and GC were observed in the ciliary epithelium,ciliary muscle,trabecular meshwork and the endothelium of the Schlemm's canal.Immunoreactivity of nNOS was detected mainly along the apical cytoplasmic junction of the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) and pigmented epithelial (PE) cells.Protein expressions of 3 NOS isoforms and GC were confirmed in isolated human ciliary body by Western blotting.Conclusions The expression of NOS isoforms and GC in human ciliary body suggest the possible involvement of NO and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP,cGMP) signaling pathway in the ciliary body,and may play a role in both processes of aqueous humor formation and drainage.

  19. Retinal ganglion cell topography in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzano, A; Collin, S P

    2000-04-01

    Retinal wholemounts are used to examine the topographic distribution of retinal cells within the ganglion cell layer in a range of elasmobranchs from different depths. The retina is examined for regional specializations for acute vision in six species of selachians, Galeocerdo cuvieri, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax, Isistius brasiliensis, one species of batoid, Raja bigelowi and one species of chimaera, Hydrolagus mirabilis. These species represent a range of lifestyles including pelagic, mesopelagic and benthic habitats, living from shallow water to the sea bottom at a depth of more than 3000 m. The topography of cells within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and changes markedly across the retina. Most species possess an increased density of cells across the horizontal (dorsal) meridian or visual streak, with a density range of 500 to 2,500 cells per mm(2) with one or more regional increases in density lying within this specialized horizontal area. It is proposed that the higher spatial resolving power provided by the horizontal streak in these species mediates panoramic vision in the lower frontal visual field. Only I. brasiliensis possesses a concentric arrangement of retinal iso-density contours in temporal retina or an area centralis, thereby increasing spatial resolving power in a more specialized part of the visual field, an adaptation for its unusual feeding behavior. In Nissl-stained material, amacrine and ganglion cell populations could be distinguished on the criteria of soma size, soma shape and nuclear staining. Quantitative analyses show that the proportion of amacrine cells lying within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and ranges between 0.4 and 12.3% in specialized retinal areas and between 8.2 and 48.1% in the peripheral non-specialized regions. Analyses of soma area of the total population of cells in the ganglion cell layer also show that the pelagic species possess significantly

  20. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  1. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  2. Evidence for a blood-ganglion barrier in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depace, D M

    1982-12-01

    The permeability of the blood vessels in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat was tested by intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). By light microscopy, peroxidase activity was found in three locations: in the capsule of the ganglion, in the lumina of the blood vessels, and within macrophages. Electron microscopy revealed that virtually all ganglionic blood vessels contained HRP 5 minutes following its administration. The intensity of peroxidase activity declined over the period of 15 minutes. The enzyme was localized on the luminal surface of the endothelial cells, attaching to the glycocalyx. Endothelial microvilli, projecting into the vessel lumen, were also covered with peroxidase. Micropinocytotic vesicles on the luminal surface of the endothelium contained reaction product. Some of these vesicles were free within the cytoplasm of the endothelium but none was observed on the abluminal surface. Peroxidase activity was not detected in the extracellular space even after 15 minutes. The majority of blood vessels in the superior cervical ganglion possess a continuous endothelium with tight junctions; features associated with the blood-brain barrier of the central nervous system and peripheral nerves. It is proposed that these vessels perform a barrier function between the capillary circulation and the superior cervical ganglion.

  3. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  4. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dakheel, Abdullah J; Hussain, M Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005). The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m(-1)). The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW) were in the range from 122.5 to 148.9 g/pot in control; 96.4-133.8 g/pot at 10 dS m(-1); 65.6-80.4 g/pot at 15 dS m(-1), and 55.4-65.6 g/pot at 20 dS m(-1). The highest DW (148.9 g/pot) was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8% of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal lands to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  5. Genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005. The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m-1. The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW were in the range from 122.5 – 148.9 g pot-1 in control; 96.4 – 133.8 g pot-1 at 10 dS m-1; 65.6 – 80.4 g pot-1 at 15 dS m-1, and 55.4- 65.6 g pot-1 at 20 dS m-1. The highest DW (148.9 g pot-1 was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8 % of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal land and arid regions to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  6. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  7. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  8. Thalamic pain alleviated by stellate ganglion block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. Patient concerns: A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnoses: Thalamic pain was diagnosed. Interventions: After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. Outcomes: After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain. PMID:28151918

  9. Simultaneous sinus and lung infections in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Aanaes, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sinuses should be considered as a bacterial reservoir and a target for surgery and antibiotic treatment in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The observed decrease in serum precipitating antibodies (precipitins) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa may indicate a beneficial...

  10. Adenoma of nonpigmented epithelium in ciliary body:literature review and case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Adenomas of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE) are often clinically indistinguishable from amelanotic malignant melanomas of the ciliary body or metastatic carcinomas. This paper reports a case study of a distinctive variant of adenoma of the NPCE, which clinically appears as epiretinal membrane in the macular region. Histopathologic studies have revealed this is an adenoma of the NPCE. Identification of this clinic feature is important because it will miss the diagnosis of the adenoma of the NPCE. In this case study, B-scan ultrasonography as well as computerized tomography (CT) has been used to provide help in diagnosing the ciliary body tumor. Because of their anterior location in the ciliary body, partial lamellar sclerouvectomy is an effective method of treatment.

  11. Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in sciatic motor neurons following axotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, A J; Devlin, B K; Neitzel, K L; McLaurin, D L; Anderson, K J; Lee, N

    1999-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons are one of the few classes of neurons capable of regenerating axons following axotomy. Injury-induced expression of neurotrophic factors and corresponding receptors may play an important role in this rare ability. A wide variety of indirect data suggests that ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha may critically contribute to the regeneration of injured spinal motor neurons. We used immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and retrograde tracing techniques to study the regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in axotomized sciatic motor neurons. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha immunoreactivity, detected with two independent antisera, is increased in a subpopulation of caudal sciatic motor neuron soma one, two and six weeks after sciatic nerve transection and reattachment, while no changes are detected at one day and 15 weeks post-lesion. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA levels are augmented in the same classes of neurons following an identical lesion, suggesting that increased synthesis contributes, at least in part, to the additional ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein. Separating the proximal and distal nerve stumps with a plastic barrier does not noticeably affect the injury-induced change in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha regulation, thereby indicating that this injury response is not dependent on signals distal to the lesion traveling retrogradely through the nerve or signals generated by axonal growth through the distal nerve. The prolonged increases in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein and messenger RNA found in regenerating sciatic motor neurons contrast with the responses of non-regenerating central neurons, which are reported to display, at most, a short-lived increase in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA expression following injury. The present data are the first to demonstrate, in vivo, neuronal regulation of

  12. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by...

  13. Regulatory Factor X (RFX)-mediated transcriptional rewiring of ciliary genes in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Brian P; Burghoorn, Jan; Swoboda, Peter

    2010-07-20

    Cilia were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) and were retained by most organisms spanning all extant eukaryotic lineages, including organisms in the Unikonta (Amoebozoa, fungi, choanoflagellates, and animals), Archaeplastida, Excavata, Chromalveolata, and Rhizaria. In certain animals, including humans, ciliary gene regulation is mediated by Regulatory Factor X (RFX) transcription factors (TFs). RFX TFs bind X-box promoter motifs and thereby positively regulate >50 ciliary genes. Though RFX-mediated ciliary gene regulation has been studied in several bilaterian animals, little is known about the evolutionary conservation of ciliary gene regulation. Here, we explore the evolutionary relationships between RFX TFs and cilia. By sampling the genome sequences of >120 eukaryotic organisms, we show that RFX TFs are exclusively found in unikont organisms (whether ciliated or not), but are completely absent from the genome sequences of all nonunikont organisms (again, whether ciliated or not). Sampling the promoter sequences of 12 highly conserved ciliary genes from 23 diverse unikont and nonunikont organisms further revealed that phylogenetic footprints of X-box promoter motif sequences are found exclusively in ciliary genes of certain animals. Thus, there is no correlation between cilia/ciliary genes and the presence or absence of RFX TFs and X-box promoter motifs in nonanimal unikont and in nonunikont organisms. These data suggest that RFX TFs originated early in the unikont lineage, distinctly after cilia evolved. The evolutionary model that best explains these observations indicates that the transcriptional rewiring of many ciliary genes by RFX TFs occurred early in the animal lineage.

  14. Roles of paroxetine and corticosterone on adult mammalian ciliary body cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LAU Benson WM; YAU Suk-yu; LI Suk-yee; LEUNG Nelson; WANG Ning-li; TANG Siu-wa; LEE Tatia MC; SO Kwok-fai

    2010-01-01

    Background The neurogenesis in retina of adult mammals is generally abolished, and this renders the retina lack of regenerative capacity.Despite this, there is a small population of nestin-positive cells in the ciliary epithelium which retains neurogenic potential.The present study aimed at investigating the effect of two drugs, corticosterone and paroxetine, on the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given vehicle, corticosterone, paroxetine, or both corticosterone and paroxetine treatment for 14 days.Cell proliferation in the ciliary body was quantified using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry.Co-labelling of BrdU and stem cell marker was used to phenotype the BrdU immunoreactive cells.Results Corticosterone treatment suppressed while paroxetine treatment increased the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.Co-labelling with cell markers revealed that the BrdU positive cells also showed nestin expression but not glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).Conclusions The results illustrate that proliferation of retinal progenitor cells situated in ciliary body are subjected to regulation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and corticosteroid, which is similar to our previous findings in neurogenic regions in central nervous system (CNS).Paroxetine treatment could reverse the suppressive effect of corticosterone on ciliary body cell proliferation.This provides information for future investigation of retinal stem cell biology and potential treatment of retinal degenerative diseases.

  15. Influence of endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor on neural differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ding; Zhili He; Juan Ruan; Ying Liu; Chengxin Gong; Shenggang Sun; Honghui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor is the only known neurotrophic factor that can promote differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells to glial cells and neurons in adult rats. This process is similar to spontaneous differentiation. Therefore, ciliary neurotrophic factor may be involved in spontaneous differentiation of neural stem cells. To verify this hypothesis, the present study isolated neural progenitor cells from adult male rats and cultured them in vitro. Results showed that when neural progenitor cells were cultured in the absence of mitogen fibroblast growth factor-2 or epidermal growth factor, they underwent spontaneous differentiation into neurons and glial cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical staining showed that exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor strongly induced adult hippocampal progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons and glial cells. Moreover, passage 4 adult hippocampal progenitor cells expressed high levels of endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor, and a neutralizing antibody against ciliary neurotrophic factor prevented the spontaneous neuronal and glial differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells. These results suggest that the spontaneous differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells is mediated partially by endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor.

  16. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  17. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  18. [Specific features of centriole formation and ciliogenesis in ciliary epithelium cells of respiratory tracts in patients with Kartagener syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskiĭ, K E; Uvakina, E V; Volkov, I K; Onishchenko, G E

    2005-01-01

    An electron microscopic study of the ciliary epithelium of respiratory tracts was carried out in children (members of the same family) with Kartagener syndrome, which is a variant of ciliary dyskinesia. It was shown that in the case of both mobile cilia and ciliary dyskinesia in man, centrioles are formed during formation of the ciliary basal bodies predominantly de novo, involving deuterosomes. A wide spectrum of pathological changes was described in literature, such as the absence of dynein arms in the axoneme and disorganization of axoneme structure. In addition to these changes in the ciliary system, we found integration of several ciliary axonemes by the same plasma membrane, running of microtubules from the plasma membrane as bundles, different orientation of basal legs, etc.

  19. Intraosseous ganglion in the first metacarpal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Katoh, Y.; Munakata, Y. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical Univ. (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    Intraosseous ganglia occur most frequently in the long bones of the lower limbs, particularly in the medial malleolus of the tibia. They usually appear as radiographically well circumscribed juxta-articular cystic lesions, containing myxoid fibrous tissue histologically. Intraosseous ganglia in the hand are very rare. Most reported cases have involved the carpal bones, in particular the lunate and scaphoid. To our knowledge, the present case is the third report of an intraosseous ganglion appearing in the first metacarpal bone; it arose in a patient who had been on dialysis for 25 years, mimicking amyloidosis of bone. (orig.)

  20. An Optimized Culture Method of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYin; CHENJing-Hong; GONGZe-Hui

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a primary culture technique of acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and provide a simple & useful in vitro model for study of analgesia. Methods: Acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were planted and cultured; the configuration and growth characters of DRG neurons were observed through inverted microscope.

  1. Diagnosing primary ciliary dyskinesia: an international patient perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Rubbo, Bruna; Masefield, Sarah; Copeland, Fiona; Manion, Michele; Rindlisbacher, Bernhard; Redfern, Beatrice; Lucas, Jane S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by progressive sino-pulmonary disease, with symptoms starting soon after birth. A European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force aims to address disparities in diagnostics across Europe by providing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. We aimed to identify challenges faced by patients when referred for PCD diagnostic testing. A patient survey was developed by patient representatives and healthcare specialists to capture experience. Online versions of the survey were translated into nine languages and completed in 25 countries. Of the respondents (n=365), 74% were PCD-positive, 5% PCD-negative and 21% PCD-uncertain/inconclusive. We then interviewed 20 parents/patients. Transcripts were analysed thematically. 35% of respondents visited their doctor more than 40 times with PCD-related symptoms prior to diagnostic referral. Furthermore, the most prominent theme among interviewees was a lack of PCD awareness among medical practitioners and failure to take past history into account, leading to delayed diagnosis. Patients also highlighted the need for improved reporting of results and a solution to the “inconclusive” diagnostic status. These findings will be used to advise the ERS Task Force guidelines for diagnosing PCD, and should help stakeholders responsible for improving existing services and expanding provision for diagnosis of this rare disease. PMID:27492837

  2. Protective Effects of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on Denervated Skeletal Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄仕龙; 王发斌; 洪光祥; 万圣祥; 康皓

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and to find a new approach to ameliorate atrophy of denervated muscle, a model was estab lished by cutting the right sciatic nerve in 36 Wistar mice, with the left side serving as control. Then they were divided into two groups randomly. CNTF (1 U/ml) 0. 1 ml was injected into the right tib-ial muscle every day in experimental group, and saline was used into another group for comparison.The muscle wet weight, muscle total protein, Ca2+, physiological response and morphology were an alyzed on the 7th, 14th and 28th day after operation. Our results showed that compared to control group, there was a significant increase in muscle wet weight, total protein, Ca2+ , muscle fiber cross section area in CNTF group (P< 0. 05). CNTF could ameliorate the decrease of tetanic tension (PO), post-tetanic twitch potentiation (PTP), and the prolonged muscle relaxation time (RT)caused by denervation (P<0. 05). The motor end-plate areas 7 days and 14 days after denervation was similar (P>0. 05), but significantly larger 28 days after the denervation (P<0.05). Our re-sults suggest that CNTF exerts myotrophic effects by attenuating the morphological and functional changes associated with denervation of rat muscles and has protective effects on denervated muscle and motor end plate.

  3. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  4. Foxg1-Cre Mediated Lrp2 Inactivation in the Developing Mouse Neural Retina, Ciliary and Retinal Pigment Epithelia Models Congenital High Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obry, Antoine; Santin, Mathieu D.; Ben-Yacoub, Sirine; Pâques, Michel; Amsellem-Levera, Sabine; Bribian, Ana; Simonutti, Manuel; Augustin, Sébastien; Debeir, Thomas; Sahel, José Alain; Christ, Annabel; de Castro, Fernando; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Cosette, Pascal; Kozyraki, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Myopia is a common ocular disorder generally due to increased axial length of the eye-globe. Its extreme form high myopia (HM) is a multifactorial disease leading to retinal and scleral damage, visual impairment or loss and is an important health issue. Mutations in the endocytic receptor LRP2 gene result in Donnai-Barrow (DBS) and Stickler syndromes, both characterized by HM. To clearly establish the link between Lrp2 and congenital HM we inactivated Lrp2 in the mouse forebrain including the neural retina and the retinal and ciliary pigment epithelia. High resolution in vivo MRI imaging and ophthalmological analyses showed that the adult Lrp2-deficient eyes were 40% longer than the control ones mainly due to an excessive elongation of the vitreal chamber. They had an apparently normal intraocular pressure and developed chorioretinal atrophy and posterior scleral staphyloma features reminiscent of human myopic retinopathy. Immunomorphological and ultrastructural analyses showed that increased eye lengthening was first observed by post-natal day 5 (P5) and that it was accompanied by a rapid decrease of the bipolar, photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cells, and eventually the optic nerve axons. It was followed by scleral thinning and collagen fiber disorganization, essentially in the posterior pole. We conclude that the function of LRP2 in the ocular tissues is necessary for normal eye growth and that the Lrp2-deficient eyes provide a unique tool to further study human HM. PMID:26107939

  5. Beyond the mucus escalator: Complex ciliary hydrodynamics in disease and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Guo, Hanliang; John, Dabiri; Kanso, Eva; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures lining external and internal body surfaces where they interact with fluids. The main function of motile cilia is often described as that of a ``mucus escalator'', i.e., a homogeneous ciliary carpet moving along layer of mucus along the surface to transport food, germ cells, debris, or pathogens. Accordingly, the performance of ciliary systems is usually measured in terms of a single metric, transport velocity, or its presumed proxy, ciliary beat frequency. We challenge this simple view through the observation that both healthy and diseased biological systems exhibit a variety of cilia morphologies, beat patterns, and arrangements, resulting in complex flow patterns and transport phenomena that cannot be reduced to a single parameter. Here we present two case studies. In one system, the ciliated surface creates two distinct flow regimes for first trapping and then sheltering potential symbiont bacteria for further biochemical screening. In the other system, chronic disease induces a misalignment of ciliary beat, leading to a pathological transition from uniform mucus transport to a pattern of stagnation and circulation. These studies suggest that (a), we need to develop a wider range of metrics for describing ciliary transport in biological and clinical contexts, and (b), engineered ciliated systems exploiting a variety of design parameters could provide novel ways of manipulating fluids at the microscale.

  6. Defining the proteome of human iris, ciliary body, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingbo; Kirby, David; Dufresne, Craig; Chen, Yan; Turner, Randi; Ferri, Sara; Edward, Deepak P; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Semba, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    The iris is a fine structure that controls the amount of light that enters the eye. The ciliary body controls the shape of the lens and produces aqueous humor. The retinal pigment epithelium and choroid (RPE/choroid) are essential in supporting the retina and absorbing light energy that enters the eye. Proteins were extracted from iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid tissues of eyes from five individuals and fractionated using SDS-PAGE. After in-gel digestion, peptides were analyzed using LC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. In iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid, we identified 2959, 2867, and 2755 nonredundant proteins with peptide and protein false-positive rates of body, and RPE/choroid. Four "missing proteins" were identified in ciliary body based on ≥2 proteotypic peptides. The mass spectrometric proteome database of the human iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid may serve as a valuable resource for future investigations of the eye in health and disease. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifiers PXD001424 and PXD002194.

  7. Arf4 is required for Mammalian development but dispensable for ciliary assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Follit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary cilium is a sensory organelle, defects in which cause a wide range of human diseases including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease and birth defects. The sensory functions of cilia require specific receptors to be targeted to the ciliary subdomain of the plasma membrane. Arf4 has been proposed to sort cargo destined for the cilium at the Golgi complex and deemed a key regulator of ciliary protein trafficking. In this work, we show that Arf4 binds to the ciliary targeting sequence (CTS of fibrocystin. Knockdown of Arf4 indicates that it is not absolutely required for trafficking of the fibrocystin CTS to cilia as steady-state CTS levels are unaffected. However, we did observe a delay in delivery of newly synthesized CTS from the Golgi complex to the cilium when Arf4 was reduced. Arf4 mutant mice are embryonic lethal and die at mid-gestation shortly after node formation. Nodal cilia appeared normal and functioned properly to break left-right symmetry in Arf4 mutant embryos. At this stage of development Arf4 expression is highest in the visceral endoderm but we did not detect cilia on these cells. In the visceral endoderm, the lack of Arf4 caused defects in cell structure and apical protein localization. This work suggests that while Arf4 is not required for ciliary assembly, it is important for the efficient transport of fibrocystin to cilia, and also plays critical roles in non-ciliary processes.

  8. [Primary ciliary dyskinesia, immotile cilia syndrome, and Kartagener syndrome: diagnostic criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombi, V H; Walt, H

    1996-03-16

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is the generic term for a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases in which ciliary ultrastructure is defective and as a consequence ciliary motility is disturbed. An international consensus on the diagnostic criteria has not yet been reached. This paper reviews some recent findings which are useful in the diagnosis of the disease and attempts to establish the best diagnostic criteria. The marker symptoms are chronic bronchitis, otitis, and sinusitis since childhood. Additionally, one or more of the following criteria must be present: Kartagener syndrome, a dextrocardia situation, markedly reduced frequency in ciliary motility, or an essential ultrastructure deviation in more than 20% of the square cuts (e.g. reduced number of dynein arms). Biopsy of the ciliated mucosa is usually required for the above criteria and is studied by vital microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Primary and secondary ciliary dyskinesia can be distinguished by these methods and the rare case of PCD without ultrastructure deficiency ruled out. In special cases a cell culture is recommended for the diagnosis. Practical aspects of the sampling methods and diagnostic pitfalls are reviewed.

  9. Swimming speed of larval snail does not correlate with size and ciliary beat frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kit Yu Karen; Jiang, Houshuo; Padilla, Dianna K

    2013-01-01

    Many marine invertebrates have planktonic larvae with cilia used for both propulsion and capturing of food particles. Hence, changes in ciliary activity have implications for larval nutrition and ability to navigate the water column, which in turn affect survival and dispersal. Using high-speed high-resolution microvideography, we examined the relationship between swimming speed, velar arrangements, and ciliary beat frequency of freely swimming veliger larvae of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata over the course of larval development. Average swimming speed was greatest 6 days post hatching, suggesting a reduction in swimming speed towards settlement. At a given age, veliger larvae have highly variable speeds (0.8-4 body lengths s(-1)) that are independent of shell size. Contrary to the hypothesis that an increase in ciliary beat frequency increases work done, and therefore speed, there was no significant correlation between swimming speed and ciliary beat frequency. Instead, there are significant correlations between swimming speed and visible area of the velar lobe, and distance between centroids of velum and larval shell. These observations suggest an alternative hypothesis that, instead of modifying ciliary beat frequency, larval C. fornicata modify swimming through adjustment of velum extension or orientation. The ability to adjust velum position could influence particle capture efficiency and fluid disturbance and help promote survival in the plankton.

  10. Swimming speed of larval snail does not correlate with size and ciliary beat frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Yu Karen Chan

    Full Text Available Many marine invertebrates have planktonic larvae with cilia used for both propulsion and capturing of food particles. Hence, changes in ciliary activity have implications for larval nutrition and ability to navigate the water column, which in turn affect survival and dispersal. Using high-speed high-resolution microvideography, we examined the relationship between swimming speed, velar arrangements, and ciliary beat frequency of freely swimming veliger larvae of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata over the course of larval development. Average swimming speed was greatest 6 days post hatching, suggesting a reduction in swimming speed towards settlement. At a given age, veliger larvae have highly variable speeds (0.8-4 body lengths s(-1 that are independent of shell size. Contrary to the hypothesis that an increase in ciliary beat frequency increases work done, and therefore speed, there was no significant correlation between swimming speed and ciliary beat frequency. Instead, there are significant correlations between swimming speed and visible area of the velar lobe, and distance between centroids of velum and larval shell. These observations suggest an alternative hypothesis that, instead of modifying ciliary beat frequency, larval C. fornicata modify swimming through adjustment of velum extension or orientation. The ability to adjust velum position could influence particle capture efficiency and fluid disturbance and help promote survival in the plankton.

  11. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No hormones are used in the raising of chickens. Antibiotics may be used to prevent disease and increase ... a "withdrawal" period is required from the time antibiotics are administered. ... not allowed on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as ...

  12. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding.

  13. Ganglion cyst associated with triangular fibrocartilage complex tear that caused ulnar nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol, Ugur Anil; Cinar, Can; Tasdelen, Neslihan

    2015-03-01

    Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyon's canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination.

  14. KIF13B establishes a CAV1-enriched microdomain at the ciliary transition zone to promote Sonic hedgehog signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kenneth Bødtker; Mogensen, Johanne Bay; Morthorst, Stine Kjær

    2017-01-01

    Ciliary membrane composition is controlled by transition zone (TZ) proteins such as RPGRIP1, RPGRIPL and NPHP4, which are vital for balanced coordination of diverse signalling systems like the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Activation of this pathway involves Shh-induced ciliary accumulation...

  15. Brachytherapy, A viable option of globe salvage in treatment of large ciliary body melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of large histopathologically proven melanocytoma of the ciliary body in a 15-year-old male, presented with rapid extraocular growth following incisional biopsy with scleral patch graft. We chose brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 plaque over enucleation as the later was refused by the parents. The initial apical height of the tumor was 14.2 mm on ultrasonography. Two weeks after brachytherapy, the mass regressed to a size of 8.1 mm and 1 year later to 6.7 mm. This is the first case report showing the response of brachytherapy to ciliary body melanocytoma, which results in ocular and visual acuity salvation with considerable decreased in size of the tumor. The authors conclude that brachytherapy is an option in the management of non-resectable melanocytoma of the ciliary body.

  16. Primary ciliary dyskinesia diagnosed by electron microscopy in one case of Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugină, Aniela Luminiţa; Dimitriu, Alexandru Grigore; Nistor, Nicolai; Mihăilă, Doina

    2014-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is associated with abnormalities in the structure of a function of motile cilia, causing impairment of muco-ciliary clearence, with bacterial overinfection of the upper and lower respiratory tract (chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease), heterotaxia (situs abnormalities), with/without congenital heart disease, abnormal sperm motility with male infertility, higher frequency of ectopic pregnancy and female subfertility. The presence of recurrent respiratory tract infections in the pediatric age requires differentiation between primary immunodeficiency, diseases with abnormal mucus (e.g., cystic fibrosis) and abnormal ciliary diseases. This case was hospitalized for recurrent respiratory tract infections and total situs inversus at the age of five years, which has enabled the diagnosis of Kartagener syndrome. The PCD confirmation was performed by electron microscopy examination of nasal mucosa cells through which were confirmed dynein arms abnormalities. The diagnosis and early treatment of childhood PCD allows a positive development and a good prognosis, thus improving the quality of life.

  17. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  18. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  19. Teratogenic effects of pyridoxine on the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of embryonic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, A A; Fedorovich, Y

    2015-03-19

    Our understanding of the role of somatosensory feedback in regulating motility during chicken embryogenesis and fetal development in general has been hampered by the lack of an approach to selectively alter specific sensory modalities. In adult mammals, pyridoxine overdose has been shown to cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by a loss of both muscle and cutaneous afferents, but predominated by a loss of proprioception. We have begun to explore the sensitivity of the nervous system in chicken embryos to the application of pyridoxine on embryonic days 7 and 8, after sensory neurons in the lumbosacral region become post-mitotic. Upon examination of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and peripheral nerves, we find that pyridoxine causes a loss of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3-positive neurons, a decrease in the diameter of the muscle innervating nerve tibialis, and a reduction in the number of large diameter axons in this nerve. However, we found no change in the number of Substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive neurons, the number of motor neurons or the diameter or axonal composition of the femoral cutaneous nerve. Therefore, pyridoxine causes a peripheral sensory neuropathy in embryonic chickens largely consistent with its effects in adult mammals. However, the lesion may be more restricted to proprioception in the chicken embryo. Therefore, pyridoxine lesion induced during embryogenesis in the chicken embryo can be used to assess how the loss of sensation, largely proprioception, alters spontaneous embryonic motility and subsequent motor development.

  20. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Yeni H; Johnston, Miles G; Ly, Tina; Patel, Manoj; Drake, Brian; Gümüş, Ersin; Fraenkl, Stephan A; Moore, Sara; Tobbia, Dalia; Armstrong, Dianna; Horvath, Eva; Gupta, Neeru

    2009-11-01

    Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a lymphatic circulation, the possible role of lymphatics in the less well defined uveoscleral pathway has been largely ignored. Advances in lymphatic research have identified specific lymphatic markers such as podoplanin, a transmembrane mucin-type glycoprotein, and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody. In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body. Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection. Four hours following intracameral injection, Iodine-125 radio-labeled human serum albumin injected into the sheep eye (n = 5) was drained preferentially into cervical, retropharyngeal, submandibular and preauricular lymph nodes in the head and neck region compared to reference popliteal lymph nodes (P human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system. The discovery of a uveolymphatic pathway in the eye is novel and highly relevant to studies of glaucoma and other eye diseases.

  1. Nasal nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase expression in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, M; Bush, A; Maggi, F; Michelucci, A; Ricci, V; Conidi, M E; Cangiotti, A M; Bodini, A; Simi, P; Macchia, P; Boner, A L

    2011-03-01

    No study has evaluated the correlation between different expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in nasal epithelial cells and nasal NO (nNO) level in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Gene expression of endothelial (NOS3) and inducible NOS (NOS2) and their correlation with nNO level, ciliary function and morphology were studied in patients with PCD or secondary ciliary dyskinesia (SCD). NOS3 gene polymorphisms were studied in blood leukocytes. A total of 212 subjects were studied (48 with PCD, 161 with SCD and three normal subjects). nNO level correlated with mean ciliary beat frequency (p = 0.044; r = 0.174). The lower the nNO level the higher was the percentage of immotile cilia (p<0.001; r = -0.375). A significant positive correlation between NOS2 gene expression and nNO levels was demonstrated in all children (p = 0.001; r = 0.428), and this correlation was confirmed in patients with PCD (p = 0.019; r = 0.484). NOS2 gene expression was lower in PCD than in SCD (p = 0.04). The NOS3 isoform correlated with missing central microtubules (p = 0.048; r = 0.447). nNO levels were higher in PCD subjects with the NOS3 thymidine 894 mutation, and this was associated with a higher ciliary beat frequency (p = 0.045). These results demonstrate a relationship between nNO level, NOS mRNA expression and ciliary beat frequency.

  2. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  3. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  4. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  5. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Koronyo, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing their contribution to circadian dysfunction. METHODS: We assessed retinal nerve...

  6. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  7. Ultrastructure of the ganglion on human internal laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, S; Shankar, S K; Manjunath, K Y; Devanathan, P H; Nityaseelan, N

    1994-01-01

    There is now definite evidence for the presence of a macroscopic ganglion on the human internal laryngeal nerve, with the distribution of its post-ganglionic fibres to the glands in the saccule and to the glands at the root of epiglottis in the vicinity of the opening of the saccule. This ganglion could be identified as early as 14 weeks in human foetal larynx, which contains immature neurons. Seven ganglia, dissected from human laryngectomy specimens and resected for carcinoma larynx, were studied by electron microscopy. Ultrastructurally, the neurons and the synaptic terminals had both small, round, luscent vesicles and dense core vesicles. Symmetrical, asymmetrical and electrical synaptic complexes were noted. A few neurons revealed degenerative changes suggestive of axotomy. The location of the ganglion on the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of nervus vagus, and ultrastructural demonstration of large and small dense core vesicles and small luscent vesicles in the neurons of this ganglion, lead us to believe that the ganglion is parasympathetic in nature.

  8. GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Ring

    Full Text Available GABA is more than the main inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the adult CNS. Several studies have shown that GABA regulates the proliferation of progenitor and stem cells. This work examined the effects of the GABA(A receptor system on the proliferation of retinal progenitors and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE cells. qRT-PCR and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology were used to characterize the GABA(A receptor system. To quantify the effects on proliferation by GABA(A receptor agonists and antagonists, incorporation of thymidine analogues was used. The results showed that the NPE cells express functional extrasynaptic GABA(A receptors with tonic properties and that low concentration of GABA is required for a baseline level of proliferation. Antagonists of the GABA(A receptors decreased the proliferation of dissociated E12 NPE cells. Bicuculline also had effects on progenitor cell proliferation in intact E8 and E12 developing retina. The NPE cells had low levels of the Cl-transporter KCC2 compared to the mature retina, suggesting a depolarising role for the GABA(A receptors. Treatment with KCl, which is known to depolarise membranes, prevented some of the decreased proliferation caused by inhibition of the GABA(A receptors. This supported the depolarising role for the GABA(A receptors. Inhibition of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels (VGCCs reduced the proliferation in the same way as inhibition of the GABA(A receptors. Inhibition of the channels increased the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1, along with the reduced proliferation. These results are consistent with that when the membrane potential indirectly regulates cell proliferation with hyperpolarisation of the membrane potential resulting in decreased cell division. The increased expression of p27(KIP1 after inhibition of either the GABA(A receptors or the L-type VGCCs suggests a link between the GABA(A receptors, membrane potential, and

  9. Mutations in LCA5, encoding the ciliary protein lebercilin, cause Leber congenital amaurosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Koenekoop, R.K.; Mohamed, M.D.; Arts, H.H.; Boldt, K.; Towns, K.V.; Sedmak, T.; Beer, M. de; Nagel-Wolfrum, K.; McKibbin, M.; Dharmaraj, S.; Lopez, I.; Ivings, L.; Williams, G.A.; Springell, K.; Woods, C.G.; Jafri, H.; Rashid, Y.; Strom, T.M.; Zwaag, B. van der; Gosens, I.; Kersten, F.F.J.; Wijk, E. van; Veltman, J.A.; Zonneveld, M.N.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Maumenee, I.H.; Wolfrum, U.; Cheetham, M.E.; Ueffing, M.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Inglehearn, C.F.; Roepman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) causes blindness or severe visual impairment at or within a few months of birth. Here we show, using homozygosity mapping, that the LCA5 gene on chromosome 6q14, which encodes the previously unknown ciliary protein lebercilin, is associated with this disease. We dete

  10. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Janssen (Sarah); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); K. Bossers (Koen); J.B. ten Brink (Jacoline); A.H.W. Essing (Anke); M.H. Nagtegaal (Marleen); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecu

  11. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Bossers, Koen; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Nagtegaal, Martijn; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatur

  12. Study and retina allotransplantation of porcine ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cogliati, Tiziana Paola

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports the isolation, characterization and allotransplantation in porcine retina of ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells, also known as retinal stem cells (RSCs). The self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of these cells in vitro and in vivo makes them candidate donors in

  13. Heteromerization of ciliary G protein-coupled receptors in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A Green

    Full Text Available Nearly every cell type in the mammalian body projects from its cell surface a primary cilium that provides important sensory and signaling functions. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human developmental disorders and diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. Most neurons in the brain possess cilia that are enriched for signaling proteins such as G protein-coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclase type 3, suggesting neuronal cilia sense neuromodulators in the brain and contribute to non-synaptic signaling. Indeed, disruption of neuronal cilia or loss of neuronal ciliary signaling proteins is associated with obesity and learning and memory deficits. As the functions of primary cilia are defined by the signaling proteins that localize to the ciliary compartment, identifying the complement of signaling proteins in cilia can provide important insights into their physiological roles. Here we report for the first time that different GPCRs can colocalize within the same cilium. Specifically, we found the ciliary GPCRs, melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mchr1 and somatostatin receptor 3 (Sstr3 colocalizing within cilia in multiple mouse brain regions. In addition, we have evidence suggesting Mchr1 and Sstr3 form heteromers. As GPCR heteromerization can affect ligand binding properties as well as downstream signaling, our findings add an additional layer of complexity to neuronal ciliary signaling.

  14. A longitudinal study of lung bacterial pathogens in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Alanin, M.; G. Nielsen, K.; von Buchwald, C.

    2015-01-01

    In patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), impaired mucociliary clearance leads to an accumulation of secretions in the airways and susceptibility to repeated bacterial infections. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial flora in non-chronic and chronic infections i...

  15. [Kartagener sindrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia). Report of a case and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; Pardo Romero, G; Iglesias González, R J; Rodríguez Carmona, M; del Castillo Beneyto, F

    2007-01-01

    Kartagener syndrome (a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia) is a recessive autossomical disease characterized by the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis and situs inversus with dextrocardia. We report one case described in a 8 years old boy who besides presented a seromucous otitis and bronchitis of repetition. Finally we performed a short bibliographic review at respect of this uncommon pathology.

  16. ZMYND10 is mutated in primary ciliary dyskinesia and interacts with LRRC6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zariwala, Maimoona A; Gee, Heon Yung; Kurkowiak, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Defects of motile cilia cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and male infertility. Using whole-exome resequencing and high-throughput mutation analysis, we identified recessive biallelic mutations in ZMYND10 in 14 families and mutations in the ...

  17. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, J K; Nielsen, K G

    2011-01-01

    Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has a well-known potential as an indirect discriminative marker between patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and healthy subjects, but real-life experience and usefulness in young children is sparsely reported. Three nNO sampling methods were examined and compar...

  18. Continued administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice from inflammatory pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle;

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv...

  19. Multicenter analysis of body mass index, lung function, and sputum microbiology in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglione, Marco; Bush, Andrew; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies longitudinally, simultaneously assessed body mass index (BMI) and spirometry in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). METHODS: We determined BMI and spirometry in 158 PCD children and adolescents from London, UK (n = 75), Naples, Italy (n = 23) and Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 60) ...

  20. Growth of the crabgrass species Digitaria ciliaris and Digitaria nuda Crescimento das espécies de capim-colchão Digitaria ciliaris e Digitaria nuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper was to compare the growth of D. ciliaris and D. nuda crabgrass species under non-competitive conditions. To this end, two experiments were conducted, one from March - July 2010 and the other from February - June 2011. The experimental design of both trials was completely randomized making a factorial (2 seasons x 2 species crabgrass x 12 evaluation periods with four replications. Assessments began at 15 days after sowing (DAS, and repeated weekly until 92 DAS. The variables evaluated were total dry matter (roots+leaves+stems, leaf area, leaf number and tiller. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and leaf area ratio were calculated using the means, which were adjusted regression models. The crabgrass species were significantly different in leaf area, leaf number, tiller number and dry matter per plant. D. ciliaris for all variables was statistically higher than D. nuda. Regarding the speed at which the growth of the species occurred, the absolute growth rate and relative growth rate of D. ciliaris was also greater than D. nuda. In addition, D. ciliaris also had a lower leaf area ratio indicating greater efficiency in converting light energy into carbohydrates. It can be concluded that D. ciliaris has a higher growth rate in conditions where there is no limitation of nutrients and water availability in relation to D. nuda, mainly due to D. ciliaris have greater leaf area, number of leaves and dry matter accumulation per plant.O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi comparar o crescimento das espécies de capim colchão D. ciliaris e D. nuda, em condições não-competitivas. Para isso, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um de março a julho de 2010 e outro de fevereiro a junho de 2011. O delineamento experimental de ambos os ensaios foi inteiramente casualizado, perfazendo um esquema fatorial (2 épocas x 2 espécies de capim colchão x 12 períodos de

  1. Genetic Networks in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix L Struebing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are the output neuron of the eye, transmitting visual information from the retina through the optic nerve to the brain. The importance of RGCs for vision is demonstrated in blinding diseases where RGCs are lost, such as in glaucoma or after optic nerve injury. In the present study, we hypothesize that normal RGC function is transcriptionally regulated. To test our hypothesis, we examine large retinal expression microarray datasets from recombinant inbred mouse strains in GeneNetwork and define transcriptional networks of RGCs and their subtypes. Two major and functionally distinct transcriptional networks centering around Thy1 and Tubb3 (Class III beta-tubulin were identified. Each network is independently regulated and modulated by unique genomic loci. Meta-analysis of publically available data confirms that RGC subtypes are differentially susceptible to death, with alpha-RGCs and intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs being less sensitive to cell death than other RGC subtypes in a mouse model of glaucoma.

  2. Regulation of anterior chamber drainage by bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase in the ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S; Tresguerres, Martin; Hess, Kenneth; Marmorstein, Lihua Y; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Marmorstein, Alan D

    2011-12-02

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate. Once secreted into the anterior chamber, AH drains from the eye via two pathways: uveoscleral and pressure-dependent or conventional outflow (C(t)). Modulation of "inflow" and "outflow" pathways is thought to occur via distinct, local mechanisms. Mice deficient in the bicarbonate channel bestrophin-2 (Best2), however, exhibit a lower IOP despite an increase in AH production. Best2 is expressed uniquely in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells providing evidence for a bicarbonate-dependent communicative pathway linking inflow and outflow. Here, we show that bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in the ciliary body in NPE cells, but appears to be absent from drainage tissues. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC in mice causes a significant increase in IOP due to a decrease in C(t) with no effect on inflow. In mice deficient in sAC IOP is elevated, and C(t) is decreased relative to wild-type mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC did not alter IOP or C(t) in sAC-deficient mice. Based on these data we propose that the ciliary body can regulate C(t) and that sAC serves as a critical sensor of bicarbonate in the ciliary body regulating the secretion of substances into the AH that govern outflow facility independent of pressure.

  3. Regulation of Anterior Chamber Drainage by Bicarbonate-sensitive Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in the Ciliary Body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S.; Tresguerres, Martin; Hess, Kenneth; Marmorstein, Lihua Y.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Marmorstein, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate. Once secreted into the anterior chamber, AH drains from the eye via two pathways: uveoscleral and pressure-dependent or conventional outflow (Ct). Modulation of “inflow” and “outflow” pathways is thought to occur via distinct, local mechanisms. Mice deficient in the bicarbonate channel bestrophin-2 (Best2), however, exhibit a lower IOP despite an increase in AH production. Best2 is expressed uniquely in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells providing evidence for a bicarbonate-dependent communicative pathway linking inflow and outflow. Here, we show that bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in the ciliary body in NPE cells, but appears to be absent from drainage tissues. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC in mice causes a significant increase in IOP due to a decrease in Ct with no effect on inflow. In mice deficient in sAC IOP is elevated, and Ct is decreased relative to wild-type mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC did not alter IOP or Ct in sAC-deficient mice. Based on these data we propose that the ciliary body can regulate Ct and that sAC serves as a critical sensor of bicarbonate in the ciliary body regulating the secretion of substances into the AH that govern outflow facility independent of pressure. PMID:21994938

  4. CCDC65 mutation causes primary ciliary dyskinesia with normal ultrastructure and hyperkinetic cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Horani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired ciliary function, leading to chronic sinopulmonary disease. The genetic causes of PCD are still evolving, while the diagnosis is often dependent on finding a ciliary ultrastructural abnormality and immotile cilia. Here we report a novel gene associated with PCD but without ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities evident by transmission electron microscopy, but with dyskinetic cilia beating. METHODS: Genetic linkage analysis was performed in a family with a PCD subject. Gene expression was studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and human airway epithelial cells, using RNA assays and immunostaining. The phenotypic effects of candidate gene mutations were determined in primary culture human tracheobronchial epithelial cells transduced with gene targeted shRNA sequences. Video-microscopy was used to evaluate cilia motion. RESULTS: A single novel mutation in CCDC65, which created a termination codon at position 293, was identified in a subject with typical clinical features of PCD. CCDC65, an orthologue of the Chlamydomonas nexin-dynein regulatory complex protein DRC2, was localized to the cilia of normal nasal epithelial cells but was absent in those from the proband. CCDC65 expression was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in cultured airway epithelial cells, as was DRC2 in C. reinhardtii following deflagellation. Nasal epithelial cells from the affected individual and CCDC65-specific shRNA transduced normal airway epithelial cells had stiff and dyskinetic cilia beating patterns compared to control cells. Moreover, Gas8, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex component previously identified to associate with CCDC65, was absent in airway cells from the PCD subject and CCDC65-silenced cells. CONCLUSION: Mutation in CCDC65, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex member, resulted in a frameshift mutation and PCD. The affected individual had altered cilia beating patterns, and

  5. Ciliary beating recovery in deficient human airway epithelial cells after lentivirus ex vivo gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Chhin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia is a heterogeneous genetic disease that is characterized by cilia dysfunction of the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts, resulting in recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite lifelong physiological therapy and antibiotics, the lungs of affected patients are progressively destroyed, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Recessive mutations in Dynein Axonemal Intermediate chain type 1 (DNAI1 gene have been described in 10% of cases of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Our goal was to restore normal ciliary beating in DNAI1-deficient human airway epithelial cells. A lentiviral vector based on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein was used to transduce cultured human airway epithelial cells with a cDNA of DNAI1 driven by the Elongation Factor 1 promoter. Transcription and translation of the transduced gene were tested by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Human airway epithelial cells that were DNAI1-deficient due to compound heterozygous mutations, and consequently had immotile cilia and no outer dynein arm, were transduced by the lentivirus. Cilia beating was recorded and electron microscopy of the cilia was performed. Transcription and translation of the transduced DNAI1 gene were detected in human cells treated with the lentivirus. In addition, immotile cilia recovered a normal beat and outer dynein arms reappeared. We demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a normalization of ciliary beat frequency of deficient human airway epithelial cells by using a lentivirus to transduce cells with the therapeutic gene. This preliminary step constitutes a conceptual proof that is indispensable in the perspective of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia's in vivo gene therapy. This is the first time that recovery of cilia beating is demonstrated in this disease.

  6. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  7. Effects of haloperidol and phentolamine on the crustacean cardiac ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlind, A

    2001-09-01

    Haloperidol (a dopamine D2 blocker in vertebrates) and phentolamine (an alpha-adrenergic blocker) alter the pattern of bursting by the isolated cardiac ganglion of the lobster when perfused at concentrations of 10(-6)-10(-5) mol/l. Both drugs decrease the frequency of bursting and increase burst duration. They are most effective in slowing the ganglion when applied selectively to the anterior ganglionic trunk, the same region of the ganglion where dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) are most effective in speeding up bursting. When exogenous monoamine transmitters are applied in the presence of 3x10(-6) mol/l haloperidol, the effect of 5HT, but not of DA, is significantly reduced. At the same concentration, phentolamine does not suppress the actions of DA, 5HT or noradrenaline (NA). Both haloperidol and phentolamine significantly alter the properties of endogenous burst-organizing potentials (driver potentials) generated by motorneurons in the ganglion. It is possible that the effects of these drugs on bursting reflect alteration of endogenous electrical properties of the constituent neurons, rather than receptor antagonism.

  8. The Grueneberg ganglion: a novel sensory system in the nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Joerg; Breer, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    Within the nasal epithelium of mammals, there are several compartments which are populated with neuronal cells. One of them - the so-called Grueneberg ganglion - is composed of ciliated neurons residing in the anterior region of the nose. Although cells of the Grueneberg ganglion lack direct contact with the lumen of the nasal cavity, they are endowed with features indicative of olfactory sensory neurons, such as the olfactory marker protein and distinct olfactory receptors, as well as projection of axonal processes to the olfactory bulb of the brain. These findings have led to the notion that the Grueneberg ganglion might be a novel olfactory subsystem; a concept which was lately supported by the observation that chemical cues activate Grueneberg ganglion neurons. Unexpectedly, it was recently found that these cells also respond to cool ambient temperatures, presumably via a signaling pathway mediated by second messengers. Thus, the Grueneberg ganglion may operate as a dual sensory organ involved in the detection of both chemical and thermal stimuli.

  9. Stereology of the pterygopalatine ganglion of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, W S; Morais, R; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, C A

    1992-01-01

    The right pterygopalatine ganglia (PG) of 9 male Wistar-strain rats were dissected, embedded in Epon (3 specimens) or paraffin (6 specimens), and prepared for stereological examination under light microscopy. The perikarya were quantitatively characterized, and the ganglionic volume was determined. Stereology is an efficient method for the quantitative evaluation of the perikarya of the PG. The results(expressed as mean +/- standard deviation) were: a) areal fraction occupied by the perikarya = 53.8 +/- 7.4%; b) the perikaryal surface area per volume = 0.101 +/- 0.013 microns-1; c) the number of perikarya per volume x 10(-5) = 5.26 +/- 0.99 microns-3; d) the mean profile area of the perikarya (apk) = 505.93 +/- 78.29 microns 2; e) the mean perikaryal volume (vpk) = 9,179.33 +/- 1,533.52 microns 3; and f) the ganglionic volume = 0.210 +/- 0.127 mm3. The low coefficient of variation the apk and vpk values suggests the presence of only one population of neurons in the PG of the rat. The number of perikarya in the PG is about 11,046 per ganglion. As compared to analogous data in the otic ganglion of the rat, the PG did not show statistically significant stereological differences, but the relatively higher number of neurons found in the PG is probably associated with the higher functional activity of this ganglion.

  10. Neuroprotection by GH against excitotoxic-induced cell death in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Wu, Yilun; Arellanes-Licea, Elvira Del Carmen; Louie, Marcela; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Retinal growth hormone (GH) has been shown to promote cell survival in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during developmental waves of apoptosis during chicken embryonic development. The possibility that it might also against excitotoxicity-induced cell death was therefore examined in the present study, which utilized quail-derived QNR/D cells as an in vitro RGC model. QNR/D cell death was induced by glutamate in the presence of BSO (buthionine sulfoxamide) (an enhancer of oxidative stress), but this was significantly reduced (PGH (rcGH). Similarly, QNR/D cells that had been prior transfected with a GH plasmid to overexpress secreted and non-secreted GH. This treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-labeled cells and blocked their release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In a further experiment with dissected neuroretinal explants from ED (embryonic day) 10 embryos, rcGH treatment of the explants also reduced (PGH-overexpressing QNR/D cells. As rcGH treatment and GH-overexpression cells also increased the content of IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA this neuroprotective action of GH is likely to be mediated, at least partially, through an IGF-1 mechanism. This possibility is supported by the fact that the siRNA knockdown of GH or IGF-1 significantly reduced QNR/D cell viability, as did the immunoneutralization of IGF-1. GH is therefore neuroprotective against excitotoxicity-induced RGC cell death by anti-apoptotic actions involving IGF-1 stimulation.

  11. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  12. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-yi; MA Ning; HU Qian-qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current,Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs.The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change.Methods In an Ussing-type chamber system,the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed.The involvement of Cl-component in the bath solution was investigated.The effect of Cl-channel (10 μmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS)),K+ channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)),or Na+ channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied.Results Dose-dependently,8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 μmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 μmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue.Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side.When the tissue was bathed in low Cl-solutions,the Isc increase was significantly inhibited.Finally,niflumic acid and DIDS,but not TEA or amiloride,significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP.Conclusions cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes.Chloride is likely to be among the ions,the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP,suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  13. The Masquerades of a Childhood Ciliary Body Medulloepithelioma: A Case of Chronic Uveitis, Cataract, and Secondary Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary body medulloepitheliomas in childhood often masquerade other intraocular conditions due to its insidious nature as well as its secondary effects on proximal intraocular tissues in the anterior chamber. We report a case where a ciliary body medulloepithelioma in a two-year-old boy presents with chronic uveitis, cataract, and an uncontrolled secondary glaucoma after an innocuous blunt ocular trauma. The diagnosis was only made after the occurrence of a ciliary body mass. We discuss the clinical features of ciliary body medulloepitheliomas, the implications of a delayed diagnosis and treatment as well as the concern of periorbital tumor seeding with the use of an aqueous shunt implant in this case.

  14. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Kartagener syndrome in a family with a novel DNAH5 gene mutation and variable phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with variable clinical manifestations, including chronic rhinosinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, situs inversus totalis, reduced fertility in female patients and male infertility. The condition occurs as a result of abnormal ciliary structure and function. It is presented in early life with an estimated incidence of approximately 1/16,000–20,000. About 50% of the aff...

  15. Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Carlo Demontis; Claudia Aruta; Antonella Comitato; Anna De Marzo; Valeria Marigo

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor...

  16. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kvl.3 in rabbit ciliary epithelium regulates the membrane potential via coupling intracellular calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-feng; ZHUO Ye-hong; BI Wei-na; BAI Yu-jing; LI Yan-na; WANG Zhi-jian

    2008-01-01

    Background The cell layer of the ciliary epithelium is responsible for aqueous humor secretion and maintenance.Ion channels play an important role in these processes.The main aim of this study was to determine whether the well-characterized members of the Kvl family (Kv1.3) contribute to the Kv currents in ciliary epithelium.Methods New Zealand White rabbits were maintained in a 12 hours light/dark cycle.Ciliary epithelium samples were isolated from the rabbits.We used Western blotting and immunocytochemistry to identify the expression and location of a voltage-gated potassium channel Kvl.3 in ciliary body epithelium.Membrane potential change after adding of Kv1.3 inhibitor margatoxin (MgTX) was observed with a fluorescence method.Results Western blotting and immunocytochemical studies showed that the Kv1.3 protein expressed in pigment ciliary epithelium and nonpigment ciliary epithelium,however it seemed to express more in the apical membrane of the nonpigmented epithelial cells.One nmol/L margatoxin,a specific inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels caused depolarization of the cultured nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) membrane potential.The cytosotic calcium increased after NPE cell depolarization,this increase of cytosolic calcium was partially blocked by 12.5 μmol/L dantrolene and 10 μmol/L nifedipine.These observations suggest that Kv1.3 channels modulate ciliary epithelium potential and effect calcium dependent mechanisms.Conclusion Kv1.3 channels contribute to K+ efflux at the membrane of rabbit ciliary epithelium.

  17. Ganglion cell death in glaucoma: from mice to men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickells, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Glaucoma results from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Over the last 20 years several important advancements have been made in our understanding of the molecular pathology of this disease, particularly through the development of rat models of experimental glaucoma and the characterization of a spontaneous secondary form of glaucoma in DBA/2 substrains of inbred mice. One of these advances is the observation that ganglion cells die by apoptosis, an intrinsic molecular pathway of programmed cell death. An important aspect of this cell death process is the concept that these cells actually undergo compartmentalized self-destruction. Importantly, genetic evidence now suggests that axons die independently of the apoptotic program that executes the cell body or soma. This review briefly summarizes some of the most significant developments in glaucoma research, with respect to the process of ganglion cell degeneration.

  18. Imaging demonstration of fistulous gas communication between joint and ganglion of medial malleolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulier, B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Namur (Belgium); Devyver, B. [Orthopedic Surgery, Namur (Belgium); Hamels, J. [Institute of Pathology and Genetics, Gerpinnes (Belgium)

    2002-01-01

    We report an unusual demonstration of a fistulous gas communication between the ankle joint and ganglion of the medial malleolus. The imaging findings support the mechanical hypothesis for the genesis of intraosseous ganglion cysts. (orig.)

  19. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  20. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  1. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates NF-κB to enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics and prevent neuropathy in sensory neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ali; Roy Chowdhury, Subir K; Smith, Darrell R; Balakrishnan, Savitha; Tessler, Lori; Martens, Corina; Morrow, Dwane; Schartner, Emily; Frizzi, Katie E; Calcutt, Nigel A; Fernyhough, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Diabetes causes mitochondrial dysfunction in sensory neurons that may contribute to peripheral neuropathy. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes sensory neuron survival and axon regeneration and prevents axonal dwindling, nerve conduction deficits and thermal hypoalgesia in diabetic rats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CNTF protects sensory neuron function during diabetes through normalization of impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics. In addition, we investigated whether the NF-κB signal transduction pathway was mobilized by CNTF. Neurite outgrowth of sensory neurons derived from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was reduced compared to neurons from control rats and exposure to CNTF for 24 h enhanced neurite outgrowth. CNTF also activated NF-κB, as assessed by Western blotting for the NF-κB p50 subunit and reporter assays for NF-κB promoter activity. Conversely, blockade of NF-κB signaling using SN50 peptide inhibited CNTF-mediated neurite outgrowth. Studies in mice with STZ-induced diabetes demonstrated that systemic therapy with CNTF prevented functional indices of peripheral neuropathy along with deficiencies in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) NF-κB p50 expression and DNA binding activity. DRG neurons derived from STZ-diabetic mice also exhibited deficiencies in maximal oxygen consumption rate and associated spare respiratory capacity that were corrected by exposure to CNTF for 24 h in an NF-κB-dependent manner. We propose that the ability of CNTF to enhance axon regeneration and protect peripheral nerve from structural and functional indices of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with targeting of mitochondrial function, in part via NF-κB activation, and improvement of cellular bioenergetics.

  2. KIF13B establishes a CAV1-enriched microdomain at the ciliary transition zone to promote Sonic hedgehog signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Kenneth B.; Mogensen, Johanne B.; Morthorst, Stine K.; Nielsen, Brian S.; Aleliunaite, Aiste; Serra-Marques, Andrea; Fürstenberg, Nicoline; Saunier, Sophie; Bizet, Albane A.; Veland, Iben R.; Akhmanova, Anna; Christensen, Søren T.; Pedersen, Lotte B.

    2017-01-01

    Ciliary membrane composition is controlled by transition zone (TZ) proteins such as RPGRIP1, RPGRIPL and NPHP4, which are vital for balanced coordination of diverse signalling systems like the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Activation of this pathway involves Shh-induced ciliary accumulation of Smoothened (SMO), which is disrupted by disease-causing mutations in TZ components. Here we identify kinesin-3 motor protein KIF13B as a novel member of the RPGRIP1N-C2 domain-containing protein family and show that KIF13B regulates TZ membrane composition and ciliary SMO accumulation. KIF13B is upregulated during ciliogenesis and is recruited to the ciliary base by NPHP4, which binds to two distinct sites in the KIF13B tail region, including an RPGRIP1N-C2 domain. KIF13B and NPHP4 are both essential for establishment of a CAV1 membrane microdomain at the TZ, which in turn is required for Shh-induced ciliary SMO accumulation. Thus KIF13B is a novel regulator of ciliary TZ configuration, membrane composition and Shh signalling. PMID:28134340

  3. Ganglion Cyst Associated with Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear That Caused Ulnar Nerve Compression

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyon's canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination.

  4. Ganglion Cyst Associated with Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear That Caused Ulnar Nerve Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Anil Bingol, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyonʼs canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination.

  5. Morphology, topography and cytoarchitectonics of the otic ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T; Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J

    2001-01-01

    Using the thiocholine method of Koelle and Friedenwald and histological techniques, the otic ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest) was studied. The ganglion was found to be a single oval cluster of neurocytes, situated at the medial and posterior surface of the mandibular nerve just above the maxillary artery. The ganglion is composed of typical ganglionic neurons in compact arrangement without a thick connective-tissue capsule.

  6. Morphology, topography and cytoarchitectonics of the pterygopalatine ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurkowski, Aleksander; Kuder, Tadeusz; Nowak, Elzbieta; Kuchinka, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    Using the thiocholine method of Koelle and Friedenwald and histological techniques the pterygopalatine ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest) was studied. The ganglion was found to be a single irregular cluster of neurocytes, situated on the medial surface of the maxillary nerve. The ganglion is composed of oval, elliptical and sometimes fusiform ganglionic neurones in compact arrangement without a thick connective-tissue capsule.

  7. Repeatability of Perimacular Ganglion Cell Complex Analysis with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Dorothy S. K.; Preeti Gupta; Yih Chung Tham; Chye Fong Peck; Tien Yin Wong; Mohammad Kamran Ikram; Cheung, Carol Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to measure macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses and compare retinal ganglion cell parameters between algorithms. Methods. Ninety-two nonglaucomatous eyes from 92 participants underwent macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thickness measurement using OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm and these measurements were repeated for 34 subjects. All subjects also had macular ganglion cell-in...

  8. Compressive neuropathies related to ganglions of the wrist and hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Jayaram, Vijay; Nairn, David S

    2014-01-01

    Ganglions of the wrist and hand causing compressive neuropathies are rare clinical entities. Compression of the ulnar and median nerves in their respective fibro-osseous tunnels lead to characteristic patterns of motor and/or sensory deficits, which are directly related to the location of the lesion. We present a unique case of a "dumbbell" shaped ganglion invading both Guyon's canal and the carpal tunnel causing a dual compressive neuropathy of the ulnar and median nerve. We discuss the patho-anatomy, clinical assessment, investigation and surgical treatment of this condition.

  9. A rare case of intraosseous ganglion of the triquetrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luben Stokov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carpal intraosseous ganglia are one of the rarely seenpathologic conditions in the hand. In this report we presenta rare case of an intraosseous ganglion cyst in a16-year-old girl located in the triquetrum bone as an uncommoncause of wrist pain. Radiographic and magneticresonance imaging demonstrated the cystic lesion intothe triquetrum. The patient was successfully treated byexcision of the ganglion cyst and curettage of the bone.Clinical aspects, radiological findings and treatment modalitiesof this condition were briefly reviewed. J Clin ExpInvest 2012; 3(1: 111-112

  10. Genetic factors contributing to human primary ciliary dyskinesia and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Yong; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2016-06-07

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from the loss of normal ciliary function. Symptoms include neonatal respiratory distress, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, and infertility. However, only 15 PCD-associated genes have been identified to cause male infertility to date. Owing to the genetic heterogeneity of PCD, comprehensive molecular genetic testing is not considered the standard of care. Here, we provide an update of the progress on the identification of genetic factors related to PCD associated with male infertility, summarizing the underlying molecular mechanisms, and discuss the clinical implications of these findings. Further research in this field will impact the diagnostic strategy for male infertility, enabling clinicians to provide patients with informed genetic counseling, and help to adopt the best course of treatment for developing directly targeted personalized medicine.

  11. Vortex arrays and ciliary tangles underlie the feeding-swimming tradeoff in starfish larvae

    CERN Document Server

    Gilpin, William; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Many marine invertebrates have larval stages covered in linear arrays of beating cilia, which propel the animal while simultaneously entraining planktonic prey. These bands are strongly conserved across taxa spanning four major superphyla, and they are responsible for the unusual morphologies of many invertebrates. However, few studies have investigated their underlying hydrodynamics. Here, we study the ciliary bands of starfish larvae, and discover a beautiful pattern of slowly-evolving vortices that surrounds the swimming animals. Closer inspection of the bands reveals unusual ciliary "tangles" analogous to topological defects that break-up and re-form as the animal adjusts its swimming stroke. Quantitative experiments and modeling suggest that these vortices create a physical tradeoff between feeding and swimming, which manifests as distinct flow patterns or "eigenstrokes" representing each behavior---potentially implicating neuronal control of cilia. This quantitative interplay between larval form and hyd...

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  15. A Rare Cause of Compression Neuropathy of Upper Limbs – Ganglionic Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yin Mak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a 51-year-old Chinese male with a ganglion in the Guyon canal causing ulnar nerve palsy and a 54-year-old Chinese male with a ganglion in the elbow causing posterior interosseous nerve (PIN palsy. Exploration and excision of the ganglions were performed. Both patients made a good recovery.

  16. Repeatability of Perimacular Ganglion Cell Complex Analysis with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy S. K. Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to measure macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses and compare retinal ganglion cell parameters between algorithms. Methods. Ninety-two nonglaucomatous eyes from 92 participants underwent macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thickness measurement using OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm and these measurements were repeated for 34 subjects. All subjects also had macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by Cirrus HD-OCT Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed. Results. Subfields of both macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses had high intraclass correlation coefficient values between 0.979 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.958–0.989 and 0.981 (95% CI: 0.963, 0.991 and between 0.70 (95% CI: 0.481–0.838 and 0.987 (95% CI: 0.956–0.989, respectively. The overall average ganglion cell complex and macular average ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thicknesses were strongly correlated (r=0.83, P<0.001.  Conclusions. The assessment of macular and perimacular retinal ganglion cell parameters by OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm is highly repeatable, and strongly correlates to retinal ganglion cell parameters assessed by Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. A comprehensive evaluation of retinal ganglion cells may be possible with OCT-HS100.

  17. Cri du chat syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia: a common genetic cause on chromosome 5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Weck, Karen E; Chao, Kay C; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Nygren, Anders O H; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2014-10-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are rare diseases that present with frequent respiratory symptoms. PCD can be caused by hemizygous DNAH5 mutation in combination with a 5p segmental deletion attributable to CdCS on the opposite chromosome. Chronic oto-sino-pulmonary symptoms or organ laterality defects in CdCS should prompt an evaluation for PCD.

  18. Impact of the Smoothened inhibitor, IPI-926, on smoothened ciliary localization and Hedgehog pathway activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa O Peluso

    Full Text Available A requisite step for canonical Hedgehog (Hh pathway activation by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh ligand is accumulation of Smoothened (Smo to the primary cilium (PC. Activation of the Hh pathway has been implicated in a broad range of cancers, and several Smo antagonists are being assessed clinically, one of which is approved for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Recent reports demonstrate that various Smo antagonists differentially impact Smo localization to the PC while still exerting inhibitory activity. In contrast to other synthetic small molecule Smo antagonists, the natural product cyclopamine binds to and promotes ciliary accumulation of Smo and "primes" cells for Hh pathway hyper-responsiveness after compound withdrawal. We compared the properties of IPI-926, a semi-synthetic cyclopamine analog, to cyclopamine with regard to potency, ciliary Smo accumulation, and Hh pathway activity after compound withdrawal. Like cyclopamine, IPI-926 promoted accumulation of Smo to the PC. However, in contrast to cyclopamine, IPI-926 treatment did not prime cells for hyper-responsiveness to Shh stimulation after compound withdrawal, but instead demonstrated continuous inhibition of signaling. By comparing the levels of drug-induced ciliary Smo accumulation with the degree of Hh pathway activity after compound withdrawal, we propose that a critical threshold of ciliary Smo is necessary for "priming" activity to occur. This "priming" appears achievable with cyclopamine, but not IPI-926, and is cell-line dependent. Additionally, IPI-926 activity was evaluated in a murine tumor xenograft model and a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship was examined to assess for in vivo evidence of Hh pathway hyper-responsiveness. Plasma concentrations of IPI-926 correlated with the degree and duration of Hh pathway suppression, and pathway activity did not exceed baseline levels out to 96 hours post dose. The overall findings suggest that IPI-926 possesses

  19. Flow Field Analysis of Micromixer Powered by Ciliary Motion of Vorticella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Yo; Nagai, Moeto; Matsumoto, Nobuyoshi; Kawashima, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki

    We demonstrate the observation of a flow field generated by ciliary motion of Vorticella in a microfluidic chamber. We applied the property that Vorticella vibrates its cilia and create a flow field to a micromixer. The stability and mixing performance of Vorticella were measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). One cell of Vorticella mixed the half area of the microchamber. We revealed that the flow field of a single cell in a chamber was more stable than that of multiple cells.

  20. A novel ICK mutation causes ciliary disruption and lethal endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kayserili Karabey, Hülya; Oud, M.M.; Bonnard, C.; Mans, D.A.; Altunoğlu, U.; Tohari, S.; Ng, A.Y.J.; Eskin, A.; Lee, H.; Rupar, C.A.; Wagenaar, N.P.; Wu, K.M.; Lahiry, P.; Pazour, G.J.; Nelson, S.F.; Hegele, R.A.; Roepman, R; Venkatesh, B.; Siu, V.M.; Reversade, B.; Arts, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome [MIM:612651] caused by a recessive mutation (p.R272Q) in Intestinal cell kinase (ICK) shows significant clinical overlap with ciliary disorders. Similarities are strongest between ECO syndrome, the Majewski and Mohr-Majewski short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with polydactyly syndromes, and hydrolethalus syndrome. In this study, we present a novel homozygous ICK mutation in a fetus with ECO syndrome and compare the effect of this mu...

  1. Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Ariza-Camacho, Enrique; Collado-Solórzano, Alberto; Flores-Sánchez, Blanca C.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A.; Fulda-Graue, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:27171918

  2. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  3. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanru Zhang; Hui Zhang; Kaka Katiella; Wenhua Huang

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune re-jection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regenera-tion. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anasto-mosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone.

  4. HEATR2 plays a conserved role in assembly of the ciliary motile apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine P Diggle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are highly conserved microtubule-based structures that perform a variety of sensory and motility functions during development and adult homeostasis. In humans, defects specifically affecting motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, infertility and laterality defects in the genetically heterogeneous disorder Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD. Using the comparatively simple Drosophila system, in which mechanosensory neurons possess modified motile cilia, we employed a recently elucidated cilia transcriptional RFX-FOX code to identify novel PCD candidate genes. Here, we report characterization of CG31320/HEATR2, which plays a conserved critical role in forming the axonemal dynein arms required for ciliary motility in both flies and humans. Inner and outer arm dyneins are absent from axonemes of CG31320 mutant flies and from PCD individuals with a novel splice-acceptor HEATR2 mutation. Functional conservation of closely arranged RFX-FOX binding sites upstream of HEATR2 orthologues may drive higher cytoplasmic expression of HEATR2 during early motile ciliogenesis. Immunoprecipitation reveals HEATR2 interacts with DNAI2, but not HSP70 or HSP90, distinguishing it from the client/chaperone functions described for other cytoplasmic proteins required for dynein arm assembly such as DNAAF1-4. These data implicate CG31320/HEATR2 in a growing intracellular pre-assembly and transport network that is necessary to deliver functional dynein machinery to the ciliary compartment for integration into the motile axoneme.

  5. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  6. LRRC6 mutation causes primary ciliary dyskinesia with dynein arm defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Horani

    Full Text Available Despite recent progress in defining the ciliome, the genetic basis for many cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD remains elusive. We evaluated five children from two unrelated, consanguineous Palestinian families who had PCD with typical clinical features, reduced nasal nitric oxide concentrations, and absent dynein arms. Linkage analyses revealed a single common homozygous region on chromosome 8 and one candidate was conserved in organisms with motile cilia. Sequencing revealed a single novel mutation in LRRC6 (Leucine-rich repeat containing protein 6 that fit the model of autosomal recessive genetic transmission, leading to a change of a highly conserved amino acid from aspartic acid to histidine (Asp146His. LRRC6 was localized to the cytoplasm and was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in human airway epithelial cells in a Foxj1-dependent fashion. Nasal epithelial cells isolated from affected individuals and shRNA-mediated silencing in human airway epithelial cells, showed reduced LRRC6 expression, absent dynein arms, and slowed cilia beat frequency. Dynein arm proteins were either absent or mislocalized to the cytoplasm in airway epithelial cells from a primary ciliary dyskinesia subject. These findings suggest that LRRC6 plays a role in dynein arm assembly or trafficking and when mutated leads to primary ciliary dyskinesia with laterality defects.

  7. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by a mini-symposium on Tuesday May 22, with one featured speaker and presentation of nine abstracts covering a range of research topics. Mattias Salathe (University of Miami, USA and Stephen Brody (Washington University, St Louis, USA chaired the symposium session. Presentations focused on the clinical spectrum of PCD, the genetics of PCD, a proteomics approach to detail the structure of cilia, the role of cilia in the embryology of situs laterality, and airway epithelial cell biology. The mini-symposium was chaired by Peadar Noone (University of North Carolina, USA and Malcolm King (University of Alberta, USA and included presentations on the use of PCD as a human disease model, accurate definition of the phenotype using clinical and cell biologic markers, and molecular studies. The latter reports ranged from isolation of a protein involved in ciliary structure and function to genetic studies using linkage analysis and the candidate gene approach. Clinicians and scientists alike displayed considerable interest at both sessions, and there were several lively question–answer sessions.

  8. Morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of secretory production of the ciliary glands in the porcine eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Yasui

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to performing general histology and cytology of the ciliary glands of the miniature pig, we studied the localization of glycoconjugates and b-defensins in these glands with the use of carbohydrate histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells of the glands were equipped with non-homogeneous secretory granules, a welldeveloped Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory epithelium and luminal secretion of the glands contained large amounts of neutral and acidic glycoconjugates with various saccharide residues (a-L-Fuc, b-DGal, a-D-GalNAc and sialic acid. The sebaceous glands and tarsal glands also exhibited positive reactions to most of the histochemical methods. Additionally, the antimicrobial peptide group of b-defensins was demonstrated to be products of the ciliary glands, as well as the sebaceous glands and tarsal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the specific function of the ciliary glandular secretions. These secretory products may be related to the moistening and general protection of the skin surface of the eyelid and ocular surface.

  9. Purinergically induced membrane fluidization in ciliary cells: characterization and control by calcium and membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfahel, E; Korngreen, A; Parola, A H; Priel, Z

    1996-02-01

    To examine the role of membrane dynamics in transmembrane signal transduction, we studied changes in membrane fluidity in mucociliary tissues from frog palate and esophagus epithelia stimulated by extracellular ATP. Micromolar concentrations of ATP induced strong changes in fluorescence polarization, possibly indicating membrane fluidization. This effect was dosage dependent, reaching a maximum at 10-microM ATP. It was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ (or Mg2+), though it was insensitive to inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels. It was inhibited by thapsigargin and by ionomycin (at low extracellular Ca2+ concentration), both of which deplete Ca2+ stores. It was inhibited by the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitors quinidine, charybdotoxin, and apamine and was reduced considerably by replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+. Hyperpolarization, or depolarization, of the mucociliary membrane induced membrane fluidization. The degree of membrane fluidization depended on the degree of hyperpolarization or depolarization of the ciliary membrane potential and was considerably lower than the effect induced by extracellular ATP. These results indicate that appreciable membrane fluidization induced by extracellular ATP depends both on an increase in intracellular Ca2+, mainly from its internal stores, and on hyperpolarization of the membrane. Calcium-dependent potassium channels couple the two effects. In light of recent results on the enhancement of ciliary beat frequency, it would appear that extracellular ATP-induced changes both in ciliary beat frequency and in membrane fluidity are triggered by similar signal transduction pathways.

  10. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  11. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  12. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  13. Arthroscopic Treatment of Intraosseous Ganglion Cyst of the Lunate Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerlier, Alexandre; Gay, André-Mathieu; Levadoux, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Intraosseous ganglion cysts are rare causes of wrist pain. Surgical treatment of this pathologic condition yields good results and a low recurrence rate. The main complications are joint stiffness and vascular disturbances of the lunate bone. Wrist arthroscopy is a surgical technique that reduces the intra-articular operative area and therefore minimizes postoperative stiffness. This article describes an arthroscopic technique used for lunate intraosseous cyst resection associated with an autologous bone graft in a series of cases to prevent joint stiffness while respecting the scapholunate ligament. This study was based on a series of 4 patients, all of whom had wrist pain because of intraosseous ganglion cysts. Arthrosynovial cyst resection, ganglion curettage, and bone grafting were performed arthroscopically. Pain had totally disappeared within 2 months after the operation in 100% of patients. The average hand grip strength was estimated at 100% compared with the opposite side, and articular ranges of motion were the same on both sides in 100% of cases. No complications were reported after surgery. On the basis of these results, arthroscopic treatment of intraosseous synovial ganglion cysts seems to be more efficient and helpful in overcoming the limitations of classic open surgery in terms of complications.

  14. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...

  15. Bilateral ganglion cyst of the common peroneal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrazzini, Massimo; Cusmano, Ferdinando; Armaroli, Sara; Pavone, Paolo [Institute of Radiology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Pogliacomi, Francesco; Rinaldi, Elio [Institute of Clinical Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2002-11-01

    Ganglion cysts of the common peroneal nerve are rarely described in the literature and a bilateral lesion has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 41-year-old man with a bilateral cyst of the common peroneal nerve diagnosed with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  16. Neuropathy of motor branch of median or ulnar nerve induced by midpalm ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, N; Koshino, T; Nakazawa, A; Saito, T

    2001-05-01

    Two cases of neuropathy of a motor branch caused by a midpalmal ganglion are presented. In the first case the ganglion originated from the midcarpal joint, protruded into the thenar muscle, and compressed the motor branch of the median nerve. In the second case the ganglion, distal to the fibrous arch of the hypothenar muscles, originated from the third carpometacarpal joint and compressed the motor branch of the ulnar nerve. In both cases muscle weakness and finger deformity recovered well after resection of the ganglion. This clinical condition is rare compared with carpal tunnel syndrome and Guyon's tunnel syndrome, which are caused by a ganglion in the wrist.

  17. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  18. Retinal ganglion cell adaptation to small luminance fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel K; Graña, Gilberto; Passaglia, Christopher L

    2010-08-01

    To accommodate the wide input range over which the visual system operates within the narrow output range of spiking neurons, the retina adjusts its sensitivity to the mean light level so that retinal ganglion cells can faithfully signal contrast, or relative deviations from the mean luminance. Given the large operating range of the visual system, the majority of work on luminance adaptation has involved logarithmic changes in light level. We report that luminance gain controls are recruited for remarkably small fluctuations in luminance as well. Using spike recordings from the rat optic tract, we show that ganglion cell responses to a brief flash of light are modulated in amplitude by local background fluctuations as little as 15% contrast. The time scale of the gain control is rapid (retinal locus of adaptation precedes the ganglion cell spike generator because response gain changes of on cells were uncorrelated with firing rate. The mechanism seems to reside within the inner retinal network and not in the photoreceptors, because the adaptation profiles of on and off cells differed markedly. The response gain changes follow Weber's law, suggesting that network mechanisms of luminance adaptation described in previous work modulates retinal ganglion cell sensitivity, not just when we move between different lighting environments, but also as our eyes scan a visual scene. Finally, we show that response amplitude is uniformly reduced for flashes on a modulated background that has spatial contrast, indicating that another gain control that integrates luminance signals nonlinearly over space operates within the receptive field center of rat ganglion cells.

  19. Repeatability of Perimacular Ganglion Cell Complex Analysis with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Dorothy S K; Gupta, Preeti; Tham, Yih Chung; Peck, Chye Fong; Wong, Tien Yin; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Cheung, Carol Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to measure macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses and compare retinal ganglion cell parameters between algorithms. Methods. Ninety-two nonglaucomatous eyes from 92 participants underwent macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thickness measurement using OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm and these measurements were repeated for 34 subjects. All subjects also had macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by Cirrus HD-OCT Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation analyses were performed. Results. Subfields of both macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses had high intraclass correlation coefficient values between 0.979 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.958-0.989) and 0.981 (95% CI: 0.963, 0.991) and between 0.70 (95% CI: 0.481-0.838) and 0.987 (95% CI: 0.956-0.989), respectively. The overall average ganglion cell complex and macular average ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thicknesses were strongly correlated (r = 0.83,  P HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm is highly repeatable, and strongly correlates to retinal ganglion cell parameters assessed by Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. A comprehensive evaluation of retinal ganglion cells may be possible with OCT-HS100.

  20. Development of the ciliary body: morphological changes in the distal portion of the optic cup in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces-Peña, M D; de la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Vicente, A; Mérida-Velasco, J R

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the main events that occur in the development of the ciliary body (CB) in the 5-14th week of development. The CB develops from the distal portion of the optic cup (OC) and the neighboring mesenchyme. During the 5th week of development, 4 zones were observed in the distal portion of the OC: in zone 1, the epithelia of the outer and inner layers of the OC came into contact. This contact coincided with the appearance of mainly apical granule pigments. This zone corresponded to the anlage of the epithelial layers of the CB. In zone 2, the cells surrounded the marginal sinus and contained scarce pigment granules and nuclei in the basal position. This zone corresponded to the anlage of the iris. Zone 3 was triangular in shape and its vertex ran towards the marginal sinus and corresponded to common cell progenitors. Zone 4 corresponded to the retinal pigment epithelium anlage and the neural retina anlage. We determined the onset of the stroma and the ciliary muscle anlage at the end of the 7th week. In the 13-14th week, we observed the anlage of the orbicularis ciliaris (pars plana of the CB) and corona ciliaris (pars plicata of the CB), in addition to the anlage of the ciliary muscle. Our study, therefore, establishes a precise timetable of the development of the CB.

  1. Regulation of molecular components of the synapse in the developing and adult rat superior cervical ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Black, I.B.

    1987-12-01

    Rat superior cervical sympathetic ganglion was used to begin studying the regulation of molecular components of the synapse. Ganglionic postsynaptic densities (PSDs) exhibited a thin, disc-shaped profile electron microscopically, comparable to that described for brain. Moreover, the presumptive ganglionic PSD protein (PSDp) was phosphorylated in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ and calmodulin, bound /sup 125/I-labeled calmodulin, and exhibited a M/sub r/ of 51,000 all characteristic of the major PSD protein of brain. These initial studies indicated that ganglionic PSDp and the major PSD protein of brain are comparable, allowing the study synaptic regulation in the well-defined superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. To obtain enough quantities of ganglionic PSDp, the authors used synaptic membrane fractions. During postnatal development, calmodulin binding to the ganglionic PSDp increased 411-fold per ganglion from birth to 60 days, whereas synaptic membrane protein increased only 4.5-fold. Consequently, different synaptic components apparently develop differently. Moreover, denervation of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion in adult rats caused an 85% decrease in ganglionic PSDp-calmodulin binding, but denervation caused no change in synaptic membrane protein 2 weeks postoperatively. The observations suggest that presynaptic innervation selectively regulates specific molecular components of the postsynaptic membrane structure.

  2. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  3. Incomplete segregation of endorgan-specific vestibular ganglion cells in mice and rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, A.; Fritzsch, B.

    1999-01-01

    The endorgan-specific distribution of vestibular ganglion cells was studied in neonatal and postnatal rats and mice using indocarbocyanine dye (DiI) and dextran amines for retrograde and anterograde labeling. Retrograde DiI tracing from the anterior vertical canal labeled neurons scattered throughout the whole superior vestibular ganglion, with denser labeling at the dorsal and central regions. Horizontal canal neurons were scattered along the dorsoventral axis with more clustering toward the dorsal and ventral poles of this axis. Utricular ganglion cells occupied predominantly the central region of the superior vestibular ganglion. This utricular population overlapped with both the anterior vertical and horizontal canals' ganglion cells. Posterior vertical canal neurons were clustered in the posterior part of the inferior vestibular ganglion. The saccular neurons were distributed in the two parts of the vestibular ganglion, the superior and inferior ganglia. Within the inferior ganglion, the saccular neurons were clustered in the anterior part. In the superior ganglion, the saccular neurons were widely scattered throughout the whole ganglion with more numerous neurons at the posterior half. Small and large neurons were labeled from all endorgans. Examination of the fiber trajectory within the superior division of the vestibular nerve showed no clear lamination of the fibers innervating the different endorgans. These results demonstrate an overlapping pattern between the different populations within the superior ganglion, while in the inferior ganglion, the posterior canal and saccular neurons show tighter clustering but incomplete segregation. This distribution implies that the ganglion cells are assigned for their target during development in a stochastic rather than topographical fashion.

  4. Optic nerve fast axonal transport abnormalities in primates. Occurrence after short posterior ciliary artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L

    1980-11-01

    Fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate (Aotus trivirgatus) optic nerve were studied in ten eyes at various intervals after occlusion of the lateral short posterior ciliary circulation. Evidence of focal axonal ischemia, as indicated by swelling of mitochondria and dissolution of cytoplasmic detail, was noted as early as one hour after occlusion. Accumulation of mitochondria, microvesicles, and dense bodies, indicating focal interruption of axonal transport mechanisms, was noted in eyes examined at 2, 4, and 6 hours. This accumulation of organelles was limited to the region of the lamina cribrosa. Nerve head abnormalities were not seen in two eyes studied at two weeks.

  5. The functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Tom; Berens, Philipp; Franke, Katrin; Román Rosón, Miroslav; Bethge, Matthias; Euler, Thomas

    2016-01-21

    In the vertebrate visual system, all output of the retina is carried by retinal ganglion cells. Each type encodes distinct visual features in parallel for transmission to the brain. How many such 'output channels' exist and what each encodes are areas of intense debate. In the mouse, anatomical estimates range from 15 to 20 channels, and only a handful are functionally understood. By combining two-photon calcium imaging to obtain dense retinal recordings and unsupervised clustering of the resulting sample of more than 11,000 cells, here we show that the mouse retina harbours substantially more than 30 functional output channels. These include all known and several new ganglion cell types, as verified by genetic and anatomical criteria. Therefore, information channels from the mouse eye to the mouse brain are considerably more diverse than shown thus far by anatomical studies, suggesting an encoding strategy resembling that used in state-of-the-art artificial vision systems.

  6. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Diabetes Associated with Elevated Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Shindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that homocysteine may be a contributing factor to development of retinopathy in diabetic patients based on observed correlations between elevated homocysteine levels and the presence of retinopathy. The significance of such a correlation remains to be determined, and potential mechanisms by which homocysteine might induce retinopathy have not been well characterized. Ganapathy and colleagues1 used mutant mice that have endogenously elevated homocysteine levels due to heterozygous deletion of the cystathionine-β-synthase gene to examine changes in retinal pathology following induction of diabetes. Their finding that elevated homocysteine levels hastens loss of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer suggests that toxicity to ganglion cells may warrant further investigation as a potential mechanism of homocysteine enhanced susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Intraosseous ganglion cyst of the lunate: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ali Sbai; Sofien Benzarti; Monia Boussen; Hichem Msek; Riadh Maalla

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous ganglion cyst of the carpal bones represents a rare cause of wrist pain.We report a case of a 42 year-old,right-handed female,who presented with pain of the right wrist following a fall on the palm of the hand.Clinical study revealed a moderate swelling over the mid-section of the palmar face and pain through extreme ranges of motion of the wrist.Plain radiographs and CT-scan of the wrist have revealed an intraosseous ganglion cyst of the lunate bone.Curetting-filling by Kuhlman's vascularized radial bone graft allowed a good functional recovery.The clinical,radiological and therapeutic aspects are discussed.

  8. High speed coding for velocity by archerfish retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretschmer Viola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archerfish show very short behavioural latencies in response to falling prey. This raises the question, which response parameters of retinal ganglion cells to moving stimuli are best suited for fast coding of stimulus speed and direction. Results We compared stimulus reconstruction quality based on the ganglion cell response parameters latency, first interspike interval, and rate. For stimulus reconstruction of moving stimuli using latency was superior to using the other stimulus parameters. This was true for absolute latency, with respect to stimulus onset, as well as for relative latency, with respect to population response onset. Iteratively increasing the number of cells used for reconstruction decreased the calculated error close to zero. Conclusions Latency is the fastest response parameter available to the brain. Therefore, latency coding is best suited for high speed coding of moving objects. The quantitative data of this study are in good accordance with previously published behavioural response latencies.

  9. Neurogenic inflammation: a study of rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is linked to neurogenic inflammation and to migraine. Activation of the trigeminovascular system plays a prominent role during migraine attacks with the release of CGRP. The trigeminal ganglion (TG) contains three main cell types: neurons, satellite glial...... inhibitor SP600125. This method may be of value to examine local TG inflammation, putatively involved in the pathophysiology of some forms of primary headaches....

  10. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Froger; Lucia Cadetti; Henri Lorach; Joao Martins; Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans; Elisabeth Dubus; Julie Degardin; Dorothée Pain; Valérie Forster; Laurent Chicaud; Ivana Ivkovic; Manuel Simonutti; Stéphane Fouquet; Firas Jammoul; Thierry Léveillard

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was inc...

  11. Retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in homonymous hemianopsia

    OpenAIRE

    Herro AM; Lam BL

    2015-01-01

    Angela M Herro, Byron L Lam Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between topographic reduction in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness as detected with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and visual field defects caused by ischemic occipital cortical injury.Methods: This study was a retrospective review of all pat...

  12. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  13. Cultured Vestibular Ganglion Neurons Demonstrate Latent HSV1 Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehm, Pamela C.; Camarena, Vladimir; Nayak, Shruti; Gardner, James B.; Wilson, Angus; Mohr, Ian; Chao, Moses V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Vestibular neuritis is a common cause of both acute and chronic vestibular dysfunction. Multiple pathologies have been hypothesized to be the causative agent of vestibular neuritis; however, whether herpes simplex type I (HSV1) reactivation occurs within the vestibular ganglion has not been demonstrated previously by experimental evidence. We developed an in vitro system to study HSV1 infection of vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) using a cell culture model system. Study design basic science study. Results Lytic infection of cultured rat VGNs was observed following low viral multiplicity of infection (MOI). Inclusion of acyclovir suppressed lytic replication and allowed latency to be established. Upon removal of acyclovir, latent infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization for the latency-associated transcript (LAT). 29% cells in latently infected cultures were LAT positive. The lytic IPC27 transcript was not detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Reactivation of HSV1 occurred at a high frequency in latently infected cultures following treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deactylase inhibitor. Conclusions VGNs can be both lytically and latently infected with HSV1. Furthermore, latently infected VGNs can be induced to reactivate using TSA. This demonstrates that reactivation of latent HSV1 infection in the vestibular ganglion can occur in a cell culture model, and suggests that reactivation of HSV1 infection a plausible etiologic mechanism of vestibular neuritis. PMID:21898423

  14. Veratridine increases the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.F. Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death is an important phenomenon involving many biochemical pathways. This degenerative event has been studied to understand how the cells activate the mechanisms that lead to self-destruction. Target cells and afferent cells play a relevant role in the regulation of natural cell death. We studied the effect of veratridine (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 µM on the survival of neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Veratridine (3.0 µM, a well-known depolarizing agent that opens the Na+ channel, promoted a two-fold increase in the survival of retinal ganglion cells kept in culture for 48 h. This effect was dose-dependent and was blocked by 1.0 µM tetrodotoxin (a classical voltage-dependent Na+ channel blocker and 30.0 µM flunarizine (a Na+ and Ca2+ channel blocker. These results indicate that electrical activity is also important for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell survival in vitro

  15. An unusual meniscal ganglion cyst that triggered recurrent hemarthrosis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Itokazu, Mansho; Ito, Yoshiki; Fukuta, Masashi; Simizu, Katsuji

    2006-04-01

    A 58-year-old woman suffered spontaneous recurrent hemarthrosis of the knee. In the clinical course, pigmented villonodular synovitis was mostly suspected, but in arthroscopic surgery the lateral meniscus appeared to be upturned and stuck into the lateral pouch with the meniscal ganglion cyst. It was suggested that meniscal tear with meniscal ganglion cyst was related with recurrent hemarthrosis. Generally, both the meniscal ganglion cysts and spontaneous recurrent hemarthrosis are highly rare conditions. In this case, we speculated that a negligible power could induce the meniscal tear with recurrent hemarthrosis in the particular situation in which the meniscal ganglion cyst existed. In other words, the meniscal ganglion cyst might basically and physically relate with hemorrhagic condition. Arthroscopically, the meniscal ganglion cyst was removed together with the anterior segment of the lateral meniscus. Recurrent hemarthrosis was treated successfully by resection of the meniscus.

  16. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5. RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2 with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia.

  17. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

  18. Vortex arrays and ciliary tangles underlie the feeding-swimming tradeoff in starfish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, William; Prakash, Vivek N.; Prakash, Manu

    2016-11-01

    Many marine invertebrates have larval stages covered in linear arrays of beating cilia, which propel the animal while simultaneously entraining planktonic prey. These bands are strongly conserved across taxa spanning four major superphyla, and they are responsible for the unusual morphologies of many invertebrates. However, few studies have investigated their underlying hydrodynamics. Here, we study the ciliary bands of starfish larvae, and discover a beautiful pattern of slowly-evolving vortices that surrounds the swimming animals. Closer inspection of the bands reveals unusual ciliary "tangles" analogous to topological defects that break-up and re-form as the animal adjusts its swimming stroke. Quantitative experiments and modeling demonstrate that these vortices create a physical tradeoff between feeding and swimming in heterogenous environments, which manifests as distinct flow patterns or "eigenstrokes" representing each behavior-potentially implicating neuronal control of cilia. This quantitative interplay between larval form and hydrodynamic function generalizes to other invertebrates, and illustrates the potential effects of active boundary conditions in other biological and synthetic systems.

  19. C2 Domains as Protein-Protein Interaction Modules in the Ciliary Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Remans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1 is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L, is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR. RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca2+ and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.

  20. Contact transcleral ciliary body photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits: effect of repeated treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisis, Spyridon K; Naoumidi, Irene I; Ginis, Harilaos S; Detorakis, Efstathios T; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the ciliary body (CB) morphology after four consecutive contact transcleral photodynamic treatments of the ciliary body (CB-PDT) with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits. Twenty-two pigmented rabbits underwent CB-PDT (study group), performed once (six rabbits) or repeated for up to four times (16 rabbits). Six additional rabbits received only laser treatment without photosensitizer administration (control group). CB-PDT was performed in one eye in rabbits of the study group, with the fellow eye serving as internal control. Verteporfin dosage was 1 mg kg(-1) as bolus injection and laser settings were 40 mW (600 microm core optical fiber) for 1.5 min per spot, for 10 spots. In repeated CB-PDT, treatments were performed in 4-day intervals. Daily IOP measurements were recorded. Histological studies were performed at selected time points. An IOP reduction, more sustained following repeated treatments, was detected in all treated eyes but not in fellow eyes or in the control group. On the average, the IOP was restored to pretreatment levels 4 days after the last treatment. No serious adverse events were observed and the CB architecture was intact at the end of the experiment. Repeated CB-PDT is safe and results in a short-term reduction of IOP. Induced CB alterations are reversible.

  1. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: potential options for resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Rumman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disease of ciliary function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently overlooked because the symptoms are nonspecific and the knowledge about the disease in the primary care setting is poor. Additionally, none of the available tests is accurate enough to be used in isolation. These tests are expensive, and need sophisticated equipment and expertise to analyse and interpret results; diagnosis is therefore only available at highly specialised centres. The diagnosis is particularly challenging in countries with limited resources due to the lack of such costly equipment and expertise. In this review, we discuss the importance of early and accurate diagnosis especially for countries where the disease is clinically prevalent but diagnostic tests are lacking. We review the diagnostic tests available in specialised centres (nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and genetics. We then consider modifications that might be considered in less well-resourced countries whilst maintaining acceptable accuracy.

  2. Measurement of ciliary beat frequency using ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason J.; Jing, Joseph C.; Su, Erica; Badger, Christopher; Coughlan, Carolyn A.; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Ciliated epithelial cells populate up to 80% of the surface area of the human airway and are responsible for mucociliary transport, which is the key protective mechanism that provides the first line of defense in the respiratory tract. Cilia beat in a rhythmic pattern and may be easily affected by allergens, pollutants, and pathogens, altering ciliary beat frequency (CBF) subsequently. Diseases including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and primary ciliary dyskinesia may also decrease CBF. CBF is therefore a critical component of respiratory health. The current clinical method of measuring CBF is phase-contrast microscopy, which involves a tissue biopsy obtained via brushing of the nasal cavity. While this method is minimally invasive, the tissue sample must be oriented to display its profile view, making the visualization of a single layer of cilia challenging. In addition, the conventional method requires subjective analysis of CBF, e.g., manually counting by visual inspection. On the contrary, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to study the retina in ophthalmology as well as vasculature in cardiology, and offers higher resolution than conventional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Based on this technology, our lab specifically developed an ultra-high resolution OCT system to image the microstructure of the ciliated epithelial cells. Doppler analysis was also performed to determine CBF. Lastly, we also developed a program that utilizes fast Fourier transform to determine CBF under phase-contrast microscopy, providing a more objective method compared to the current method.

  3. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  4. Inhibition of BDNF-AS Provides Neuroprotection for Retinal Ganglion Cells against Ischemic Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lifang; Zhang, Ziyin; Xie, Tianhua; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Dai, Tu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protects retinal ganglion cells against ischemia in ocular degenerative diseases. We aimed to determine the effect of BDNF-AS on the ischemic injury of retinal ganglion cells. Methods: The levels of BDNF and BDNF-AS were measured in retinal ganglion cells subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. The lentiviral vectors were constructed to either overexpress or knock out BDNF-AS. The luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine wh...

  5. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  6. Large Ganglion Cyst with Unusual Location on the Back-A Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoellhammer, Liv; Nielsen, Thomas Wagner; Berg, Jais Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A ganglion cyst is a soft tissue tumor-like lesion filled with colloid material commonly located on the hand and wrist. We report a case of a large ganglion cyst with an unusual location on the back. The patient presented with a mass growing over 2 months measuring 11.2 × 4.7 × 7.2 cm on magnetic...... resonance imaging. Ultrasound and puncture was attempted twice without achieving drainage. After surgical removal, histologic examination diagnosed the tumor as a ganglion cyst. We conclude that when evaluating a subcutaneous soft tissue mass, regardless of localization, a ganglion cyst may...

  7. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  8. Presence of collagen IV in the ciliary zonules of the human eye : An immunohistochemical study by LM and TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van der Worp, RJ; van Luyn, MJA; Hooymans, JMM

    2004-01-01

    The ciliary zonules of the eye are composed of fibrillar and non-fibrillar components. Fibrils provide tensile strength and elasticity, whereas non-fibrillar components serve as a coating surrounding the fibrils. This coating behaves as a barrier to macromolecules. The present light and transmission

  9. CCDC151 Mutations Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia by Disruption of the Outer Dynein Arm Docking Complex Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjeij, R.; Onoufriadis, A.; Watson, C.M.; Slagle, C.E.; Klena, N.T.; Dougherty, G.W.; Kurkowiak, M.; Loges, N.T.; Diggle, C.P.; Morante, N.F.; Gabriel, G.C.; Lemke, K.L.; Li, Y.; Pennekamp, P.; Menchen, T.; Konert, F.; Marthin, J.K.; Mans, D.A.; Letteboer, S.J.F.; Werner, C.; Burgoyne, T.; Westermann, C.; Rutman, A.; Carr, I.M.; O'Callaghan, C.; Moya, E.; Chung, E.M.; Consortium, U.K.; Sheridan, E.; Nielsen, K.G.; Roepman, R.; Bartscherer, K.; Burdine, R.D.; Lo, C.W.; Omran, H.; Mitchison, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse family of cytoskeletal dynein motors powers various cellular transport systems, including axonemal dyneins generating the force for ciliary and flagellar beating essential to movement of extracellular fluids and of cells through fluid. Multisubunit outer dynein arm (ODA) motor complexes, p

  10. CCDC151 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disruption of the outer dynein arm docking complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjeij, Rim; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Watson, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    A diverse family of cytoskeletal dynein motors powers various cellular transport systems, including axonemal dyneins generating the force for ciliary and flagellar beating essential to movement of extracellular fluids and of cells through fluid. Multisubunit outer dynein arm (ODA) motor complexes...

  11. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  12. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  13. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  14. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  15. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  16. Impact of thymol in thyme extracts on their antispasmodic action and ciliary clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begrow, Frank; Engelbertz, Jonas; Feistel, Björn; Lehnfeld, Romanus; Bauer, Katrin; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2010-03-01

    Thyme is a herb with broncholytic und secretomotoric effects. Its activity on beta (2) receptors as a possible mechanism of action was demonstrated. Major components are thymol and carvacrol which are claimed to be responsible for its effects and, therefore, used for standardization in the German pharmacopoeia (0.03 % phenols calculated as thymol). Our aim was to investigate the impact of thymol by using thyme extracts with either normal or extremely low thymol concentrations ( 0.038 %). The antispasmodic effect on smooth muscles of the trachea and the ileum and the effect on ciliary activity (respiratory clearance) were investigated. In addition, pure thymol and carvacrol were investigated separately and in spiking experiments. Thymol and carvacrol had a concentration-dependent antispasmodic effect in the rat trachea either being stimulated by acetylcholine, K (+) or Ba (++). The same result was observed with respect to the increase of mucociliary transport in mice. Extracts with very low thymol contents are effective in all models used except acetylcholine-induced rat ileum contraction. When thyme extracts with normal thymol contents or with very low thymol contents were compared, the extract with normal thymol contents was more effective, both as a relaxant (rat ileum) and as an antispasmodic compound (rat trachea contraction induced by either acetylcholine, Ba (++) or K (+)) and in ciliary transport experiments. Thyme extracts with very low thymol contents (practically free of volatile oil) were equally effective with respect to endothelin effects. When an extract with very low thymol contents is spiked with increasing concentrations of thymol, a concentration-dependent increase concerning the antispasmodic effect (Ba (++)-induced trachea contraction) is observed. In conclusion, the data show that in various models of antispasmodic effect (ileum and trachea) and by measuring ciliary activity, thymol (and carvacrol) is (are) active, although other not identified

  17. Retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in homonymous hemianopsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herro AM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela M Herro, Byron L Lam Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between topographic reduction in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness as detected with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and visual field defects caused by ischemic occipital cortical injury.Methods: This study was a retrospective review of all patients who presented to our eye institution between January 2012 and July 2014 with visual field defects secondary to ischemic cortical injury. The visual field defect pattern and mean deviation were analyzed. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and macular GCC were both assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Patients with any ocular pathology that could affect these measurements were excluded. The topographic relationship of visual field defect to reduction in GCC was specifically analyzed. Results: Nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 65 (57–73 years; eight were men and six had right hemianopsias. The laterality of the visual field defect was used to assign an affected and unaffected side of analysis for RNFL and GCC layer thickness. A right hemianopsia meant that the nasal fibers of the right eye and temporal fibers of the left eye were assigned as the “affected side”, and the temporal fibers of the right eye and nasal fibers of the left eye were assigned as “unaffected”. There was no statistically significant difference between affected and unaffected RNFL. However, there was a significant difference in GCC layer reduction between the affected and unaffected sides (P=0.029.Conclusion: There is evidence of retrograde trans-synaptic retinal ganglion cell loss in patients with homonymous hemianopsias from cortical visual impairment. This relationship is reflected in thinning of the GCC and maintains the topographic

  18. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  19. Neurotoxicity of Quinolinic Acid to Spiral Ganglion Cells in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红俊; 杨琛; 何圆圆; 郑娜

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated the neurotoxicity of quinolinic acid(QA) to spiral ganglion cells(SGCs),observed the protective effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 and magnesium ions on the QA-induced injury to SGCs,and analyzed the role of QA in otitis media with effusion(OME)-induced sensorineural hearing loss(SNHL).After culture in vitro for 72 h,SGCs were exposed to different media and divided into 4 groups:the blank control group,the QA injury group,the MK-801 treatment group,and th...

  20. Cystic Eccrine Spiradenoma of the Finger Mimicking a Ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid F. Jaber, MBChB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We report a rare case of cystic eccrine spiradenoma in the finger. A 46-year-old man presented with a cystic mass in his left index finger. Clinical assessment along with the investigation pointed toward a diagnosis of a ganglion. However, excisional biopsy of the mass revealed histopathological findings of cystic eccrine spiradenoma. Very few cases of eccrine spiradenoma have been reported in the hand and none of them were cystic in consistency. We believe that this case will draw the surgeon’s attention to the possibility of unusual differential diagnoses in the evaluation and treatment of cystic lumps in the hand.

  1. Cluster headache attack remission with sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads C J; Jürgens, Tim P; May, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating headache disorder with severe consequences for patient quality of life. On-demand neuromodulation targeting the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is effective in treating the acute pain and a subgroup of patients experience a decreased frequency of CH......, range 699-847) after insertion of an SPG microstimulator. Remission periods (attack-free periods exceeding one month, per the ICHD 3 (beta) definition) occurring during the 24-month study period were characterized. Attack frequency, acute effectiveness, medication usage, and questionnaire data were...

  2. Neural tuning characteristics of auditory primary afferents in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    Primary afferent activity was recorded from the cochlear ganglion in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) at 19 days of incubation (E19). The ganglion was accessed via the recessus scala tympani and impaled with glass micropipettes. Frequency tuning curves were obtained using a computerized threshold tracking procedure. Tuning curves were evaluated to determine characteristics frequencies (CFs), CF thresholds, slopes of low and high frequency flanks, and tip sharpness (Q10dB). The majority of tuning curves exhibited the typical 'V' shape described for older birds and, on average, appeared relatively mature based on mean values for CF thresholds (59.6 +/- 20.3 dBSPL) and tip sharpness (Q10dB = 5.2 +/- 3). The mean slopes of low (61.9 +/- 37 dB/octave) and high (64.6 +/- 33 dB/octave) frequency flanks although comparable were somewhat less than those reported for 21-day-old chickens. Approximately 14% of the tuning curves displayed an unusual 'saw-tooth' pattern. CFs ranged from 188 to 1623 Hz. The highest CF was well below those reported for post-hatch birds. In addition, a broader range of Q10dB values (1.2 to 16.9) may related to a greater variability in embryonic tuning curves. Overall, these data suggest that an impressive functional maturity exists in the embryo at E19. The most significant sign of immaturity was the limited expression of high frequencies. It is argued that the limited high CF in part may be due to the developing middle ear transfer function and/or to a functionally immature cochlear base.

  3. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  4. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  5. IgG4-related intraocular inflammation masquerading as ciliary body melanoma in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related diseases affects various tissues and organs of the human body. Orbital, adnexal, and scleral inflammations were already reported in the medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of intraocular IgG4-associated inflammatory mass in the ciliary body mimicking as a melanoma in a 23-year-old female from Northeast India. Characteristic histopathology, immunohistochemistry in the tissue, protein chemistry, and raised serum IgG4 were supportive for the diagnosis. As this newly diagnosed disease has multi-organ affection and little is known about its pathogenesis particularly in eye and adnexa, the present case will open many challenges in clinico-pathological diagnosis and research in the future.

  6. Efficiency optimization and symmetry-breaking in a model of ciliary locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    A variety of swimming microorganisms, called ciliates, exploit the bending of a large number of small and densely-packed organelles, termed cilia, in order to propel themselves in a viscous fluid. We consider a spherical envelope model for such ciliary locomotion where the dynamics of the individual cilia are replaced by that of a continuous overlaying surface allowed to deform tangentially to itself. Employing a variational approach, we determine numerically the time-periodic deformation of such surface which leads to low-Reynolds locomotion with minimum rate of energy dissipation (maximum efficiency). Employing both Lagrangian and Eulerian points of views, we show that in the optimal swimming stroke, individual cilia display weak asymmetric beating, but that a significant symmetry-breaking occurs at the organism level, with the whole surface deforming in a wave-like fashion reminiscent of metachronal waves of biological cilia. This wave motion is analyzed using a formal modal decomposition, is found to occu...

  7. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease...... and its impact on pulmonary function and physical ability. Considering fitness as an important outcome and including regular strenuous physical activity in PCD treatment would probably altogether increase pulmonary clearance, lung function, aerobic fitness, and quality of life, and prevent lifestyle......BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2...

  8. Disruption of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ciliary proteins perturbs planar cell polarity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alison J; May-Simera, Helen; Eichers, Erica R; Kai, Masatake; Hill, Josephine; Jagger, Daniel J; Leitch, Carmen C; Chapple, J Paul; Munro, Peter M; Fisher, Shannon; Tan, Perciliz L; Phillips, Helen M; Leroux, Michel R; Henderson, Deborah J; Murdoch, Jennifer N; Copp, Andrew J; Eliot, Marie-Madeleine; Lupski, James R; Kemp, David T; Dollfus, Hélène; Tada, Masazumi; Katsanis, Nicholas; Forge, Andrew; Beales, Philip L

    2005-10-01

    The evolutionarily conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway (or noncanonical Wnt pathway) drives several important cellular processes, including epithelial cell polarization, cell migration and mitotic spindle orientation. In vertebrates, PCP genes have a vital role in polarized convergent extension movements during gastrulation and neurulation. Here we show that mice with mutations in genes involved in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a disorder associated with ciliary dysfunction, share phenotypes with PCP mutants including open eyelids, neural tube defects and disrupted cochlear stereociliary bundles. Furthermore, we identify genetic interactions between BBS genes and a PCP gene in both mouse (Ltap, also called Vangl2) and zebrafish (vangl2). In zebrafish, the augmented phenotype results from enhanced defective convergent extension movements. We also show that Vangl2 localizes to the basal body and axoneme of ciliated cells, a pattern reminiscent of that of the BBS proteins. These data suggest that cilia are intrinsically involved in PCP processes.

  9. Functional profiles of SCN9A variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons and superior cervical ganglion neurons correlate with autonomic symptoms in small fibre neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Liu, Shujun; Gerrits, Monique M; te Morsche, Rene H M; Lauria, Giuseppe; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Drenth, Joost P H; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2012-09-01

    Patients with small fibre neuropathy typically manifest pain in distal extremities and severe autonomic dysfunction. However, occasionally patients present with minimal autonomic symptoms. The basis for this phenotypic difference is not understood. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene, is preferentially expressed in the peripheral nervous system within sensory dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their small diameter peripheral axons. We recently reported missense substitutions in SCN9A that encode functional Na(v)1.7 variants in 28% of patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy. Two patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy manifested minimal autonomic dysfunction unlike the other six patients in this series, and both of these patients carry the Na(v)1.7/R185H variant, presenting the opportunity to compare variants associated with extreme ends of a spectrum from minimal to severe autonomic dysfunction. Herein, we show by voltage-clamp that R185H variant channels enhance resurgent currents within dorsal root ganglion neurons and show by current-clamp that R185H renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable. We also show that in contrast, R185H variant channels do not produce detectable changes when studied by voltage-clamp within sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion, and have no effect on the excitability of these cells. As a comparator, we studied the Na(v)1.7 variant I739V, identified in three patients with small fibre neuropathy characterized by severe autonomic dysfunction as well as neuropathic pain, and show that this variant impairs channel slow inactivation within both dorsal root ganglion and superior cervical ganglion neurons, and renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable and superior cervical ganglion neurons hypoexcitable. Thus, we show that R185H, from patients with minimal autonomic dysfunction, does not produce detectable changes in the properties of

  10. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  11. Effects of histamine on ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from guinea pigs nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengwei; Xing, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lei

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through combining high-speed digital microscopy and patch-clamp technology. Ciliated cells were obtained from septum and turbinate of 90-120-day-old healthy male guinea pigs. Tight seal was formed by applying negative pressure on the glass electrode after the drawing and pushing progress. Then, we enrolled high-speed digital microscopy to measure CBF before and after treatment with histamine of different concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol/L in Hank's solution and D-Hank's solution as well as after administrating adenosine triphosphate. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical comparisons. Glass electrode fix up ciliated cell is available at tip diameter of 2-5 μm and negative pressure of 10-20 cmH2O column. The baseline CBF in Hank's solution was higher than in D-Hank's solution. Treatment with 10(-6)-l0(-3) mol/L histamine of concentrations can stimulate a rise of CBF. Nevertheless, CBF in all groups decreased to baseline CBF within 20 min. Generally, 10(-2) mol/L histamine can stimulate a rise of CBF; meanwhile, the high concentration of histamine killed 50% ciliated cell. Histamine at 10(-1) mol/L killed all ciliated cells. Ciliary beating activity decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution. Moreover, adenosine triphosphate could increase CBF effectively after the stimulation effect of histamine. We construct an effective technology integrating patch-clamp technique with CBF measurements on ciliated cells. Extracellular histamine stimulation could increase CBF effectively.

  12. DNAH6 and Its Interactions with PCD Genes in Heterotaxy and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Ezenwa Obi; Damerla, Rama Rao; Francis, Richard; Furutani, Yoshiyuki; Tariq, Muhammad; King, Stephen M.; Hendricks, Gregory; Cui, Cheng; Saydmohammed, Manush; Lee, Dong Min; Zahid, Maliha; Sami, Iman; Leatherbury, Linda; Pazour, Gregory J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Nakanishi, Toshio; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Tsang, Michael; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotaxy, a birth defect involving left-right patterning defects, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a sinopulmonary disease with dyskinetic/immotile cilia in the airway are seemingly disparate diseases. However, they have an overlapping genetic etiology involving mutations in cilia genes, a reflection of the common requirement for motile cilia in left-right patterning and airway clearance. While PCD is a monogenic recessive disorder, heterotaxy has a more complex, largely non-monogenic etiology. In this study, we show mutations in the novel dynein gene DNAH6 can cause heterotaxy and ciliary dysfunction similar to PCD. We provide the first evidence that trans-heterozygous interactions between DNAH6 and other PCD genes potentially can cause heterotaxy. DNAH6 was initially identified as a candidate heterotaxy/PCD gene by filtering exome-sequencing data from 25 heterotaxy patients stratified by whether they have airway motile cilia defects. dnah6 morpholino knockdown in zebrafish disrupted motile cilia in Kupffer’s vesicle required for left-right patterning and caused heterotaxy with abnormal cardiac/gut looping. Similarly DNAH6 shRNA knockdown disrupted motile cilia in human and mouse respiratory epithelia. Notably a heterotaxy patient harboring heterozygous DNAH6 mutation was identified to also carry a rare heterozygous PCD-causing DNAI1 mutation, suggesting a DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interaction. Furthermore, sequencing of 149 additional heterotaxy patients showed 5 of 6 patients with heterozygous DNAH6 mutations also had heterozygous mutations in DNAH5 or other PCD genes. We functionally assayed for DNAH6/DNAH5 and DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interactions using subthreshold double-morpholino knockdown in zebrafish and showed this caused heterotaxy. Similarly, subthreshold siRNA knockdown of Dnah6 in heterozygous Dnah5 or Dnai1 mutant mouse respiratory epithelia disrupted motile cilia function. Together, these findings support an oligogenic disease

  13. DNAH6 and Its Interactions with PCD Genes in Heterotaxy and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterotaxy, a birth defect involving left-right patterning defects, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, a sinopulmonary disease with dyskinetic/immotile cilia in the airway are seemingly disparate diseases. However, they have an overlapping genetic etiology involving mutations in cilia genes, a reflection of the common requirement for motile cilia in left-right patterning and airway clearance. While PCD is a monogenic recessive disorder, heterotaxy has a more complex, largely non-monogenic etiology. In this study, we show mutations in the novel dynein gene DNAH6 can cause heterotaxy and ciliary dysfunction similar to PCD. We provide the first evidence that trans-heterozygous interactions between DNAH6 and other PCD genes potentially can cause heterotaxy. DNAH6 was initially identified as a candidate heterotaxy/PCD gene by filtering exome-sequencing data from 25 heterotaxy patients stratified by whether they have airway motile cilia defects. dnah6 morpholino knockdown in zebrafish disrupted motile cilia in Kupffer's vesicle required for left-right patterning and caused heterotaxy with abnormal cardiac/gut looping. Similarly DNAH6 shRNA knockdown disrupted motile cilia in human and mouse respiratory epithelia. Notably a heterotaxy patient harboring heterozygous DNAH6 mutation was identified to also carry a rare heterozygous PCD-causing DNAI1 mutation, suggesting a DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interaction. Furthermore, sequencing of 149 additional heterotaxy patients showed 5 of 6 patients with heterozygous DNAH6 mutations also had heterozygous mutations in DNAH5 or other PCD genes. We functionally assayed for DNAH6/DNAH5 and DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interactions using subthreshold double-morpholino knockdown in zebrafish and showed this caused heterotaxy. Similarly, subthreshold siRNA knockdown of Dnah6 in heterozygous Dnah5 or Dnai1 mutant mouse respiratory epithelia disrupted motile cilia function. Together, these findings support an

  14. Parasites in the thoracic ganglion of Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Brachyura: Grapsidae from the coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuris A.M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 149 marbled shore crabs, Pachygrapsus marmoratus, from the coast of Portugal for parasites. In particular, we focused our effort on the crab thoracic ganglion. The thoracic ganglion is the largest concentration of nervous tissue in a crab and thus, parasites associated with this organ are well situated to influence host behavior. We found metacercariae of two microphallid trematode species in the thoracic ganglion. We also found a microsporan and an apicomplexan associated with the thoracic ganglion. Other parasites not associated with the thoracic ganglion included gregarine trophozoites which were present in the digestive diverticulae in some of the crabs and the entoniscid isopod, Grapsion cavolini.Metacercariae of one of the trematodes (probably Microphallus pachygrapsi (Deblock and Prevot, may influence the mortality of its host.

  15. The spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensor, Jennifer D; Suydam, Robert; George, John C; Liberman, M C; Lovano, Denise; Rhaganti, Mary Ann; Usip, Sharon; Vinyard, Christopher J; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of human activity and corresponding increase in anthropogenic sounds in marine waters of the Arctic, it is necessary to understand its effect on the hearing of marine wildlife. We have conducted a baseline study on the spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal of the cochlea in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) as an initial assessment of auditory anatomy and health. We present morphometric data on the length of the cochlea, number of whorls, neuron densities along its length, Rosenthal's canal length, and cross-sectional area, and show some histological results. In belugas, Rosenthal's canal is not a cylinder of equal cross-sectional area, but its cross-section is greatest near the apex of the basal whorl. We found systematic variation in the numbers of neurons along the length of the spiral ganglion, indicating that neurons are not dispersed evenly in Rosenthal's canal. These results provide data on functionally important structural parameters of the beluga ear. We observed no signs of acoustic trauma in our sample of beluga whales.

  16. Intraneural ganglion cyst: a 200-year-old mystery solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Robert J; Vincent, Jean-François; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2008-10-01

    We describe the first reported case of an intraneural ganglion cyst, an ulnar ("cubital") intraneural cyst, which, on literature review, dated to 1810. For over 80 years, its original brief description by Beauchêne was wrongly attributed to Duchenne, effectively making the reference and specimen inaccessible to scrutiny. Fortunately, the intact cyst had been safely housed in the Musée Dupuytren, Paris, France, thus permitting its examination. Although originally described as a "serous" cyst, our present understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar nerve and of peripheral nerve pathology allowed us to reinterpret it as a mucin-filled, elbow-level, ulnar intraneural ganglion cyst. In addition to its description as a fusiform cystic enlargement of the nerve, we documented similar enlargement of a lumen-bearing branch, the articular branch at the level of the elbow. Based on our assessment of the specimen and with a modern perspective, we concluded that the origin of the cyst was from the postero-medial aspect of the elbow joint and that its fluid content, having dissected through a capsular defect, followed the path of the articular branch into the parent ulnar nerve. The purpose of this report is to clarify historical misconceptions regarding the pathogenesis of this controversial entity.

  17. The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zele

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC signal environmental light level to the central circadian clock and contribute to the pupil light reflex. It is unknown if ipRGC activity is subject to extrinsic (central or intrinsic (retinal network-mediated circadian modulation during light entrainment and phase shifting. Eleven younger persons (18-30 years with no ophthalmological, medical or sleep disorders participated. The activity of the inner (ipRGC and outer retina (cone photoreceptors was assessed hourly using the pupil light reflex during a 24 h period of constant environmental illumination (10 lux. Exogenous circadian cues of activity, sleep, posture, caffeine, ambient temperature, caloric intake and ambient illumination were controlled. Dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO was determined from salivary melatonin assay at hourly intervals, and participant melatonin onset values were set to 14 h to adjust clock time to circadian time. Here we demonstrate in humans that the ipRGC controlled post-illumination pupil response has a circadian rhythm independent of external light cues. This circadian variation precedes melatonin onset and the minimum ipRGC driven pupil response occurs post melatonin onset. Outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the inner retinal ipRGC driven post-illumination pupil response also show circadian variation whereas direct outer retinal cone inputs to the pupil light reflex do not, indicating that intrinsically photosensitive (melanopsin retinal ganglion cells mediate this circadian variation.

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  6. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  7. Expression of Fibroblast growth factor 19 (Fgf19) during chicken embryogenesis and eye development, compared with Fgf15 expression in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Hitomi; Bito, Takaaki; Adachi, Taro; Shimizu, Miyuki; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2004-10-01

    The normal development of eyes relies on proper signaling through Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, but the source and identity of cognate ligands have remained largely unknown. We have found that Fgf19 is expressed in the developing chicken retina. In situ hybridization discloses dynamic expression patterns for Fgf19 in the optic vesicle, lens primordia and retinal horizontal cells. Overall expression pattern of Fgf19 during chicken embryogenesis was also examined: Fgf19 is expressed in the regions associated with cranial placodes induction, boundary regions of rhombomeres, somites, specific groups of neural cells in midbrain, hindbrain, and those derived from epibranchial placodes, and the apical ectodermal ridge of limb buds. Expression pattern of the Fgf19-orthologous gene Fgf15 was further examined in the mouse developing eye. Fgf15 is expressed in the optic vesicle, a subset of progenitor cells of neural retina, and emerging ganglion and amacrine cells during retinogenesis.

  8. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about...

  9. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  10. Long-term gene therapy causes transgene-specific changes in the morphology of regenerating retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rodger

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV vectors can be used to introduce neurotrophic genes into injured CNS neurons, promoting survival and axonal regeneration. Gene therapy holds much promise for the treatment of neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases; however, neurotrophic factors are known to alter dendritic architecture, and thus we set out to determine whether such transgenes also change the morphology of transduced neurons. We compared changes in dendritic morphology of regenerating adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs after long-term transduction with rAAV2 encoding: (i green fluorescent protein (GFP, or (ii bi-cistronic vectors encoding GFP and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF or growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43. To enhance regeneration, rats received an autologous peripheral nerve graft onto the cut optic nerve of each rAAV2 injected eye. After 5-8 months, RGCs with regenerated axons were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold (FG. Live retinal wholemounts were prepared and GFP positive (transduced or GFP negative (non-transduced RGCs injected iontophoretically with 2% lucifer yellow. Dendritic morphology was analyzed using Neurolucida software. Significant changes in dendritic architecture were found, in both transduced and non-transduced populations. Multivariate analysis revealed that transgenic BDNF increased dendritic field area whereas GAP43 increased dendritic complexity. CNTF decreased complexity but only in a subset of RGCs. Sholl analysis showed changes in dendritic branching in rAAV2-BDNF-GFP and rAAV2-CNTF-GFP groups and the proportion of FG positive RGCs with aberrant morphology tripled in these groups compared to controls. RGCs in all transgene groups displayed abnormal stratification. Thus in addition to promoting cell survival and axonal regeneration, vector-mediated expression of neurotrophic factors has measurable, gene-specific effects on the morphology of injured

  11. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  12. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  13. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  14. Ganglion cell tumours in the sella turcica in close morphological connection with pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyja, Ewa; Maksymowicz, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Kunicki, Jacek; Bonicki, Wiesław; Witek, Przemysław; Naganska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Ganglion cell tumours in the sellar region are uncommon. They are usually associated with pituitary adenomas, while isolated ganglion cell neoplasms are extremely rare. We report the clinicopathological studies of five cases diagnosed as ganglion cell tumours located in the intrasellar region: four mixed/collision tumours composed of gangliocytoma and pituitary adenoma, and one isolated ganglioglioma unrelated to adenoma. Clinically, two patients presented with acromegaly, while three others were initially diagnosed as non-functioning adenomas. In four cases, the histopathological examination of surgical specimens revealed intermixed lesions composed of pituitary adenoma and ganglion cell elements. The adenomas appeared to secrete growth hormone. Electron microscopy enabled identification of the sparsely granulated somatotroph cells. Neoplastic neuronal lesions were composed of mature ganglion cells, including binucleate or multinucleate cells. In all cases, boundaries between adenomatous and gangliocytic components were not clearly demarcated, and numerous gangliocytic cells were closely intermingled with adenomatous tissue. One case lacked endocrine symptoms, and no pituitary adenoma was identified in the surgically excised material; it was finally diagnosed as low-grade ganglioglioma. The etiopathogenesis of ganglion cell neoplasms in the sellar region is not clearly defined. Our study revealed that if ganglion cell neoplasms were combined with adenoma, both neoplastic components were closely related to each other, and numerous neuronal elements were strictly intermingled with adenoma cells. Such a tissue pattern indicates that these neoplastic changes, including their common respective etiopathogeneses, are closely related. The identification of both components in sellar regions may have some nosological implications.

  15. RPGR-containing protein complexes in syndromic and non-syndromic retinal degeneration due to ciliary dysfunction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carlos A. Murga-Zamalloa; Anand Swaroop; Hemant Khanna

    2009-12-01

    Dysfunction of primary cilia due to mutations in cilia-centrosomal proteins is associated with pleiotropic disorders. The primary (or sensory) cilium of photoreceptors mediates polarized trafficking of proteins for efficient phototransduction. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) is a cilia-centrosomal protein mutated in >70% of X-linked RP cases and 10%–20% of simplex RP males. Accumulating evidence indicates that RPGR may facilitate the orchestration of multiple ciliary protein complexes. Disruption of these complexes due to mutations in component proteins is an underlying cause of associated photoreceptor degeneration. Here, we highlight the recent developments in understanding the mechanism of cilia-dependent photoreceptor degeneration due to mutations in RPGR and RPGR-interacting proteins in severe genetic diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Joubert syndrome, and Senior–Loken syndrome, and explore the physiological relevance of photoreceptor ciliary protein complexes.

  16. Clinical value of measurement of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance in the work up of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Mortensen, Jann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate and define the general clinical applicability and impact of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance (PRMC) on the work up of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). In addition, we wanted to evaluate the accuracy of the reference values...... primarily to results from nasal ciliary function testing, to electron microscopic (EM) examination of the ultrastructure of the cilia, and to the final clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 27 ended up with a final clinical diagnosis of definitive PCD. No patients with a PRMC test...... that was normal or otherwise not consistent with PCD ended up with PCD as final clinical diagnosis (though a minority of patients in this group ended up unresolved in regard to PCD). Forty percent of patients with an abnormal PRMC test ended up with PCD as final clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the PRMC test had...

  17. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

  18. Morphology, dendritic field size, somal size, density, and coverage of M and P retinal ganglion cells of dichromatic Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, E S; Silveira, L C; Perry, V H

    1996-01-01

    Male Cebus monkeys are all dichromats, but about two thirds of the females are trichromats. M and P retinal ganglion cells were studied in the male Cebus monkey to investigate the relationship of their morphology to retinal eccentricity. Retinal ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled after optic nerve deposits of biocytin to reveal their entire dendritic tree. Cebus M and P ganglion cell morphology revealed by biocytin retrograde filling is similar to that described for macaque and human M and P ganglion cells obtained by in vitro intracellular injection of HRP and neurobiotin. We measured 264 and 441 M and P ganglion cells, respectively. M ganglion cells have larger dendritic field and cell body size than P ganglion cells at any comparable temporal or nasal eccentricity. Dendritic trees of both M and P ganglion cells are smaller in the nasal than in the temporal region at eccentricities greater than 5 mm and 2 mm for M and P ganglion cells, respectively. The depth of terminal dendrites allows identification of both inner and outer subclasses of M and P ganglion cells. The difference in dendritic tree size between inner and outer cells is small or absent. Comparison between Cebus and Macaca shows that M and P ganglion cells have similar sizes in the central retinal region. The results support the view that M and P pathways are similarly organized in diurnal dichromat and trichromat primates.

  19. Dynamic Range of Vertebrate Retina Ganglion Cells: Importance of Active Dendrites and Coupling by Electrical Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publio, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Cesar Celis; Roque, Antonio C.

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate retina has a very high dynamic range. This is due to the concerted action of its diverse cell types. Ganglion cells, which are the output cells of the retina, have to preserve this high dynamic range to convey it to higher brain areas. Experimental evidence shows that the firing response of ganglion cells is strongly correlated with their total dendritic area and only weakly correlated with their dendritic branching complexity. On the other hand, theoretical studies with simple neuron models claim that active and large dendritic trees enhance the dynamic range of single neurons. Theoretical models also claim that electrical coupling between ganglion cells via gap junctions enhances their collective dynamic range. In this work we use morphologically reconstructed multi-compartmental ganglion cell models to perform two studies. In the first study we investigate the relationship between single ganglion cell dynamic range and number of dendritic branches/total dendritic area for both active and passive dendrites. Our results support the claim that large and active dendrites enhance the dynamic range of a single ganglion cell and show that total dendritic area has stronger correlation with dynamic range than with number of dendritic branches. In the second study we investigate the dynamic range of a square array of ganglion cells with passive or active dendritic trees coupled with each other via dendrodendritic gap junctions. Our results suggest that electrical coupling between active dendritic trees enhances the dynamic range of the ganglion cell array in comparison with both the uncoupled case and the coupled case with cells with passive dendrites. The results from our detailed computational modeling studies suggest that the key properties of the ganglion cells that endow them with a large dynamic range are large and active dendritic trees and electrical coupling via gap junctions. PMID:23144767

  20. Dynamic range of vertebrate retina ganglion cells: importance of active dendrites and coupling by electrical synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publio, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Cesar Celis; Roque, Antonio C

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate retina has a very high dynamic range. This is due to the concerted action of its diverse cell types. Ganglion cells, which are the output cells of the retina, have to preserve this high dynamic range to convey it to higher brain areas. Experimental evidence shows that the firing response of ganglion cells is strongly correlated with their total dendritic area and only weakly correlated with their dendritic branching complexity. On the other hand, theoretical studies with simple neuron models claim that active and large dendritic trees enhance the dynamic range of single neurons. Theoretical models also claim that electrical coupling between ganglion cells via gap junctions enhances their collective dynamic range. In this work we use morphologically reconstructed multi-compartmental ganglion cell models to perform two studies. In the first study we investigate the relationship between single ganglion cell dynamic range and number of dendritic branches/total dendritic area for both active and passive dendrites. Our results support the claim that large and active dendrites enhance the dynamic range of a single ganglion cell and show that total dendritic area has stronger correlation with dynamic range than with number of dendritic branches. In the second study we investigate the dynamic range of a square array of ganglion cells with passive or active dendritic trees coupled with each other via dendrodendritic gap junctions. Our results suggest that electrical coupling between active dendritic trees enhances the dynamic range of the ganglion cell array in comparison with both the uncoupled case and the coupled case with cells with passive dendrites. The results from our detailed computational modeling studies suggest that the key properties of the ganglion cells that endow them with a large dynamic range are large and active dendritic trees and electrical coupling via gap junctions.

  1. Contrast Adaptation Decreases Complexity in Retinal Ganglion Cell Spike Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-Li; HUANG Shi-Yong; ZHANG Ying-Ying; LIANG Pei-Ji

    2007-01-01

    @@ The difference in temporal structures of retinal ganglion cell spike trains between spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation is investigated. The Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis reveals that the complexity of the neural spike train decreases after contrast adaptation. This implies that the behaviour of the neuron becomes ordered, which may carry relevant information about the external stimulus. Thus, during the neuron activity after contrast adaptation, external information could be encoded in forms of some certain patterns in the temporal structure of spike train that is significantly different, compared to that of the spike train during spontaneous activity, although the firing rates in spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation are sometime similar.

  2. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion in intractable cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, Tim P; Schoenen, Jean; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OVERVIEW: Chronic cluster headache (CCH) is a debilitating headache disorder with a significant impairment of the patients' lives. Within the past decade, various invasive neuromodulatory approaches have been proposed for the treatment of CCH refractory to standard preventive drug......, but only very few randomized controlled studies exist in the field of neuromodulation for the treatment of drug-refractory headaches. Based on the prominent role of the cranial parasympathetic system in acute cluster headache attacks, high-frequency sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) stimulation has been shown...... patients and the first commercially available CE-marked SPG neurostimulator system has been introduced for cluster headache, patient selection and care should be standardized to ensure maximal efficacy and safety. As only limited data have been published on SPG stimulation, standards of care based...

  3. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  4. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  5. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  6. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  7. Yoga induced acute ulnar nerve compression by a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Liana; Edelsohn, Lanny; Gakhal, Mandip

    2013-12-01

    Acute ulnar neuropathy at the wrist can be difficult to diagnose, as it is an uncommon neuropathy with variable clinical presentations and numerous etiologies. We present a case of acute ulnar neuropathy of the deep motor branch caused by a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal. Interestingly, this case of acute loss of motor function occurred after the patient participated in yoga (specifically the downward dog position), and resolved spontaneously over time after stopping yoga, without surgical excision of the ganglion, suggesting exacerbation or protrusion of an occult ganglion cyst due to increased activity and compression of the hypothenar eminence.

  8. Helkesimastix marina n. sp. (Cercozoa: Sainouroidea superfam. n.) a gliding zooflagellate of novel ultrastructure and unusual ciliary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Lewis, Rhodri; Chao, Ema E; Oates, Brian; Bass, David

    2009-08-01

    Unlike Helkesimastix faecicola and H. major, Helkesimastix marina is marine, ingests bacteria, is probably also a cannibal, and differs in cell cycle ciliary behaviour. Daughter kinetids have mirror symmetry; pre-division cilia beat asymmetrically. We sequenced its 18S rDNA and studied its ultrastructure to clarify its taxonomy. Helkesimastix (Helkesimastigidae fam. n.) differs unexpectedly radically from cercomonads, lacking their complex microtubular ciliary roots, grouping not with them but with Sainouridae within Pansomonadida. Longitudinal cortical microtubules emanate from a dense apical centrosomal plate, where a striated rhizoplast attaches the nucleus, and two very short subparallel centrioles attach by dense fibres. The marginally more posterior centriole, attached to the centrosomal plate by a dense forked fibre, bears the long 9+2 gliding posterior cilium and a microtubular root; the left-side, nucleus-attached, left centriole bears an immotile ciliary stump with abnormal axoneme of nine disorganized mainly singlet microtubules, unlike the sainourid anterior papilla. Both transitional regions have a proximal lattice, the posterior centriole with slender hub. Sainouroidea superfam. n. (Sainouridae; Helkesimastigidae) have homologous cytoskeletal geometry. Dorsal Golgi dictyosome and posterior microbody are attached to the nuclear envelope, which has slender micro-invaginations and probably a cortical lattice. Bacteria are digested posteriorly in association with numerous mitochondria with flat cristae.

  9. Sonic Hedgehog dependent phosphorylation by CK1α and GRK2 is required for ciliary accumulation and activation of smoothened.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling regulates embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the GPCR-like protein Smoothened (Smo, but how vertebrate Smo is activated remains poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hh dependent phosphorylation activates Smo. Whether this is also the case in vertebrates is unclear, owing to the marked sequence divergence between vertebrate and Drosophila Smo (dSmo and the involvement of primary cilia in vertebrate Hh signaling. Here we demonstrate that mammalian Smo (mSmo is activated through multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail by CK1α and GRK2. Phosphorylation of mSmo induces its active conformation and simultaneously promotes its ciliary accumulation. We demonstrate that graded Hh signals induce increasing levels of mSmo phosphorylation that fine-tune its ciliary localization, conformation, and activity. We show that mSmo phosphorylation is induced by its agonists and oncogenic mutations but is blocked by its antagonist cyclopamine, and efficient mSmo phosphorylation depends on the kinesin-II ciliary motor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Hh signaling recruits CK1α to initiate mSmo phosphorylation, and phosphorylation further increases the binding of CK1α and GRK2 to mSmo, forming a positive feedback loop that amplifies and/or sustains mSmo phosphorylation. Hence, despite divergence in their primary sequences and their subcellular trafficking, mSmo and dSmo employ analogous mechanisms for their activation.

  10. Rer1p maintains ciliary length and signaling by regulating γ-secretase activity and Foxj1a levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisch-Yaksi, Nathalie; Rose, Applonia J; Lu, Huiqi; Raemaekers, Tim; Munck, Sebastian; Baatsen, Pieter; Baert, Veerle; Vermeire, Wendy; Scales, Suzie J; Verleyen, Daphne; Vandepoel, Roel; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Yaksi, Emre; de Ravel, Thomy; Yost, H Joseph; Froyen, Guy; Arrington, Cammon B; Annaert, Wim

    2013-03-18

    Cilia project from the surface of most vertebrate cells and are important for several physiological and developmental processes. Ciliary defects are linked to a variety of human diseases, named ciliopathies, underscoring the importance of understanding signaling pathways involved in cilia formation and maintenance. In this paper, we identified Rer1p as the first endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi-localized membrane protein involved in ciliogenesis. Rer1p, a protein quality control receptor, was highly expressed in zebrafish ciliated organs and regulated ciliary structure and function. Both in zebrafish and mammalian cells, loss of Rer1p resulted in the shortening of cilium and impairment of its motile or sensory function, which was reflected by hearing, vision, and left-right asymmetry defects as well as decreased Hedgehog signaling. We further demonstrate that Rer1p depletion reduced ciliary length and function by increasing γ-secretase complex assembly and activity and, consequently, enhancing Notch signaling as well as reducing Foxj1a expression.

  11. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El

  12. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  13. Analysis of ependymal ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency using high speed imaging: comparison with the photomultiplier and photodiode methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Callaghan Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare beat frequency measurements of ependymal cilia made by digital high speed imaging to those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode techniques. Using high speed video analysis the relationship of the power and recover strokes was also determined. Methods Ciliated strips of ependyma attached to slices from the brain of Wistar rats were incubated at 30°C and observed using a ×50 water immersion lens. Ciliary beat frequency was measured using each of the three techniques: the high speed video, photodiode and photomultiplier. Readings were repeated after 30 minutes incubation at 37°C. Ependymal cilia were observed in slow motion and the precise movement of cilia during the recovery stroke relative to the path travelled during the power stroke was measured. Results The mean (95% confidence intervals beat frequencies determined by the high speed video, photomultiplier and photodiode at 30°C were 27.7 (26.6 to 28.8, 25.5 (24.4 to 26.6 and 20.8 (20.4 to 21.3 Hz, respectively. The mean (95% confidence intervals beat frequencies determined by the high speed video, photomultiplier and photodiode at 37°C were 36.4 (34 to 39.5, 38.4 (36.8 to 39.9 and 18.8 (16.9 to 20.5 Hz. The inter and intra observer reliability for measurement of ciliary beat frequency was 3.8% and 1%, respectively. Ependymal cilia were observed to move in a planar fashion during the power and recovery strokes with a maximum deviation to the right of the midline of 12.1(11.8 to 13.0° during the power stroke and 12.6(11.6 to 13.6° to the left of the midline during the recovery stroke. Conclusion The photodiode technique greatly underestimates ciliary beat frequency and should not be used to measure ependymal ciliary beat frequency at the temperatures studied. Ciliary beat frequency from the high speed video and photomultiplier techniques cannot be used interchangeably. Ependymal cilia had minimal deviation to

  14. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  15. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Domenico F; Abuin, David S; Tauber, Gabriel A; Pham, Andrew T; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-12-23

    Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.

  16. Preservation and Observation of Amterior Ciliary Vessels in Rectus Muscles during Strabismus Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuanghuanMai; JianhuaYan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To observe the form and number of the anterior ciliary vessels(ACV)in rectus muscles.To train technician in preservation an d obsevation of ACV,so preservation can be done in caes with a rish of anterior segment ischemia(ASI).Methods:Curved foreign knife,iris hook,plastic rubber band and standard operat-ing loupes(3x)or microscope were used in the surgery on 34cases of comitant strabismus and 18cases of paralytic strabismus.Results:The ACVs per muscle in medial,lateral,superior,inferior rectus were3.08,3.26,3.50and3.50respectively in 89muscles of 52surgical strabismus cas-es.All ACVs in 16rectus muscles and 90out of 220ACVs in 73rectus muscles were too small ortoo short to be dissected.The sucess rate of ACV preservation was91.5%(119/130).105out of 130vessels were saved using loupe magnifica-tion and 14pit pf130vessels were saved under operating microscope.Conclusions:The number of ACVinrectus muscles are more than 2in our obser-vation cases.The ACVpreservation has the clinical value of allowing us toper-form muscle sugery on three or more rectus muscles simultaneously and get fonal surgical results more earlier after acv in each muscle are dissected and preserved otherwinse staged surgery are needed.The each strabismus surgeon must knov this technique.

  17. MNS1 is essential for spermiogenesis and motile ciliary functions in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available During spermiogenesis, haploid round spermatids undergo dramatic cell differentiation and morphogenesis to give rise to mature spermatozoa for fertilization, including nuclear elongation, chromatin remodeling, acrosome formation, and development of flagella. The molecular mechanisms underlining these fundamental processes remain poorly understood. Here, we report that MNS1, a coiled-coil protein of unknown function, is essential for spermiogenesis. We find that MNS1 is expressed in the germ cells in the testes and localizes to sperm flagella in a detergent-resistant manner, indicating that it is an integral component of flagella. MNS1-deficient males are sterile, as they exhibit a sharp reduction in sperm production and the remnant sperm are immotile with abnormal short tails. In MNS1-deficient sperm flagella, the characteristic arrangement of "9+2" microtubules and outer dense fibers are completely disrupted. In addition, MNS1-deficient mice display situs inversus and hydrocephalus. MNS1-deficient tracheal motile cilia lack some outer dynein arms in the axoneme. Moreover, MNS1 monomers interact with each other and are able to form polymers in cultured somatic cells. These results demonstrate that MNS1 is essential for spermiogenesis, the assembly of sperm flagella, and motile ciliary functions.

  18. Brain Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF and hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacher Claire-Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines play an important role in energy-balance regulation. Notably leptin, an adipocyte-secreted cytokine, regulates the activity of hypothalamic neurons that are involved in the modulation of appetite. Leptin decreases appetite and stimulates weight loss in rodents. Unfortunately, numerous forms of obesity in humans seem to be resistant to leptin action. The ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF is a neurocytokine that belongs to the same family as leptin and that was originally characterized as a neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of a broad spectrum of neuronal cell types and that enhances neurogenesis in adult rodents. It presents the advantage of stimulating weight loss in humans, despite the leptin resistance. Moreover, the weight loss persists several weeks after the cessation of treatment. Hence, CNTF has been considered as a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of obesity and has prompted intense research aimed at identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its potent anorexigenic properties. It has been found that CNTF shares signaling pathways with leptin and is expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, a key hypothalamic region controlling food intake. Endogenous CNTF may also participate in the control of energy balance. Indeed, its expression in the ARC is inversely correlated to body weight in rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Thus hypothalamic CNTF may act, in some individuals, as a protective factor against weight gain during hypercaloric diet and could account for individual differences in the susceptibility to obesity.

  19. Using myc genes to search for stem cells in the ciliary margin of the Xenopus retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao Yan; Harris, William A

    2012-04-01

    The ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of fish and frog retinas contains cells that proliferate throughout postembryonic development as the retina grows with increasing body size, indicating the presence of stem cells in this region. However, neither the location nor the molecular identity of retinal stem cells has been identified. Here, we show in Xenopus that c-myc and n-myc are sequentially expressed both during development and in the post-embryonic retina. The c-myc+/n-myc- cells near the extreme periphery of the CMZ cycle more slowly and preferentially retain DNA label compared to their more central cmyc+/n-myc+ neighbors which cycle rapidly and preferentially dilute DNA label. During retinal development c-myc is functionally required earlier than n-myc, and n-myc expression depends on earlier c-myc expression. The expression of c-myc but not n-myc in the CMZ depends on growth factor signaling. Our results suggest that c-myc+/n-myc- cells in the far peripheral CMZ are candidates for a niche-dependent population of retinal stem cells that give rise to more centrally located and rapidly dividing n-myc+ progenitors of more limited proliferative potential. Analysis of homologues of these genes in the zebrafish CMZ suggests that the transition from c-myc to n-myc expression might be conserved in other lower vertebrates whose retinas growth throughout life.

  20. Physiological Flow of Jeffrey Six Constant Fluid Model due to Ciliary Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, A.; Hussain, S.; Nadeem, S.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this article is to present a mathematical model of ciliary motion in an annulus. In this analysis, the peristaltic motion of non-Newtonian Jeffrey six constant fluid is observed in an annulus with ciliated tips in the presence of heat and mass transfer. The effects of viscous dissipation are also considered. The flow equations of non-Newtonian fluid for the two-dimensional tube in cylindrical coordinates are simplified using the low Reynolds number and long wave-length approximations. The main equations for Jeffrey six constant fluid are considered in cylindrical coordinates system. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved using the regular perturbation technique in terms of a variant of small dimensionless parameter α. The results of the solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration field are presented graphically. Bk is Brinkman number, ST is soret number, and SH is the Schmidth number. Outcome for the longitudinal velocity, pressure rise, pressure gradient and stream lines are represented through graphs. in the history, the viscous-dissipation effect is usually represented by the Brinkman number.

  1. The international primary ciliary dyskinesia cohort (iPCD Cohort): methods and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Maurer, Elisabeth; Halbeisen, Florian S.; Amirav, Israel; Barbato, Angelo; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Haarman, Eric; Hogg, Claire; Karadag, Bulent; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G.; Omran, Heymut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Scigliano, Sergio; Werner, Claudius; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Zivkovic, Zorica; Lucas, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) epidemiology is scarce and published studies are characterised by low numbers. In the framework of the European Union project BESTCILIA we aimed to combine all available datasets in a retrospective international PCD cohort (iPCD Cohort). We identified eligible datasets by performing a systematic review of published studies containing clinical information on PCD, and by contacting members of past and current European Respiratory Society Task Forces on PCD. We compared the contents of the datasets, clarified definitions and pooled them in a standardised format. As of April 2016 the iPCD Cohort includes data on 3013 patients from 18 countries. It includes data on diagnostic evaluations, symptoms, lung function, growth and treatments. Longitudinal data are currently available for 542 patients. The extent of clinical details per patient varies between centres. More than 50% of patients have a definite PCD diagnosis based on recent guidelines. Children aged 10–19 years are the largest age group, followed by younger children (≤9 years) and young adults (20–29 years). This is the largest observational PCD dataset available to date. It will allow us to answer pertinent questions on clinical phenotype, disease severity, prognosis and effect of treatments, and to investigate genotype–phenotype correlations. PMID:28052956

  2. Retinal ganglion cells of high cytochrome oxidase activity in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENLS; CHAURMW

    1990-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells in the rat were studied using the heavy metal intensified cytochrome oxidase and horseradish peroxidase histochemical methods.The results show that a population of large retinal ganglion cells was consistently observed with the cytochrome oxidase staining method in retinas of normal rats or rats which received unilateral thalamotomy at birth.These cytochrome oxidase rich ganglion cells appeared to have large somata,3-6 primary dendrites and extensive dendritic arbors,and are comparable to ganglion cells labeled by the wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP).However,the morphological details of some of the cells revealed by the cytochrome oxidase staining method are frequently better than those shown by the HRP histochemical method.These results suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase can be used as a simple but reliable marker for identifying and studying a population of retinal genglion cells with high metabolic rate in the rat.

  3. Technical and surgical aspects of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) microstimulator insertion procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A T; Hillerup, S; Rostgaard, J

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating, severe form of headache. A novel non-systemic therapy has been developed that produces therapeutic electrical stimulation to the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). A transoral surgical technique for inserting the Pulsante SPG Microstimulator...

  4. Intraosseous Ganglion Cyst of Scaphoid: An Uncommon Cause of Radial Wrist Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok; Singh, Saranjeet; Kanani, Himanshu; Chokshi, Jimmy; Nambi, G I; Raval, Pradyumna; Vala, Pathik; Jain, Shantanu; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Amit; Panchal, Ramesh

    2016-02-01

    Intraosseous ganglion cyst is a rare bone tumor and the lesion could often be missed. The diagnosis could be delayed so proper radiologic investigation and index of suspicion is necessary .Differential diagnoses of painful cystic radiolucent carpal lesion are osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma and intraosseous ganglion. Curettage of the scaphoid lesion and filling of void with bone graft provides good functional outcomes. The cyst contains mucoid viscous material without epithelial or synovial lining. We present a case of 30 years old male with intraosseous ganglion cyst of scaphoid which was treated with curettage and bone grafting. Rarely ganglion cyst is found in small bones of hand and should be considered as differential diagnosis of chronic radial wrist pain.

  5. Effects of ganglion blocking agents on nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479

  6. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  7. The antibiotic neomycin abolishes directional selectivity in rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R J

    1996-12-01

    1. Extracellular recordings from ON/OFF directionally selective ganglion cells in superfused rabbit retinas were made to study the effect of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, neomycin, on the responses of these cells to a moving light stimulus. 2. Neomycin, at 480-800 microM, reversibly abolished the directional selectivity in these ganglion cells by bringing out a response to movement in one ("null") direction that was similar in magnitude to the response to movement in the reverse ("preferred") direction. 3. Gentamicin, streptomycin, and tobramycin were also able to abolish directional selectivity in these ganglion cells but only at concentrations greater than 1000 microM. 4. It is proposed that neomycin abolishes directional selectivity in rabbit retinal ganglion cells by blocking omega-conotoxin MVIIC-sensitive Ca2+ channels in the retina.

  8. Population activity changes during a trial-to-trial adaptation of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Pu-Ming; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-07-09

    A 'trial-to-trial adaptation' of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to a repetitive light stimulus was investigated in the present study. Using the multielectrode recording technique, we studied the trial-to-trial adaptive properties of ganglion cells and explored the activity of population neurons during this adaptation process. It was found that the ganglion cells adapted with different degrees: their firing rates were decreased in different extents from early-adaptation to late-adaptation stage, and this was accompanied by a decrease in cross-correlation strength. In addition, adaptation behavior was different for ON-response and OFF-response, which implied that the mechanism of the trial-to-trial adaptation might involve bipolar cells and/or their synapses with other neurons and the stronger adaptation in the ganglion cells' OFF-responses might reflect the requirement to avoid possible saturation in the OFF circuit.

  9. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  10. Caspase-dependent retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in the rat model of acute diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Neural apoptosis is generally believed to be mediated by two distinct pathways, caspase-dependant and caspase-independent pathways. This study investigated the apoptotic pathways involved in retinal ganglion ceils in acute diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and localization of caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) proteins in the retina of diabetic rats was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunofluorescent staining specific for caspase-3 and AIF were applied to analyze for apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. In addition, a caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO was injected intravitreally to further determine the apoptotic pathways of retinal ganglion cells triggered in acute diabetes. Results Two weeks after induction of diabetes, a significant increase in caspase-3 protein expression and localization occurred in the nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer of the retina. Four weeks after the onset of diabetes, the increase in caspase-3 expression was profound eight weeks postinduction of diabetes (P<0.05). Meanwhile, no AIF protein expression was detected in this study. In addition, intravitreal administration of the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO reduced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells by its direct inhibitory action on caspase-3. Conclusion Caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways may be the main stimulant of STZ-induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in acute diabetes.

  11. Cell type-specific bipolar cell input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, S; Hüser, L; Ondreka, K; Auler, N; Haverkamp, S

    2016-03-01

    Many distinct ganglion cell types, which are the output elements of the retina, were found to encode for specific features of a visual scene such as contrast, color information or movement. The detailed composition of retinal circuits leading to this tuning of retinal ganglion cells, however, is apart from some prominent examples, largely unknown. Here we aimed to investigate if ganglion cell types in the mouse retina receive selective input from specific bipolar cell types or if they sample their synaptic input non-selectively from all bipolar cell types stratifying within their dendritic tree. To address this question we took an anatomical approach and immunolabeled retinae of two transgenic mouse lines (GFP-O and JAM-B) with markers for ribbon synapses and type 2 bipolar cells. We morphologically identified all green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ganglion cell types, which co-stratified with type 2 bipolar cells and assessed the total number of bipolar input synapses and the proportion of synapses deriving from type 2 bipolar cells. Only JAM-B ganglion cells received synaptic input preferentially from bipolar cell types other than type 2 bipolar cells whereas the other analyzed ganglion cell types sampled their bipolar input most likely from all bipolar cell terminals within their dendritic arbor.

  12. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  13. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  14. CT-guided injection for ganglion impar blockade: a radiological approach to the management of coccydynia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datir, A., E-mail: apdatir@gmail.co [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Connell, D. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) in needle placement for ganglion impar blocks, and to determine the efficacy of CT-guided ganglion impar blocks in the management of coccydynia. Materials and methods: The results of ganglion impar blockade in eight patients with coccydynia secondary to trauma or unknown cause were reviewed. The diagnosis of coccydynia was based on clinical history, location of pain, and response to previous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The eight patients were treated with CT-guided ganglion impar blocks to manage their coccyx pain after conservative procedures, including oral medication and cushions, failed to provide relief. All patients were subjected to ganglion impar blocks under a thin-section CT-guided technique for needle placement, using a mixture of bupivacaine and triamcinolone. The patients were followed-up for a period of 6-months. Results: Eight patients were treated in this study with a total of 11 injections. A technical success of 100% was achieved in all cases with accurate needle placement without any complications and all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Out of eight, three patients (37%) had complete relief of pain on the follow-up intervals up to 6 months. Three out of eight patients (37%), had partial relief of symptoms and a second repeat injection was given at the 3 month interval of the follow-up period. At the end of the 6-month follow-up period, six out of eight patients (75%) experienced symptomatic relief (four complete relief and two partial relief) without any additional resort to conventional pain management. Twenty-five percent (two out of eight) did not have any symptomatic improvement. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) pre-procedure was 8 (range 6-10) and had decreased to 2 (range 0-5) in six out of eight patients. Conclusion: CT can be used as an imaging method to identify the ganglion and guide the needle in ganglion impar blockade. The advantages of CT

  15. Percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression : experience in 40 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan M

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients of trigeminal neuralgia were treated with percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression. Symptoms had been present since six months to twenty years. The age ranged between 23 years and 73 years. All the patients had immediate relief from pain. Two had already undergone trigeminal cistern rhizolysis. One patient had foramen ovale stenosis. After the procedure, all the patients had mild to moderate degree of ipsilateral facial sensory loss which included buccal mucosa and anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. Facial dysaesthesia (anaesthesia dolorosa was seen in only one case, who had mild involvement lasting one week. Thirty patients had altered taste sensation, probably due to general somatic sensory loss. Five patients had herpes perioralis. In this study group, two patients had already undergone microvascular decompression. All the patients were followed for a period ranging from one to eighteen months. Balloon compression technique seems to be better than injection of alcohol, glycerol or radio frequency lesion. Recurrence of pain was noted in 3 patients after one year.

  16. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Katherine P.; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y.; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  17. Developmental patterning of glutamatergic synapses onto retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schubert Timm

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons receive excitatory synaptic inputs that are distributed across their dendritic arbors at densities and with spatial patterns that influence their output. How specific synaptic distributions are attained during development is not well understood. The distribution of glutamatergic inputs across the dendritic arbors of mammalian retinal ganglion cells (RGCs has long been correlated to the spatial receptive field profiles of these neurons. Thus, determining how glutamatergic inputs are patterned onto RGC dendritic arbors during development could provide insight into the cellular mechanisms that shape their functional receptive fields. Results We transfected developing and mature mouse RGCs with plasmids encoding fluorescent proteins that label their dendrites and glutamatergic postsynaptic sites. We found that as dendritic density (dendritic length per unit area of dendritic field decreases with maturation, the density of synapses along the dendrites increases. These changes appear coordinated such that RGCs attain the mature average density of postsynaptic sites per unit area (areal density by the time synaptic function emerges. Furthermore, stereotypic centro-peripheral gradients in the areal density of synapses across the arbor of RGCs are established at an early developmental stage. Conclusion The spatial pattern of glutamatergic inputs onto RGCs arises early in synaptogenesis despite ensuing reorganization of dendritic structure. We raise the possibility that these early patterns of synaptic distributions may arise from constraints placed on the number of contacts presynaptic neurons are able to make with the RGCs.

  18. A filter based encoding model for mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Q; Roychowdhury, V; Boykin, P; Jacobs, A; Nirenberg, S

    2005-01-01

    We adopt a system theoretic approach and explore the model of retinal ganglion cells as linear filters followed by a maximum-likelihood Bayesian predictor. We evaluate the model by using cross-validation, i.e., first the model parameters are estimated using a training set, and then the prediction error is computed (by comparing the stochastic rate predicted by the model with the rate code of the response) for a test set. As in system identification theory, we present spatially uniform stimuli to the retina, whose temporal intensity is drawn independently from a Gaussian distribution, and we simultaneously record the spike trains from multiple neurons. The optimal linear filter for each cell is obtained by maximizing the mutual information between the filtered stimulus values and the output of the cell (as measured in terms of a stochastic rate code). Our results show that the model presented in this paper performs well on the test set, and it outperforms the identity Bayesian model and the traditional linear model. Moreover, in order to reduce the number of optimal filters needed for prediction, we cluster the cells based on the filters' shapes, and use the cluster consensus filters to predict the firing rates of all neurons in the same class. We obtain almost the same performance with these cluster filters. These results provide hope that filter-based retinal prosthetics might be an effective and feasible idea.

  19. Characteristics of sodium currents in rat geniculate ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shiro; Bradley, Robert M

    2011-12-01

    Geniculate ganglion (GG) cell bodies of chorda tympani (CT), greater superficial petrosal (GSP), and posterior auricular (PA) nerves transmit orofacial sensory information to the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract. We have used whole cell recording to investigate the characteristics of the Na(+) channels in isolated Fluorogold-labeled GG neurons that innervate different peripheral receptive fields. GG neurons expressed two classes of Na(+) channels, TTX sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX resistant (TTX-R). The majority of GG neurons expressed TTX-R currents of different amplitudes. TTX-R currents were relatively small in 60% of the neurons but were large in 12% of the sampled population. In a further 28% of the neurons, TTX completely abolished all Na(+) currents. Application of TTX completely inhibited action potential generation in all CT and PA neurons but had little effect on the generation of action potentials in 40% of GSP neurons. Most CT, GSP, and PA neurons stained positively with IB(4), and 27% of the GSP neurons were capsaicin sensitive. The majority of IB(4)-positive GSP neurons with large TTX-R Na(+) currents responded to capsaicin, whereas IB(4)-positive GSP neurons with small TTX-R Na(+) currents were capsaicin insensitive. These data demonstrate the heterogeneity of GG neurons and indicate the existence of a subset of GSP neurons sensitive to capsaicin, usually associated with nociceptors. Since there are no reports of nociceptors in the GSP receptive field, the role of these capsaicin-sensitive neurons is not clear.

  20. Enteric Ganglionitis in Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandle, Marlene S.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disease is a debilitating feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that can occur in the absence of histopathological abnormalities or identifiable enteropathogens. However, the mechanisms of GI dysfunction are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to characterize changes in resident and inflammatory cells in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of macaques during the acute stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection to gain insight into potential pathogenic mechanisms of GI disease. Ganglia from duodenum, ileum, and colon were examined in healthy and acutely infected macaques by using a combination of routine histology, double-label immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. Evaluation of tissues from infected macaques showed progressive infiltration of myenteric ganglia by CD3+ T cells and IBA1+ macrophages beginning as early as 8 days postinfection. Quantitative image analysis revealed that the severity of myenteric ganglionitis increased with time after SIV infection and, in general, was more severe in ganglia from the small intestine than in ganglia from the colon. Despite an abundance of inflammatory cells in myenteric ganglia during acute infection, the ENS was not a target for virus infection. This study provides evidence that the ENS may be playing a role in the pathogenesis of GI disease and enteropathy in HIV-infected people. PMID:17392357

  1. Experimental Study on the Prevention of Anterior Segment Ischemia by Preservation of Anterior Ciliary Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanna Li; Guanghuan Mai; Zhijian Wang; Xinping Yu; Huanyun Yu; Yan Guo; Xiaoming Lin; Daming Deng; Ying Kang

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of preserving anterior ciliary vessels (ACVs) on anteriorsegments of rabbit eyes undergoing tenotomy of extraocular muscles.Methods: Thirty-two adult New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups.Same procedures were done in both eyes in each group except that left eyes underwentpreservation of ACVs. In the first group medial and lateral recti, in the second group,superior and inferior recti, in the third group, medial, lateral and superior or inferior rectiand in the fourth group, all four recti, underwent tenotomy. Slit-lamp examination,intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, total protein and lactic acid quantification inaqueous humor were done in all eyes pre- and post-operatively. By four weeks afteroperation, the eyes were enucleated for histological examination and electron microscopy.All data were analyzed using SPSS version 10.Results: In the left eyes of both group 1 and group 2, no inflammatory response wasobserved. In the left eyes of group 3 and 4, we observed mild inflammatory response withslit-lamp examination, which disappeared in one wk. However, we did not findsignificant changes in IOP, total protein and lactic acid of aqueous humor, histology andelectron microscopic examination in these groups. In the right eyes in group 2, 3 and 4,we observed moderate to severe inflammatory changes, a few even developed anteriorsegment ischemia, appeared as decreased IOP, increased total protein and lactic acid inaqueous humor, along with pathological and electron-microscopic changes.Conclusion: Simultaneous tenotomy of three or four recti or two vertical recti on one eyemay decrease anterior segment blood flow even lead to ischemia. ACVs preservation mayprotect the blood circulation in anterior segment. Our study suggests that ACVspreservation in strabismus surgeries especially those involving multi-recti tenotomies mayprevent potential anterior segment ischemia.

  2. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human ciliary body epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The ciliary body (CB of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE and pigmented (PE neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatures for the NPE and PE and studied possible new clues for glaucoma. METHODS: We isolated NPE and PE cells from seven healthy human donor eyes using laser dissection microscopy. Next, we performed RNA isolation, amplification, labeling and hybridization against 44×k Agilent microarrays. For microarray conformations, we used a literature study, RT-PCRs, and immunohistochemical stainings. We analyzed the gene expression data with R and with the knowledge database Ingenuity. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the NPE and PE were highly similar. We found that the most important functionalities of the NPE and PE were related to developmental processes, neural nature of the tissue, endocrine and metabolic signaling, and immunological functions. In total 1576 genes differed statistically significantly between NPE and PE. From these genes, at least 3 were cell-specific for the NPE and 143 for the PE. Finally, we observed high expression in the (NPE of 35 genes previously implicated in molecular mechanisms related to glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Our gene expression analysis suggested that the NPE and PE of the CB were quite similar. Nonetheless, cell-type specific differences were found. The molecular machineries of the human NPE and PE are involved in a range of neuro-endocrinological, developmental and immunological functions, and perhaps glaucoma.

  3. Nasal nitric oxide screening for primary ciliary dyskinesia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel A; Gove, Kerry; Walker, Woolf; Lucas, Jane S A

    2014-12-01

    Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) concentrations are low in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) providing a noninvasive screening test. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the utility of nNO in screening for PCD, in particular 1) different respiratory manoeuvres during sampling (velum closure, tidal breathing, etc.), 2) accuracy in screening young/uncooperative children, 3) stationary versus portable analysers, and 4) nNO in "atypical" PCD. 96 papers were assessed according to modified PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria and 22 were included in this review. Meta-analysis of 11 studies comparing nNO during a velum closure breath hold gave a mean±SD nNO of 19.4±18.6 nL·min(-1) in PCD (n = 478) and 265.0±118.9 nL·min(-1) in healthy controls (n = 338). Weighted mean difference for PCD versus healthy controls was 231.1 nL·min(-1) (95% CI 193.3-268.9; n = 338) and 114.1 nL·min(-1) (95% CI 101.5-126.8; n = 415) for PCD versus cystic fibrosis. Five studies of nNO measurement during tidal breathing demonstrated that this is an acceptable manoeuvre in young children where velum closure is not possible, but the discriminatory value was reduced. Four small studies of portable NO analysers suggest these are reliable tools for screening for PCD. However, nNO must be interpreted alongside clinical suspicion. Future studies should focus on standardising sampling techniques and reporting.

  4. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  5. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  6. The ciliary proteins Meckelin and Jouberin are required for retinoic acid-dependent neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sveva; Illi, Barbara; De Mori, Roberta; Savino, Mauro; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria

    2014-01-01

    The dysfunction of the primary cilium, a complex, evolutionarily conserved, organelle playing an important role in sensing and transducing cell signals, is the unifying pathogenetic mechanism of a growing number of diseases collectively termed "ciliopathies", typically characterized by multiorgan involvement. Developmental defects of the central nervous system (CNS) characterize a subset of ciliopathies showing clinical and genetic overlap, such as Joubert syndrome (JS) and Meckel syndrome (MS). Although several knock-out mice lacking a variety of ciliary proteins have shown the importance of primary cilia in the development of the brain and CNS-derived structures, developmental in vitro studies, extremely useful to unravel the role of primary cilia along the course of neural differentiation, are still missing. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have been recently proven to mimic brain development, giving the unique opportunity to dissect the CNS differentiation process along its sequential steps. In the present study we show that mESCs express the ciliary proteins Meckelin and Jouberin in a developmentally-regulated manner, and that these proteins co-localize with acetylated tubulin labeled cilia located at the outer embryonic layer. Further, mESCs differentiating along the neuronal lineage activate the cilia-dependent sonic hedgehog signaling machinery, which is impaired in Meckelin knock-out cells but results unaffected in Jouberin-deficient mESCs. However, both lose the ability to acquire a neuronal phenotype. Altogether, these results demonstrate a pivotal role of Meckelin and Jouberin during embryonic neural specification and indicate mESCs as a suitable tool to investigate the developmental impact of ciliary proteins dysfunction.

  7. Reduced ciliary polycystin-2 in induced pluripotent stem cells from polycystic kidney disease patients with PKD1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Benjamin S; Lam, Albert Q; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Iatrino, Rossella; Su, Xuefeng; Koon, Sarah J; Wu, Maoqing; Daheron, Laurence; Harris, Peter C; Zhou, Jing; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2013-10-01

    Heterozygous mutations in PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively, cause autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD), whereas mutations in PKHD1, which encodes fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), cause autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD). However, the relationship between these proteins and the pathogenesis of PKD remains unclear. To model PKD in human cells, we established induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines from fibroblasts of three ADPKD and two ARPKD patients. Genetic sequencing revealed unique heterozygous mutations in PKD1 of the parental ADPKD fibroblasts but no pathogenic mutations in PKD2. Undifferentiated PKD iPS cells, control iPS cells, and embryonic stem cells elaborated primary cilia and expressed PC1, PC2, and FPC at similar levels, and PKD and control iPS cells exhibited comparable rates of proliferation, apoptosis, and ciliogenesis. However, ADPKD iPS cells as well as somatic epithelial cells and hepatoblasts/biliary precursors differentiated from these cells expressed lower levels of PC2 at the cilium. Additional sequencing confirmed the retention of PKD1 heterozygous mutations in iPS cell lines from two patients but identified possible loss of heterozygosity in iPS cell lines from one patient. Furthermore, ectopic expression of wild-type PC1 in ADPKD iPS-derived hepatoblasts rescued ciliary PC2 protein expression levels, and overexpression of PC1 but not a carboxy-terminal truncation mutant increased ciliary PC2 expression levels in mouse kidney cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PC1 regulates ciliary PC2 protein expression levels and support the use of PKD iPS cells for investigating disease pathophysiology.

  8. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  9. Retinal Ganglion Cell Distribution and Spatial Resolving Power in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae)

    KAUST Repository

    De Busserolles, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Topographic analyses of retinal ganglion cell density are very useful in providing information about the visual ecology of a species by identifying areas of acute vision within the visual field (i.e. areas of high cell density). In this study, we investigated the neural cell distribution in the ganglion cell layer of a range of lanternfish species belonging to 10 genera. Analyses were performed on wholemounted retinas using stereology. Topographic maps were constructed of the distribution of all neurons and both ganglion and amacrine cell populations in 5 different species from Nissl-stained retinas using cytological criteria. Amacrine cell distribution was also examined immunohistochemically in 2 of the 5 species using anti-parvalbumin antibody. The distributions of both the total neuron and the amacrine cell populations were aligned in all of the species examined, showing a general increase in cell density toward the retinal periphery. However, when the ganglion cell population was topographically isolated from the amacrine cell population, which comprised up to 80% of the total neurons within the ganglion cell layer, a different distribution was revealed. Topographic maps of the true ganglion cell distribution in 18 species of lanternfishes revealed well-defined specializations in different regions of the retina. Different species possessed distinct areas of high ganglion cell density with respect to both peak density and the location and/or shape of the specialized acute zone (i.e. elongated areae ventro-temporales, areae temporales and large areae centrales). The spatial resolving power was calculated to be relatively low (varying from 1.6 to 4.4 cycles per degree), indicating that myctophids may constitute one of the less visually acute groups of deep-sea teleosts. The diversity in retinal specializations and spatial resolving power within the family is assessed in terms of possible ecological functions and evolutionary history.

  10. MR-guided perineural injection of the ganglion impar: technical considerations and feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, David R.; Carrino, John A.; Fritz, Jan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); U-Thainual, Paweena [Queen' s University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor [Queen' s University, School of Computing, Kingston, ON (Canada); Flammang, Aaron J. [Siemens Corporate Research, Center for Applied Medical Imaging, Baltimore, MD (United States); Iordachita, Iulian I. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Perineural ganglion impar injections are used in the management of pelvic pain syndromes; however, there is no consensus regarding the optimal image guidance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high soft tissue contrast and the potential to directly visualize and target the ganglion. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of MR-guided percutaneous perineural ganglion impar injections. Six MR-guided ganglion impar injections were performed in six human cadavers. Procedures were performed with a clinical 1.5-Tesla MRI system through a far lateral transgluteus approach. Ganglion impar visibility, distance from the sacrococcygeal joint, number of intermittent MRI control steps required to place the needle, target error between the intended and final needle tip location, inadvertent punctures of non-targeted vulnerable structures, injectant distribution, and procedure time were determined. The ganglion impar was seen on MRI in 4/6 (66 %) of cases and located 0.8 mm cephalad to 16.3 mm caudad (average 1.2 mm caudad) to the midpoint of the sacrococcygeal joint. Needle placement required an average of three MRI control steps (range, 2-6). The average target error was 2.2 ± 2.1 mm. In 6/6 cases (100 %), there was appropriate periganglionic distribution and filling of the presacrococcygeal space. No punctures of non-targeted structures occurred. The median procedure time was 20 min (range, 12-29 min). Interventional MRI can visualize and directly target the ganglion impar for accurate needle placement and successful periganglionic injection with the additional benefit of no ionizing radiation exposure to patient and staff. Our results support clinical evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Spatial distribution of excitatory synapses on the dendrites of ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Peng; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory glutamatergic inputs from bipolar cells affect the physiological properties of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. The spatial distribution of these excitatory synapses on the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells thus may shape their distinct functions. To visualize the spatial pattern of excitatory glutamatergic input into the ganglion cells in the mouse retina, particle-mediated gene transfer of plasmids expressing postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent fusion protein (PSD95-GFP) was used to label the excitatory synapses. Despite wide variation in the size and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells, the expression of PSD95 puncta was found to follow two general rules. Firstly, the PSD95 puncta are regularly spaced, at 1-2 µm intervals, along the dendrites, whereby the presence of an excitatory synapse creates an exclusion zone that rules out the presence of other glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Secondly, the spatial distribution of PSD95 puncta on the dendrites of diverse retinal ganglion cells are similar in that the number of excitatory synapses appears to be less on primary dendrites and to increase to a plateau on higher branch order dendrites. These observations suggest that synaptogenesis is spatially regulated along the dendritic segments and that the number of synaptic contacts is relatively constant beyond the primary dendrites. Interestingly, we also found that the linear puncta density is slightly higher in large cells than in small cells. This may suggest that retinal ganglion cells with a large dendritic field tend to show an increased connectivity of excitatory synapses that makes up for their reduced dendrite density. Mapping the spatial distribution pattern of the excitatory synapses on retinal ganglion cells thus provides explicit structural information that is essential for our understanding of how excitatory glutamatergic inputs shape neuronal responses.

  12. Expression of EFR3A in the mouse cochlea during degeneration of spiral ganglion following hair cell loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nie

    Full Text Available Retrograde degeneration of spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea following hair cell loss is similar to dying back in pathology. The EFR3A gene has recently been discovered to be involved in the pathogenesis of dying back. The relationship of EFR3A and spiral ganglion degeneration, however, was rarely investigated. In this study, we destroyed the hair cells of the mouse cochlea by co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide and then investigated the EFR3A expression during the induced spiral ganglion cell degeneration. Our results revealed that co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide quickly induced hair cell loss in the C57BL/6J mice and then resulted in progressive degeneration of the spiral ganglion beginning at day 5 following drug administration. The number of the spiral ganglion cells began to decrease at day 15. The expression of EFR3A increased remarkably in the spiral ganglion at day 5 and then decreased to near normal level within the next 10 days. Our study suggested that the change of EFR3A expression in the spiral ganglion was coincident with the time of the spiral ganglion degeneration, which implied that high expression of EFR3A may be important to prompt initiation of spiral ganglion degeneration following hair cell loss.

  13. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  15. Sinus surgery can improve quality of life, lung infections, and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Aanaes, Kasper; Høiby, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and bacterial sinusitis are ubiquitous in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). From the sinuses, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can infect the lungs. METHODS: We studied the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on symptoms of CRS and lower airway...... patients (62%). Four patients with preoperative P. aeruginosa lung colonization (25%) had no regrowth during follow-up; 2 of these had P. aeruginosa sinusitis. Sinonasal symptoms were improved 12 months after ESS and we observed a trend toward better lung function after ESS. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated...

  16. Rrespuesta fisiológica del pasto buffel (cenchrus ciliaris l.) a diferentes alturas de defoliación

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beltrán López; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Edmundo García Moya; José G. Herrera Haro

    2002-01-01

    El conocimiento de la capacidad de las especies forrajeras para recuperarse después de una defoliación, es esencial para un mejor manejo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta del pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) a cuatro alturas de defoliación: 5, 10 y 20 cm y un testigo (sin corte) en invernadero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: rendimiento acumulado de materia seca (MS), densidad de tallos, crecimiento fol...

  17. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  18. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  19. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  20. A case report of primary ciliary dyskinesia, laterality defects and developmental delay caused by the co-existence of a single gene and chromosome disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  1. Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation for the treatment of cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Puche, Miguel; Garcia, Ana; Gascón, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Cluster headache is a severe, debilitating disorder with pain that ranks among the most severe known to humans. Patients with cluster headaches have few therapeutic options and further, 10-20% develop drug-resistant attacks. The often brief duration of cluster attacks makes abortive therapy a challenge, and preventive medications are almost always provided to patients, but the side effects of these preventive medications can be significant. The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is believed to play a role in headache pain and cranial autonomic symptoms associated with cluster headache, which is a result of activation of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex. For over 100 years, the SPG has been a clinical target to treat primary headache disorders using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods. Radiofrequency lesioning and nerve-resection therapies, while initially beneficial, are irreversible procedures, and the use of neurostimulation provides one method of interfacing with the neural pathways without causing permanent damage to neural tissue. SPG neurostimulation is both reversible and adjustable, and has recently been tested in both proof-of-concept work and in a randomized, sham-controlled trial for the treatment of cluster headache. A randomized, sham-controlled study of 32 patients was performed to evaluate further the use of SPG stimulation for the acute treatment of chronic cluster headache. Of the 32 patients, 28 completed the randomized experimental period. Overall, 68% of patients experienced an acute response, a frequency response, or both. In this study the majority of adverse events were related to the implantation procedure, which typically resolved or remained mild in nature at 3 months following the implant procedure. This and other studies highlight the promise of using SPG stimulation to treat the pain-associated cluster headache. SPG stimulation could be a safe and effective option for chronic cluster headache.

  2. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Froger

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats. After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%, whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  3. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  4. Cannabinoids modulate spontaneous synaptic activity in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, T P; Protti, D A

    2011-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has been found throughout the central nervous system and modulates cell excitability in various forms of short-term plasticity. ECBs and their receptors have also been localized to all retinal cells, and cannabinoid receptor activation has been shown to alter voltage-dependent conductances in several different retinal cell types, suggesting a possible role for cannabinoids in retinal processing. Their effects on synaptic transmission in the mammalian retina, however, have not been previously investigated. Here, we show that exogenous cannabinoids alter spontaneous synaptic transmission onto retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in whole-mount retinas, we measured spontaneous postsynaptic currents (SPSCs) in RGCs in adult and young (P14-P21) mice. We found that the addition of an exogenous cannabinoid agonist, WIN55212-2 (5 μM), caused a significant reversible reduction in the frequency of SPSCs. This change, however, did not alter the kinetics of the SPSCs, indicating a presynaptic locus of action. Using blockers to isolate inhibitory or excitatory currents, we found that cannabinoids significantly reduced the release probability of both GABA and glutamate, respectively. While the addition of cannabinoids reduced the frequency of both GABAergic and glutamatergic SPSCs in both young and adult mice, we found that the largest effect was on GABA-mediated currents in young mice. These results suggest that the ECB system may potentially be involved in the modulation of signal transmission in the retina. Furthermore, they suggest that it might play a role in the developmental maturation of synaptic circuits, and that exogenous cannabinoids are likely able to disrupt retinal processing and consequently alter vision.

  5. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  6. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross‐Cisneros, Fred N.; Koronyo, Yosef; Hannibal, Jens; Gallassi, Roberto; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Sambati, Luisa; Pan, Billy X.; Tozer, Kevin R.; Barboni, Piero; Provini, Federica; Avanzini, Pietro; Carbonelli, Michele; Pelosi, Annalisa; Chui, Helena; Liguori, Rocco; Baruzzi, Agostino; Koronyo‐Hamaoui, Maya; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing that they contribute to circadian dysfunction. Methods We assessed retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 21 mild‐moderate AD patients, and in a subgroup of 16 we evaluated rest–activity circadian rhythm by actigraphy. We studied postmortem mRGCs by immunohistochemistry in retinas, and axons in optic nerve cross‐sections of 14 neuropathologically confirmed AD patients. We coimmunostained for retinal amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and melanopsin to locate mRGCs. All AD cohorts were compared with age‐matched controls. Results We demonstrated an age‐related optic neuropathy in AD by OCT, with a significant reduction of RNFL thickness (p = 0.038), more evident in the superior quadrant (p = 0.006). Axonal loss was confirmed in postmortem AD optic nerves. Abnormal circadian function characterized only a subgroup of AD patients. Sleep efficiency was significantly reduced in AD patients (p = 0.001). We also found a significant loss of mRGCs in postmortem AD retinal specimens (p = 0.003) across all ages and abnormal mRGC dendritic morphology and size (p = 0.003). In flat‐mounted AD retinas, Aβ accumulation was remarkably evident inside and around mRGCs. Interpretation We show variable degrees of rest–activity circadian dysfunction in AD patients. We also demonstrate age‐related loss of optic nerve axons and specifically mRGC loss and pathology in postmortem AD retinal specimens, associated with Aβ deposition. These results all support the concept that mRGC degeneration is a contributor to circadian rhythm dysfunction in AD. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:90–109 PMID:26505992

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  8. Morphologic study of the blood vessels of the superior cervical ganglion of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, D M

    1981-01-01

    Blood vessels of the rat superior cervical ganglion were examined by both light and electron microscopy. Direct blood supply to the superior cervical ganglion was derived from a capsular plexus of vessels. Intraganglionic vessels were for the most part capillaries. Some of these capillaries appeared dilated and sinusoidal. Although the ganglion did not seem to be densely vascularized, there was sufficient distribution to accommodate the nerve cell bodies of the ganglion. Individual capillaries served groups of neurons. Occasionally, capillary loops could be observed to surround single neuron perikarya. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of two types of capillaries. The majority of the capillaries of the rat superior cervical ganglion demonstrated a continuous, non-fenestrated endothelium. Typical junctional complexes were found on abutting endothelial surfaces. Endothelial flaps and microvilli were also observed on the luminal surface of some of the vessels. Numerous micropinocytotic vesicles were observed on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelium. A small number of capillaries demonstrated a fenestrated endothelium. In both types of capillaries there was a basement membrane and an extracellular space containing collagen. Perikaryal cytoplasm was separated from the extracellular space by a thick layer of satellite cell cytoplasm.

  9. Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments. MR findings with clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.S.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Juan, C.J.; Chen, C.Y. [Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Lee, C.H. [Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (China). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Chan, W.P. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Taylor, J.A.M. [New York Chiropractic College, Seneca Falls, NY (United States). Dept. of Diagnosis; Yu, J.S. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the MR findings of ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments in correlation with clinical findings. Material and Methods:We reviewed 12 patients with ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments obtained from a medical record of 4153 consecutive patients referred for knee MR examinations. All patients presented with chronic knee pain and 4 had restriction of knee motion. The MR imaging findings of the cysts were evaluated and correlated with clinical manifestations. Results:Seven ganglion cysts were found in the posterior cruciate ligaments and 5 in the anterior cruciate ligaments. All cysts were lobulated (n=7) or fusiform (n=5) in shape, 1.8-4.5 cm in size, along the posterior surface in the proximal or distal end of the ligaments. Ten patients had arthroscopic resection or aspiration of their cysts, became symptom free and had no recurrence on follow-up MR examinations. Two cysts reduced in size spontaneously by conservative treatment. Conclusion:MR imaging can offer useful information in detection and diagnosis of patients with chronic knee pain due to ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments. The size and location of the ganglion cysts can attribute to the clinical manifestations.

  10. Spiral ganglion outgrowth and hearing development in p75-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brors, Dominik; Hansen, Stefan; Mlynski, Robert; Volkenstein, Stefan; Aletsee, Christoph; Sendtner, Michael; Ryan, Allen F; Dazert, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To explore the role of nerve growth factor receptor p75(NTR) during the terminal neuronal development of the mammalian cochlea the onset of hearing and the in vitro response of spiral ganglion neurites to neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), which is known to play a critical role during neonatal inner ear development, were investigated in p75(NTR)-deficient mice (p75(NTR)-/-). Auditory-evoked brain stem response recordings from p75(NTR)-/- and wild-type (WT) littermates were measured from postnatal days (PD) 8 to 23. Additionally, spiral ganglion explants from p75(NTR)-/- and WT animals were dissected and cultured in an organotypic tissue culture system. In both groups, spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth was analyzed with and without NT-3 supplementation. No significant differences in the onset of hearing of mutant mice compared to the WT mice were detected, and both groups showed a similar development of hearing until PD 23. After stimulation with NT-3, neurite outgrowth was enhanced in both p75(NTR)-/- and WT mice. However, neurites from p75(NTR)-/- spiral ganglion explants were longer in both culture conditions. Moreover, NT-3 did not significantly enhance neurite number in p75(NTR)-/-, as it did in WT mice. P75(NTR) has a remarkable influence on spiral ganglion neurite growth behavior. However, p75(NTR) does not seem to be essential for the development of basic hearing function in the first 3 postnatal weeks.

  11. Exploration on the underlying mechanism of female predominance in spasmodic dysphonia: an anatomical study of nodose ganglion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zengrui; Li, Ge; Feng, Xin

    2014-01-01

    To study the gender differences of amount of neurons in the nodose ganglions of rats. Fourteen Sprague-Dawley rats (7 males and 7 females) were selected. Bilateral nodose ganglions were dissected and serial sections of nodose ganglion were cut in a cryostat, followed by Cresyl-violet staining for neurons. Eight to ten consecutive sections from mid-portion of each nodose ganglion sample, which represent the most neuron number per section, were counted and averaged. Gender difference in the amount of neurons in the nodose ganglions was compared. No gender difference of neuron numbers was found in either side of nodose ganglion (p > 0.05). However, average neuron number of nodose ganglions on the left side of male (654 ± 60) and female (616 ± 37) were significantly more than that on the right side of male (470 ± 22) and female (453 ± 40) respectively (p < 0.05). There is no gender difference in total neuron number of nodose ganglions between male and female rat. However, the neuron number in the left nodose ganglion is greater than that in the right one. The difference may be due to the fact that left and right nodose ganglion is receiving different visceral sensory impulses separately, which is associated with different physiological functions. Further work should be carried out with retrograde tracing on neurons of nodose ganglions in an animal model, which are directly related to laryngeal sensory transmission, in order to determine the gender difference in the neuron number and morphology related to laryngeal functions.

  12. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  13. [Endoscopically controlled optimization of trans-scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber lenses in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, C; Sundmacher, R

    1993-08-01

    Two technical difficulties have to be overcome in transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCL) in the ciliary sulcus: first, exact needle penetration through the sulcus, and second, exact positioning of the PCL haptics in the sulcus. Incongruence of the two may lead to long-term complications by compression or even strangulation of ciliary processes. Intraocular endoscopy was used intraoperatively to visualize the site of needle penetration and the final location of the haptics in patients. It turned out that with our previously described standard techniques the precision was far less than anticipated. Thus, new technical ways had to be sought to improve the precision of positioning. In secondary implantation without perforating keratoplasty we achieved the best results when the needle was passed ab externo before opening the eye and before anterior vitrectomy, taking advantage of a precisely prepared sclerocorneal zone. Passing the needle ab externo in an already hypotonic eyeball gives much less precise results. In combination with perforating keratoplasty with an open-sky approach, needle penetration ab interno is reliable. Correct positioning of the PCL haptics is at least as difficult as correct needle penetration, a fact which up to now has mostly been ignored. In 33 consecutively operated eyes the technique of implantation and PCL design was varied under endoscopical control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Nephrocystin-5, a ciliary IQ domain protein, is mutated in Senior-Loken syndrome and interacts with RPGR and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Edgar A; Loeys, Bart; Khanna, Hemant; Hellemans, Jan; Sudbrak, Ralf; Fan, Shuling; Muerb, Ulla; O'Toole, John F; Helou, Juliana; Attanasio, Massimo; Utsch, Boris; Sayer, John A; Lillo, Concepcion; Jimeno, David; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne; Reinhardt, Richard; Klages, Sven; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kawakami, Isao; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Omran, Heymut; Imm, Anita; Tippens, Melissa; Raymond, Pamela A; Hill, Jo; Beales, Phil; He, Shirley; Kispert, Andreas; Margolis, Benjamin; Williams, David S; Swaroop, Anand; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2005-03-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is the most frequent genetic cause of chronic renal failure in children. Identification of four genes mutated in NPHP subtypes 1-4 (refs. 4-9) has linked the pathogenesis of NPHP to ciliary functions. Ten percent of affected individuals have retinitis pigmentosa, constituting the renal-retinal Senior-Loken syndrome (SLSN). Here we identify, by positional cloning, mutations in an evolutionarily conserved gene, IQCB1 (also called NPHP5), as the most frequent cause of SLSN. IQCB1 encodes an IQ-domain protein, nephrocystin-5. All individuals with IQCB1 mutations have retinitis pigmentosa. Hence, we examined the interaction of nephrocystin-5 with RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator), which is expressed in photoreceptor cilia and associated with 10-20% of retinitis pigmentosa. We show that nephrocystin-5, RPGR and calmodulin can be coimmunoprecipitated from retinal extracts, and that these proteins localize to connecting cilia of photoreceptors and to primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. Our studies emphasize the central role of ciliary dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SLSN.

  15. Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, Gian Carlo; Aruta, Claudia; Comitato, Antonella; De Marzo, Anna; Marigo, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells. PMID:22432014

  16. Functional and molecular characterization of rod-like cells from retinal stem cells derived from the adult ciliary epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Demontis

    Full Text Available In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells.

  17. Axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene (DNAI1) mutations result in situs inversus and primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, C; Harricane, M C; Lafitte, J J; Godard, P; Zaegel, M; Tack, V; Lalau, G; Bouvagnet, P

    2001-04-01

    Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a trilogy of symptoms (nasal polyps, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus totalis) that is associated with ultrastructural anomalies of cilia of epithelial cells covering the upper and lower respiratory tracts and spermatozoa flagellae. The axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene 1 (DNAI1), which has been demonstrated to be responsible for a case of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) without situs inversus, was screened for mutation in a series of 34 patients with KS. We identified compound heterozygous DNAI1 gene defects in three independent patients and in two of their siblings who presented with PCD and situs solitus (i.e., normal position of inner organs). Strikingly, these five patients share one mutant allele (splice defect), which is identical to one of the mutant DNAI1 alleles found in the patient with PCD, reported elsewhere. Finally, this study demonstrates a link between ciliary function and situs determination, since compound mutation heterozygosity in DNAI1 results in PCD with situs solitus or situs inversus (KS).

  18. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  19. Effect of primary iris and ciliary body cyst on anterior chamber angle in patients with shallow anterior chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-hong WANG; Yu-feng YAO

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of primary iris and/or ciliary body cysts in eyes with shallow anterior chamber and their effect on the narrowing of the anterior chamber angle.Methods:Among the general physical check-up population,subjects with shallow anterior chambers,as judged by van Herick technique,were recruited for further investigation.Ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) was used to detect and measure the cysts located in the iris and/or ciliary body,the anterior chamber depth (ACD),the angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500),and the trabecular-iris angle (TIA).A-scan ultrasonography was used to measure the ocular biometry,including lens thickness,axial length,lens/axial length factor (LAF),and relative lens position (RLP).The effect of the cyst on narrowing the corresponding anterior chamber angle and the entire angle was evaluated by the UBM images,ocular biometry,and gonioscopic grading.The eye with unilateral cyst was compared with the eye without the cyst for further analysis.Results:Among the 727 subjects with shallow anterior chamber,primary iris and ciliary body cysts were detected in 250 (34.4%) patients; among them 96 (38.4%) patients showed unilateral single cyst,21 (8.4%) patients had unilateral double cysts,and 42 (16.8%) patients manifested unilateral multiple and multi-quadrants cysts.Plateau iris configuration was found in 140 of 361 (38.8%) eyes with cysts.The mean size of total cysts was (0.6547±0.2319) mm.In evaluation of the effect of the cyst size and location on narrowing the corresponding angle to their position,the proportion of the cysts causing corresponding angle narrowing or closure among the cysts larger than 0.8 mm (113/121,93.4%) was found to be significantly higher than that of the cysts smaller than 0.8 mm (373/801,46.6%),and a significant higher proportion was also found in the cysts located at iridociliary sulcus (354/437,81.0%) than in that at the pars plicata (131/484,27.1%).In evaluating the effect

  20. Degeneration and regeneration in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion after Latrodectus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, S E

    1989-06-01

    The effects of the venom of the spider Latrodectus mactans hasselti on the superior cervical ganglion were studied in the guinea pig. Under anaesthesia the ganglion was bathed in venom solution for 15 min. Shortly afterwards animals salivated profusely and later developed unilateral ptosis and enophthalmos. Postoperative survival times ranged from 15 min to 10 weeks. Electron microscopy showed acute swelling of preganglionic cholinergic nerve terminals, followed by degeneration with separation of synapses. Other ganglionic elements appeared to be undamaged, although after detachment of synapses the dendritic postsynaptic specializations were reduced in number. Recovery was very rapid; axon growth cones were identifiable at 18 h and synapse reformation was well established by 2 weeks. With longer survival times there was progressive restoration of normal morphology such that by 8 weeks regeneration appeared complete. These experiments indicate that the preganglionic cholinergic nerve terminals are selectively affected by Latrodectus venom and have a considerable capacity for appropriate regeneration.

  1. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Judy H. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emery, Kathleen H.; Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sorger, Joel [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Orthopedics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection. (orig.)

  2. [Histoenzymologic features of adrenal medulla ganglionic cells 60 days after exposure to detergents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecerski, V; Marjanov, M; Milićević, S

    1993-01-01

    We investigated histochemical reactions in adrenal medulla sympathic ganglionic cells in the animals who after a 30-day stay in a detergent manufactory department survived 60 days in laboratory conditions. The obtained data show a strong isocytrate dehydrogenase activity in the experimental animals; the reaction to the lactate dehydrogenase activity reflects a decrease of the ganglionic cell volume and a slight decrease of the reaction intensity. The activity of isoenzyme F is mildly increased; similarly was found for isoenzyme S. There was a significant decrease of the succinate dehydrogenase activity--all this was detected in the animals exposed to detergents. Sympathic ganglionic cells within the adrenal medulla are rather sensitive to the influence of detergents. The recovery after the exposure to their toxic effects takes more than 2 months.

  3. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are resistant to neurodegeneration in mitochondrial optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, C; Ross-Cisneros, F.N.; Sadun, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial optic neuropathies, that is, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy, selectively affect retinal ganglion cells, causing visual loss with relatively preserved pupillary light reflex. The mammalian eye contains a light detection system based on a subset of retinal...... for the preservation of pupillary light reaction despite profound visual loss in patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathy, revealing the robustness of melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to a metabolic insult and opening the question of mechanisms that might protect these cells....... ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin. These cells give origin to the retinohypothalamic tract and support the non-image-forming visual functions of the eye, which include the photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion and pupillary light reflex...

  4. Pseudotumoral ganglion cyst of a finger with unexpected remote origin: multimodality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleau, Loic; Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Simoni, Paolo; Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Lecouvet, Frederic E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Barbier, Olivier [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-04-15

    The case of a ganglion cyst in the pulp of a fifth finger in an elderly woman initially mimicking a soft tissue tumor is described. Most typical sites of ganglion cysts are well documented at the wrist and in the vicinity of inter-phalangeal and metacarpo-phalangeal joints. In this case, ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a cystic lesion within the pulp of the fifth finger and indicated carpal osteoarthritis as the distant - and unexpected - origin of the lesion. The suggested diagnosis of ganglion cyst was confirmed by computed tomography arthrography (CT arthrography) of the wrist, which showed opacification of the cyst on delayed acquisitions after intra-articular injection into the mid-carpal joint, through the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath. The communications between the degenerative carpal joint, the radio-ulnar bursa, the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath and the pedicle of the cyst were well demonstrated. (orig.)

  5. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  6. Growth and morphogenesis of an autonomic ganglion. I. Matching neurons with target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, R D; Sargent, P B

    1987-08-01

    Regulation of the number and size of neurons presumably plays a role in the matching of a group of neurons to their target. In this paper the relationship of the cardiac ganglion neurons of the frog to their target is examined. Neurons in this ganglion first appear in the embryo and continue to accumulate for several months, even after the animal has completed metamorphosis, and eventually reach a fixed number of cells in the adult. This prolonged period of neuron production has provided an opportunity to manipulate development and test various mechanisms of neuronal regulation. Manipulation of animal culture conditions and hormone levels has shown that the addition of neurons to the ganglion continues up to the characteristic adult number and depends upon neither the chronological age nor the developmental stage of the animal. The size of neurons also changes markedly during development. The average cell body size initially decreases due to the addition of many smaller cells to the ganglion. After metamorphosis neuron size increases dramatically. The changes in size and number complement one another such that the total volume of neuronal cell bodies increases in proportion with the size of both the target and the entire body. The relationship holds for changes in animal size that extend over 4 orders of magnitude and follows a power function of the form y = bxm. Regulation of cardiac ganglion size can be divided into 3 overlapping phases: (1) the arrival of neurons and precursors from the neural crest, (2) an increase in neuron number, (3) and an increase in neuron size. A common denominator for all phases is that the size of the ganglion is, in a coherent way, precisely matched to the size of its target.

  7. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  8. Immunorecognition of estrogen and androgen receptors in the brain and thoracic ganglion mass of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haihui Ye; Huiyang Huang; Shaojing Li; Guizhong Wang

    2008-01-01

    The brain and the thoracic ganglion of a crustacean can synthesize and secrete gonad-stimulating hormone (GSH) which stimulates the maturation of gonad. In the previous experiments, sex steroid hormones (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, etc.) have been detected from the crustacean. However, the feedback regulation of sex steroid hormones on the brain and the thoracic ganglion of the crustacean has not been reported so far. In the present experiment, monoclonal antibodies were applied to investigate the immunorecognition of estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) in the brain and the thoracic ganglion mass of Scylla paramamosain. The results showed that the distribution of the immunopositive substances of ER and AR was extremely similar. They distributed in the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum of the brain, and mainly in protocerebrum. In the thoracic ganglion mass, immunopositive substances distributed in the subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion and abdominal ganglion, and mostly in subesophageal ganglion. Immunopositive substances of ER and AR mostly existed in the cytoplasm of neurons. The present study will provide morphological evidence for the origin and the evolution of ER and AR. In addition, the immunoreactivities of ER and AR suggested that the estrogen and androgen may be involved in the feedback regulation of crustacean neuroendocrine.

  9. Connectivity between the OFF bipolar type DB3a and six types of ganglion cell in the marmoset retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Rania A; Percival, Kumiko A; Koizumi, Amane; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2016-06-15

    Parallel visual pathways originate at the first synapse in the retina, where cones make connections with cone bipolar cells that in turn contact ganglion cells. There are more ganglion cell types than bipolar types, suggesting that there must be divergence from bipolar to ganglion cells. Here we analyze the contacts between an OFF bipolar type (DB3a) and six ganglion cell types in the retina of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were transfected via particle-mediated gene transfer of an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP), and DB3a cells were labeled via immunohistochemistry. Ganglion cell types that fully or partially costratified with DB3a cells included OFF parasol, OFF midget, broad thorny, recursive bistratified, small bistratified, and large bistratified cells. On average, the number of DB3a contacts to parasol cells (18 contacts per axon terminal) is higher than that to other ganglion cell types (between four and seven contacts). We estimate that the DB3a output to OFF parasol cells accounts for at least 30% of the total DB3a output. Furthermore, we found that OFF parasol cells receive approximately 20% of their total bipolar input from DB3a cells, suggesting that other diffuse bipolar types also provide input to OFF parasol cells. We conclude that DB3a cells preferentially contact OFF parasol cells but also provide input to other ganglion cell types.

  10. Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nutrition in Iranian society and many ruralhouseholds depend on this commodity market as a source of income.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent, if any,of asymmetric price transmission in Iran chicken market usingthe Houck, Error Correction and Threshold models. The analysisis based on weekly chicken price data at farm and retail levelsover the period October 2002 to March 2006. The results oftests on all three models show that price transmission in Iranianchicken market is long-run symmetric, but short-run asymmetric.Increases in the farm price transmit immediately to the retaillevel, while decreases in farm price transmit relatively moreslowly to the retail level. We conjecture the asymmetric pricetransmission in this market is the result of high inflation ratesthat lead the consumers to expect continual price increases anda different adjustment costs in the upwards direction comparedto the downwards direction for the marketing agents and a noncompetitiveslaughtering industry and that looking for ways tomake this sector of the chicken supply chain more competitivewill foster greater price transmission symmetry and lead towelfare gains for both consumers and agricultural producers.

  11. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  12. Expression of delta-protocadherins in the spinal cord of the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juntang; Wang, Congrui; Redies, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Protocadherins constitute the largest subfamily of cadherin genes and are widely expressed in the nervous system. In the present study, we cloned eight members of the delta-protocadherin subfamily of cadherins (Pcdh1, Pcdh7, Pcdh8, Pcdh9, Pcdh10, Pcdh17, Pcdh18, and Pcdh19) from the chicken, and investigated their expression in the developing chicken spinal cord by in situ hybridization. Our results showed that each of the investigated delta-protocadherins exhibits a spatially restricted and temporally regulated pattern of expression. Pcdh1, Pcdh8, Pcdh18, and Pcdh19 are expressed in restricted dorsoventral domains of the neuroepithelial layer at early developmental stages (E2.5–E4). In the differentiating mantle layer, specific expression profiles are observed for all eight delta-protocadherins along the dorsoventral, mediolateral, and rostrocaudal dimensions at intermediate stages of development (E6–E10). Expression profiles are especially diverse in the motor column, where different pools of motor neurons exhibit signal for subsets of delta-protocadherins. In the dorsal root ganglion, subpopulations of cells express combinations of Pcdh1, Pcdh7, Pcdh8, Pcdh9, Pcdh10, and Pcdh17. The ventral boundary cap cells are positive for Pcdh7, Pcdh9, and Pcdh10. Signals for Pcdh8, Pcdh18, and Pcdh19 are found in the meninges. Surrounding tissues, such as the notochord, dermomyotome, and sclerotome also exhibit differential expression patterns. The highly regulated spatiotemporal expression patterns of delta-protocadherins suggest that they have multiple and diverse functions during development of the spinal cord and its surrounding tissues.

  13. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alfonso; Vila, Oscar; Brasa, Jose [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain); Conde, Cesareo [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  14. Effects of xenon irradiation of the stellate ganglion region on fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Fukami; Komoda, Akihiro; Aratani, Satoko; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Kawate, Mariko; Nakatani, Kou; Akiyama, Masako; Makita, Koshi; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to determine the effect of xenon irradiation of the stellate ganglion region on fibromyalgia. [Subjects] The study included 5 men and 22 women (age, 56.4 ± 16.3 years [range, 25–84 years]) who were diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the modified 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology between July and August 2013. [Methods] Bilateral xenon light irradiation (0.38–1.1 μm) around the stellate ganglion was performed in the supine position by...

  15. Effects of Lead on Temporal Response Properties of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Developing Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮迪云; 汤立新; 赵晨; 郭宇静

    1994-01-01

    Neonatal rats have taken in lead, during the period from their parturition to their weaning, from the milk of dams fed with water containing 0.2% lead acetate solutions. The alterations in the temporal response properties of retinal ganglion cells in adult rats (90 days) following the lead exposure at their developing stage have been studied. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the lead exposure in neonatal rats causes decreases in the optimal temporal frequency, bandwidth at half amplitude, temporal resolution and response phase of the retinal ganglion cells in adult rats. Compared with the sustained cells, the transient cells have a much greater alteration in temporal response properties.

  16. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin on Retinal Ganglion Cells in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Qiongyan; HU Yizhen; CAO Yang

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effect of melatonin (MT) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rats with ischemia reperfusion injury (RIR), 24 healthy SD rats were randomly divided into two groups:group A and group B. RIR model was induced in the left eyes by increasing the pressure of the anterior chamber. Group A was treated with 10 % alcohol- normal saline (1 mL/kg/d, ip), while group B was treated with 0.5 % MT (1 mL/kg/d, ip). On the basis of the time interval between the left eyes RIR and the sacrifice, rats in both group A and group B were further divided into 3 subgroups: groups A1 and B1 (days 7), groups A2 and B2 (days 14), groups A3 and B3 (days 30), with4 rats in each subgroup. 7 day before the sacrifice, 3 % fluorogold was bilaterally injected into superior colliculi and geniculate body. The eyes were enucleated after being sacrificed, and mounting of the retina from both eyes was performed on a slide and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Four photos were taken from each of the four quadrants of the retina.The labeled-RGCs were counted by using a computerized image analyzer. The rate of the labeledRGCs was used for statistical analysis. Our results showed that, in group A, the rate of the labeled-RGCs was (77. 16±6.35) %, (65.53±7.01) %, (53.85±4.38) % on day 7, 14 and 30.In group B, the rate of the labeled-RGCs was (81.33±9.27) %, (79.80±8.36) %, (80.34±11.05) % on day 7, 14 and 30. In group B, which was treated with MT after RIR, the rate of labeled-RGCs was significantly higher than that of group A on day 14 and day 30 (P<0.05). It is concluded that, in the RIR rats, MT therapy could increase the survival rate of the RGCs and could rescue and restore the injured RGCs.

  18. Ganglion block. When and how?; Ganglienblockade. Wann und wie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Sektion fuer Mikroinvasive Therapie Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [German] Anatomische und physiologische Kenntnisse ueber die Funktion von Schmerzbahnen fuehrten zur Entwicklung chirurgischer und perkutaner destruktiver Verfahren, um einzelne Komponenten afferenter Schmerzbahnen anzusteuern bzw. auszuschalten. Neben anderen nervalen Strukturen gelten Hinterstrangganglien und insbesondere die Ganglien des autonomen Nervensystems als Ziele fuer radiologische Interventionen. Das vegetative Nervensystem ist fuer die Organfunktion durch Regulation des Gefaesstonus und fuer die Leitung

  19. One is the loneliest number: a review of the ganglion impar and its relation to pelvic pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Andrew; Muhleman, Mitchel; Osiro, Stephen; Bubb, Kathleen; Snosek, Michael; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2013-10-01

    The ganglion impar is often overlooked as a component of the sympathetic nervous system. Despite its obscurity, this ganglion provides a pathway for neurons by accommodating postganglionic sympathetics, visceral afferents, and somatic fibers traveling to and from the pelvis. Its classic anatomic location as described in the 1720's held up until recently, with the current literature now revealing a great deal of anatomical variability. This variation becomes important when the ganglion impar is used as a treatment target for patients with chronic pelvic pain - its primary clinical implication. The aim of this review was to provide a better understanding of the anatomy of ganglion impar, accounting for variation in size, shape, and location. In addition, the clinical importance and treatment modalities associated with the ganglion impar are outlined.

  20. CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merveille, Anne-Christine; Davis, Erica E; Becker-Heck, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory...

  1. Hand-held tidal breathing nasal nitric oxide measurement--a promising targeted case-finding tool for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is an established first line test in the work-up for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Tidal breathing nNO (TB-nNO) measurements require minimal cooperation and are potentially useful even in young children. Hand-held NO devices are becoming increa...

  2. Mutations in ZMYND10, a gene essential for proper axonemal assembly of inner and outer dynein arms in humans and flies, cause primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Daniel J; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a ciliopathy characterized by airway disease, infertility, and laterality defects, often caused by dual loss of the inner dynein arms (IDAs) and outer dynein arms (ODAs), which power cilia and flagella beating. Using whole-exome and candidate-gene Sanger resequ...

  3. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  4. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  5. Accuracy and repeatability of direct ciliary sulcus diameter measurements by full-scale 50-megahertz ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-jiao; WANG Ning-li; CHEN Shu; LI Shu-ning; MU Da-peng; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation has been a popular means for the treatment of high ametropia. Measurements of ciliary sulcus diameter is important for pIOL size determining. But till now, no perfect system can directly measure it. The present study was to evaluate the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of direct sulcus diameter measurements obtained by a full-scale 50-megahertz (MHz) ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods A fresh cadaver human eye with a scale marker inserted through the posterior chamber plane from 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock meridian and 30 randomly selected eyes from 30 normal subjects were scanned by full-scale 50-MHz UBM in horizontal meridional scan plane. The distance between the scales and the whole length of the marker inside the cadaver eye were measured by the same observer using the "built-in" measurement tools and the indicating error of instrument was calculated. Reproducibility of the measurement was evaluated in 30 eyes by 2 operators using Blander and Altman plot test. Repeatability was evaluated from 10 successive eyes randomly selected from the 30 eyes by one operator.Results On a scale of 1 mm, the greatest indicating error was 40 μm; the mean largest indicating error of 1 mm scale from the 10 images was (26±14) μm; on a scale of 11 mm, the greatest indicating error was 70 μo; the error rate was 0.64%. The mean length of the needle inside the eye of the 10 images was 11.05 mm, with the mean indicating error of 47 μm, the average error rate was 0.43%. For ciliary sulcus diameter measurements in vivo, the coefficient of variation was 0.38%; the coefficients of repeatability for intra-observer and inter-observer measurements were 1.99% and 2.55%, respectively. The limits of agreement for intra-observer and inter-observer measurement were-0.41 mm to 0.48 mm and -0.59 mm to 0.58 ram, respectively.Conclusion The full-scale 50-MHz UBM can be a high accuracy and good repeatability means for direct

  6. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  7. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  8. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  9. Activation of Neuropeptide Y Receptors Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Physiology and Exerts Neuroprotective Actions In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, João; Elvas, Filipe; Brudzewsky, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in mammalian retina but the location and potential modulatory effects of NPY receptor activation remain largely unknown. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a hallmark of several retinal degenerative diseases, particularly glaucoma. Using purified RGCs and ex vivo...... actions detected in retinal explants can be translated into animal models of retinal degenerative diseases....

  10. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) for cluster headache treatment. Pathway CH-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenen, Jean; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe pain and autonomic symptoms of cluster headache (CH) result from activation of the trigeminal parasympathetic reflex, mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). We investigated the safety and efficacy of on-demand SPG stimulation for chronic CH (CCH).MethodsA multicenter...

  11. Long-term effectiveness of sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, Tim P; Barloese, Mads; May, Arne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) plays a pivotal role in cluster headache (CH) pathophysiology as the major efferent parasympathetic relay. We evaluated the long-term effectiveness of SPG stimulation in medically refractory, chronic CH patients. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were...

  12. Rac1 selective activation improves retina ganglion cell survival and regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzetto, E.; Ettorre, M.; Pontelli, V.; Bolomini-Vittori, M.; Bolognin, S.; Zorzan, S.; Laudanna, C.; Buffelli, M.

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, after optic nerve injury, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) do not regenerate their axons and most of them die by apoptosis within a few days. Recently, several strategies that activate neuronal intracellular pathways were proposed to prevent such degenerative processes. The rho-relate

  13. Ganglion cell distribution and retinal resolution in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Alla M; Ketten, Darlene R; Odell, Daniel K; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2012-01-01

    The topographic organization of retinal ganglion cells was examined in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to assess ganglion cell size and distribution and to estimate retinal resolution. The ganglion cell layer of the manatee's retina was comprised primarily of large neurons with broad intercellular spaces. Cell sizes varied from 10 to 60 μm in diameter (mean 24.3 μm). The retinal wholemounts from adult animals measured 446-501 mm(2) in area with total ganglion cell counts of 62,000-81,800 (mean 70,200). The cell density changed across the retina, with the maximum in the area below the optic disc and decreasing toward the retinal edges and in the immediate vicinity of the optic disc. The maximum cell density ranged from 235 to 337 cells per millimeter square in the adult retinae. Two wholemounts obtained from juvenile animals were 271 and 282 mm(2) in area with total cell numbers of 70,900 and 68,700, respectively (mean 69,800), that is, nearly equivalent to those of adults, but juvenile retinae consequently had maximum cell densities that were higher than those of adults: 478 and 491 cells per millimeter square. Calculations indicate a retinal resolution of ∼19' (1.6 cycles per degree) in both adult and juvenile retinae.

  14. Long-lasting analgesic effect of radiofrequency treatment of the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, JWM; Wynne, HJ; van Wijk, R.

    2001-01-01

    Object. The authors conducted a study to establish the benefit of radiofrequency (RF) treatment of the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) as a therapy to reduce symptomatic pain in patients with chronic spinal pain radiating to the leg. Methods. Two hundred seventy-nine patients were evaluated a

  15. Meningitis and Bacteremia Due to Neisseria cinerea following a Percutaneous Rhizotomy of the Trigeminal Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kietzell, M; Richter, H; Bruderer, T; Goldenberger, D; Emonet, S; Strahm, C

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed.

  16. Meningitis and Bacteremia Due to Neisseria cinerea following a Percutaneous Rhizotomy of the Trigeminal Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    von Kietzell, M.; Richter, H.; Bruderer, T.; Goldenberger, D.; Emonet, S; Strahm, C.

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed.

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Gómez-Vicente

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss.

  18. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G;

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled......, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup...

  19. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  20. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  1. The clinico-anatomic explanation for tibial intraneural ganglion cysts arising from the superior tibiofibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Anatomy, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mokhtarzadeh, Ali; Schiefer, Terry K. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Krishnan, Kartik G. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Department of Neurological Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Kliot, Michel [University of Washington, Department of Neurosurgery, Seattle, Washington (United States); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2007-04-15

    To demonstrate that tibial intraneural ganglia in the popliteal fossa are derived from the posterior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint, in a mechanism similar to that of peroneal intraneural ganglia, which have recently been shown to arise from the anterior portion of the same joint. Retrospective clinical study and prospective anatomic study. The clinical records and MRI findings of three patients with tibial intraneural ganglion cysts were analyzed and compared with those of one patient with a tibial extraneural ganglion cyst and one volunteer. Seven cadaveric limbs were dissected to define the articular anatomy of the posterior aspect of the superior tibiofibular joint. The condition of the three patients with intraneural ganglia recurred because their joint connections were not identified initially. In two patients there was no cyst recurrence when the joint connection was treated at revision surgery; the third patient did not wish to undergo additional surgery. The one patient with an extraneural ganglion had the joint connection identified at initial assessment and had successful surgery addressing the cyst and the joint connection. Retrospective evaluation of the tibial intraneural ganglion cysts revealed stereotypic features, which allowed their accurate diagnosis and distinction from extraneural cases. The intraneural cysts had tubular (rather than globular) appearances. They derived from the postero-inferior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint and followed the expected course of the articular branch on the posterior surface of the popliteus muscle. The cysts then extended intra-epineurially into the parent tibial nerves, where they contained displaced nerve fascicles. The extraneural cyst extrinsically compressed the tibial nerve but did not directly involve it. All cadaveric specimens demonstrated a small single articular branch, which derived from the tibial nerve to the popliteus. The branch coursed obliquely across the posterior

  2. The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: heterochrony in polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeld Sebastian M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae. We compare our data with other lophotrochozoans. Results P. lamarckii develops locomotory and feeding structures that enable it to become a swimming, planktotrophic larva within 24 hours. Formation of the trochophore includes development of a prototroch, metatroch and neurotroch, development of apical and posterior nervous elements at similar times, and development of musculature around the ciliary bands and digestive tract prior to development of any body wall muscles. The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. Conclusion A comparison between polychaetes shows variability in the timing (heterochrony of development of body wall muscles and elements of the nervous system. These heterochronies are one route for evolution of different life history strategies, such as adaptations to feeding requirements.

  3. The ciliary inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, is assembled in the cytoplasm and transported by IFT before axonemal docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanadha, Rasagnya; Hunter, Emily L; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Wirschell, Maureen; Alford, Lea M; Dutcher, Susan K; Sale, Winfield S

    2014-10-01

    To determine mechanisms of assembly of ciliary dyneins, we focused on the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, also known as dynein f. I1 dynein assembles in the cytoplasm as a 20S complex similar to the 20S I1 dynein complex isolated from the axoneme. The intermediate chain subunit, IC140 (IDA7), and heavy chains (IDA1, IDA2) are required for 20S I1 dynein preassembly in the cytoplasm. Unlike I1 dynein derived from the axoneme, the cytoplasmic 20S I1 complex will not rebind I1-deficient axonemes in vitro. To test the hypothesis that I1 dynein is transported to the distal tip of the cilia for assembly in the axoneme, we performed cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons formed between wild-type and I1 dynein mutant cells. Rescue of I1 dynein assembly in mutant cilia occurred first at the distal tip and then proceeded toward the proximal axoneme. Notably, in contrast to other combinations, I1 dynein assembly was significantly delayed in dikaryons formed between ida7 and ida3. Furthermore, rescue of I1 dynein assembly required new protein synthesis in the ida7 × ida3 dikaryons. On the basis of the additional observations, we postulate that IDA3 is required for 20S I1 dynein transport. Cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons using the conditional kinesin-2 mutant, fla10-1 revealed that transport of I1 dynein is dependent on kinesin-2 activity. Thus, I1 dynein complex assembly depends upon IFT for transport to the ciliary distal tip prior to docking in the axoneme.

  4. Cross-talk between ciliary epithelium and trabecular meshwork cells in-vitro: a new insight into glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lerner

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It is assumed that the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium plays a role in regulating intraocular pressure via its neuroendocrine activities. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect on a human trabecular meshwork (TM cell line (NTM of co-culture with a human non-pigmented ciliary epithelium cell line (ODM-2. METHODS: The cellular cross-talk between ODM-2 and NTM cells was studied in a co-culture system in which the two cell types were co-cultured for 5 to 60 min or 2, 4 and 8h and then removed from the co-culture and analyzed. Analyses of the ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways and of the activity of TM phosphatases and matrix metalloproteins (MMPs were performed. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activity was determined by the DiFMUP (6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate assay. MMP levels were determined by gelatin zymography. RESULTS: Exposure of NTM cells to ODM-2 cells led to the activation of the MAPK signal transduction pathways in NTM cells within 5 min of co-culture. Phosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2 and p38 peaked at 10 and 15 min and then decreased over time. Interaction between ODM-2 and NTM cells promoted the expression of MMP-9 in the NTM cells after 4h of co-culture. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that crosstalk does indeed take place between ODM-2 and NTM cells. Future studies should be designed to determine the relationship between the MMP system, MAPK kinases and phosphatases. Manipulation of these signaling molecules and the related NTM signal transduction pathways may provide targets for developing improved treatments for glaucoma.

  5. 纤毛疾病和与之相关的基因%Ciliary Disease and the Related Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳林; 纪伟

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Cilia has been added to a well-known causes of human diseases. Unlike other cellular organdies, cilia ate tiny hair-like organelles that attached to the cell surface, and are located on almost all polarized cell types of the human body. Cilia play a crucial role in regulating vertebrate development and tissue homeostasis. The various cellular functions of cilia explain why cilia-related disorders can affect many organ systems. Defects in ciliary genes cause lots of ciliary diseases, such as: Nephronophthisis, Joubert Syndrome, Meckel-Gruber Syndrome and Bardet Biedl Syndrome.%近年来,研究发现纤毛在生成或者形态的缺陷均能导致新生儿遗传性疾病.与其他细胞器不同的是,纤毛这一小的毛发状细胞器能在几乎所有的极性细胞表面上生成,而且功能非常多样化.纤毛在调节脊椎动物的发育和内环境的平衡起着相当重要的作用,而与纤毛相关基因的缺失则与一系列疾病相关,包括:Nephronophthisis、Joubert综合症、Meckel-Gruber综合症和Bardet Biedl综合症等.结合最近的研究,本文主要对四类主纤毛相关疾病的基因进行归类总结.

  6. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  7. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  8. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  9. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found.

  10. Gene finding in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonarakis Stylianos E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome annotation method. Results We performed experimental evaluation by RT-PCR of three different computational gene finders, Ensembl, SGP2 and TWINSCAN, applied to the chicken genome. A Venn diagram was computed and each component of it was evaluated. The results showed that de novo comparative methods can identify up to about 700 chicken genes with no previous evidence of expression, and can correctly extend about 40% of homology-based predictions at the 5' end. Conclusions De novo comparative gene prediction followed by experimental verification is effective at enhancing the annotation of the newly sequenced genomes provided by standard homology-based methods.

  11. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  12. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  13. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  14. [Relations between the accessory nerve and the distal ganglion of the vagus nerve in sheep during the prenatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospieszny, N

    1984-01-01

    This contribution presents the results of morphological studies regarding the nervus accessorius and the ganglion distale nervi vagi of the sheep during the prenatal period. Special attention was paid to the roots of the brain and spinal medulla, which are implicated in the formation of the nervus accessorius, and the region of the spinal medulla in embryos at different stages of development. We investigated the relationship between the above nerve and the ganglion distale nervi vagi. The morphology of this ganglion was also investigated, and its external structure is described.

  15. Ganglion cell size and distribution in the retina of the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-da-Costa, B L; Pessoa, V F; Bousfield, J D; Clarke, R J

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of ganglion cell densities and sizes was studied in Nissl-stained flat-mount retinae of the two-toed sloth. The area centralis, a weak specialization with low ganglion cell density, is located in the temporal retina close to the center of the eye. The presence of a visual streak was noted. The distribution of different ganglion cell sizes was approximately equal throughout the retina. Although the retinal organization differs from that of the closely related three-toed sloth, the presumed function of retinal specializations in both species is to guide limb movements by permitting visualization of the branch along which the animal is climbing.

  16. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  17. Study protocol, rationale and recruitment in a European multi-centre randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of azithromycin maintenance therapy for 6 months in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene E; Buchvald, Frederik F; Haarman, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical management of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) respiratory disease is currently based on improving mucociliary clearance and controlling respiratory infections, through the administration of antibiotics. Treatment practices in PCD are largely extrapolated from more common chr...

  18. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  19. Three dimensional-magnetic resonance imaging of dorsal root. Ganglion in lumbosacral disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Gaku [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lumbosacral disease. However, there are certain pitfalls in the use of this imaging technique. In particular, MRI is inadequate for accurate diagnosis of lateral spinal root lesions. Furthermore, it is also difficult to show the root ganglion of both sides on a plane by classical 2D-MRI. Moreover 2D-coronal views do not show several roots in one image because each lumbosacral nerve root is on a different plane. We have developed a new method of three-dimensional MRI (3D-MRI) which enables a stereoscopic view of the spinal cord and both sides of spinal nerve roots in one image. We evaluated three techniques of 3D-MRI, including rapid imaging spin echo (RISE), small tip angle gradient echo (STAGE) and short TI inversion recovery (STIR), in 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation. In a separate anatomical study lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were investigated by 3D-MRI in 20 normal subjects. In a pathophysiological study the use of 3D-MRI defects the signal changes following damage to the spinal nerve roots or ganglion in 70 patients. Our results indicated that the STIR method is the best for identifying abnormalities of the spinal cord, roots and intervertebral disc. It was possible to image the lateral part of damaged nerve roots. The S1 angulations and length were significantly smaller than those of others (p<0.05). The S1 DRG was oval and was the largest. With regard to signal changes in damaged root ganglion, a good correlation between root compression and root edema was detected by basic experiments. We are currently examining the relationship between the damaged root ganglion, pain and sensory disturbance. This study showed that the dorsal root ganglion plays an important role in sensory control of radiculopathy. In conclusion, our new data show a close relationship between sensory loss, pain and DRG finding on 3D-MRI. (author)

  20. Resección guiada por ecografía de gangliones dorsales de muñeca. [Ultrasound-Guided resection of dorsal wrist ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián G. Bustos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción: el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar prospectivamente los resultados del drenaje de gangliones dorsales de muñeca y la ruptura de su pedículo guiada por ecografía, y determinar su tasa de recidiva, las complicaciones y los resultados subjetivos. Materiales ­y ­Métodos: se evaluaron prospectivamente 32 pacientes con gangliones dorsales sintomáticos de muñeca tratados mediante punción guiada por ecografía, aspiración del contenido y ruptura del pedículo con un trocar, entre enero de 2010 y junio de 2011. La edad de los pacientes promedió 31 años. Todos realizaban tareas administrativas, y retornaron a sus tareas habituales al día siguiente del procedimiento. El puntaje DASH previo al procedimiento fue, en promedio, de 2,90. El dolor previo al procedimiento promedió 7,75 puntos. Se separó a los pacientes en dos grupos, gangliones primarios (grupo 1: 19 pacientes y gangliones recurrentes con cirugía previa (grupo 2: 13 pacientes. Resultados: once pacientes tuvieron recidivas (34,3% al año de seguimiento: 5 del grupo 1 (26,31% y 6 del grupo 2 (46,1%. El puntaje DASH a los 6 meses promedió 1,91 (rango 1,02-3,98. El dolor a los 6 meses promedió 1,53 puntos (rango 0-4. Ningún paciente presentó complicaciones neurológicas o tendinosas, infección o hematomas (seguimiento promedio 6 meses. Conclusión:­ la técnica bajo control ecográfico es mínimamente invasiva con una tasa de recurrencia aceptable (26% en pacientes sin antecedente quirúrgico, considerando que plantea menores riesgos que los procedimientos quirúrgicos al igual que un menor costo y bajo costo laboral.

  1. Large infrapatellar ganglionic cyst of the knee fat pad: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Apostolos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Large ganglionic cystic formations arising from the infrapatellar fat pad are quite uncommon and only a few are mentioned in the literature. An open excision in these cases is mandatory. Case presentation We report the case of a large infrapatellar fat pad ganglion in a 37-year-old Greek man with chronic knee discomfort. The ganglionic cyst originated from the infrapatellar fat pad and had no intrasynovial extension. The final diagnosis was determined with magnetic resonance imaging of the knee, and the lesion was treated with surgery. Conclusions These lesions are asymptomatic in most cases but often are misdiagnosed as meniscal or ligamentous lesions of the knee joint. Nowadays, the therapeutic trend for such lesions is arthroscopic excision, but when there is a large ganglion, as in this case report, the treatment should be an open and thorough resection. This report is intended mostly but not exclusively for clinical physicians and radiologists.

  2. Percutaneous radio-frequency thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion guided by high-speed real-time CT fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizuka, Shiro [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Maebashi (Japan); Gunma University Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Maebashi (Japan); Saito, Shigeru; Sekimoto, Kenichi; Tobe, Masaru; Obata, Hideaki [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Maebashi (Japan); Koyama, Yoshinori [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    Although Gasserian ganglion block is an established treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, the foramen ovale cannot always be clearly visualized by classical X-ray radiography. We present a new method for percutaneous radio-frequency thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion, in which computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy is used to guide needle placement. In the present study, 15 patients with trigeminal neuralgia underwent percutaneous radio-frequency thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion guided by high-speed real-time CT fluoroscopy. Trigeminal neuralgia was improved in all patients after treatment without any severe complications. Moderate dysesthesia occurred in only one case. CT fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous radio-frequency thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion was safe, quick, and effective for patients with intractable idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  3. Rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid after excision of dorsal carpal ganglion and wrist manipulation--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G P; Taleisnik, J

    1983-11-01

    Surgical excision of a ganglion on the dorsum of the wrist is usually a benign procedure. The most frequent complications are transient postoperative stiffness and recurrence of the ganglion. This paper reports the development of a rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid after the manipulation of the wrist of a patient who had developed postoperative stiffness after the surgical excision of a dorsal wrist ganglion. This unusual complication was successfully treated by closed pinning under radiographic control followed by immobilization in palmar flexion. Manipulation of the wrist for the management of postoperative stiffness is rarely, if ever, indicated. Limitation of motion of a wrist without underlying structural changes is best managed by gentle, gradual splinting, both static and dynamic. It is suggested that preoperative x-rays should be obtained as part of the routine workup for a dorsal wrist ganglion.

  4. Genetic diversity and haplogroups distributions of Kampung chickens using hypervariable-I mitochondrial DNA control region

    OpenAIRE

    M. Syamsul Arifin Zein; S. Sulandari

    2012-01-01

    Until now no studies evaluating the position of Kampung chickens in chicken clade of Asia. Thus studies based on molecular DNA sequence hipervariable-I on Kampung chicken is needed. Molecular studies based on DNA sequences hyper variable-I of Kampong chicken was done to confirm the results of previous evaluations conducted on 15 families of local chickens of Indonesia. An analysis of 210 individuals Kampung chicken (Aceh, North Sumatra, Lampung, Banten, Central Java, Lombok, Sulawesi, Ternate...

  5. Transmission of Salmonella between broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed

    OpenAIRE

    Heres, L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jong, de, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the light of food safety and the control of Salmonella at chicken farms, fermented liquid feed (FLF) was studied. This moistened feed reduced the susceptibility of chickens for Salmonella. To assess the effect of the fermented feed on the transmission of Salmonella between chickens, a transmission experiment was performed. Salmonella shedding was followed within groups of two susceptible chickens together with two previously inoculated chickens. The between-chicken transmission was quantif...

  6. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p chickens.

  7. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations.

  8. Study on immunofunction and immunoregulation post newcastle disease vaccination of chickens infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with chicken anemia virus (CAV) at one-day-old and vaccinated with La Sota vaccine 8 days later. Meanwhile, uninfected chickens were vaccinated as controls. At 7, 14 and 28 days post vaccination, the content of IgG,IgM,IgA and HI titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T、B cells, the inductive activity of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon (IFN) in thymus and spleen were tested. The results showed that the content of IgG, IgM, IgA and hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in serum, the number of T cells, IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in thymus, bursa and spleen, the proliferative response of T cells and B cells as well as the inductive activity of IL-2 and IFN in thymus and spleen of infected-vaccinated chickens significantly decreased compared with the control. These results indicated that the immunofunction and immunoregulation were dropped post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  9. Loss of Responses to Visual But Not Electrical Stimulation in Ganglion Cells of Rats With Severe Photoreceptor Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Retinal implants are intended to help patients with degenerative conditions by electrically stimulating surviving cells to produce artificial vision. However, little is known about how individual retinal ganglion cells respond to direct electrical stimulation in degenerating retina. Here we used a transgenic rat model to characterize ganglion cell responses to light and electrical stimulation during photoreceptor degeneration. Retinas from pigmented P23H-1 rats were compared with wild-type re...

  10. Transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons in deaf guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive noise, ototoxic drugs, infections, autoimmune diseases, and aging can cause loss of spiral ganglion neurons, leading to permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Stem cells have been confirmed to be able to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. Little has been reported on adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons. In this study, we hypothesized that transplantation of neural induced-human ADSCs (NI-hADSCs can repair the injured spiral ganglion neurons in guinea pigs with neomycin-induced sensorineural hearing loss. NI-hADSCs were induced with culture medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor and forskolin and then injected to the injured cochleae. Guinea pigs that received injection of Hanks′ balanced salt solution into the cochleae were used as controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the number of surviving spiral ganglion neurons in the cell transplantation group was significantly increased than that in the control group. Also at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that a greater number of NI-hADSCs in the spiral ganglions were detected in the cell transplantation group than in the control group, and these NI-hADSCs expressed neuronal markers neurofilament protein and microtubule-associated protein 2. Within 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the guinea pigs in the cell transplantation group had a gradually decreased auditory brainstem response threshold, while those in the control group had almost no response to 80 dB of clicks or pure tone burst. These findings suggest that a large amount of NI-hADSCs migrated to the spiral ganglions, survived for a period of time, repaired the injured spiral ganglion cells, and thereby contributed to the recovery of sensorineural hearing loss in guinea pigs.

  11. Axonal transmission in the retina introduces a small dispersion of relative timing in the ganglion cell population response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Zeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual stimuli elicit action potentials in tens of different retinal ganglion cells. Each ganglion cell type responds with a different latency to a given stimulus, thus transforming the high-dimensional input into a temporal neural code. The timing of the first spikes between different retinal projection neurons cells may further change along axonal transmission. The purpose of this study is to investigate if intraretinal conduction velocity leads to a synchronization or dispersion of the population signal leaving the eye. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We 'imaged' the initiation and transmission of light-evoked action potentials along individual axons in the rabbit retina at micron-scale resolution using a high-density multi-transistor array. We measured unimodal conduction velocity distributions (1.3±0.3 m/sec, mean ± SD for axonal populations at all retinal eccentricities with the exception of the central part that contains myelinated axons. The velocity variance within each piece of retina is caused by ganglion cell types that show narrower and slightly different average velocity tuning. Ganglion cells of the same type respond with similar latency to spatially homogenous stimuli and conduct with similar velocity. For ganglion cells of different type intraretinal conduction velocity and response latency to flashed stimuli are negatively correlated, indicating that differences in first spike timing increase (up to 10 msec. Similarly, the analysis of pair-wise correlated activity in response to white-noise stimuli reveals that conduction velocity and response latency are negatively correlated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Intraretinal conduction does not change the relative spike timing between ganglion cells of the same type but increases spike timing differences among ganglion cells of different type. The fastest retinal ganglion cells therefore act as indicators of new stimuli for postsynaptic neurons. The intraretinal dispersion

  12. Nitric oxide in prepubertal rat ovary contribution of the ganglionic nitric oxide synthase system via superior ovarian nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Marilina; Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Vallcaneras, Sandra; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2007-02-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. Considering the existence of the nitric oxide/ nitric oxide synthase system in the peripheral neural system and in the ovary, the aim of this work was to analyze if the liberation of NO in the ovarian compartment of prepubertal rats is of ovarian and/or ganglionic origin. The analysis is carried out from a physiological point of view using the experimental coeliac ganglion--Superior Ovarian Nerve--ovary model with and without ganglionic cholinergic stimulus Acetylcholine (Ach) 10(-6) M. Non selective and selective inhibitors of the synthase nitric oxide enzyme were added to the ovarian and ganglionic compartment, and the liberation of nitrites (soluble metabolite of the nitric oxide) in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. We found that the non-selective inhibitor L-nitro-arginina methyl ester (L-NAME) in the ovarian compartment decreased the liberation of nitrites, and that Aminoguanidine (AG) in two concentrations in a non-dose dependent form provoked the same effect. The addition of Ach in ganglion magnified the effect of the inhibitors of the NOS enzyme. The most relevant results after the addition of inhibitors in ganglion were obtained with AG 400 and 800 microM. The inhibition was made evident with and without the joint action of Ach in ganglion. These data suggest that the greatest production of NO in the ovarian compartment comes from the ovary, mainly the iNOS isoform, though the coeliac ganglion also contributes through the superior ovarian nerve but with less quantity.

  13. [Nitric oxide production by normal and injured neurons of Nodose ganglion and Nucleus dorsalis of Vagus nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavkin, P A; Shumatova, T A; Andreeva, N A; Tikhanskiĭ, S N

    2000-01-01

    Nodosum ganglion and nucleus dorsalis contain from 19.2 to 22.65% of NO-positive neurons. Their amount increases up to almost 77.4 and 68.8% in the ganglion and the nucleus dorsalis, respectively, in the damaged nervus vagus due to i-NOS transcription. It has been shown that NO participates in desorganization and recovery of the traumatic neuron, as auto- and paracrine regulator.

  14. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    ) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....

  15. Ciliary transport regulates PDGF-AA/αα signaling via elevated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and diminished PP2A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Nicole L; Caspary, Tamara

    2015-01-15

    Primary cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), whereby the two IFT complexes, IFTA and IFTB, carry cargo via kinesin and dynein motors for anterograde and retrograde transport, respectively. Many signaling pathways, including platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/αα, are linked to primary cilia. Active PDGF-AA/αα signaling results in phosphorylation of Akt at two residues: P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473), and previous work showed decreased P-Akt(S473) in response to PDGF-AA upon anterograde transport disruption. In this study, we investigated PDGF-AA/αα signaling via P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473) in distinct ciliary transport mutants. We found increased Akt phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF-AA stimulation, which we show is due to impaired dephosphorylation resulting from diminished PP2A activity toward P-Akt(T308). Anterograde transport mutants display low platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α levels, whereas retrograde mutants exhibit normal PDGFRα levels. Despite this, neither shows an increase in P-Akt(S473) or P-Akt(T308) upon PDGF-AA stimulation. Because mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is increased in ciliary transport mutant cells and mTOR signaling inhibits PDGFRα levels, we demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1 rescues PDGFRα levels as well as PDGF-AA-dependent phosphorylation of Akt(S473) and Akt(T308) in ciliary transport mutant MEFs. Taken together, our data indicate that the regulation of mTORC1 signaling and PP2A activity by ciliary transport plays key roles in PDGF-AA/αα signaling.

  16. Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Motor Unit According to Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Polymorphism in Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ae-Rim Hong, Sang-Min Hong, Yun-A Shin

    2014-01-01

    Changes in muscle mass and strength across the adult age span are variable and related to the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genotype. In particular, a single CNTF haplotype (1357 G→A) is important for neuronal and muscular developments and may be associated with muscle strength response to resistance training. We examined whether CNTF genotype differentially influences the effect of resistance training on neuromuscular improvement in male college students. Resistance training of the uppe...

  17. Analysis of reproductive isolation between pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.) and P. ramosum, P. schweinfurthii, P. squamulatum, Cenchrus ciliaris

    OpenAIRE

    Marchais, Louis; TOSTAIN, Serge

    1997-01-01

    Crosses between pearl millet lines and #Pennisetum ramosum$, #P. schweinfurthii$, #P. squamulatum$ or #Cenchrus ciliaris$ were observed for the frequency and development of zygotes, the possibility of embryo rescue, and the fertility of F1 hybrids obtained. Eight per cent of the ovules from diploid millet x #P. ramosum$ crosses showed small embryos which could not be rescued. However, 59% of the ovules from tetraploid millet x #P. ramosum$ crosses showed well-developed embryos that were easy ...

  18. Evaluation of residual functional lung volume on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy in primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Lai, Yung-Chuang; Lu, Chia-Ying; Dai, Zen-Kong

    2008-12-01

    Kartagener syndrome is diagnosed as sinusitis, bronchitis (bronchiectasis), and situs inversus by the clinical features. It is a subclass of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) disease. A 12-year-old girl who had frequent upper and lower airway infections since birth, which was confirmed as Kartagener syndrome by HRCT imaging. We present the residual functional lung volume and mucociliary clearance findings seen on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy.

  19. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  20. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  1. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    , and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p test). However, intratympanic steroid significantly increased the number of viable neurons...... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  2. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p neurons...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  3. The pterygopalatine ganglion and its role in various pain syndromes: from anatomy to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piagkou, Maria; Demesticha, Theano; Troupis, Theodore; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Skandalakis, Panayiotis; Makri, Aggeliki; Mazarakis, Antonios; Lappas, Dimitrios; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Johnson, Elizabeth O

    2012-06-01

    The postsynaptic fibers of the pterygopalatine or sphenopalatine ganglion (PPG or SPG) supply the lacrimal and nasal glands. The PPG appears to play an important role in various pain syndromes including headaches, trigeminal and sphenopalatine neuralgia, atypical facial pain, muscle pain, vasomotor rhinitis, eye disorders, and herpes infection. Clinical trials have shown that these pain disorders can be managed effectively with sphenopalatine ganglion blockade (SPGB). In addition, regional anesthesia of the distribution area of the SPG sensory fibers for nasal and dental surgery can be provided by SPGB via a transnasal, transoral, or lateral infratemporal approach. To arouse the interest of the modern-day clinicians in the use of the SPGB, the advantages, disadvantages, and modifications of the available methods for blockade are discussed.▪

  4. Sphenopalatine ganglion treatment with radiofrequency in a Sluder syndrome young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sluder's neuralgia or sphenopalatine ganglion neuralgia is a pain syndrome first described by Sluder in 1908. The clinical picture is characterised by pain starting around the eye and the route of nose. Typically the pain is accompanied by parasympathetic disautonomic signs such as lacrimation and/or rhinorrhea. However, many official headache classifications do not mention the Sluder's neuralgia at all, which is instead classified as a cluster headache (CH. In case of resistance to pharmacological management pain the physician could recur to sphenopalatine ganglion (GSP neurolytic block with continuous radiofrequency (CRF or its no ablative alternative with pulsed radiofrequency (PRF. We are presenting a case of a 16-year-old woman who suffered from a typical Sluder's neuralgia successfully treated with GSP PRF.

  5. The same dorsal root ganglion neurons innervate uterus and colon in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Victor; Christensen, Amy; Wakamatsu, Micah; McDonald, Michelle; Rapkin, Andrea; McDonald, John; Micevych, Paul

    2007-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary sensory neurons that innervate the uterus receive convergent input from the colon. To test this, in the rat, cell bodies of colonic and uterine dorsal root ganglia were retrogradely labeled with fluorescent tracer dyes microinjected into the colon/rectum and bilaterally into the uterine horns. Ganglia were harvested, cryoprotected and cut into 20 microm slices to identify positively stained cells for fluorescent microscopy. Up to 5% of neurons were colon-specific or uterus-specific, and 10-15% of labeled ganglion neurons innervate both viscera in the L1, L2, L6 and S1-S3 levels. These results suggest a novel form of visceral sensory integration in the dorsal root ganglion that may underlie comorbidity of many functional pain syndromes.

  6. Lethal effect of the serotonin-xylocaineR association in ganglion-blocked rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, L B; Oliveira-Filho, R M; Armonia, P L; Saraceni, G; Nassif, M; De Lucia, R

    1976-12-01

    In rats anestetized with urethane and under ganglionic blockade by hexamethonium (20 mg/kg, i.v.), the i.v. injection of serotonin (60 mug/kg) determined apnea, ECG alterations and a brief hypotensive response which is similar to that as elicited when 5-HT is given to intact rats. During the hypertension which follows that initial response, apnea is still present along with more severe ECG changes. After that, blood pressure falls into a prolonged hypotension, which is invariably accompanied by death. Neither norepinephrine, nor respiratory analeptics (CoramineR, RemeflinF) were able to prevent the fatal outcome. Only artificial respiration was found to be useful in some instances. It was concluded that the association serotonin plus lidocaine becomes lethal when given to ganglion-blocked rate, and this toxic effect can be ascribed mainly to the respiratory depressor activity of the drugs.

  7. Direction selectivity is computed by active dendritic integration in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivyer, Benjamin; Williams, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    Active dendritic integration is thought to enrich the computational power of central neurons. However, a direct role of active dendritic processing in the execution of defined neuronal computations in intact neural networks has not been established. Here we used multi-site electrophysiological recording techniques to demonstrate that active dendritic integration underlies the computation of direction selectivity in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells fire action potentials in response to visual image movement in a preferred direction. Dendritic recordings revealed that preferred-direction moving-light stimuli led to dendritic spike generation in terminal dendrites, which were further integrated and amplified as they spread through the dendritic arbor to the axon to drive action potential output. In contrast, when light bars moved in a null direction, synaptic inhibition vetoed neuronal output by directly inhibiting terminal dendritic spike initiation. Active dendritic integration therefore underlies a physiologically engaged circuit-based computation in the retina.

  8. Specific projection of displaced retinal ganglion cells upon the accessory optic system in the pigeon (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, J H; Fite, K V; Brecha, N

    1977-04-01

    In the pigeon, the nucleus of the basal optic root, a component of the accessory optic system, projects directly upon the vestibulo-cerebellum. This nucleus receives a prominent projection composed of large-diameter retinal axons, known as the basal optic root. The cells of origin of this tract were identified using horseradish peroxidase (donor:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.7) as a retrograde marker. Injections of horseradish peroxidase confined primarily to the basal optic root nucleus labeled displaced ganglion cells of the contralateral retina. Cell sizes were 18-30 micronm and the dendrites of these cells were confined to the first stratum of the inner plexiform layer. Approximately 3700 displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into basal optic root. In contrast, no displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into the optic tectum, which labeled only cells in the ganglion cell layer proper. These findings indicate that displaced ganglion cells constitute a unique population of retinal neurons that give rise to a bisynaptic pathway directed to the cerebellum via the nucleus of the basal optic root. These displaced ganglion cells may play a major role inoculomotor reflexes.

  9. Effects of low level laser treatment on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult Hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Fai So; Mason Chin Pang Leung; Qi Cui

    2014-01-01

    Injury to axons close to the neuronal bodies in the mammalian central nervous system causes a large proportion of parenting neurons to degenerate. It is known that optic nerve transection close to the eye in rodents leads to a loss of about half of retinal ganglion cells in 1 week and about 90% in 2 weeks. Using low level laser treatment in the present study, we demonstrated that treatment with helium-neon (660 nm) laser with 15 mW power could delay retinal ganglion cell death after optic nerve axotomy in adult hamsters. The effect was most apparent in the ifrst week with a short period of treatment time (5 minutes) in which 65–66% of retinal ganglion cells survived the optic nerve axotomy whereas 45–47% of retinal ganglion cells did so in optic nerve axotomy controls. We also found that single dose and early commencement of laser irradiation were important in protecting retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve axotomy. These ifndings thus convincingly show that appropriate laser treatment may be neuroprotective to retinal gan-glion cells.

  10. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  11. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Chicken Calpain2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Rong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified chicken calpain 2 (CAPN2 expression in two Chinese chicken breeds (mountainous black-bone chicken breed [MB] and a commercial meat type chicken breed [S01] to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern and its effect on muscle metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed for accurate measurement of the CAPN2 mRNA expression in various tissues from chickens of different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Results showed that the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of CAPN2 compared to the other tissues from the same individual (P<.05. Overall, the CAPN2 mRNA level exhibited a “rise” developmental change in all tissues. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN2 mRNA in all tissues than the MB chicken. Our results suggest that chicken CAPN2 expression may be related to chicken breeds and tissues.

  12. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  13. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98% of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80% chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

  14. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  15. Chicken QTL mapping by multiplex PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate rapid determination of the chromosomal location of quantitative trait loci, the current approaches to gene mapping are improved using a multiplex PCR technique. The high-throughput linkage analysis method described here allows selection of 178 from 328 microsatellite markers through the multiplex PCR method combined with the semi-automatic fluorescence-labeled DNA analysis technology. Those polymorphism markers are distributed on 23 autosomes and one sex chromosome (chromosome Z), covering 3080cM genetic distance. The average marker density is 18cM, dispersed into 30 different sets. These selected polymorphism microsatellite markers segregate with the family members, following the Mendel's heritage laws, and are very useful for chicken linkage map analysis as well as for the research on some important economic quantitative characters of chicken.

  16. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaad T. Bakir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better biodiesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v. The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  17. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  18. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  19. Cardiovascular histamine receptors in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, N; Eyre, P

    1975-08-01

    The effects of mepyramine (H1-antagonist) and burimamide (H2-antagonist) were studied on histamine, 2-methylhistamine (a selective H1-agonist), 4-methylhistamine (a selective H2-agonist) and acetylcholine-induced changes in systemic arterial and central venous pressure and respiration in anaesthetized chickens. The result of this study suggested a predominance of H1 and some H2 histamine receptors in the cardiovascular system of domestic fowl where both are mediating systemic hypotension. There also appears to be predominance of H1 receptors mediating venous hypertension and respiratory apnoea to large doses of histamine and 2-methylhistamine. In addition, a possible involvement of H2-receptors in the cardiovascular system of chicken is suggested by the finding that burimamide always blocked mepyramine potentiated secondary pressor response to histamine and its analogues.

  20. In vitro studies of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of the Indian grasses Dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris and Kala-Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Crude extracts of the stem of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were evaluated against some medically important pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Raoultella planticola, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The dried and powdered stems were successively extracted with hexane, toluene, isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol using soxhlet assembly. The antimicrobial activity assay was done by both disc diffusion and serial dilution methods. Isopropyl alcohol extract of Cenchrus setigerus showed highest activity against Escherichia coli. The test pathogens were more sensitive to the isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol extracts than to the hexane and toluene extracts except against Bacillus subtilis. Result reveals that the most bioactive compound was cycloleucolenol-9,19-cycloergost-24 (28-en-3-ol, 4, 14-dimethyl acetate in both the species of Cenchrus grass, (19.15% in isopropanol extract of Cenchrus setigerus whereas, (14.03% in acetone extract of Cenchrus ciliaris.

  1. Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 in neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neurons in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    García-Hernández, Sofía; Potashner, Steven J.; Morest, D. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Many neurons degenerate after injuries resulting from overstimulation, drugs, genetic mutations, and aging. Although several growth factors and neurotrophins delay degeneration and promote regrowth of neural processes, the role of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) in mammalian spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) neurite outgrowth has not been examined. This study develops and uses SGN cell cultures suitable for experimental analysis, it investigates whether FGF8a and FGF8b isoforms affect the neuri...

  2. Compression of the radial nerve at the elbow by a ganglion: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou I-Ming

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Radial nerve compression by a ganglion in the radial tunnel is not common. Compressive neuropathies of the radial nerve in the radial tunnel can occur anywhere along the course of the nerve and may lead to various clinical manifestations, depending on which branch is involved. We present two unusual cases of ganglions located in the radial tunnel and requiring surgical excision. Case presentation A 31-year-old woman complained of difficulty in fully extending her fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joint for 2 weeks. Before her first visit, she had noticed a swelling and pain in her right elbow over the anterolateral forearm. The extension muscle power of the metacarpophalangeal joints at the fingers and the interphalangeal joint at the thumb had decreased. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow revealed a cystic lesion located at the area of the arcade of Frohse. A thin-walled ovoid cyst was found against the posterior interosseous nerve during surgical excision. Pathological examination was compatible with a ganglion cyst. The second case involved a 36-year-old woman complaining of numbness over the radial aspect of her hand and wrist, but without swelling or tumor in this area. The patient had slightly decreased sensitivity in the distribution of the sensory branch of the radial nerve. There was no muscle weakness on extension of the fingers and wrist. Surgical exposure defined a ganglion cyst in the shoulder of the division of the radial nerve into its superficial sensory and posterior interosseous components. There has been no disease recurrence after following both patients for 2 years. Conclusion Compression of nerves by extraneural soft tissue tumors of the extremities should be considered when a patient presents with progressive weakness or sensory changes in an extremity. Surgical excision should be promptly performed to ensure optimal recovery from the nerve palsy.

  3. THE NEURONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1 IN THE TRIGEMINAL GANGLION OF THE RAT

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to produce antinociception and antihyperalgesia by acting upon cannabinoid receptors located in both the CNS and the periphery. A potential mechanism by which cannabinoids could inhibit nociception in the periphery is the activation of cannabinoid receptors located on one or more classes of primary nociceptive neurons. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of...

  4. Retinal ganglion cell density of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis): calculating visual resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, John D; Manger, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    A single right retina from a black rhinoceros was whole mounted, stained and analyzed to determine the visual resolution of the rhinoceros, an animal with reputedly poor eyesight. A range of small (15-microm diameter) to large (100-microm diameter) ganglion cell types was seen across the retina. We observed two regions of high density of retinal ganglion cells at either end of a long, but thin, horizontal streak. The temporal specialization, which receives light from the anterior visual field, exhibited a ganglion cell density of approximately 2000/mm2, while the nasal specialization exhibited a density of approximately 1500/mm2. The retina exhibited a ganglion cell density bias toward the upper half, especially so, the upper temporal quadrant, indicating that the rhinoceros would be processing visual information from the visual field below the anterior horizon for the most part. Our calculations indicate that the rhinoceros has a visual resolution of 6 cycles/degree. While this resolution is one-tenth that of humans (60 cycles/deg) and less than that of the domestic cat (9 cycles/deg), it is comparable to that of the rabbit (6 cycles/deg), and exceeds that seen in a variety of other mammals including seals, dolphins, microbats, and rats. Thus, the reputation of the rhinoceros as a myopic, weakly visual animal is not supported by our observations of the retina. We calculate that the black rhinoceros could readily distinguish a 30 cm wide human at a distance of around 200 m given the appropriate visual background.

  5. The Formation of a Pretibial Ganglion Cyst After the Reconstruction of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seok Jin; Park, Ji Seon; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Park, Yong Goo; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Young; Jin, Wook [Kyung Hee University East-West NEO Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The formation of a pretibial ganglion cyst after the reconstruction of an anterior cruciate ligament is an uncommon complication which may be a result of the degradation of the biodegradable screw or a variety of other reasons. The authors report a case of a significantly large pretibial cyst, which probably occurred as a result of no treatment over a long period, along with a description of the clinical manifestations and radiologic findings

  6. Loss of COUP-TFI alters the balance between caudal ganglionic eminence- and medial ganglionic eminence-derived cortical interneurons and results in resistance to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Simona; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; De Leonibus, Elvira; Uzcategui, Yoryani G; Andolfi, Gennaro; Armentano, Maria; Touzot, Audrey; Gaztelu, Jose M; Arlotta, Paola; Menendez de la Prida, Liset; Studer, Michèle

    2011-03-23

    In rodents, cortical interneurons originate from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) according to precise temporal schedules. The mechanisms controlling the specification of CGE-derived interneurons and their role in cortical circuitry are still unknown. Here, we show that COUP-TFI expression becomes restricted to the dorsal MGE and CGE at embryonic day 13.5 in the basal telencephalon. Conditional loss of function of COUP-TFI in subventricular precursors and postmitotic cells leads to a decrease of late-born, CGE-derived, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide)- and CR (calretinin)-expressing bipolar cortical neurons, compensated by the concurrent increase of early-born MGE-derived, PV (parvalbumin)-expressing interneurons. Strikingly, COUP-TFI mutants are more resistant to pharmacologically induced seizures, a phenotype that is dependent on GABAergic signaling. Together, our data indicate that COUP-TFI controls the delicate balance between MGE- and CGE-derived cortical interneurons by regulating intermediate progenitor divisions and ultimately affecting the activity of the cortical inhibitory circuitry.

  7. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  8. Pharmacokinetics and residues of enrofloxacin in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, A; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Díaz, M J; Bringas, P; Martínez, M A; Fernàndez-Cruz, M L; Fernández, M C; Fernández, R

    1995-04-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of enrofloxacin were determined in broiler chickens after single IV and orally administered doses of 10 mg/kg of body weight. After IV and oral administrations, the plasma concentration-time graph was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life and the mean +/- SEM residence time of enrofloxacin for plasma were 10.29 +/- 0.45 and 9.65 +/- 0.48 hours, respectively, after IV administration and 14.23 +/- 0.46 and 15.30 +/- 0.53 hours, respectively, after oral administration. After single oral administration, enrofloxacin was absorbed slowly, with time to reach maximal plasma concentration of 1.64 +/- 0.04 hours. Maximal plasma concentration was 2.44 +/- 0.06 micrograms/ml. Oral bioavailability was found to be 64.0 +/- 0.2%. Statistically significant differences between the 2 routes of administration were found for the pharmacokinetic variables--half-lives of the distribution and elimination phase and apparent volume of distribution and volume of distribution at steady state. In chickens, enrofloxacin was extensively metabolized into ciprofloxacin. Residues of enrofloxacin and the major metabolite ciprofloxacin in fat, kidney, liver, lungs, muscles, and skin were measured in chickens that received an orally administered dose of 10 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. The results indicate that enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues were cleared slowly. Mean muscle, liver, and kidney concentrations of the metabolite ciprofloxacin ranging between 0.020 and 0.075 micrograms/g persisted on day 12 in chickens after dosing. However, at the time of slaughter (12 days), enrofloxacin residues were only detected in liver and mean +/- SEM concentration was 0.025 +/- 0.003 micrograms/g.

  9. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  10. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doaa M Abd El-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods:One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results:S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40%and 48%in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions:The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.

  11. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h in ganglion-cell photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Van Hook

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs express the photopigment melanopsin and serve as the primary retinal drivers of non-image-forming visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment, the pupillary light reflex, and suppression of melatonin production in the pineal. Past electrophysiological studies of these cells have focused on their intrinsic photosensitivity and synaptic inputs. Much less is known about their voltage-gated channels and how these might shape their output to non-image-forming visual centers. Here, we show that rat ipRGCs retrolabeled from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN express a hyperpolarization-activated inwardly-rectifying current (I(h. This current is blocked by the known I(h blockers ZD7288 and extracellular cesium. As in other systems, including other retinal ganglion cells, I(h in ipRGCs is characterized by slow kinetics and a slightly greater permeability for K(+ than for Na(+. Unlike in other systems, however, I(h in ipRGCs apparently does not actively contribute to resting membrane potential. We also explore non-specific effects of the common I(h blocker ZD7288 on rebound depolarization and evoked spiking and discuss possible functional roles of I(h in non-image-forming vision. This study is the first to characterize I(h in a well-defined population of retinal ganglion cells, namely SCN-projecting ipRGCs.

  12. Role of calcium conductance in firing behavior of retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wang; Qingli Qiao; Nan Xie

    2011-01-01

    Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model of retinal ganglion cells consists of five ion channels; these are sodium channels, calcium channels, and 3 types of potassium channels. An increasing number of studies have investigated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels, and delayed rectifier potassium channels. However, little is known about calcium channels, and in particular the dynamics and computational models of calcium ions. Retinal prostheses have been designed to assist with sight recovery for the blind, and in the present study, the effects of calcium ions in retinal ganglion cell models were analyzed with regard to calcium channel potential and calcium-activated potassium potential. Using MATLAB software, calcium conductance and calcium current from the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model, under clamped voltages, were numerically computed using backward Euler methods. Subsequently, the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model was simulated with the absence of calcium-current (lc,) or calcium-activated potassium current (IK, ca). The model was also analyzed according to the phase plane method.The relationship curve between peak calcium current and clamped potentials revealed an inverted bell shape, and the calcium-activated potassium current increased the frequency of firing and the peak of membrane potential. Results suggested that calcium ion concentrations play an important role in controlling the peak and the magnitude of peak membrane voltage in retinal ganglion cells.

  13. Dorsal root ganglion neurons promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Xiao-rui Jiang; Lei Wang; Fang-min Chen; Lin Xu; Fei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary animal experiments have conifrmed that sensory nerve ifbers promote osteoblast differentiation, but motor nerve ifbers have no promotion effect. Whether sensory neurons pro-mote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains unclear. No results at the cellular level have been reported. In this study, dorsal root ganglion neurons (sensory neurons) from Sprague-Dawley fetal rats were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with green lfuorescent protein 3 weeks after osteo-genic differentiationin vitro, while osteoblasts derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells served as the control group. The rat dorsal root ganglion neurons promoted the prolifera-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts at 3 and 5 days of co-culture, as observed by lfuorescence microscopy. The levels of mRNAs for osteogenic differentiation-re-lated factors (including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2) in the co-culture group were higher than those in the control group, as detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Our ifndings indicate that dorsal root ganglion neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which pro-vides a theoretical basis forin vitro experiments aimed at constructing tissue-engineered bone.

  14. The Role of Cyclooxygenase in Multiplication and Reactivation of HSV-1 in Vestibular Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuehong; Li, Shufeng; Wang, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and nerve inflammation have been shown to be involved in vertigo-related vestibular pathogenesis. Treatments of such diseases have been less than perfect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to suppress reactivation of HSV-1 in trigeminal ganglions. However, whether this drug can affect reactivation of HSV-1 in vestibular ganglions is unclear. Due to the difficulties of constructing in vivo animal models, in this study, we developed a vestibular ganglion culture system, in which vestibular neurons were latently or lytically infected with HSV-1. Indomethacin and celecoxib were selected to measure their effects on HSV-1. Trichostatin A was used to reactivate HSV-1 in latently infected neurons. Cycloxygenase-2, which is the target of NSAIDs, was induced by HSV-1 in the lytically infected cultures, with an increase of 14-fold. Although it appeared that indomethacin and celecoxib showed limited but concentration-dependent inhibition effects on viral production under our condition, indomethacin decreased reactivation rate of HSV-1 by about 20%. Though more in vitro or in vivo studies are needed to confirm the effects of the drugs, our study may provide a potential way to investigate the mechanism of HSV-related vestibular pathogenesis as well as new treatments of vertigo-related diseases. PMID:24688447

  15. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Michael J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS can present as Guyon's canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon's canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS. Case presentation A 54-year-old female secretary was referred with a six-month history of right little finger weakness and difficulty with adduction. Prior to her referral, she was diagnosed by her general practitioner and physiotherapist with a right ulnar nerve neuropraxia at the level of the Guyon's canal. This was thought to be secondary to computer keyboard use and direct pressure exerted on a wrist support. There was obvious atrophy of the hypothenar eminence and the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Both Froment's and Wartenberg's signs were positive. A nerve conduction study revealed that both the abductor digiti minimi and the first dorsal interosseus muscles showed prolonged motor latency. Ulnar conduction across the right elbow was normal. Ulnar sensory amplitude across the right wrist to the fifth digit was reduced while the dorsal cutaneous nerve response was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right wrist showed a ganglion in Guyon's canal. Decompression of the Guyon's canal was performed and histological examination confirmed a ganglion. The patient's symptoms and signs resolved completely at four-month follow-up. Conclusion Clinical history, occupational history and examination alone could potentially lead to misdiagnosis of OOS when a computer user presents with these symptoms and we recommend that nerve conduction or imaging studies be performed.

  16. Adult human nasal mesenchymal-like stem cells restore cochlear spiral ganglion neurons after experimental lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Esperanza; Van De Water, Thomas R; Lumbreras, Vicente; Rajguru, Suhrud; Goss, Garrett; Hare, Joshua M; Goldstein, Bradley J

    2014-03-01

    A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic.

  17. The Role of Cyclooxygenase in Multiplication and Reactivation of HSV-1 in Vestibular Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of latent herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1 and nerve inflammation have been shown to be involved in vertigo-related vestibular pathogenesis. Treatments of such diseases have been less than perfect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been reported to suppress reactivation of HSV-1 in trigeminal ganglions. However, whether this drug can affect reactivation of HSV-1 in vestibular ganglions is unclear. Due to the difficulties of constructing in vivo animal models, in this study, we developed a vestibular ganglion culture system, in which vestibular neurons were latently or lytically infected with HSV-1. Indomethacin and celecoxib were selected to measure their effects on HSV-1. Trichostatin A was used to reactivate HSV-1 in latently infected neurons. Cycloxygenase-2, which is the target of NSAIDs, was induced by HSV-1 in the lytically infected cultures, with an increase of 14-fold. Although it appeared that indomethacin and celecoxib showed limited but concentration-dependent inhibition effects on viral production under our condition, indomethacin decreased reactivation rate of HSV-1 by about 20%. Though more in vitro or in vivo studies are needed to confirm the effects of the drugs, our study may provide a potential way to investigate the mechanism of HSV-related vestibular pathogenesis as well as new treatments of vertigo-related diseases.

  18. Alternativas de manejo químico da planta daninha Digitaria ciliaris resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase na cultura de soja Chemical management alternatives of the weed Digitaria ciliaris resistant to ACCASE inhibiting herbicides in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. López-Ovejero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia dos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase sobre uma população de capim-colchão (Digitaria ciliaris com histórico de falha de controle, bem como propor herbicidas alternativos a serem aplicados em condições de pré e pós-emergência na cultura de soja, foram conduzidos dois experimentos a campo no município de Palmeira-PR, durante o ano agrícola 2003/2004. No primeiro experimento, foi avaliada a eficácia dos tratamentos envolvendo herbicidas com mecanismo de ação de inibição da ACCase (g ha-1: sethoxydim (230, clethodim (108, butroxydim (75, tepraloxydim (100, fluazifop-p-butil (187,5, haloxyfop-r (60, propaquizafop (125, cyhalofop-butyl (225, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl + clethodim (50 + 50, além de testemunha sem herbicidas. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de herbicidas com mecanismos de ação alternativos, visando também o teste de eficácia de controle da planta daninha (g ha-1: trifluralina (2.700, clomazone (1.000, smetolachlor (1.920, sulfentrazone (600, trifluralina + sulfentrazone (2.100 + 400, clomazone + sulfentrazone (600 + 400, S-metolachlor + sulfentrazone (768 + 400 aplicados em condições de pré-emergência da planta daninha e da cultura e testemunha sem controle de plantas daninhas; os tratamentos apresentavam-se com ou sem complementação de controle através do herbicida imazethapyr (100, aplicado em condições de pós-emergência, com as plantas daninhas no estádio de duas a quatro folhas. Os resultados sugerem que a população estudada é resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase; os melhores resultados de eficácia de controle com os inibidores da ACCase foram obtidos com os herbicidas tepraloxydim, clethodim e butroxydim; os tratamentos com sulfentrazone isoladamente ou em mistura e os tratamentos com trifluralina, clomazone e S-metolachlor, em complementação com imazethapyr e imazethapyr isolado, foram eficazes no controle do biótipo resistente de

  19. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  20. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.