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Sample records for chick heart neural

  1. Chick heart invasion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture.

  2. Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks.

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    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. Draxin, an axon guidance protein, affects chick trunk neural crest migration.

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    Su, Yuhong; Naser, Iftekhar B; Islam, Shahidul M; Zhang, Sanbing; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Chen, Sandy; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawakami, Minoru; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2009-12-01

    The neural crest is a multipotent population of migratory cells that arises in the central nervous system and subsequently migrates along defined stereotypic pathways. In the present work, we analyzed the role of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, in the migration of neural crest cells. Draxin is expressed in the roof plate of the chick trunk spinal cord and around the early migration pathway of neural crest cells. Draxin modulates chick neural crest cell migration in vitro by reducing the polarization of these cells. When exposed to draxin, the velocity of migrating neural crest cells was reduced, and the cells changed direction so frequently that the net migration distance was also reduced. Overexpression of draxin also caused some early migrating neural crest cells to change direction to the dorsolateral pathway in the chick trunk region, presumably due to draxin's inhibitory activity. These results demonstrate that draxin, an axon guidance protein, can also affect trunk neural crest migration in the chick embryo.

  4. Studies on the Relationship between the Embryonic Heart Development and the Amnion Folding in Chick

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    Yongqing Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a model animal for developmental biology, chick embryo is easy to control and observe during embryo development period and therefore it is widely used in the study of cardiac development. The application of proteomics has opened the door for large-scale studies to dissect both protein expression, regulation and function during chick heart developing stages. The proteomics study requires to quickly separate a large number of chick heart samples with the same developing stage. However, the traditional morphological standards based on Hamburger-Hamilton and Witschi stages are difficult to fulfill this requirement. Herein, we suppose a new standard for distinguishing chick heart morphology in different developing stages based on the relationship between the embryonic heart development and the amnion folding in chick. Based on this standard, we can accelerate the speed of embryonic heart sample separation and guarantee the quantity and quality of the sample more reliably.

  5. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Hauten, B.A.M. van; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  6. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  7. From the Cover: Exposing Imidacloprid Interferes With Neurogenesis Through Impacting on Chick Neural Tube Cell Survival.

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    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Zhong, Shan; Qi, Guo-Long; Wang, Chao-Jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-09-01

    As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control insects in agriculture and fleas on domestic animals. However, it is not known whether imidacloprid exposure negatively affects neurogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, using a chick embryo model, we investigated the effects of imidacloprid exposure on neurogenesis at the earliest stage and during late-stage embryo development. Exposing HH0 chick embryos to imidacloprid in EC culture caused neural tube defects (NTDs) and neuronal differentiation dysplasia as determined by NF/Tuj1 labeling. Furthermore, we found that F-actin accumulation on the apical side of the neural tube was suppressed by exposure to imidacloprid, and the expression of BMP4 and Shh on the dorsal and ventral sides of the neural tubes, respectively, were also reduced, which in turn affects the dorsolateral hinge points during bending of the neural plate. In addition, exposure to imidacloprid reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, as determined by pHIS3 labeling and TUNEL staining, respectively, also contributing to the malformation. We obtained similar results in late-stage embryos exposed to imidacloprid. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was employed to determine which genes identified in this study were involved in NTDs. The experimental evidence and bioinformatics analysis suggested that imidacloprid exposure during chick embryo development could increase the risk of NTDs and neural dysplasia.

  8. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis.

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    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-03-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7(+) somite development and directly increased HNK-1(+) neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1(+) neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development.

  9. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

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    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  10. Effect of Cyclophosphamide on Neural Tube Development in Chick Embryos

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    SHABANA SULTANA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent. CP has potent immunosuppressive properties and issued clinically in a number of autoimmune disorders like Wegener’s granulomatosis, rheumatoid arthritis, nephritic syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous and has also been used to prevent organ rejection after transplantation. In the present study fertilized eggs were administered with cyclophosphamide and the development of neural tube was studied after 21 days. The histological and gross features of neural tube were identified. Cyclophosphamide cytotoxicity results in depression of proliferation of cell activity associated with malformations and embryonic death. Injection of the drug causes depression of mitotic activity by day 2 which produces malformations.

  11. Measurement of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

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    Dou, Shidan; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Liu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    It is important to measure embryonic heart myocardial wall strain and strain rate for understanding the mechanisms of embryonic heart development. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide depth resolved images with high spatial and temporal resolution, which makes it have the potential to reveal the complex myocardial activity in the early stage embryonic heart. We develop a novel method to measure strain in embryonic chick heart based on spectral domain OCT images and subsequent image processing. We perform 4D(x,y,z,t) scanning on the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts in HH18 stage (~3 days of incubation). Only one image sequence acquired at the special position is selected based on the Doppler blood flow information where the probe beam penetrates through the OFT perpendicularly. For each image of the selected sequence, the cross-section of the myocardial wall can be approximated as an annulus. The OFT is segmented with a semi-automatic boundary detection algorithm, thus the area and mean circumference of the annular myocardial wall can be achieved. The myocardial wall thickness was calculated using the area divided by the mean circumference, and then the strain was obtained. The results demonstrate that OCT can be a useful tool to describe the biomechanical characteristics of the embryonic heart.

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Characteristics in the Embryonic Chick Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Jesper

    . Furthermore it is concluded that the observed Liebau effect does depend on the impedance of the tubes, the frequency and position of the compression pump, but above all the characterization of the pumping function. Different pumping functions are employed in the modeling but no defining characteristics...... modified inertia, and resistance due to friction and curvature of the multilayered tubular heart. Through the modeling, flow conditions in the embryonic heart are characterized. The models suggest that eccentric rather than concentric deformation of the beating heart is optimal for mean flows induced...... the models are not conclusive on this point. In addition the Liebau effect is investigated in a simpler system containing two elastic tubes joined to form a liquid filled ring, with a compression pump at an asymmetric location. Through comparison to other reports the system validates model construction...

  13. Bidirectional Fusion of the Heart-forming Fields in the Developing Chick Embryo

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    Moreno-Rodriguez, R.A.; Krug, E.L.; Reyes, L.; Villavicencio, L.; Mjaatvedt, C.H.; Markwald, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally thought that the early pre-tubular chick heart is formed by fusion of the anterior or cephalic limits of the paired cardiogenic fields. However, this study shows that the heart fields initially fuse at their midpoint to form a transitory “butterfly”-shaped, cardiogenic structure. Fusion then progresses bi-directionally along the longitudinal axis in both cranial and caudal directions. Using in vivo labeling, we demonstrate that cells along the ventral fusion line are highly motile, crossing future primitive segments. We found that mesoderm cells migrated cephalically from the unfused tips of the anterior/cephalic wings into the head mesenchyme in the region that has been called the secondary heart field. Perturbing the anterior/cranial fusion results in formation of a biconal heart. A theoretical role of the ventral fusion line acting as a “heart organizer” and its role in cardia bifida is discussed. PMID:16252277

  14. Measurement of wall shear stress in chick embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography

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    Ma, Zhenhe; Dou, Shidan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Suo, Yanyan; Wang, Fengwen

    2015-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. To study the mechanism, WSS measurement is a step with significant importance. WSS is caused by blood flow imposed on the inner surface of the heart wall and it can be determined by calculating velocity gradients of blood flow in a direction perpendicular to the wall. However, the WSS of the early stage embryonic heart is difficult to measure since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is uniquely suitable for the study of early stage embryonic heart development. In this paper, we introduce a method to measure the WSS of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). 4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. After phase synchronization, OFT boundary segmentation, and OFT center line calculation, Doppler angle of the blood flow in the OFT can be achieved (This method has been described in previous publications). Combining with the Doppler OCT results, we calculate absolute blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT. The boundary of the OFT was segmented at each cross-sectional structural image, then geometrical center of the OFT can be calculated. Thus, the gradients of blood flow in radial direction can be calculated. This velocity gradient near the wall is termed wall shear rate and the WSS value is proportional to the wall shear rate. Based on this method, the WSS at different heart beating phase are compare. The result demonstrates that OCT is capable of early stage chicken embryonic heart WSS study.

  15. Localization and distribution of superoxide dismutase-1 in the neural tube morphogenesis of chick embryo.

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    Dhage, Prajakta A; Kamble, Lekha K; Bhargava, Shobha Y

    2017-02-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD- 1) is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates the levels of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen. ROS are known to play a significant role in various cellular processes, via redox modification of a variety of molecules that participate in signaling pathways involved in this processes. As the levels of ROS in cells are controlled by the levels of antioxidant enzymes, thus SOD-1 may be indirectly involved in regulating different cellular processes by maintaining the required levels of H2O2. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated the possible involvement of SOD- 1 in the neurulation during the development of chick embryo. During gastrulation, SOD- 1 immunoreactivity was observed throughout the ectoderm and cauda mesoderm areas, however, its presence during neurulation was restricted to certain areas of neural tube particularly in the dorsal neural tube where neural tube closure takes place. Assaying enzyme activity revealed a significant increase in the SOD activity during neurulation. Further, inhibition of SOD- 1 by Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) induced abnormalities in the development of the neural tube. SOD- 1 inhibition specifically affected the closure of neural tube in the anterior region. Thus, here we report the presence of SOD- 1 mainly in the ectoderm and tissues of ectodermal origin during gastrulation to neurulation which suggests that it may be involved in the regulating the cellular processes during neural tube morphogenesis.

  16. Metamizole Sodium Induces Neural Tube Defects in a Chick Embryo Model.

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    Guvenc, Yahya; Billur, Deniz; Aydin, Sevim; Ozeren, Ersin; Demirci, Adnan; Alagoz, Fatih; Dalgic, Ali; Belen, Deniz

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metamizole sodium on neural tube development in the early stage chick embryo model that complies with the first month of embryonic development in mammals. A total of 40 fertilized chicken eggs were divided into 4 equal groups. The eggs were incubated in the incubator at a temperature of 37.8±2°C with 60±5% humidity. Group A was the control, Group B was administered physiological saline, Group C was administered 30 mg/kg metamizole sodium (based on the therapeutic index range of it used in humans) and Group D was administered 90 mg/kg metamizole sodium. All embryos were removed from the egg at the 48th hour and morphologically and histologically examined. Normal development was seen and the neural tube was closed in 17 embryos in Groups A and B. A neural tube defect was seen in 2 embryos in group A and in 1 embryo in group B. A neural tube closure defect was seen in all embryos in group C and 9 embryos in group D. There was 1 dead embryo in Group D. Metamizole sodium was seen to produce a neural tube defect in the chicken embyro model.

  17. K channel kinetics during the spontaneous heart beat in embryonic chick ventricle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzanti, M.; DeFelice, L J

    1988-01-01

    By averaging the current that passes through cell-attached patches on beating heart cells, while measuring action potentials with a whole-cell electrode, we were able to study K channels during beating. In 7-d chick ventricle in 1.3 mM K physiological solutions at room temperature, delayed-rectifier channels have three linear conductance states: 60, 30, and 15 pS. The 60 and 15 pS conductances can exist alone, but all three states may appear in the same patch as interconverting conductance le...

  18. Apical accumulation of MARCKS in neural plate cells during neurulation in the chick embryo

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    Arruti Cristina

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neural tube is formed by morphogenetic movements largely dependent on cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin and many of its associated proteins have been proposed as important mediators of neurulation. For instance, mice deficient in MARCKS, an actin cross-linking membrane-associated protein that is regulated by PKC and other kinases, present severe developmental defects, including failure of cranial neural tube closure. Results To determine the distribution of MARCKS, and its possible relationships with actin during neurulation, chick embryos were transversely sectioned and double labeled with an anti-MARCKS polyclonal antibody and phalloidin. In the neural plate, MARCKS was found ubiquitously distributed at the periphery of the cells, being conspicuously accumulated in the apical cell region, in close proximity to the apical actin meshwork. This asymmetric distribution was particularly noticeable during the bending process. After the closure of the neural tube, the apically accumulated MARCKS disappeared, and this cell region became analogous to the other peripheral cell zones in its MARCKS content. Actin did not display analogous variations, remaining highly concentrated at the cell subapical territory. The transient apical accumulation of MARCKS was found throughout the neural tube axis. The analysis of another epithelial bending movement, during the formation of the lens vesicle, revealed an identical phenomenon. Conclusions MARCKS is transiently accumulated at the apical region of neural plate and lens placode cells during processes of bending. This asymmetric subcellular distribution of MARCKS starts before the onset of neural plate bending. These results suggest possible upstream regulatory actions of MARCKS on some functions of the actin subapical meshwork.

  19. Dorsoventral compartmentalization of mesoderm in heart-forming area of chick embryo.

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    Kärner, M; Krinka, D; Padari, K; Kärner, J; Raid, R

    2000-06-01

    In early chick development (stages 5-8) the seemingly homogeneous mesoderm in the heart-forming area splits to somatic and splanchnic cardiogenic layers. Little is known about dorsoventral compartmentalization before splitting. Electron microscopic analysis shows the early dorsoventral polarization of precardiomyocytes. The dorsal compartment has epithelial and the ventral compartment mesenchymal features with numerous protrusions. At stage 5+-6 staining for wheat germ agglutinine (WGA) transiently demarcates the ventral part of mesoderm. The glycosomes (beta-glycogen) show a dorsoventral gradient in the mesoderm of the cardiogenic field during the initial step of the compaction. The differential expression of glycosomes depends on the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta, a component of the wnt-signaling pathway, and might in this spatiotemporal developmental window be involved in the commitment of presumptive cardiogenic and somatic cells. To verify this hypothesis simulation experiments with LiCl in vitro were carried out. The normal splitting of the mesoderm and the development of heart primordia were disturbed. Blocking the receptors of WGA by WGA in vitro at stage 5-5+ perturbs the migration of mesoderm to anterio-medial direction. It appears that early specification of dorsal and ventral compartments of the mesoderm in the heart-forming area correlates with the gradient of glycosomes. Our results suggest that the target of LiCl action (glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta) might be involved in the specification of heart primordia and that WGA receptors mediate the migration of mesoderm to the anteriomedial direction.

  20. Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling in the Developing Chick Heart: The Deranging Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

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    Lucie Hejnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiac contractility. Here we analyzed the key components of myocardial AC signaling in the developing chick embryo and assessed the impact of selected β-blocking agents on this system. Application of metoprolol and carvedilol, two commonly used β-blockers, at embryonic day (ED 8 significantly downregulated (by about 40% expression levels of AC5, the dominant cardiac AC isoform, and the amount of Gsα protein at ED9. Activity of AC stimulated by forskolin was also significantly reduced under these conditions. Interestingly, when administered at ED4, these drugs did not produce such profound changes in the myocardial AC signaling system, except for markedly increased expression of Giα protein. These data indicate that β-blocking agents can strongly derange AC signaling during the first half of embryonic heart development.

  1. Popeye domain containing gene 2 (Popdc2) is a myocyte-specific differentiation marker during chick heart development.

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    Breher, Stephanie S; Mavridou, Eleftheria; Brenneis, Christian; Froese, Alexander; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Brand, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    The Popeye domain containing (popdc) genes constitute a novel gene family encoding proteins of the plasma membrane in muscle cells, with three N-terminal transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic carboxy terminus. In vertebrates, three members of the Popdc gene family have been described. However, in the chick system only two cDNAs, Popdc1 and Popdc3, have been cloned previously. By screening a chick expressed sequence tag database, we report here the identification of five alternatively spliced chick Popdc2 cDNAs with different carboxy termini. Northern blot analysis revealed expression of Popdc2 predominantly in the myocardium and weaker expression in skeletal muscle. By whole-mount in situ hybridization, chick Popdc2 was first detected at Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 7 within the anterior part of the heart fields. In the tubular heart, atrial and ventricular precursor cells stained positively for Popdc2. Weaker expression was observed in myocardium of the outflow tract and sinus venosus. By HH stage 18, the outer curvature myocardium was strongly stained, whereas expression in myocardium of the inner curvature was negligible. Popdc2 expression was absent from the endocardium and propepicardial organ. At HH stage 36, Popdc2 expression was confined to the compact layer myocardium. In addition to the heart, Popdc2 expression was also observed in the myotome and in the muscle-forming fields of the limbs. Our results indicate that Popdc2 is highly expressed in the developing heart and may serve as a novel marker of myocardial differentiation in the chick embryo.

  2. Dissociation of the neural substrates of foraging effort and its social facilitation in the domestic chick.

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    Ogura, Yukiko; Izumi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The frequency or intensity of behavior is often facilitated by the presence of others. This social facilitation has been reported in a variety of animals, including birds and humans. Based on Zajonc's "drive theory," we hypothesized that facilitation and drive have shared neural mechanisms, and that dopaminergic projections from the midbrain to striatum are involved. As the ascending dopaminergic projections include the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways, we targeted our lesions at the medial striatum (MSt) and substantia nigra (SN). We found that a bilateral electrolytic lesion of the MSt suppressed baseline foraging effort, but social facilitation was intact. Conversely, an electrolytic lesion targeted at the unilateral SN (on the right side) partially suppressed social facilitation, while baseline foraging effort remained unaffected. However, selective depletion of catecholaminergic (thyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive) terminals by micro-infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to bilateral MSt had no significant effects on foraging behavior, whereas it impaired formation of the association memory reinforced by water reward. Neurochemical assay by high-perfromance liquid chromatography also revealed a significant decrease in the dopamine and noradrenaline contents in MSt after 6-OHDA micro-infusion compared with intact control chicks. Thus, we conclude that the neural substrate of social facilitation can be dissociated from that responsible for reward-based foraging effort, and that ascending dopaminergic pathways do not appear to contribute to social facilitation. Based on our detailed analysis of the lesion areas, we discuss fiber tracts or neural components of the midbrain tegmental area that may be responsible for social facilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoskeletal heart-enriched actin-associated protein (CHAP) is expressed in striated and smooth muscle cells in chick and mouse during embryonic and adult stages.

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    van Eldik, Willemijn; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine; Mummery, Christine; Passier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified a new Z-disc protein, CHAP (Cytoskeletal Heart-enriched Actin-associated Protein), which is expressed in striated muscle and plays an important role during embryonic muscle development in mouse and zebrafish. Here, we confirm and further extend these findings by (i) the identification and characterization of the CHAP orthologue in chick and (ii) providing a detailed analysis of CHAP expression in mouse during embryonic and adult stages. Chick CHAP contains a PDZ domain and a nuclear localization signal, resembling the human and mouse CHAPa. CHAP is expressed in the developing heart and somites, as well as muscle precursors of the limb buds in mouse and chick embryos. CHAP expression in heart and skeletal muscle is maintained in adult mice, both in slow and fast muscle fibers. Moreover, besides expression in striated muscle, we demonstrate that CHAP is expressed in smooth muscle cells of aorta, carotid and coronary arteries in adult mice, but not during embryonic development.

  4. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

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    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  5. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  6. Circadian profiles in the embryonic chick heart: L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and signaling pathways.

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    Ko, Michael L; Shi, Liheng; Grushin, Kirill; Nigussie, Fikru; Ko, Gladys Y-P

    2010-10-01

    Circadian clocks exist in the heart tissue and modulate multiple physiological events, from cardiac metabolism to contractile function and expression of circadian oscillator and metabolic-related genes. Ample evidence has demonstrated that there are endogenous circadian oscillators in adult mammalian cardiomyocytes. However, mammalian embryos cannot be entrained independently to light-dark (LD) cycles in vivo without any maternal influence, but circadian genes are well expressed and able to oscillate in embryonic stages. The authors took advantage of using chick embryos that are independent of maternal influences to investigate whether embryonic hearts could be entrained under LD cycles in ovo. The authors found circadian regulation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), the ion channels responsible for the production of cardiac muscle contraction in embryonic chick hearts. The mRNA levels and protein expression of VGCCα1C and VGCCα1D are under circadian control, and the average L-VGCC current density is significantly larger when cardiomyocytes are recorded during the night than day. The phosphorylation states of several kinases involved in insulin signaling and cardiac metabolism, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), stress-activated protein kinase (p38), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), are also under circadian control. Both Erk and p38 have been implicated in regulating cardiac contractility and in the development of various pathological states, such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Even though both Erk and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways participate in complex cellular processes regarding physiological or pathological states of cardiomyocytes, the circadian oscillators in the heart regulate these pathways independently, and both pathways contribute to the circadian regulation of L-VGCCs.

  7. Blood flowing state analysis in outflow tract of chick embryonic heart based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

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    Zhao, Yuqian; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) and periodic stress (WPS) are the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. The vessel wall will be deformed by the blood pressure and produce natural elastic force acting on the blood. Because blood flowing in different flow state and show different characteristics of fluid, which influence the calculation of WSS and WPS directly, it is necessary to study the blood flow state. In this paper, we introduce a method to quantify the blood flowing state of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT).4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. By processing the structural image, the geometric parameters were obtained. Blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT were calculated by Doppler OCT method. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained at different times during the cardiac cycle used biofluid mechanics theory, such as Reynolds number and Womersley number.

  8. Analysis of Heart Diseases Dataset using Neural Network Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, K Usha

    2011-01-01

    One of the important techniques of Data mining is Classification. Many real world problems in various fields such as business, science, industry and medicine can be solved by using classification approach. Neural Networks have emerged as an important tool for classification. The advantages of Neural Networks helps for efficient classification of given data. In this study a Heart diseases dataset is analyzed using Neural Network approach. To increase the efficiency of the classification process parallel approach is also adopted in the training phase.

  9. Islet1 derivatives in the heart are of both neural crest and second heart field origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engleka, Kurt A.; Manderfield, Lauren J.; Brust, Rachael D.; Li, Li; Cohen, Ashley; Dymecki, Susan M.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Islet1 (Isl1) has been proposed as a marker of cardiac progenitor cells derived from the second heart field and is utilized to identify and purify cardiac progenitors from murine and human specimens for ex vivo expansion. The use of Isl1 as a specific second heart field marker is dependent on its exclusion from other cardiac lineages such as neural crest. Objective Determine if Isl1 is expressed by cardiac neural crest. Methods and Results We used an intersectional fate-mapping system employing the RC::FrePe allele which reports dual Flpe and Cre recombination. Combining Isl11Cre/+, a SHF driver, and Wnt1::Flpe, a neural crest driver, with Rc::FrePe reveals that some Isl1 derivatives in the cardiac outflow tract derive from Wnt1-expressing neural crest progenitors. In contrast, no overlap was observed between Wnt1-derived neural crest and an alternative second heart field driver, Mef2c-AHF-Cre. Conclusions Isl1 is not restricted to second heart field progenitors in the developing heart but also labels cardiac neural crest. The intersection of Isl1 and Wnt1 lineages within the heart provides a caveat to using Isl1 as an exclusive second heart field cardiac progenitor marker and suggests that some Isl1-expressing progenitor cells derived from embryos, ES or iPS cultures may be of neural crest lineage. PMID:22394517

  10. Raphe of the posterior neural tube in the chick embryo: its closure and reopening as studied in living embryos with a high definition light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, H W; Jaskoll, T; Rousseau, A M; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, E A; Greenberg, G; Shankar, K; Melnick, M

    1993-09-01

    Chick embryos cultured on a curved substratum show a transient enlargement of the posterior neuropore (PN), mimicking the temporary delay of PN closure as seen in the curly tail (ct) mouse mutant (van Straaten et al. [1993] Development 117:1163-1172). In the present study the PN enlargement in the chick embryo was investigated further with a high definition light microscope (HDmic), allowing high resolution viewing of living embryos in vitro. The temporary PN enlargement appeared due to considerable reopening of the raphe of the posterior neural tube, which was followed by reclosure after several hours. The raphe was subsequently studied in detail. It appeared very irregular, with small zones of apposed, open and fused neural folds. During closure, these raphe features shifted posteriorly. A distinct fusion sequence between surface epithelium and neuroepithelium was not seen. During experimental reopening of the raphe in vitro, small bridges temporarily arose, broke and disappeared quickly; they likely represented the first adhesion sites between the neural folds. More prominent adhesion sites partly detached, resulting in bridging filopodia-like connections; they probably represented the first anteroposterior locations of neural fold fusion. Our observations in the living chick embryo in vitro thus show that the caudal neural tube has an irregular raphe with few adhesion sites, which can be readily reopened. As a result of the irregularity, the PN does not close zipper-like, but button-like by forming multiple closure sites.

  11. An evaluation of a novel chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture assay with two teratogens/embryotoxins associated with heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Helena S; Clothier, Richard H; Pratten, Margaret

    2007-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM) system could be employed to predict the teratogenicity/embryotoxicity of exogenous chemicals. Two documented teratogens/embryotoxins, sodium valproate (the sodium salt of valproic acid; VPA) and all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), were used in the initial phase of the study. White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissociated to produce a cardiomyocyte suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. Cultures were incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air, and observations were made every 24 hours over 5 days, for the detection of beating. Culture viability was assessed by using the resazurin reduction assay for determining culture activity and the kenacid blue assay for determining cell number. It was found that tRA significantly reduced cell activity and beating, whilst not affecting total cell number. VPA up to 500 microM induced no cytotoxicity in the MM cardiomyocyte cultures, whilst all the VPA concentrations tested reduced beating. The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter functionality, which may result in a teratogenic outcome, whilst not causing cytotoxicity (direct embryotoxicity). This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function, whilst limb cultures and brain cultures based on the same system could be relevant to teratogenic effects on those tissues.

  12. Heart Attack Prediction System Based Neural Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Helwan, Abdulkader

    2015-01-01

    Heart attack is an asymptomatic and epidemic medical condition that may suddenly occur and causes “death”. Therefore, it is a life-threatening condition and it should be detected before it occurs. Heart attack is so far predicted using the conventional ways of doctor’s examination and by performing some medical tests such as stress test, ECG, and heart CTScan etc. The coronary vessels constriction, the cholesterol levels in the arteries, and other attributes can be good indicators for making ...

  13. Deciphering axonal pathways of genetically defined groups of neurons in the chick neural tube utilizing in ovo electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Oshri; Zisman, Sophie; Hadas, Yoav; Vald, Lilach; Klar, Avihu

    2010-05-02

    Employment of enhancer elements to drive expression of reporter genes in neurons is a widely used paradigm for tracking axonal projection. For tracking axonal projection of spinal interneurons in vertebrates, germ line-targeted reporter genes yield bilaterally symmetric labeling. Therefore, it is hard to distinguish between the ipsi- and contra-laterally projecting axons. Unilateral electroporation into the chick neural tube provides a useful means to restrict expression of a reporter gene to one side of the central nervous system, and to follow axonal projection on both sides. This video demonstrates first how to handle the eggs prior to injection. At HH stage 18-20, DNA is injected into the sacral level of the neural tube, then tungsten electrodes are placed parallel to the embryo and short electrical pulses are administered with a pulse generator. The egg is sealed with tape and placed back into an incubator for further development. Three days later (E6) the spinal cord is removed as an open book preparation from embryo, fixed, and processed for whole mount antibody staining. The stained spinal cord is mounted on slide and visualized using confocal microscopy.

  14. [Working Temperature Predication of Artificial Heart Based on Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilei; Yang, Ming; Ou, Wenchu; Meng, Fan; Xu, Zihao; Xu, Liang

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve a measurement of temperature prediction for artificial heart without sensor, for which the research briefly describes the application of back propagation neural network as well as the optimized, by genetic algorithm, BP network. Owing to the limit of environment after the artificial heart implanted, detectable parameters out of body are taken advantage of to predict the working temperature of the pump. Lastly, contrast is made to demonstrate the prediction result between BP neural network and genetically optimized BP network, by which indicates that the probability is 1.84% with the margin of error more than 1%.

  15. (GAGs) in normal and ethanol-induced chick embryo during neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-14

    Sep 14, 2011 ... NTDs are also associated with a number of other central nervous ... from the NT, while the same were reduced in 10% alcohol-administered embryos. In 15% alcohol- ... neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), fibronectin,.

  16. Demonstration of a neural circuit critical for imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sato, Katsushige; Atoji, Yasuro; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2010-03-24

    Imprinting behavior in birds is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. It has been demonstrated previously that visual cues are recognized and processed in the visual Wulst (VW), and imprinting memory is stored in the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) of the telencephalon. Alteration of neural responses in these two regions according to imprinting has been reported, yet direct evidence of the neural circuit linking these two regions is lacking. Thus, it remains unclear how memory is formed and expressed in this circuit. Here, we present anatomical as well as physiological evidence of the neural circuit connecting the VW and IMM and show that imprinting training during the critical period strengthens and refines this circuit. A functional connection established by imprint training resulted in an imprinting behavior. After the closure of the critical period, training could not activate this circuit nor induce the imprinting behavior. Glutamatergic neurons in the ventroposterior region of the VW, the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), sent their axons to the periventricular part of the HD, just dorsal and afferent to the IMM. We found that the HDCo is important in imprinting behavior. The refinement and/or enhancement of this neural circuit are attributed to increased activity of HDCo cells, and the activity depended on NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. These findings show a neural connection in the telencephalon in Aves and demonstrate that NR2B function is indispensable for the plasticity of HDCo cells, which are key mediators of imprinting.

  17. Rotationally acquired 4D-optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommes, Jan; Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    In vivo analysis of cardiac physiology and non-invasive imaging of the beating early embryonic heart in 2 and 3D remain a challenge in cardiovascular development research. 3D-imaging of the beating heart relies on gating of the acquired images according to the cardiac cycle. Mostly ECG triggering...... is used for this purpose, e.g. in MRT or CT of human hearts. For visualization of embryonic chick hearts with high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), a gating trigger generated by laser Doppler velocimetry has been successfully demonstrated (1). But this takes time and adds to system...... complexity. More recently, retrospective gating technologies were described (2; 3). In these studies, a time series of 2D images at several positions along the heart volume was used to produce a time sequence of 3D volumes of the beating heart. Rearrangement and validation of the asynchronously acquired...

  18. Ectopic Myf5 or MyoD prevents the neuronal differentiation program in addition to inducing skeletal muscle differentiation, in the chick neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Duprez, Delphine

    2004-02-01

    Forced expression of the bHLH myogenic factors, Myf5 and MyoD, in various mammalian cell lines induces the full program of myogenic differentiation. However, this property has not been extensively explored in vivo. We have taken advantage of the chick model to investigate the effect of electroporation of the mouse Myf5 and MyoD genes in the embryonic neural tube. We found that misexpression of either mouse Myf5 or MyoD in the chick neural tube leads to ectopic skeletal muscle differentiation, assayed by the expression of the myosin heavy chains in the neural tube and neural crest derivatives. We also showed that the endogenous neuronal differentiation program is inhibited under the influence of either ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD. We used this new system to analyse, in vivo, the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors. We found that MyoD and Myogenin expression can be activated by ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD, while Myf5 expression cannot be activated either by mouse MyoD or by itself. We also analysed the transcriptional regulation between the myogenic factors and the different genes involved in myogenesis, such as Mef2c, Pax3, Paraxis, Six1, Mox1, Mox2 and FgfR4. We established the existence of an unexpected regulatory loop between MyoD and FgfR4. The consequences for myogenesis are discussed.

  19. Production of a monoclonal antibody by in vitro immunization that recognizes a native chondroitin sulfate epitope in the embryonic chick limb and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capehart, A A; Wienecke, M M; Kitten, G T; Solursh, M; Krug, E L

    1997-11-01

    We report the production of a monoclonal antibody (d1C4) by in vitro immunization that has immunoreactivity with a native chondroitin sulfate epitope in embryonic chick limb and heart. Murine lymphocytes were stimulated by direct exposure to unfixed, unsolubilized precartilage mesenchymal aggregates in high-density micromass culture derived from Stage 22-23 chick limb buds. Specificity of d1C4 reactivity was demonstrated by sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining to pretreatment with chondroitinase ABC or AC, preferential immunoreactivity with chondroitin-6-sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS-C GAG) in ELISA, and competition of immunohistochemical staining with CS-C GAG. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of the d1C4 epitope revealed a striking localization of immunoreactivity in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of precartilage aggregates of chick limb mesenchyme in high-density micromass culture by 16 hr and the prechondrogenic limb core at Stage 23 in vivo. Immunoreactivity in both cultured limb mesenchyme and the embryonic limb continued through differentiation of prechondrogenic condensations into cartilage tissue. In the developing chick heart, d1C4 staining was found throughout the ECM of atrioventricular cushion tissue by Stage 25, but was localized to mesenchyme adjacent to the myocardium in the outflow tract cushions. There was an abrupt demarcation between d1C4-reactive intracardiac mesenchyme and unreactive extracardiac mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium in the Stage 22 embryo. This study demonstrates the efficacy of in vitro immunization of lymphocytes for the production of MAbs to native ECM constituents, such as CS-GAGs. Immunohistochemical data utilizing d1C4 suggest that CS-GAGs bearing this epitope may be important in early morphogenetic events leading to cartilage differentiation in the limb and valvuloseptal morphogenesis in the heart.

  20. Elastic extracellular matrix of the embryonic chick heart: an immunohistological study using laser confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurle, J M; Kitten, G T; Sakai, L Y; Volpin, D; Solursh, M

    1994-08-01

    The "elastic matrix" constitutes a specialized component of the extracellular matrix which confers resiliency to tissues and organs subjected to repeated deformations. The role of the elastic matrix in living organisms appears to be of key importance since diseases characterized by expression of defective inherited genes which encode components of the elastic matrix lead to premature death. While the elastic matrix of adult organs has received a great deal of attention, little is known about when it first appears in embryonic tissues or its possible role in developing organs. In the present study we have performed an immunohistochemical study of the distribution of elastin and three additional components often associated with elastic matrices in adult tissues (i.e., fibrillin, emilin, and type VI collagen) during the development of the chicken embryonic heart. The three-dimensional arrangement of these components was established through the observation of whole-amount specimens with scanning laser confocal microscopy. Our results revealed three different periods of heart development regarding the composition of the elastic matrix. Prior to stage 21 the embryonic heart lacks elastin but exhibits a matrix scaffold of fibrillin and emilin associated with the endocardium and the developing cardiac jelly. Between stages 22 and 29 the heart shows a transient elastic scaffold in the outflow tract which contains elastin, fibrillin, and emilin. Elastin-positive fibrillar material is also observed during these stages in the base of the atrioventricular cushion adjacent to the myocardial wall. In addition, emilin-positive material appears to be associated with the zones of formation of ventricular trabeculae. Collagen type VI was not detected during these early stages. From stage 30 to stage 40 a progressive modification of the pattern of distribution of elastin, fibrillin, emilin, and collagen type VI is observed in association with the formation of the definitive four

  1. Critical role of the neural pathway from the intermediate medial mesopallium to the intermediate hyperpallium apicale in filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, N; Yamaguchi, S; Kitajima, T; Takehara, A; Katagiri-Nakagawa, S; Matsui, R; Watanabe, D; Matsushima, T; Homma, K J

    2015-11-12

    Filial imprinting in precocial birds is a useful model for studying early learning and cognitive development, as it is characterized by a well-defined sensitive or critical period. We recently showed that the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) determines the onset of the sensitive period. Moreover, exogenous injection of T3 into the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) region (analogous to the associative cortex in mammals) enables imprinting even on post-hatch day 4 or 6 when the sensitive period has been terminated. However, the neural mechanisms downstream from T3 action in the IMM region remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the functional involvement of the intermediate hyperpallium apicale (IMHA) in T3 action. Bilateral excitotoxic ablation of the IMHA prevented imprinting in newly hatched chicks, and also suppressed the recovery of the sensitive period by systemic intra-venous or localized intra-IMM injection of T3 in day-4 chicks. In contrast to the effect in the IMM, direct injection of T3 into the IMHA did not enable imprinting in day-4 chicks. Moreover, bilateral ablation of IMHA after imprinting training impaired recall. These results suggest that the IMHA is critical for memory acquisition downstream following T3 action in the IMM and further, that it receives and retains information stored in the IMM for recall. Furthermore, both an avian adeno-associated viral construct containing an anterograde tracer (wheat-germ agglutinin) and a retrograde tracer (cholera toxin subunit B) revealed neural connections from the IMM to the IMHA. Taken together, our findings suggest that hierarchical processes from the primary area (IMM) to the secondary area (IMHA) are required for imprinting. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in the Heart Electrical Axis Position Conclusion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2016-08-01

    The article touches upon building of a heart electrical axis position conclusion model using an artificial neural network. The input signals of the neural network are the values of deflections Q, R and S; and the output signal is the value of the heart electrical axis position. Training of the network is carried out by the error propagation method. The test results allow concluding that the created neural network makes a conclusion with a high degree of accuracy.

  3. Two developmentally distinct populations of neural crest cells contribute to the zebrafish heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Ann M; Huang, Jie; Chen, Jau-Nian

    2015-08-15

    Cardiac neural crest cells are essential for outflow tract remodeling in animals with divided systemic and pulmonary circulatory systems, but their contributions to cardiac development in animals with a single-loop circulatory system are less clear. Here we genetically labeled neural crest cells and examined their contribution to the developing zebrafish heart. We identified two populations of neural crest cells that contribute to distinct compartments of zebrafish cardiovascular system at different developmental stages. A stream of neural crest cells migrating through pharyngeal arches 1 and 2 integrates into the myocardium of the primitive heart tube between 24 and 30 h post fertilization and gives rise to cardiomyocytes. A second wave of neural crest cells migrating along aortic arch 6 envelops the endothelium of the ventral aorta and invades the bulbus arteriosus after three days of development. Interestingly, while inhibition of FGF signaling has no effect on the integration of neural crest cells to the primitive heart tube, it prevents these cells from contributing to the outflow tract, demonstrating disparate responses of neural crest cells to FGF signaling. Furthermore, neural crest ablation in zebrafish leads to multiple cardiac defects, including reduced heart rate, defective myocardial maturation and a failure to recruit progenitor cells from the second heart field. These findings add to our understanding of the contribution of neural crest cells to the developing heart and provide insights into the requirement for these cells in cardiac maturation.

  4. Development of artificial neural network models based on experimental data of response surface methodology to establish the nutritional requirements of digestible lysine, methionine, and threonine in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, M

    2012-12-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to develop feed-forward multilayer perceptron models to estimate the nutritional requirements of digestible lysine (dLys), methionine (dMet), and threonine (dThr) in broiler chicks. Sixty data lines representing response of the broiler chicks during 3 to 16 d of age to dietary levels of dLys (0.88-1.32%), dMet (0.42-0.58%), and dThr (0.53-0.87%) were obtained from literature and used to train the networks. The prediction values of ANN were compared with those of response surface methodology to evaluate the fitness of these 2 methods. The models were tested using R(2), mean absolute deviation, mean absolute percentage error, and absolute average deviation. The random search algorithm was used to optimize the developed ANN models to estimate the optimal values of dietary dLys, dMet, and dThr. The ANN models were used to assess the relative importance of each dietary input on the bird performance using sensitivity analysis. The statistical evaluations revealed the higher accuracy of ANN to predict the bird performance compared with response surface methodology models. The optimization results showed that the maximum BW gain may be obtained with dietary levels of 1.11, 0.51, and 0.78% of dLys, dMet, and dThr, respectively. Minimum feed conversion ratio may be achieved with dietary levels of 1.13, 0.54, 0.78% of dLys, dMet, and dThr, respectively. The sensitivity analysis on the models indicated that dietary Lys is the most important variable in the growth performance of the broiler chicks, followed by dietary Thr and Met. The results of this research revealed that the experimental data of a response-surface-methodology design could be successfully used to develop the well-designed ANN for pattern recognition of bird growth and optimization of nutritional requirements. The comparison between the 2 methods also showed that the statistical methods may have little effect on the ideal ratios of dMet and dThr to dLys in

  5. Endothelial cells regulate neural crest and second heart field morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom-Hoffman, Michal; Michailovici, Inbal; Ferrara, Napoleone; Zelzer, Elazar; Tzahor, Eldad

    2014-07-04

    Cardiac and craniofacial developmental programs are intricately linked during early embryogenesis, which is also reflected by a high frequency of birth defects affecting both regions. The molecular nature of the crosstalk between mesoderm and neural crest progenitors and the involvement of endothelial cells within the cardio-craniofacial field are largely unclear. Here we show in the mouse that genetic ablation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Flk1) in the mesoderm results in early embryonic lethality, severe deformation of the cardio-craniofacial field, lack of endothelial cells and a poorly formed vascular system. We provide evidence that endothelial cells are required for migration and survival of cranial neural crest cells and consequently for the deployment of second heart field progenitors into the cardiac outflow tract. Insights into the molecular mechanisms reveal marked reduction in Transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgfb1) along with changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Our collective findings in both mouse and avian models suggest that endothelial cells coordinate cardio-craniofacial morphogenesis, in part via a conserved signaling circuit regulating ECM remodeling by Tgfb1.

  6. Endothelial cells regulate neural crest and second heart field morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Milgrom-Hoffman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac and craniofacial developmental programs are intricately linked during early embryogenesis, which is also reflected by a high frequency of birth defects affecting both regions. The molecular nature of the crosstalk between mesoderm and neural crest progenitors and the involvement of endothelial cells within the cardio–craniofacial field are largely unclear. Here we show in the mouse that genetic ablation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Flk1 in the mesoderm results in early embryonic lethality, severe deformation of the cardio–craniofacial field, lack of endothelial cells and a poorly formed vascular system. We provide evidence that endothelial cells are required for migration and survival of cranial neural crest cells and consequently for the deployment of second heart field progenitors into the cardiac outflow tract. Insights into the molecular mechanisms reveal marked reduction in Transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgfb1 along with changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM composition. Our collective findings in both mouse and avian models suggest that endothelial cells coordinate cardio–craniofacial morphogenesis, in part via a conserved signaling circuit regulating ECM remodeling by Tgfb1.

  7. Approach to quantify two-dimensional strain of chick embryonic heart in early stage based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Zhu, Wenlong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Fengwen; Ma, Zhenhe

    2015-03-01

    The heart undergoes remarkable changes during embryonic development due to genetic programming and epigenetic influences, in which mechanical loads is a key factor. As embryonic research development, an important goal is to develop mathematical models that describe the influence of mechanics on embryonic heart development. However, basic parameters for the modeling are difficult to acquire since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast in the early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique provides depth-resolved image with high resolution and high acquisition speed in a noninvasive manner. In this paper, we performed 4D[(x,y,z) + t] scan on the outflow tract (OFT) of the chick embryonic heart at stage of HH18(~ 3 days of incubation) in vivo using spectral domain OCT (SDOCT). Parameters such as displacement and geometrical size of the OFT were extracted from the structural images of the SDOCT. Two-dimensional strain vector were solved using strain-displacement relations in curvilinear cylindrical coordinates based on kinetic theory of elasticity. Based on the geometrical size and other initial conditions, two-dimensional elasticity finite element model of the OFT myocardial wall deformation were established and then solved by direct frequency response method. Comparison between experimental data and simulation result shows the utility of the finite element models. Our results demonstrate that mathematical modeling based on parameters provided by SDOCT is a useful approach for studying cardiac development in early stage.

  8. Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan; Thrane, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new method of rotational image acquisition for four-dimensional (4D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of beating embryonic chick hearts. The rotational axis and the central A-scan of the OCT are identical. An out-of-phase image sequence covering multiple heartbeats is acquired...... at every angle of an incremental rotation of the deflection mirrors of the OCT system. Image acquisition is accomplished after a rotation of 180◦. Comparison of a displayed live M-mode of the central A-scan with a reference M-mode allows instant detection of translational movements of the embryo....... For calculation of 4D data sets, we apply an imagebased retrospective gating algorithm using the phase information of the common central A-scan present in all acquired images. This leads to cylindrical three-dimensional data sets for every time step of the cardiac cycle that can be used for 4D visualization...

  9. In vivo functional imaging of blood flow and wall strain rate in outflow tract of embryonic chick heart using ultrafast spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yin, Xin; Shi, Liang; Rugonyi, Sandra; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2012-09-01

    During cardiac development, the cardiac wall and flowing blood are two important cardiac tissues that constantly interact with each other. This dynamic interaction defines appropriate biomechanical environment to which the embryonic heart is exposed. Quantitative assessment of the dynamic parameters of wall tissues and blood flow is required to further our understanding of cardiac development. We report the use of an ultrafast 1310-nm dual-camera spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system to characterize/image, in parallel, the dynamic radial strain rate of the myocardial wall and the Doppler velocity of the underlying flowing blood within an in vivo beating chick embryo. The OCT system operates at 184-kHz line scan rate, providing the flexibility of imaging the fast blood flow and the slow tissue deformation within one scan. The ability to simultaneously characterize tissue motion and blood flow provides a useful approach to better understand cardiac dynamics during early developmental stages.

  10. Evaluation of embryotoxicity for major components of herbal extracts using the chick embryonic heart micromass and mouse D3 embryonic stem cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Omar J; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-01-01

    Herbal remedies are often used during the early stages of pregnancy, being considered 'harmless' and 'natural'. There are insufficient data regarding their potential embryotoxicity. The main components of selected herbs, including 6-gingerol from ginger, Ginkgolide A and Ginkgolide B from gingko biloba and Ginsenoside Rg1 from ginseng, have been investigated using chick embryonic heart micromass and Mouse D3 embryonic stem cells. The potential effects were evaluated via alteration in contractility, cell viability, and cell protein content. The myocytes in both systems were also demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using a specific cardiomyocyte marker (α-actinin). For 6-gingerol, Ginkgolide A, Ginkgolide B and Ginsenoside Rg1 in both methods, at moderate to high concentrations, there were alterations in the values for the endpoints. These data indicate that herbal remedies used in the first trimester of pregnancy might not be safe for fetal development.

  11. Parasympathetic neural activity accounts for the lowering of exercise heart rate at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Calbet, J A; Rådegran, G

    2001-01-01

    In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied.......In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied....

  12. Autonomic neural control of heart rate during dynamic exercise: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel W; Raven, Peter B

    2014-06-15

    The accepted model of autonomic control of heart rate (HR) during dynamic exercise indicates that the initial increase is entirely attributable to the withdrawal of parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) activity and that subsequent increases in HR are entirely attributable to increases in cardiac sympathetic activity. In the present review, we sought to re-evaluate the model of autonomic neural control of HR in humans during progressive increases in dynamic exercise workload. We analysed data from both new and previously published studies involving baroreflex stimulation and pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Results indicate that the PSNS remains functionally active throughout exercise and that increases in HR from rest to maximal exercise result from an increasing workload-related transition from a 4 : 1 vagal-sympathetic balance to a 4 : 1 sympatho-vagal balance. Furthermore, the beat-to-beat autonomic reflex control of HR was found to be dependent on the ability of the PSNS to modulate the HR as it was progressively restrained by increasing workload-related sympathetic nerve activity. (i) increases in exercise workload-related HR are not caused by a total withdrawal of the PSNS followed by an increase in sympathetic tone; (ii) reciprocal antagonism is key to the transition from vagal to sympathetic dominance, and (iii) resetting of the arterial baroreflex causes immediate exercise-onset reflexive increases in HR, which are parasympathetically mediated, followed by slower increases in sympathetic tone as workloads are increased. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  13. Early developmental 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure decreases chick embryo heart chronotropic response to isoproterenol but not to agents affecting signals downstream of the beta-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Rebecca J; Hume, Adam J; Ciak, Jessica M; Vannostrand, John J; Friggens, Megan; Walker, Mary K

    2005-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes cardiovascular toxicity in laboratory animals, including alteration in several processes in which beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) signaling plays important roles. Thus, our laboratory investigated the effects of TCDD on beta-AR expression and signal transduction. Fertile chicken eggs were injected with vehicle (corn oil), 0.24 or 0.3 pmol TCDD/g egg on incubation day 0 (D0) or D5. On D10, heart function was assessed by ECG in ovo. Exposure to TCDD increased the incidence of arrhythmias and decreased the positive chronotropic responsiveness of the heart to isoproterenol. The reduced beta-AR responsiveness was, in part, independent of any overt morphological changes in the heart as chick embryos exposed to TCDD on D5 displayed an intermediate responsiveness to beta-AR agonist in the absence of the dilated cardiomyopathy observed in chick embryos exposed to TCDD on D0. TCDD did not decrease the chronotropic response of the heart to agents that stimulate signals downstream of the beta-AR. In fact, TCDD-exposed embryos were more sensitive than controls to forskolin, increasing heart rates (HR) 21.8 +/- 3.5 beats per min (bpm) above baseline versus control values at 6.3 +/- 2.7 bpm above baseline. TCDD exposure also augmented the negative chronotropic response of the heart to verapamil, decreasing HR -23.2 +/- 7.4 bpm relative to baseline versus control embryos at -12.7 +/- 5.9 bpm below baseline. Finally, the mean cardiac beta1-AR mRNA expression in D10 embryos was not significantly altered by exposure to TCDD on D0. These findings establish that a functional end point of the developing chick heart is sensitive to TCDD exposure and that the TCDD-induced reduction in beta-AR responsiveness may result from alterations in signal transduction upstream of adenylyl cyclase.

  14. Biomechanics of the chick embryonic heart outflow tract at HH18 using 4D optical coherence tomography imaging and computational modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Liu

    Full Text Available During developmental stages, biomechanical stimuli on cardiac cells modulate genetic programs, and deviations from normal stimuli can lead to cardiac defects. Therefore, it is important to characterize normal cardiac biomechanical stimuli during early developmental stages. Using the chicken embryo model of cardiac development, we focused on characterizing biomechanical stimuli on the Hamburger-Hamilton (HH 18 chick cardiac outflow tract (OFT, the distal portion of the heart from which a large portion of defects observed in humans originate. To characterize biomechanical stimuli in the OFT, we used a combination of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging, physiological measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling. We found that, at HH18, the proximal portion of the OFT wall undergoes larger circumferential strains than its distal portion, while the distal portion of the OFT wall undergoes larger wall stresses. Maximal wall shear stresses were generally found on the surface of endocardial cushions, which are protrusions of extracellular matrix onto the OFT lumen that later during development give rise to cardiac septa and valves. The non-uniform spatial and temporal distributions of stresses and strains in the OFT walls provide biomechanical cues to cardiac cells that likely aid in the extensive differential growth and remodeling patterns observed during normal development.

  15. Dynamic neural networking as a basis for plasticity in the control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, G; Armour, J A; Zamir, M

    2013-01-21

    A model is proposed in which the relationship between individual neurons within a neural network is dynamically changing to the effect of providing a measure of "plasticity" in the control of heart rate. The neural network on which the model is based consists of three populations of neurons residing in the central nervous system, the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system, and the intrinsic cardiac nervous system. This hierarchy of neural centers is used to challenge the classical view that the control of heart rate, a key clinical index, resides entirely in central neuronal command (spinal cord, medulla oblongata, and higher centers). Our results indicate that dynamic networking allows for the possibility of an interplay among the three populations of neurons to the effect of altering the order of control of heart rate among them. This interplay among the three levels of control allows for different neural pathways for the control of heart rate to emerge under different blood flow demands or disease conditions and, as such, it has significant clinical implications because current understanding and treatment of heart rate anomalies are based largely on a single level of control and on neurons acting in unison as a single entity rather than individually within a (plastically) interconnected network. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart in vivo using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Aiping; Shi, Liang; Yin, Xin; Rugonyi, Sandra; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-11-01

    We present a method to assess the in vivo radial strain and strain rate of the myocardial wall, which is of great importance to understand the biomechanics of cardiac development, using tissue Doppler optical coherence tomography (tissue-DOCT). Combining the structure and velocity information acquired from tissue-DOCT, the velocity distribution in the myocardial wall is plotted, from which the radial strain and strain rate are evaluated. The results demonstrate that tissue-DOCT can be used as a useful tool to describe tissue deformation, especially, the biomechanical characteristics of the embryonic heart.

  17. In vivo functional imaging of embryonic chick heart using ultrafast 1310nm-band spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yin, Xin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2013-02-01

    During the cardiac development, the cardiac wall and the blood flow actively interact with each other, and determine the biomechanical environment to which the embryonic heart exposes. Employing an ultrafast 1310nm-band dual-camera spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), the radial strain rate of the myocardial wall can be extracted with high signal-to-noise ratio, at the same time the Doppler velocity of the blood flow can also be displayed. The ability to simultaneously characterize these two cardiac tissues provides a powerful approach to better understand the interaction between the cardiac wall and the blood flow, which is important to the investigation of cardiac development.

  18. Evaluation of Heart Rate Variability by Using Wavelet Transform and a Recurrent Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    variability is proposed. This method combines the wavelet transform with a recurrent neural network. The features of the proposed method are as follows...1. The wavelet transform is utilized for the feature extraction so that the local change of heart rate variability in the time-frequency domain can

  19. Cardiovascular Development and the Colonizing Cardiac Neural Crest Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Snider

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that transgenic manipulation of mammalian neural crest-related gene expression and microsurgical removal of premigratory chicken and Xenopus embryonic cardiac neural crest progenitors results in a wide spectrum of both structural and functional congenital heart defects, the actual functional mechanism of the cardiac neural crest cells within the heart is poorly understood. Neural crest cell migration and appropriate colonization of the pharyngeal arches and outflow tract septum is thought to be highly dependent on genes that regulate cell-autonomous polarized movement (i.e., gap junctions, cadherins, and noncanonical Wnt1 pathway regulators. Once the migratory cardiac neural crest subpopulation finally reaches the heart, they have traditionally been thought to participate in septation of the common outflow tract into separate aortic and pulmonary arteries. However, several studies have suggested these colonizing neural crest cells may also play additional unexpected roles during cardiovascular development and may even contribute to a crest-derived stem cell population. Studies in both mice and chick suggest they can also enter the heart from the venous inflow as well as the usual arterial outflow region, and may contribute to the adult semilunar and atrioventricular valves as well as part of the cardiac conduction system. Furthermore, although they are not usually thought to give rise to the cardiomyocyte lineage, neural crest cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio can contribute to the myocardium and may have different functions in a species-dependent context. Intriguingly, both ablation of chick and Xenopus premigratory neural crest cells, and a transgenic deletion of mouse neural crest cell migration or disruption of the normal mammalian neural crest gene expression profiles, disrupts ventral myocardial function and/or cardiomyocyte proliferation. Combined, this suggests that either the cardiac neural crest

  20. FGF Signaling Transforms Non-neural Ectoderm into Neural Crest

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, Nathan; García-Castro, Martín I.

    2012-01-01

    The neural crest arises at the border between the neural plate and the adjacent non-neural ectoderm. It has been suggested that both neural and non-neural ectoderm can contribute to the neural crest. Several studies have examined the molecular mechanisms that regulate neural crest induction in neuralized tissues or the neural plate border. Here, using the chick as a model system, we address the molecular mechanisms by which non-neural ectoderm generates neural crest. We report that in respons...

  1. Neural control hierarchy of the heart has not evolved to deal with myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, G; Armour, J A; Zamir, M

    2013-08-01

    The consequences of myocardial ischemia are examined from the standpoint of the neural control system of the heart, a hierarchy of three neuronal centers residing in central command, intrathoracic ganglia, and intrinsic cardiac ganglia. The basis of the investigation is the premise that while this hierarchical control system has evolved to deal with "normal" physiological circumstances, its response in the event of myocardial ischemia is unpredictable because the singular circumstances of this event are as yet not part of its evolutionary repertoire. The results indicate that the harmonious relationship between the three levels of control breaks down, because of a conflict between the priorities that they have evolved to deal with. Essentially, while the main priority in central command is blood demand, the priority at the intrathoracic and cardiac levels is heart rate. As a result of this breakdown, heart rate becomes less predictable and therefore less reliable as a diagnostic guide as to the traumatic state of the heart, which it is commonly used as such following an ischemic event. On the basis of these results it is proposed that under the singular conditions of myocardial ischemia a determination of neural control indexes in addition to cardiovascular indexes has the potential of enhancing clinical outcome.

  2. Heart Disease Diagnosis Utilizing Hybrid Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Network and Teaching Learning Based Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Salahaldeen Majeed Alneamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various diseases that threaten human life is heart disease. This disease is considered to be one of the leading causes of death in the world. Actually, the medical diagnosis of heart disease is a complex task and must be made in an accurate manner. Therefore, a software has been developed based on advanced computer technologies to assist doctors in the diagnostic process. This paper intends to use the hybrid teaching learning based optimization (TLBO algorithm and fuzzy wavelet neural network (FWNN for heart disease diagnosis. The TLBO algorithm is applied to enhance performance of the FWNN. The hybrid TLBO algorithm with FWNN is used to classify the Cleveland heart disease dataset obtained from the University of California at Irvine (UCI machine learning repository. The performance of the proposed method (TLBO_FWNN is estimated using K-fold cross validation based on mean square error (MSE, classification accuracy, and the execution time. The experimental results show that TLBO_FWNN has an effective performance for diagnosing heart disease with 90.29% accuracy and superior performance compared to other methods in the literature.

  3. Measurement of wall strain in embryonic chick heart by sp ectral domain optical coherence tomography%基于光学相干层析成像的早期鸡胚心脏径向应变测量∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马振鹤; 窦世丹; 马毓姝; 刘健; 赵玉倩; 刘江红; 吕江涛; 王毅

    2016-01-01

    During cardiac development, the growth, remodeling and morphogenesis of embryonic hearts are closely linked to hemodynamic forces. An understanding of the interaction mechanism between hemodynamic forces and heart devel-opment is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of various congenital defects. The myocardial wall strain (MWS) in embryonic heart is a critical parameter for quantifying the mechanical properties of cardiac tissues. Here, we focus on the radial strain which is defined as the change of the myocardial wall thickness. An effective measurement of MWS is conductive to studies of embryonic heart development. Chick embryo is a popular animal model used for studing the cardiac development due to the similarity of cardiac development between the human heart and the chick heart at early developmental stages and its easy access. Although various imaging methods have been proposed, there still remain significant challenges to imaging of early stage chick embryo heart because it is small in size and beats fast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact three-dimensional imaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution which has been widely used for imaging the biological tissue. In this paper, we describe a method to measure in vivo MWS of chicken embryonic hearts with a high speed spectral domain OCT(SDOCT) system worked at 1310 nm. We perform four-dimensional (4D) (x, y, z, t) scanning on the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts in a non-gated way. The transient states of the OFT are extracted from the 4D data by using the beating synchronization algorithm. The OFT center line can be achieved by image processing. Assuming that the blood flow is parallel to the center line in the blood vessel, we calculate the Doppler angle of blood flow from the OFT center line. In a certain OFT cross-section, the OFT myocardial wall (inner and external borders) is segmented from the OCT images with a semi-automatic boundary

  4. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  5. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  6. Neural Tube Defect in Chick Embryos:A Histochemical Study%鸡胚神经管缺陷脊髓病理与组织化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍南; 施诚仁; 张忠德; 金惠明; 宋家其; 张文竹; 何蓉; 耿红全

    1999-01-01

    Objective The aim of this project is to study the possible pathogenesis involved in the formation of neural tube defect (NTD).Methods NTD was induced in chick embryos by injecting 0.01-0.02mg/kg methotrexate (MTX) into fertilized eggs on the 4 th and 5 th day of incubation.Sixty-six hatched chicks with NTD were studied.Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was immuno-stained with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent dependent diaphorase(NADPH-d).Utrastructure of mitochondria was studied with electro-microscopy.Results NOS positive neurons were found in the spinal cord of abnormal neural tube.The total number of neurons decrease.Electromicroscopy showed that mitochondria were swollen and had decreased folds.Conclusions No is produced in NTD.NO is neurotoxic and leads to impaired nitochondrial oxidative metabolism.%目的 鸡胚内注射甲氨喋呤(MTX),制作鸡胚神经管缺陷动物模型.利用该模型,进一步研究观察病变脊髓的病理变化及组织化学改变.方法 选用上海农科院"莱杭"鸡受精蛋66枚,在孵化期第4、5天,注射MTX,计量为:0.01 mg/kg及0.02 mg/kg.孵化3周后,选取病变鸡,采用NADPH-黄递酶组织化学染色,测定病变脊髓神经元NOS含昔;电镜观察病变脊髓神经元内线粒体结构变化.结果 NADPH-黄递酶组织化学染色显示神经管缺陷病变脊髓出现NOS阳性染色神经元,神经元数量减少,形态发育差.电镜观察,病变脊髓线粒体肿胀,嵴减少.结论 神经管缺陷病变脊髓有NO产生,NO对神经细胞有毒性作用,使线粒体功能受损,能量代谢障碍.

  7. Heart murmur detection based on wavelet transformation and a synergy between artificial neural network and modified neighbor annealing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizadeh, Gholamhossein; Barati, Ramin

    2017-05-01

    Early recognition of heart disease plays a vital role in saving lives. Heart murmurs are one of the common heart problems. In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained with Modified Neighbor Annealing (MNA) to classify heart cycles into normal and murmur classes. Heart cycles are separated from heart sounds using wavelet transformer. The network inputs are features extracted from individual heart cycles, and two classification outputs. Classification accuracy of the proposed model is compared with five multilayer perceptron trained with Levenberg-Marquardt, Extreme-learning-machine, back-propagation, simulated-annealing, and neighbor-annealing algorithms. It is also compared with a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) ANN. The proposed model is trained and tested using real heart sounds available in the Pascal database to show the applicability of the proposed scheme. Also, a device to record real heart sounds has been developed and used for comparison purposes too. Based on the results of this study, MNA can be used to produce considerable results as a heart cycle classifier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Slit2/Robo1信号对鸡胚早期神经管及体节发育的影响%Role of Slit2/Robo1 signaling in development of neural tube and somites in early chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广; 王晓钰; 李艳; 王丽京; 雷健; 张笑坛; 耿建国; 杨雪松

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨Slit2/Robo1对鸡胚早期神经管和体节发育的影响.方法:显微注射法将质粒注射入HH10期胚胎神经管内,活体胚胎细胞电穿孔方法转染胚胎半侧神经管,以另一侧神经管为对照侧,原位杂交及免疫荧光方法观察转染10 h后神经管的发育和神经嵴细胞迁移至体节的情况.结果:下调Robo1侧神经管发育较正常对照侧异常,同时发现Slug表达和神经嵴细胞迁移至体节路线发生改变.结论:Slit2/Robo1信号可能通过影响Slug基因表达,对胚胎早期神经管闭合、神经嵴细胞正常产生及迁移方向以及体节分化有重要作用.%AIM: To investigate the effects of Slit2/Robo1 signaling on the development of neural tube and somites in early chick embryos.METHODS: Plasmid DNA was injected into the lumen of the neural tube from dorsal side of HH10 chick embryo using microinjection, and then in ovo electroporation was performed at half - side of neural tube while another side served as control.Subsequent 10 - hour incubation was carried on after transfection until the development of neural tube and neural crest cells migrating to somites were investigated using the methods of immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization.RESULTS: Blocking Slit2/Robo1 signaling resulted in abnormal development of neural tube, while the expression of Slug and neural crest cells migrating to somites pathway were abnormal as well.CONCLUSION: Slit2/Robo1 signaling can affect the expression of Slug and play an important role in the fusion of neural fold, the trajectory of generation and migration of neural crest cells, and the differentiation of somites in early chick embryos.

  9. Predicting the physiological response of Tivela stultorum hearts with digoxin from cardiac parameters using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Dora-Luz; Gómez, Claudia; Cervantes, David; Abaroa, Alberto; Castro, Carlos; Castañeda-Martínez, Rubén A

    2017-01-01

    Multi-layer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANNs) were used to predict the concentration of digoxin needed to obtain a cardio-activity of specific biophysical parameters in Tivela stultorum hearts. The inputs of the neural networks were the minimum and maximum values of heart contraction force, the time of ventricular filling, the volume used for dilution, heart rate and weight, volume, length and width of the heart, while the output was the digoxin concentration in dilution necessary to obtain a desired physiological response. ANNs were trained, validated and tested with the dataset of the in vivo experiment results. To select the optimal network, predictions for all the dataset for each configuration of ANNs were made, a maximum 5% relative error for the digoxin concentration was set and the diagnostic accuracy of the predictions made was evaluated. The double-layer perceptron had a barely higher performance than the single-layer perceptron; therefore, both had a good predictive ability. The double-layer perceptron was able to obtain the most accurate predictions of digoxin concentration required in the hearts of T. stultorum using MLP-ANNs.

  10. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  11. Regularity of beating of small clusters of embryonic chick ventricular heart-cells: experiment vs. stochastic single-channel population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Kold Taylor, Louise; Skriver, Anne D.; Schaffer, Peter; Guevara, Michael R.

    2017-09-01

    The transmembrane potential is recorded from small isopotential clusters of 2-4 embryonic chick ventricular cells spontaneously generating action potentials. We analyze the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in the time between successive action potentials (the interbeat interval or IBI). We also convert an existing model of electrical activity in the cluster, which is formulated as a Hodgkin-Huxley-like deterministic system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing five individual ionic currents, into a stochastic model consisting of a population of ˜20 000 independently and randomly gating ionic channels, with the randomness being set by a real physical stochastic process (radio static). This stochastic model, implemented using the Clay-DeFelice algorithm, reproduces the fluctuations seen experimentally: e.g., the coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean) of IBI is 4.3% in the model vs. the 3.9% average value of the 17 clusters studied. The model also replicates all but one of several other quantitative measures of the experimental results, including the power spectrum and correlation integral of the voltage, as well as the histogram, Poincaré plot, serial correlation coefficients, power spectrum, detrended fluctuation analysis, approximate entropy, and sample entropy of IBI. The channel noise from one particular ionic current (IKs), which has channel kinetics that are relatively slow compared to that of the other currents, makes the major contribution to the fluctuations in IBI. Reproduction of the experimental coefficient of variation of IBI by adding a Gaussian white noise-current into the deterministic model necessitates using an unrealistically high noise-current amplitude. Indeed, a major implication of the modelling results is that, given the wide range of time-scales over which the various species of channels open and close, only a cell-specific stochastic model that is formulated taking into consideration the widely different ranges in

  12. Connecting teratogen-induced congenital heart defects to neural crest cells and their effect on cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga H; Ma, Pei; Gu, Shi; Rollins, Andrew M; Jenkins, Michael W; Watanabe, Michiko

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells play many key roles in embryonic development, as demonstrated by the abnormalities that result from their specific absence or dysfunction. Unfortunately, these key cells are particularly sensitive to abnormalities in various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as genetic deletions or ethanol-exposure that lead to morbidity and mortality for organisms. This review discusses the role identified for a segment of neural crest in regulating the morphogenesis of the heart and associated great vessels. The paradox is that their derivatives constitute a small proportion of cells to the cardiovascular system. Findings supporting that these cells impact early cardiac function raises the interesting possibility that they indirectly control cardiovascular development at least partially through regulating function. Making connections between insults to the neural crest, cardiac function, and morphogenesis is more approachable with technological advances. Expanding our understanding of early functional consequences could be useful in improving diagnosis and testing therapies.

  13. Chronic vagal stimulation for the treatment of low ejection fraction heart failure : results of the NEural Cardiac TherApy foR Heart Failure (NECTAR-HF) randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannad, Faiez; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Tuinenburg, Anton E; Wright, David; Brugada, Josep; Butter, Christian; Klein, Helmut; Stolen, Craig; Meyer, Scott; Stein, Kenneth M; Ramuzat, Agnes; Schubert, Bernd; Daum, Doug; Neuzil, Petr; Botman, Cornelis; Castel, Maria Angeles; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Solomon, Scott D; Wold, Nicholas; Ruble, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The neural cardiac therapy for heart failure (NECTAR-HF) was a randomized sham-controlled trial designed to evaluate whether a single dose of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) would attenuate cardiac remodelling, improve cardiac function and increase exercise capacity in symptomatic heart failure

  14. An artificial neural network prediction model of congenital heart disease based on risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixia; Luo, Miyang; Zheng, Jianfei; Luo, Jiayou; Zeng, Rong; Feng, Na; Du, Qiyun; Fang, Junqun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the risks of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnant women. This hospital-based case-control study involved 119 CHD cases and 239 controls all recruited from birth defect surveillance hospitals in Hunan Province between July 2013 and June 2014. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face to fill in a questionnaire that covered 36 CHD-related variables. The 358 subjects were randomly divided into a training set and a testing set at the ratio of 85:15. The training set was used to identify the significant predictors of CHD by univariate logistic regression analyses and develop a standard feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model for the prediction of CHD. The testing set was used to test and evaluate the performance of the ANN model. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed on SPSS 18.0. The ANN models were developed on Matlab 7.1. The univariate logistic regression identified 15 predictors that were significantly associated with CHD, including education level (odds ratio  = 0.55), gravidity (1.95), parity (2.01), history of abnormal reproduction (2.49), family history of CHD (5.23), maternal chronic disease (4.19), maternal upper respiratory tract infection (2.08), environmental pollution around maternal dwelling place (3.63), maternal exposure to occupational hazards (3.53), maternal mental stress (2.48), paternal chronic disease (4.87), paternal exposure to occupational hazards (2.51), intake of vegetable/fruit (0.45), intake of fish/shrimp/meat/egg (0.59), and intake of milk/soymilk (0.55). After many trials, we selected a 3-layer BPNN model with 15, 12, and 1 neuron in the input, hidden, and output layers, respectively, as the best prediction model. The prediction model has accuracies of 0.91 and 0.86 on the training and testing sets, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and Yuden Index on the testing set (training set) are 0.78 (0.83), 0.90 (0

  15. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  16. Chick lit, chick magnet, biker chick, hippie chick: metaphorical uses of chick in contemporary american english = Chick lit, chick magnet, biker chick, hippie chick: usos metafóricos de chick no inglês americano contemporâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottin, Lívia Pretto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metáforas não são apenas uma ferramenta poética ou retórica, mas fazem parte do nosso sistema conceptual (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980 e nos permitem entender determinado aspecto de um conceito em termos de outro. Este artigo tem o objetivo de desvendar como o lexema chick pode ser usado para referir ao universo feminino. Primeiramente, apresento uma revisão bibliográfica sobre metáforas e, então, verifico como o domínio de animais pode ser usado para melhor explicar o comportamento humano. Em seguida, apresento dados coletados no Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA para identificar e interpretar algumas metáforas de chick através de uma análise baseada em corpus. Em cada subcorpus do COCA, as primeiras 100 linhas de concordâncias aleatórias foram analisadas em contexto a fim de verificar as ocorrências dos usos metafóricos e dos usos literais da palavra de busca. As ocorrências não literais foram examinadas com maior cuidado com o objetivo de verificar o uso metafórico por elas representado, determinar a posição que o lexema pode ocupar em uma frase e verificar que palavras são fortes colocadas de chick. Os resultados mostram que chick é uma metáfora produtiva, usada tanto como substantivo quanto como adjetivo. Além disso, as ocorrências de chick em seu sentido metafórico excedem suas ocorrências em sentido literal

  17. Macro-micro imaging of cardiac-neural circuits in co-cultures from normal and diseased hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Gil; Burton, Rebecca-Ann B

    2015-07-15

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of normal cardiac rhythm, but is also implicated in modulating the heart's susceptibility to re-entrant ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. The mechanisms by which the autonomic nervous system is pro-arrhythmic or anti-arrhythmic is multifaceted and varies for different types of arrhythmia and their cardiac substrates. Despite decades of research in this area, fundamental questions related to how neuron density and spatial organization modulate cardiac wave dynamics remain unanswered. These questions may be ill-posed in intact tissues where the activity of individual cells is often experimentally inaccessible. Development of simplified biological models that would allow us to better understand the influence of neural activation on cardiac activity can be beneficial. This Symposium Review summarizes the development of in vitro cardiomyocyte cell culture models of re-entrant activity, as well as challenges associated with extending these models to include the effects of neural activation.

  18. Chicks like consonant music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments.

  19. Application of convolutional artificial neural networks to echocardiograms for differentiating congenital heart diseases in a pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Douglas P.; Bueno, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Andrea; Marx, Gerald R.; del Nido, Pedro J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we describe a pilot study, where machine learning methods are used to differentiate between congenital heart diseases. Our approach was to apply convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to echocardiographic images from five different pediatric populations: normal, coarctation of the aorta (CoA), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and single ventricle (SV). We used a single network topology that was trained in a pairwise fashion in order to evaluate the potential to differentiate between patient populations. In total we used 59,151 echo frames drawn from 1,666 clinical sequences. Approximately 80% of the data was used for training, and the remainder for validation. Data was split at sequence boundaries to avoid having related images in the training and validation sets. While training was done with echo images/frames, evaluation was performed for both single frame discrimination as well as sequence discrimination (by majority voting). In total 10 networks were generated and evaluated. Unlike other domains where this network topology has been used, in ultrasound there is low visual variation between classes. This work shows the potential for CNNs to be applied to this low-variation domain of medical imaging for disease discrimination.

  20. The assessment of neural injury following open heart surgery by physiological tremor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Adám; Hejjel, László; Ajtay, Zénó; Kellényi, Lóránd; Solymos, Andor; Bártfai, Imre; Kovács, Norbert; Lenkey, Zsófia; Cziráki, Attila; Szabados, Sándor

    2013-02-21

    The appearance of post-operative cognitive dysfunction as a result of open heart surgery has been proven by several studies. Focal and/or sporadic neuron damage emerging in the central nervous system may not only appear as cognitive dysfunction, but might strongly influence features of physiological tremor. We investigated 110 patients (age: 34-73 years; 76 male, 34 female; 51 coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 25 valve replacement, 25 combined open heart surgery, 9 off-pump CABG) before surgery and after open-heart surgery on the 3(rd) to 5(th) post-operative day. The assessment of the physiological tremor analysis was performed with our newly developed equipment based on the Analog Devices ADXL 320 JPC integrated accelerometer chip. Recordings were stored on a PC and spectral analysis was performed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). We compared power integrals in the 1-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz and 8-12 Hz frequency ranges and these were statistically assessed by the Wilcoxon rank correlation test. We found significant changes in the power spectrum of physiological tremor. The spectrum in the 8-12 Hz range (neuronal oscillation) decreased and a shift was recognised to the lower spectrum (p < 0.01). The magnitude of the shift was not significantly higher for females than for males (p < 0.157). We found no significant difference between the shift and the cross-clamp or perfusion time (p < 0.6450). The assessment of physiological tremor by means of our novel, feasible method may provide a deeper insight into the mechanism of central nervous system damage associated with open heart surgery.

  1. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior.

  2. Computer aided decision making for heart disease detection using hybrid neural network-Genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabasadi, Zeinab; Alizadehsani, Roohallah; Roshanzamir, Mohamad; Moosaei, Hossein; Yarifard, Ali Asghar

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the most rampant causes of death around the world and was deemed as a major illness in Middle and Old ages. Coronary artery disease, in particular, is a widespread cardiovascular malady entailing high mortality rates. Angiography is, more often than not, regarded as the best method for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease; on the other hand, it is associated with high costs and major side effects. Much research has, therefore, been conducted using machine learning and data mining so as to seek alternative modalities. Accordingly, we herein propose a highly accurate hybrid method for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. As a matter of fact, the proposed method is able to increase the performance of neural network by approximately 10% through enhancing its initial weights using genetic algorithm which suggests better weights for neural network. Making use of such methodology, we achieved accuracy, sensitivity and specificity rates of 93.85%, 97% and 92% respectively, on Z-Alizadeh Sani dataset.

  3. Distinction between Neural and Vascular BOLD Oscillations and Intertwined Heart Rate Oscillations at 0.1 Hz in the Resting State and during Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Brunner, Clemens; Aigner, Christoph; Fink, David; Brito, Joana; Carmo, Marciano P.; Andrade, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    In the resting state, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) oscillations with a frequency of about 0.1 Hz are conspicuous. Whether their origin is neural or vascular is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these BOLD oscillations interact with slow oscillations in heart rate (HR). To address these two questions, we estimated phase-locking (PL) values between precentral gyrus (PCG) and insula in 25 scanner-naïve individuals during rest and stimulus-paced finger movements in both hemispheres. PL was quantified in terms of time delay and duration in the frequency band 0.07 to 0.13 Hz. Results revealed both positive and negative time delays. Positive time delays characterize neural BOLD oscillations leading in the PCG, whereas negative time delays represent vascular BOLD oscillations leading in the insula. About 50% of the participants revealed positive time delays distinctive for neural BOLD oscillations, either with short or long unilateral or bilateral phase-locking episodes. An expected preponderance of neural BOLD oscillations was found in the left hemisphere during right-handed movement and unexpectedly in the right hemisphere during rest. Only neural BOLD oscillations were significantly associated with heart rate variability (HRV) in the 0.1-Hz range in the first resting state. It is well known that participating in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies may be frightening and cause anxiety. In this respect it is important to note that the most significant hemispheric asymmetry (p<0.002) with a right-sided dominance of neural BOLD and a left-sided dominance of vascular BOLD oscillations was found in the first resting session in the scanner-naïve individuals. Whether the enhanced left-sided perfusion (dominance of vascular BOLD) or the right-sided dominance of neural BOLD is related to the increased level of anxiety, attention or stress needs further research. PMID:28052074

  4. Actomyosin organisation for adhesion, spreading, growth and movement in chick fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1979-01-01

    Examination of the actomyosin structures and their relation to adhesion, movement and growth in the first fibroblasts migrating from chick heart explants shows striking differences with fibroblasts adapted to grow in culture. The latter have focal adhesions which seem to immobilize them for ancho......Examination of the actomyosin structures and their relation to adhesion, movement and growth in the first fibroblasts migrating from chick heart explants shows striking differences with fibroblasts adapted to grow in culture. The latter have focal adhesions which seem to immobilize them...

  5. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  6. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  7. Egg traits and physiological neonatal chick parameters from broiler breeder at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Luquetti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness, and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin, cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.

  8. A retinoic acid responsive Hoxa3 transgene expressed in embryonic pharyngeal endoderm, cardiac neural crest and a subdomain of the second heart field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nata Y S-G Diman

    Full Text Available A transgenic mouse line harbouring a β-galacdosidase reporter gene controlled by the proximal 2 kb promoter of Hoxa3 was previously generated to investigate the regulatory cues governing Hoxa3 expression in the mouse. Examination of transgenic embryos from embryonic day (E 8.0 to E15.5 revealed regionally restricted reporter activity in the developing heart. Indeed, transgene expression specifically delineated cells from three distinct lineages: a subpopulation of the second heart field contributing to outflow tract myocardium, the cardiac neural crest cells and the pharyngeal endoderm. Manipulation of the Retinoic Acid (RA signaling pathway showed that RA is required for correct expression of the transgene. Therefore, this transgenic line may serve as a cardiosensor line of particular interest for further analysis of outflow tract development.

  9. A Retinoic Acid Responsive Hoxa3 Transgene Expressed in Embryonic Pharyngeal Endoderm, Cardiac Neural Crest and a Subdomain of the Second Heart Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diman, Nata Y. S.-G.; Remacle, Sophie; Bertrand, Nicolas; Picard, Jacques J.; Zaffran, Stéphane; Rezsohazy, René

    2011-01-01

    A transgenic mouse line harbouring a β-galacdosidase reporter gene controlled by the proximal 2 kb promoter of Hoxa3 was previously generated to investigate the regulatory cues governing Hoxa3 expression in the mouse. Examination of transgenic embryos from embryonic day (E) 8.0 to E15.5 revealed regionally restricted reporter activity in the developing heart. Indeed, transgene expression specifically delineated cells from three distinct lineages: a subpopulation of the second heart field contributing to outflow tract myocardium, the cardiac neural crest cells and the pharyngeal endoderm. Manipulation of the Retinoic Acid (RA) signaling pathway showed that RA is required for correct expression of the transgene. Therefore, this transgenic line may serve as a cardiosensor line of particular interest for further analysis of outflow tract development. PMID:22110697

  10. Comparison of Hensen's node and retinoic acid in secondary axis induction in the early chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Solursh, M

    1992-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and Hensen's node, the organizer center in the chick embryo, have been shown to have polarizing activity when applied or grafted into the chick limb bud. Here we investigate and compare the effects of RA and grafted Hensen's node on the early chick embryo. Anion exchange beads soaked with RA at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 ng/ml and implanted on the anterior side or on the left side of the host anteroposterior axis of a stage 4 chick embryo in ovo have the ability to induce secondary axis formation, while beads soaked with RA of the same concentration and implanted on the right side or on the posterior side of the host axis are unable to induce the secondary axis. All of the induced axes contain trunk-tail structures. Hensen's node from quail embryos implanted into the early chick blastoderm could also cause the formation of secondary axes in addition to self-differentiation of the graft into a secondary axis. Both RA and grafted Hensen's node caused the inhibition of forebrain development with an increase in hindbrain development and the host heart to loop in an abnormal direction. The results support the hypothesis that Hensen's node is a source of RA which is involved in early embryogenesis. Alternatively, RA might stimulate the formation of Hensen's nodal properties in adjacent tissue.

  11. CHICKS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND SOCIAL RESEARCH VOL. 4, No. ... increase in the use of feed additives as growth promoters in animal production (Manie .... It could also be due to increased absorptive capacity of the small ... PGD project.

  12. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.

    1999-01-01

    We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

  13. Alternating myocardial sympathetic neural function of athlete's heart in professional cycle racers examined with iodine-123-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Keiko; Inoue, Tomio; Hasegawa, Akira; Oriuchi, Noboru; Okamoto, Eiichi; Tomaru, Yumi; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-08-01

    Myocardial sympathetic neural function in professional athletes who had the long-term tremendous cardiac load has not been fully investigated by myocardial iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in comparison with power spectral analysis (PSA) in electrocardiography. Eleven male professional cycle racers and age-matched 11 male healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The low frequency components in the power spectral density (LF), the high frequency components in the power spectral density (HF), the LF/HF ratio and mean R-R interval were derived from PSA and time-domain analysis of heart rate variability in electrocardiography. The mean heart-to-mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M ratio) of the MIBG uptake, in professional cycle racers was significantly lower than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.01) and HF power in professional cycle racers was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). In the group of professional cycle racers, the H/M ratio showed a significant correlation with the R-R interval, as indices of parasympathetic nerve activity (r=0.80, p<0.01), but not with the LF/HF ratio as an index of sympathetic nerve activity. These results may indicate that parasympathetic nerve activity has an effect on MIBG uptake in a cyclist's heart. (author)

  14. Conditioning-specific reflex modification of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response and heart rate: behavioral rules, neural substrates, and potential applications to posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhans, Lauren B; Smith-Bell, Carrie; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2008-12-01

    Interest in classical conditioning is usually focused on anticipatory responses to a stimulus associated with a significant event, and it is assumed that responses to the event itself are reflexive, involuntary, and relatively invariant. However, there is compelling evidence that both the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR) and heart rate response (HR), well-known reflexive reactions to aversive events, can change quite dramatically as a function of learning when measured in the absence of the conditioned stimulus. In the case of NMR conditioning, a simple blink is transformed into a larger and more complex response. For HR conditioning, reflexive heart rate acceleration can actually change to heart rate deceleration. In both cases, the reflex comes to resemble the conditioned response and follows some of the same behavioral laws. This change in response to the aversive event itself or weaker forms of that event is called conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM). CRM may force us to reevaluate the behavioral and neural consequences of classical conditioning and may have important consequences for the treatment of conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  15. Differential distribution of protein kinase C (PKCαβ and PKCγ) isoenzyme immunoreactivity in the chick brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, Eddy A. van der; Bolhuis, Johan J.; Solomonia, Revaz O.; Horn, Gabriel; Luiten, Paul G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in neural plasticity. The phosphorylation of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) in the left intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) of the chick brain has been shown previously to correlate significantly with the streng

  16. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekelenburg-de Vos, Sandra; Ursem, Nicolette T C; Hop, Wim C J; Wladimiroff, Juriy W; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Poelmann, Robert E

    2003-03-01

    In the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical load of the embryonic myocardium. We investigated the instantaneous effects of clipping the right lateral vitelline vein on hemodynamics in the stage-17 chick embryo. 32 chick embryos HH 17 were subdivided into venous clipped (N=16) and matched control embryos (N=16). Dorsal aortic blood flow velocity was measured with a 20 MHz pulsed Doppler meter. A time series of eight successive measurements per embryo was made starting just before clipping and ending 5h after clipping. Heart rate, peak systolic velocity, time-averaged velocity, peak blood flow, mean blood flow, peak acceleration and stroke volume were determined. All hemodynamic parameters decreased acutely after venous clipping and only three out of seven parameters (heart rate, time-averaged velocity and mean blood flow) showed a recovery to baseline values during the 5h study period. We conclude that the experimental alteration of venous return has major acute effects on hemodynamics in the chick embryo. These effects may be responsible for the observed cardiac malformations after clipping.

  17. HEART RATE RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE AND NEURAL REGULATION OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN 30-40 YEAR OLD FEMALE MARATHON RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of endurance training on heart rate (HR recovery after exercise and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS modulation in female marathon runners by comparing with untrained controls. Six female marathon runners (M group aged 32-40 years and eight age-matched untrained females (C group performed a maximum-effort treadmill running exercise. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was measured during the exercise with a gas analyzer connected to subjects through a face mask. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the exercise. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE to the exercise was obtained immediately after the exercise. Holter ECG was recorded and analyzed with power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV to investigate the cardiac ANS modulation. The M group had significantly higher VO2max, faster HR recovery after exercise, higher Mean RR, SDRR, HF power and lower LF/HF ratio at rest compared with the C group. The M group also presented greater percent decrease of blood pressure after exercise, although their blood pressure after exercise was higher than the C group. It is suggested that endurance training induced significant alterations in cardiac ANS modulation at rest and significant acceleration of HR recovery after exercise in female marathon runners. Faster HR recovery after exercise in the female marathon runners should result from their higher levels of HRV, higher aerobic capacity and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise compared with untrained controls.

  18. The Teratogenic Effects of Antiepileptic Drug, Topiramate, on the Development of Chick Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantima Roongruangchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-epileptic drugs are known to be the risk of teratogenicity. Topiramate (TPM is a new kind of such drug, for which no research has confirmed the incidence of producing congenital abnormalities. Objective: This study was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of TPM by using chick embryos as an animal model and the results can be compared to the human embryo of the same stage. Methods: Fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were injected in ovo with two concentrations of TPM, which were 10mg, and 20mg, in NSS at a volume of 0.1 ml into the yolk sac at 21 hrs of incubation and repeated injections at 72 hrs at a volume of 0.05 ml. The chick embryos on day 3, 6 and 11 of incubation were sacrificed and all living embryos were processed for total mount and serial section. Results: The mortality rate increased corresponding to the concentrations of TPM, and the embryonic stage. The total mount of day 3 showed major abnormalities of the eye and heart, such as microphthalmia and looser of heart looping. The serial section of day 3 showed opening of the anterior neuropore, ectopia viscerae and multiple malformations of the eye and heart. Day 6 chick embryos showed ectopia cordis and ectopia viscerae. Moreover, there were retardation and abnormalities of several organs such as eye, heart, liver, mesonephros and gonads. Day 11 chick embryos showed ectopia viscerae and several growth retardations, retardation of ossification of both limb bones and skull bones. Conclusion: This study showed that TPM might cause embryonic death, growth retardation and abnormalities of the eye, heart, an opening of the anterior neuropore and ectopia viscerae. This might indicate abnormalities to the baby born from mother with gestational epilepsy who was taking this drug continuously, and it might lead to spontaneous abortion or congenital anomalies of the fetus.

  19. Patterning of the chick forebrain anlage by the prechordal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, E M; Kessel, M

    1997-10-01

    We analysed the role of the prechordal plate in forebrain development of chick embryos in vivo. After transplantation to uncommitted ectoderm a prechordal plate induces an ectopic, dorsoventrally patterned, forebrain-like vesicle. Grafting laterally under the anterior neural plate causes ventralization of the lateral side of the forebrain, as indicated by a second expression domain of the homeobox gene NKX2.1. Such a lateral ventralization cannot be induced by the secreted factor Sonic Hedgehog alone, as this is only able to distort the ventral forebrain medially. Removal of the prechordal plate does not reduce the rostrocaudal extent of the anterior neural tube, but leads to significant narrowing and cyclopia. Excision of the head process results in the caudal expansion of the NKX2.1 expression in the ventral part of the anterior neural tube, while PAX6 expression in the dorsal part remains unchanged. We suggest that there are three essential steps in early forebrain patterning, which culminate in the ventralization of the forebrain. First, anterior neuralization occurs at the primitive streak stage, when BMP-4-antagonizing factors emanate from the node and spread in a planar fashion to induce anterior neural ectoderm. Second, the anterior translocation of organizer-derived cells shifts the source of neuralizing factors anteriorly, where the relative concentration of BMP-4-antagonists is thus elevated, and the medial part of the prospective forebrain becomes competent to respond to ventralizing factors. Third, the forebrain anlage is ventralized by signals including Sonic Hedgehog, thereby creating a new identity, the prospective hypothalamus, which splits the eye anlage into two lateral domains.

  20. Anasarca and myopathy in ostrich chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbey, A W; Button, C; Gestier, A W; Munro, B E; Glastonbury, J R; Hindmarsh, M; Love, S C

    1991-07-01

    Twenty ostrich chicks that died at, or within, 1 week after hatching were examined from 7 farms with poor (43 to 75%) hatchability. All chicks had anasarca and 15 had mild, generalised, acute degenerative changes in the complexus and pelvic limb muscles. One had fibrinoid degeneration of arterioles. Biochemical examinations produced no evidence of deficiencies of selenium, vitamin A or vitamin E. The syndrome was related to high relative humidity during incubation. Malpositioning also was a cause of embryo mortality.

  1. The mechanism of neurally mediated syncope assessed by an ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system and heart rate variability indices during head-up tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, Haruhiko [Self Defense Force Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takase, Bonpei; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka [National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan); Kurita, Akira [National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan). Research Center

    2002-11-01

    Previously, we tested the hypothesis that the great decline in left ventricular volume during head-up tilt test could trigger ventricular mechanoreceptor activation, using ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (C-VEST system). The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of tilt-induced syncope further, based on our previous report. We measured the temporal changes in left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and heart rate variability indices during head-up tilt test in 34 patients with syncope of an undetermined etiology. Twenty-two patients and a positive response (P group). Twelve patients showed a negative response (N group). Before syncope, left ventricular volume declined (P group, diastolic volume; -7.9{+-}6.8%: systolic volume; -23.3{+-}33.8%: N group, diastolic volume; -2.5{+-}1.9%: systolic volume; 0.6{+-}9.5%: p<0.05), ejection fraction increased (P group, 3.9{+-}2.5%; N group, -3.5{+-}7.2%; p<0.005), and high frequency spectra increased (P group, 12.0{+-}20.3%; N group, 3.1{+-}9.7%; p<0.05), more extremely in the P group than in the N group. The value of the high frequency spectra before the head-up tilt test was significantly higher in the P group than in the N group (P group, 5.8{+-}0.9 ms; N group, 5.0{+-}1.1 ms; p<0.05). The precise evaluation of left ventricular volume by ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system combined with a heart rate variability analysis is considered to be useful for clarifying the pathophysiology of neurally mediated syncope. Patients with neurally mediated syncope have higher baseline parasympathetic tone than normal population. (author)

  2. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

  3. IN VIVO TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES IN CHICK EMBRYO

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    Chandrapragasam Vani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Silica is one of the most effective stored seedand food grain protecting pesticide agent, usedfor ages Silica nanoparticles are hard and strong andresistant to brittle fracture under an imposed stress. The aim of our study is to synthesize and evaluate the toxicity of silica nanoparticles at various concentrations using chick embryo, as it serves as a bridging model between in vivo and ex vivo studies. Silica nanoparticles of 70 nm sizewith concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 PPM were injected in vivo and incubated for 19 days as per IACUC guidelines. The study was carried out on dissected chick embryo after the 19th day of incubation. Vital tissues such as liver and heart tissues were subjected to toxicity assays. Biochemical assay of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were assessed. The results showed a decreased level of MDA (Malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid Peroxidation, whereas increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were observed. Therefore silica nanoparticles may be used as a pesticide and also as a biomaterial for therapeutic application in the field of medicine.

  4. Ejecting chick cheats: a changing paradigm?

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    Grim Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evolutionary arms-races between avian brood parasites and their hosts have typically resulted in some spectacular adaptations, namely remarkable host ability to recognize and reject alien eggs and, in turn, sophisticated parasite egg mimicry. In a striking contrast to hosts sometimes rejecting even highly mimetic eggs, the same species typically fail to discriminate against highly dissimilar parasite chicks. Understanding of this enigma is still hampered by the rarity of empirical tests - and consequently evidence - for chick discrimination. Recent work on Australian host-parasite systems (Gerygone hosts vs. Chalcites parasites, increased not only the diversity of hosts showing chick discrimination, but also discovered an entirely novel host behavioural adaptation. The hosts do not desert parasite chicks (as in all previously reported empirical work but physically remove living parasites from their nests. Here, I briefly discuss these exciting findings and put them in the context of recent empirical and theoretical work on parasite chick discrimination. Finally, I review factors responsible for a relatively slow progress in this research area and suggest most promising avenues for future research.

  5. Control temperature of young chicks to reduce mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Kuijpers, M.

    2002-01-01

    Individual chicks may have different environmental temperature demands. The trick is to provide every chick with the right body temperature. By measuring individual chick temperatures, hatchery staff and broiler growers or layer producers are better able to provide the right environmental temperatur

  6. Hydrogen peroxide potentiates organophosphate toxicosis in chicks

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    Banan K. Al-Baggou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2 on the acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon and their inhibitoryactions on plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities. Material and Methods: H2O2 was given indrinking water (0.5% v/v for 2 weeks in unsexed day old chicks, a regimen known to induce oxidativestress in this species. A control group received drinking tap water. All experiments were conducted onthe chicks at the age of 15 days after exposure to H2O2. The acute (24 h oral LD50 values of dichlorvosand diazinon in the insecticidal preparations as determined by the up-and-down method in the controlchicks were 9.4 and 15.6 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The poisoned chicks manifested signs ofcholinergic toxicosis within one hour after the dosing including salivation, lacrimation, gasping, frequentdefecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsions and recumbency. The acute (24 h oral LD50 valuesof dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks provided with H2O2 were reduced to 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg, by 63 and58%, respectively when compared to respective control LD50 values. The intoxicated chicks also showedcholinergic signs of toxicosis as described above. Plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities of thechicks exposed to H2O2 were significantly lower than their respective control (H2O values by 25, 28 and27%, respectively. Oral dosing of chicks with dichlorvos at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited cholinesteraseactivities in the plasma, brain and liver of both control (42-67% and H2O2-treated (15-59% chicks.Diazinon at 5 mg/kg, orally also inhibited cholinesterase activities in the plasma, brain and liver of bothcontrol (36-66% and H2O2-treated (15-30% chicks. In the H2O2 groups, dichlorvos inhibition of livercholinesterase activity and diazinon inhibition of liver and brain cholinesterase activities weresignificantly lesser than those of the respective values of

  7. The chick embryo as an experimental system for melanoma cell invasion.

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    Christian Busch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A primary cutaneous melanoma will not kill the patient, but its metastases. Since in vitro studies on melanoma cells in 2-D cultures do often not reflect reality, 3-D models might come closer to the physiological situation in the patient during cancer initiation and progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the chick embryo model for in vivo studies of melanoma cell migration and invasion. After transplantation of neural crest-derived melanoma cells into the neural tube, the melanoma cells resume neural crest cell migration along the medial and lateral pathways and finally undergo apoptosis in the target areas. Upon transplantation into ectopic areas such as the hindbrain or the optic cup malignant invasion and local tissue destruction occurs. In contrast, melanocytes are not able to spontaneously resume neural crest cell migration. However, malignant invasion can be induced in melanocytes by pre-treatment with the TGF-beta family members bone morphegenetic protein-2 or nodal. Transplantation of MCF7 breast cancer cells yields a different growth pattern in the rhombencephalon than melanoma cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The chick embryo model is a feasible, cost-effective in vivo system to study invasion by cancer cells in an embryonic environment. It may be useful to study invasive behavior induced by embryonic oncogenes and for targeted manipulation of melanoma or breast cancer cells aiming at ablation of invasive properties.

  8. Induced systemic listeriosis in Alectoris chukar chicks: clinical, histopathological and microbiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, H; Rahmani, M; Ghanbarpoor, R; Kheirandish, R

    2015-01-01

    1. Systemic listeriosis was induced in 14-d-old Chukar partridge chicks, Alectoris chukar, by intravenous injection of a suspension containing 10(6) cfu/ml of viable Listeria monocytogenes organisms to study the course of infection. 2. Septicaemic and encephalitic forms of listeriosis were observed in all birds. Infection resulted in a fever response 8-h post-inoculation. Disease rapidly developed over a 24-h period with decreased activity, lethargy, ruffled feathers, huddling, listlessness, inability to stand, wing droop, decreased feed and water consumption, growth depression, neural disturbances and finally death. Gross and histopathological changes were observed in the myocardium, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, pancreas, kidney, liver, spleen, lung, meninges and joints. 3. The diversity of these clinical signs and lesions suggests a high susceptibility of Chukar partridge chicks to systemic listeriosis.

  9. Effect of dihydrofolate reductase gene knock-down on the expression of heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2 in zebrafish cardiac development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-na; GUI Yong-hao; WANG Yue-xiang; QIAN Lin-xi; JIANG Qiu; LIU Dong; SONG Hou-yan

    2007-01-01

    Background Folic acid is very important for embryonic development and dihydrofolate reductase is one of the key enzymes in the process of folic acid performing its biological function. Therefore, the dysfunction of dihydrofolate reductase can inhibit the function of folic acid and finally cause the developmental malformations. In this study, we observed the abnormal cardiac phenotypes in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene knock-down zebrafish embryos,investigated the effect of DHFR on the expression of heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2 (HAND2)and explored the possible mechanism of DHFR knock-down inducing zebrafish cardiac malformations.Methods Morpholino oligonucleotides were microinjected into fertilized eggs to knock down the functions of DHFR or HAND2. Full length of HAND2 mRNA which was transcribed in vitro was microinjected into fertilized eggs to overexpress HAND2. The cardiac morphologies, the heart rates and the ventricular shortening fraction were observed and recorded under the microscope at 48 hours post fertilization. Whole-mount in situ hybridization and real-time PCR were performed to detect HAND2 expression.Results DHFR or HAND2 knock-down caused the cardiac malformation in zebrafish. The expression of HAND2 was obviously reduced in DHFR knock-down embryos (P<0.05). Microinjecting HAND2 mRNA into fertilized eggs can induce HAND2 overexpression. HAND2 overexpression rescued the cardiac malformation phenotypes of DHFR knock-down embryos.Conclusions DHFR plays a crucial role in cardiac development. The down-regulation of HAND2 caused by DHFR knock-down is the possible mechanism of DHFR knock-down inducing the cardiac malformation.

  10. Tissue distribution of cells derived from the area opaca in heterospecific quail-chick blastodermal chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagenç, Levent; Sandikci, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the tissue distribution of cells derived from the area opaca in heterospecific quail-chick blastodermal chimeras. Quail-chick chimeras were constructed by transferring dissociated cells from the area opaca of the stage X-XII (EG&K) quail embryo into the subgerminal cavity of the unincubated chick blastoderm. The distribution of quail cells in embryonic as well as extra-embryonic tissues of the recipient embryo were examined using the QCPN monoclonal antibody after 6 days of incubation in serial sections taken at 100-mum intervals. Data gathered in the present study demonstrated that, when introduced into the subgerminal cavity of a recipient embryo, cells of the area opaca are able to populate not only extra-embryonic structures such as the amnion and the yolk sac, but also various embryonic tissues derived from the ectoderm and less frequently the mesoderm. Ectodermal chimerism was confined mainly to the head region and was observed in tissues derived from the neural ectoderm and the surface ectoderm, including the optic cup, diencephalon and lens. Although the possibility of random incorporation of transplanted cells into these embryonic structures cannot be excluded, these results would suggest that area opaca, a peripheral ring of cells in the avian embryo destined to form the extra-embryonic ectoderm and endoderm of the yolk sac, might harbor cells that have the potential to give rise to various cell types in the recipient chick embryo, including those derived from the surface ectoderm and neural ectoderm.

  11. Toxicity of metal mixtures to chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, W.J.; Roberts, O.W.; Black, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    The toxic effects of mercury/selenium and certain other metal mixtures on the chick embryo are examined to determine whether antagonistic, additive or synergistic interactions occur. White Plymouth Rock chicken eggs were treated by yolk injection with cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, zinc chloride and sodium selenate. Test aliquots were injected prior to incubation using the needle track procedure. Using a sample size of 200, percent survival was determined as hatchability of experimental eggs/controls. Metal mixtures used included mercury/cadmium, mercury/selenium, mercury/zinc, cadmium/selenium, and cadmium/zinc. Except for mercury/selenium, all other metal mixtures gave actual values that were within 5% of those for additive toxic effects. Actual hatchability frequencies for test concentrations of mercury/selenium indicated a moderate degree of synergism. Results indicate that the strong mercury/selenium synergism which affects embryonic development in the carp does not apply for the chick embryo; that most two-way combinations of cadmium, mercury, selenium and zinc exert purely additive effects on chick hatchability; and that these metal mixtures give no discernible antagonistic interactions which affect survival of chick embryos. (MFB)

  12. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  13. DIFFERENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PROTEIN-KINASE-C (PKC-ALPHA-BETA AND PKC-GAMMA) ISOENZYME IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CHICK BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, EA; BOLHUIS, JJ; SOLOMONIA, RO; HORN, G; LUITEN, PGM

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in neural plasticity. The phosphorylation of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) in the left intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) of the chick brain has been shown previously to correlate significantly with the streng

  14. Integration of human model neurons (NT2) into embryonic chick nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrygajlo, Grzegorz; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Scaal, Martin; Bicker, Gerd

    2010-02-01

    Postmitotic neurons were generated from the human NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line in a novel cell aggregate differentiation procedure. Approximately a third of the differentiated neurons expressed cell markers related to cholinergic neurotransmission. To examine whether this human cell model system can be directed toward a motoneuronal fate, postmitotic neurons were co-cultured with mouse myotubes. Outgrowing neuronal processes established close contact with the myotubes and formed neuromuscular junction-like structures that bound alpha-bungarotoxin. To determine how grafted precursor cells and neurons respond to embryonic nerve tissue, NT2 cells at different stages of neural development were injected into chick embryo neural tube and brain. Grafted NT2 neurons populated both parts of the nervous system, sometimes migrating away from the site of injection. The neural tube appeared to be more permissive for neurite extensions than the brain. Moreover, extending neurites of spinal grafts were approaching the ventral roots, thus resembling motoneuronal projections.

  15. The strength of a remorseful heart: psychological and neural basis of how apology emolliates reactive aggression and promotes forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Urielle; Yu, Hongbo; Han, Ting; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Apology from the offender facilitates forgiveness and thus has the power to restore a broken relationship. Here we showed that apology from the offender not only reduces the victim's propensity to react aggressively but also alters the victim's implicit attitude and neural responses toward the offender. We adopted an interpersonal competitive game which consisted of two phases. In the first, "passive" phase, participants were punished by high or low pain stimulation chosen by the opponents when losing a trial. During the break, participants received a note from each of the opponents, one apologizing and the other not. The second, "active" phase, involved a change of roles where participants could punish the two opponents after winning. Experiment 1 included an Implicit Association Test (IAT) in between the reception of notes and the second phase. Experiment 2 recorded participants' brain potentials in the second phase. We found that participants reacted less aggressively toward the apologizing opponent than the non-apologizing opponent in the active phase. Moreover, female, but not male, participants responded faster in the IAT when positive and negative words were associated with the apologizing and the non-apologizing opponents, respectively, suggesting that female participants had enhanced implicit attitude toward the apologizing opponent. Furthermore, the late positive potential (LPP), a component in brain potentials associated with affective/motivational reactions, was larger when viewing the portrait of the apologizing than the non-apologizing opponent when participants subsequently selected low punishment. Additionally, the LPP elicited by the apologizing opponents' portrait was larger in the female than in the male participants. These findings confirm the apology's role in reducing reactive aggression and further reveal that this forgiveness process engages, at least in female, an enhancement of the victim's implicit attitude and a prosocial motivational

  16. The strength of a remorseful heart: Psychological and neural basis of how apology emolliates reactive aggression and promotes forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urielle eBeyens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Apology from the offender facilitates forgiveness and thus has the power to restore a broken relationship. Here we showed that apology from the offender not only reduces the victim’s propensity to react aggressively but also alters the victim’s implicit attitude and neural responses towards the offender. We adopted an interpersonal competitive game which consisted of two phases. In the first, passive phase, participants were punished by high or low pain stimulation chosen by the opponents when losing a trial. During the break, participants received a note from each of the opponents, one apologizing and the other not. The second, active phase involved a change of roles where participants could punish the two opponents when winning. Experiment 1 included an Implicit Association Test (IAT in between the reception of notes and the second phase. Experiment 2 recorded participants’ brain potentials in the second phase. We found that participants reacted less aggressively towards the apologizing opponent than the non-apologizing opponent in the active phase. Moreover, female, but not male, participants responded faster in the IAT when positive and negative words were associated to the apologizing and the non-apologizing opponents, respectively, suggesting that female participants had enhanced implicit attitude towards the apologizing opponent. Furthermore, the late positive component (LPP in brain potentials, a component associated with affective/motivational reactions, was larger for viewing the portrait of the apologizing than the non-apologizing opponent when participants subsequently selected low punishment. Additionally, the LPP elicited by the apologizing opponents’ portrait was larger in the female than in the male participants. These findings confirm the apology’s role in reducing reactive aggression and further reveal that this forgiveness process engages, at least in female, an enhancement of the victim’s implicit attitude and a

  17. Excitotoxic lesions of the medial striatum delay extinction of a reinforcement color discrimination operant task in domestic chicks; a functional role of reward anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yoko; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2004-12-01

    To reveal the functional roles of the striatum, we examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions to the bilateral medial striatum (mSt) and nucleus accumbens (Ac) in a food reinforcement color discrimination operant task. With a food reward as reinforcement, 1-week-old domestic chicks were trained to peck selectively at red and yellow beads (S+) and not to peck at a blue bead (S-). Those chicks then received either lesions or sham operations and were tested in extinction training sessions, during which yellow turned out to be nonrewarding (S-), whereas red and blue remained unchanged. To further examine the effects on postoperant noninstrumental aspects of behavior, we also measured the "waiting time", during which chicks stayed at the empty feeder after pecking at yellow. Although the lesioned chicks showed significantly higher error rates in the nonrewarding yellow trials, their postoperant waiting time gradually decreased similarly to the sham controls. Furthermore, the lesioned chicks waited significantly longer than the controls, even from the first extinction block. In the blue trials, both lesioned and sham chicks consistently refrained from pecking, indicating that the delayed extinction was not due to a general disinhibition of pecking. Similarly, no effects were found in the novel training sessions, suggesting that the lesions had selective effects on the extinction of a learned operant. These results suggest that a neural representation of memory-based reward anticipation in the mSt/Ac could contribute to the anticipation error required for extinction.

  18. Chick Noir”: Shopaholic Meets Double Indemnity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Victoria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2014, several articles appeared proclaiming the rise to prominence of a new subgenre of the crime novel: “chick noir,” which included popular books like Gone Girl, The Silent Wife, and Before We Met. However, there was also resistance to the new genre label from critics who viewed it as belittling to women’s writing and to female-focused narratives. Indeed, the separation of female-centred books - whether “chick lit” or “chick noir” - from mainstream fiction remains highly problematic and reflects the persistence of a gendered literary hierarchy. However, as this paper suggests, the label “chick noir” also reflects the fact that in these novels the crime thriller has been revitalized through cross-pollination with the so-called chick lit novel. I contend that chick lit and chick noir are two narrative forms addressing many of the same concerns relating to the modern woman, offering two different responses: humour and horror. Comparing the features of chick noir to those of chick lit and noir crime fiction, I suggest that chick noir may be read as a manifestation of feminist anger and anxiety - responses to the contemporary pressure to be “wonder women.”

  19. Reduced-folate carrier (RFC is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Puttur

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine. Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. Results In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Conclusions Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.

  20. Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed Transcript 2 (HAND2): a novel biomarker for the identification of atypical hyperplasia and Type I endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell-Gutbrod, Rebecca; Cavallo, Allison; Lee, Nita; Montag, Anthony; Gwin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone inhibits the proliferative growth effects of estrogen in the endometrium and prevents the development of endometrial hyperplasia and Type I adenocarcinoma. The exact mechanism of this action is unknown. The progesterone-induced helix-loop-helix transcription factor Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed 2 (Hand2) was recently shown to suppress production of growth factors in the endometrium. In Hand2 knockout mice, continuous proliferation of the endometrium was observed. In this study, archival paraffin-embedded tissue from 56 hysterectomy specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression and localization of Hand2, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67. Diagnoses included disordered proliferative endometrium, simple and complex hyperplasia with or without atypia, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Hand2 expression is localized to endometrial stromal nuclei. In benign endometrium, Hand2 expression was moderate to strong (10/11; 91%), with weak Hand2 expression in only 1 case (1/11; 9%). Similar Hand2 expression patterns were observed in disordered proliferative endometrium and simple hyperplasia without atypia, with moderate to strong expression in 91% of cases (10/11) and weak expression in 9% of cases (1/11). In contrast, simple and complex hyperplasia with atypia exhibited moderate to strong Hand2 expression in 8% of cases (1/12) and a loss of expression or weak expression in 92% of cases (11/12). In endometrioid adenocarcinomas, Hand2 expression was absent in all cases (22/22). Hand2 is expressed in the stroma of benign endometrium, but expression is significantly reduced or lost in atypical hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma. Thus, the absence of Hand2 expression may be a useful biomarker for atypical hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma.

  1. Interaction between Neural and Cardiac Systems during the Execution of the Stroop Task by Young Adults: Electroencephalographic Activity and Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya L. Sá Canabarro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Executive processes and heart rate variability (HRV are supposedly regulated by an integrated inhibitory neurovisceral network mainly coordinated by the prefrontal cortex. Inhibitory control, a core executive function, is demanded by the Stroop task. This study aimed to assess the interaction between electroencephalographic activity and HRV of 50 healthy undergraduate students while performing a computerized version of the Stroop task with three stages (paradigmatic congruent – CS – and incongruent – IS – stages in addition to a stage in which words were phonetically similar to color names – PSS. Behavioral results suggested a Stroop interference effect among the stages, with greater difficulty in IS followed by PSS. A pattern of cortical activation in a frontoparietal gradient with left lateralization and involvement of the prefrontal, temporal and occipital cortices was found especially in IS and PSS, which might be correlated to executive control of behavior, inhibitory control, mental representation of words, preparation of the verbal response, and processing of visual stimuli. Mean power of brain activity (μV was higher for IS and PSS for all tested frequency oscillations. HRV parameters of SDNN and pNN50 were smaller in PSS compared to the other stages, while rMSSD was higher for CS, suggesting higher mental stress for IS and PSS. During PSS, LF/HF ratio was negatively correlated with EEG power in frontal, central and temporal regions whilst rMSSD was positively correlated with activity in frontal and parietal regions. Therefore, marked prefrontal cortex activity was associated with parasympathetic dominance, which is in line with the integrated inhibitory neural network model. In summation, the execution of the Stroop task required increased recruitment of prefrontal cortical areas and led to high mental stress, but, as it was associated with parasympathetic dominance of HRV control, conflict was solved and subjects behaved

  2. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Nam, Kyoung-Woo; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that drinking oxygenated water may improve oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improving immune activity. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of oxygenated drinking water in broiler chicks and demonstrated the protective efficacy of oxygenated drinking water against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased serum lysozyme activity, peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) splenocyte ratio in broiler chicks. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, oxygenated drinking water alleviated symptoms and increased survival. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks, and increases survivability against S. Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

  3. Could Cells from Your Nose Fix Your Heart? Transplantation of Olfactory Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Cardiac Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron McDonald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hypothesis that multipotent olfactory mucosal stem cells could provide a basis for the development of autologous cell transplant therapy for the treatment of heart attack. In humans, these cells are easily obtained by simple biopsy. Neural stem cells from the olfactory mucosa are multipotent, with the capacity to differentiate into developmental fates other than neurons and glia, with evidence of cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro and after transplantation into the chick embryo. Olfactory stem cells were grown from rat olfactory mucosa. These cells are propagated as neurosphere cultures, similar to other neural stem cells. Olfactory neurospheres were grown in vitro, dissociated into single cell suspensions, and transplanted into the infarcted hearts of congeneic rats. Transplanted cells were genetically engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP in order to allow them to be identified after transplantation. Functional assessment was attempted using echocardiography in three groups of rats: control, unoperated; infarct only; infarcted and transplanted. Transplantation of neurosphere-derived cells from adult rat olfactory mucosa appeared to restore heart rate with other trends towards improvement in other measures of ventricular function indicated. Importantly, donor-derived cells engrafted in the transplanted cardiac ventricle and expressed cardiac contractile proteins.

  4. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. Results: This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (pneem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (pneem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Conclusion: Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut. PMID:28717305

  5. Division of labor during trunk neural crest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammill, Laura S; Roffers-Agarwal, Julaine

    2010-08-15

    Neural crest cells, the migratory precursors of numerous cell types including the vertebrate peripheral nervous system, arise in the dorsal neural tube and follow prescribed routes into the embryonic periphery. While the timing and location of neural crest migratory pathways has been well documented in the trunk, a comprehensive collection of signals that guides neural crest migration along these paths has only recently been established. In this review, we outline the molecular cascade of events during trunk neural crest development. After describing the sequential routes taken by trunk neural crest cells, we consider the guidance cues that pattern these neural crest trajectories. We pay particular attention to segmental neural crest development and the steps and signals that generate a metameric peripheral nervous system, attempting to reconcile conflicting observations in chick and mouse. Finally, we compare cranial and trunk neural crest development in order to highlight common themes.

  6. Gene transfer to chicks using lentiviral vectors administered via the embryonic chorioallantoic membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Hen

    Full Text Available The lack of affordable techniques for gene transfer in birds has inhibited the advancement of molecular studies in avian species. Here we demonstrate a new approach for introducing genes into chicken somatic tissues by administration of a lentiviral vector, derived from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, into the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chick embryos on embryonic day 11. The FIV-derived vectors carried yellow fluorescent protein (YFP or recombinant alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH genes, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Transgene expression, detected in chicks 2 days after hatch by quantitative real-time PCR, was mostly observed in the liver and spleen. Lower expression levels were also detected in the brain, kidney, heart and breast muscle. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses confirmed transgene expression in chick tissues at the protein level, demonstrating a transduction efficiency of ∼0.46% of liver cells. Integration of the viral vector into the chicken genome was demonstrated using genomic repetitive (CR1-PCR amplification. Viability and stability of the transduced cells was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, immunostaining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA, and detection of transgene expression 51 days post transduction. Our approach led to only 9% drop in hatching efficiency compared to non-injected embryos, and all of the hatched chicks expressed the transgenes. We suggest that the transduction efficiency of FIV vectors combined with the accessibility of the CAM vasculature as a delivery route comprise a new powerful and practical approach for gene delivery into somatic tissues of chickens. Most relevant is the efficient transduction of the liver, which specializes in the production and secretion of proteins, thereby providing an optimal target for prolonged study of secreted hormones and peptides.

  7. Expression of chick Fgf19 and mouse Fgf15 orthologs is regulated in the developing brain by Fgf8 and Shh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, L; Martinez, S

    2007-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) constitute a family of signaling molecules that play essential roles in development. We have studied the expression pattern of mouse Fgf15 in the developing brain. Fgf19 is another member of the FGF family that has been suggested as the chick and human ortholog of mouse and rat Fgf15. Here, we compare the expression pattern during neural development of chick Fgf19 with mouse Fgf15. Unlike Fgf15, Fgf19 presents an expression in the isthmic alar plate, diencephalic and mesencephalic parabasal plates, hindbrain basal plate, as well as in the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli). Moreover, we explored the regulation between Fgf19 and the signaling molecules of the isthmic and zli organizers: Fgf8 and Shh, respectively. Considering the possibility that Fgf19 plays a similar role in humans and chicks, this finding could explain the significant diencephalic phenotypic differences between humans and mice in models and diseases where the Shh pathway is affected.

  8. The antioxidant activity of propofol in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Naser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the antioxidant effects of propofol in chicks by estimation of glutathione concentration in blood plasma, brain and liver as well as total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant effects of propofol in vitro by using hydrogen peroxide as oxidative stress. Propofol at 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally significantly increased after 4 hours the concentration of glutathione concentration in plasma and brain compared with the control group and with 5 and 10mg propofol groups. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased glutathione concentration in the liver compared with the control group. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased the efflux rate constant by 882, 1031 and 920 %, increased glutathione turnover rate by 880, 1028, and 917 % and decreased the turnover time by 89, 91 and 90% in the liver. In the brain propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased efflux rate constant as 26, 600 and 2826 % and increased glutathione turnover rate by 29, 616 and 2894 % and a decreased in the turnover time by 21, 86 and 96%. propofol at 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased after 20 hours the TAC in the serum of the chick by 38 and 48%, respectively compared with the control group. Propofol at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 micromoles / liter decreased erythrocyte hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro 10 micromoles / liter in a concentration depended manner by 25, 49 and 64 % respectively. In conclusion, propofol have antioxidant effect in vivo and in vitro in the chicks.Propofol have a protection against oxidative stress.

  9. Killing day-old chicks? Public opinion regarding potential alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.; Munnichs, G.M.; Beekman, V.; Vromans, E.; Aramyan, L.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the world, male chicks from layer breeds are killed just after hatching, as they are not profitable as regards the production of meat. The Dutch and European parliaments have insisted on research into possible alternatives to the killing of day-old chicks. In the present study we have inv

  10. Measuring the style of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the distribution of the hundred most frequent function words of two novelistic genres (chick lit and literature) gives insight into the genre styles. The results shows that the literary style is more descriptive and informational, whereas the style of the chick-lit

  11. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  12. Effect of weak electromagnetic field on cardiac work, concentration of thyroid hormones and blood aminotransferase level in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Krzysztof; Sechman, Andrzej; Nieckarz, Zenon; Wojtysiak, Dorota

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of alternating electromagnetic field (EMF; 50 Hz frequency, 50 and 100 μT induction) on cardiac work of the chick embryo. Eggs from the experimental groups were exposed to EMF throughout incubation. During the experiment, heart rate (ballistocardiographic method), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, heart weight, ventricle wall thickness, and levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. The results show, for the first time, that the exposure of chick embryos to EMF augments the heart rate, especially from 17 days of incubation. The increased heart rate in the embryos exposed to EMF was associated with considerable increases in plasma T4 and T3 concentrations, which were recorded during the final stage of embryogenesis. The significant effect of the 100-μT field on heart weight and blood AST levels in the embryos suggests that EMF has a direct effect on the physiological function of cardiac muscle.

  13. Selective contribution of the telencephalic arcopallium to the social facilitation of foraging efforts in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qiuhong; Ogura, Yukiko; Uno, Leo; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the neural basis of socio-economic behaviors in birds, we examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of arcopallium (Arco, the major descending pallial area of the avian telencephalon) and the surrounding nuclei in domestic chicks. We tested foraging effort (running distance) in an I-shaped maze with two food patches that delivered food in a biased manner according to a variable interval schedule. Normally, chicks run back and forth between the patches, and the patch use time matches the respective food delivery rate. In the paired phase, even without actual interference of food, chicks showed social facilitation of running effort compared with the single phase. Chicks with lesions in the Arco and lateral Arco showed significant reductions in social facilitation. The lesion effects of the lateral Arco were particularly selective, as it was not accompanied by changes in running distance in the single phase. Lesions of the nidopallium and nucleus taeniae of the amygdala produced no changes in foraging behavior. On the other hand, the Arco lesion did not impair social facilitation of operant peck latency. In accordance with this, anterograde tracing revealed characteristic projections from the lateral Arco to the extended amygdala, hippocampus, and septum, as well as wide areas of limbic nuclei in the hypothalamus and medial areas of the striatum including the nucleus accumbens. Pathways from the lateral Arco could enable chicks to overcome the extra effort investment of social foraging, suggesting functional and anatomical analogies to the anterior cingulate cortex and basolateral amygdala in mammals. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  15. Bioluminescence imaging of c-fos gene expression accompanying filial imprinting in the newly hatched chick brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Iikubo, Eiji; Hirose, Naoki; Kitajima, Takaaki; Katagiri, Sachiko; Kawamori, Ai; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2010-06-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is a powerful tool for examining gene expression in living animals. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into neurons in the newly hatched chick brain using electroporation. Here, we show the in vivo bioluminescence imaging of c-fos promoter activity and its upregulation, which is associated with filial imprinting. The upregulation of c-fos gene expression correlated with both the strength of the chicks' approach activity to the training object and the acquisition of memory. The present technique should be a powerful tool for analyzing the time changes in neural activity of certain brain areas in real-time during memory formation, using brains of living animals.

  16. Transcription factor AP-2delta regulates the expression of polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 in chick retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Persad, Amit R L; Monckton, Elizabeth A; Godbout, Roseline

    2014-03-03

    The AP-2δ transcription factor is restricted to a subset of retinal ganglion cells. Overexpression of AP-2δ in chick retina results in induction of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) accompanied by misrouting and bundling of ganglion cell axons. Two polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are responsible for polysialylation of NCAM. Here, we investigate the mechanism driving the increase in PSA-NCAM observed upon AP-2δ overexpression. We show that ST8SIA2 is induced by AP-2δ overexpression in chick retina. We use chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shift assays to demonstrate direct interaction between AP-2δ and the ST8SIA2 promoter. We propose that up-regulation of ST8SIA2 upon AP-2δ overexpression in retina increases ectopic polysialylation of NCAM which in turn causes premature bundling of axons and alters axonal response to guidance cues.

  17. Leader cells define directionality of trunk, but not cranial, neural crest migration

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Jo; Gauert, Anton; Montecinos, Luis Briones; Fanlo, Lucía; Alhashem, Zainalabdeen Mohmammed; Assar, Rodrigo; MARTI, ELISA; Kabla, Alexandre; Härtel, Steffen; Linker, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Summary:Collective cell migration is fundamental for life and a hallmark of cancer. Neural crest (NC) cells migrate collectively, but the mechanisms governing this process remain controversial. Previous analyses in Xenopus indicate that cranial NC (CNC) cells are a homogeneous population relying on cell-cell interactions for directional migration, while chick embryo analyses suggest a heterogeneous population with leader cells instructing directionality. Our data in chick and zebrafish embryo...

  18. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-06-01

    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flexibility of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumorphia eRemboutsika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cortical neural stem cells are self-renewing progenitors that can differentiate into neurons and glia. We generated neurospheres from the developing cerebral cortex using a mouse genetic model that allows for lineage selection and found that the self-renewing neural stem cells are restricted to Sox2 expressing cells. Under normal conditions, embryonic cortical neurospheres are heterogeneous with regard to Sox2 expression and contain astrocytes, neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells sufficiently plastic to give rise to neural crest cells when transplanted into the hindbrain of E1.5 chick and E8 mouse embryos. However, when neurospheres are maintained under lineage selection, such that all cells express Sox2, neural stem cells maintain their Pax6+ cortical radial glia identity and exhibit a more restricted fate in vitro and after transplantation. These data demonstrate that Sox2 preserves the cortical identity and regulates the plasticity of self-renewing Pax6+ radial glia cells.

  20. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

    2000-06-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  1. Effects of heat stress on day-old broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, R A; Weathers, W W; Smith, J

    1984-09-01

    Short-term heat stress can occur when chicks are transported from the hatchery to growing facilities. Two experiments were conducted to determine the possible effects of short-term heat stress on growth and feed conversion of broiler (Hubbard X Hubbard) chicks. The heat stress was accomplished by placing chicks in Jamesway 252 incubators at dry bulb temperatures ranging from 40 to 45 C for variable times. Growth, feed consumption, and mortality were measured for 16 days following the heat stress. Short sublethal heat stress significantly reduced growth rate to 16 days in these experiments without any effect on feed conversion ratio. The results indicate that the hatchery industry should avoid overheating chicks even for periods as short as 1 hr.

  2. Effect of refuge supplement on Audouin's gull chick survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Prieto

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main threats to Audouin´s gull (Larus audouinii at Chafarinas Islands is predation on eggs and chicks by the yellow-legged gull (Larus cachinnans. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons we tested the effects of supplementary refuge availability on chick survival. Well before the laying period, nine adjacent enclosures were erected inside Audouin´s gull´s breeding grounds and some of them were supplied with artificial refuges. Our results showed significantly greater chick survival in the enclosures with artificial refuges than in control ones. In 2000, an overall lower breeding success of Audouin´s gull and a dilution of the refuge effect were observed. These results were probably related to food-shortage that year. We suggest that, along with other factors, an increase in refuge availability may significantly enhance Audouin´s gull chick survival.

  3. The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paudyal Anju

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planar cell polarity (PCP signalling pathway is fundamental to a number of key developmental events, including initiation of neural tube closure. Disruption of the PCP pathway causes the severe neural tube defect of craniorachischisis, in which almost the entire brain and spinal cord fails to close. Identification of mouse mutants with craniorachischisis has proven a powerful way of identifying molecules that are components or regulators of the PCP pathway. In addition, identification of an allelic series of mutants, including hypomorphs and neomorphs in addition to complete nulls, can provide novel genetic tools to help elucidate the function of the PCP proteins. Results We report the identification of a new N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-induced mutant with craniorachischisis, which we have named chuzhoi (chz. We demonstrate that chuzhoi mutant embryos fail to undergo initiation of neural tube closure, and have characteristics consistent with defective convergent extension. These characteristics include a broadened midline and reduced rate of increase of their length-to-width ratio. In addition, we demonstrate disruption in the orientation of outer hair cells in the inner ear, and defects in heart and lung development in chuzhoi mutants. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between chuzhoi mutants and both Vangl2Lp and Celsr1Crsh mutants, strengthening the hypothesis that chuzhoi is involved in regulating the PCP pathway. We demonstrate that chuzhoi maps to Chromosome 17 and carries a splice site mutation in Ptk7. This mutation results in the insertion of three amino acids into the Ptk7 protein and causes disruption of Ptk7 protein expression in chuzhoi mutants. Conclusions The chuzhoi mutant provides an additional genetic resource to help investigate the developmental basis of several congenital abnormalities including neural tube, heart and lung defects and their relationship to disruption of PCP. The chuzhoi mutation

  4. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Komine, Okiru; Sato, Katsushige; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Uchimura, Motoaki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2006-11-14

    Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  5. Expression pattern of LINGO-1 in the developing nervous system of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafuji, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2005-12-01

    We isolated a chick homologue of LINGO-1 (cLINGO-1), a novel component of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR)/p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) signaling complex, and examined the expression of cLINGO-1 in the developing brain and spinal cord of the chick embryo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. cLINGO-1 was expressed broadly in the spinal cord, including the ventral portion of the ventricular zone, and motor neurons. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the dorsal root ganglion and boundary cap cells at dorsal and ventral roots. In the early embryonic brain, cLINGO-1 was first expressed in the prosencephalon and the ventral mesencephalon, and later in the telencephalon, the rostral part of the mesencephalon and some parts of the hindbrain. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the ventral part of the neural retina and trigeminal and facial nerves. We also found that cLINGO-1, cNgR1 and p75NTR were expressed in overlapped patterns in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion, but that these genes were expressed in distinct patterns in the early embryonic brain.

  6. Spatiotemporal distribution of 1P1 antigen expression in the plexiform layers of developing chick retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHOUHUA; QIUBAOSONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of 1P1-antigen in the developing chick retina have been examined by indriect immunofluorescence staining technique using the novel monoclonal antibody(MAb)1P1.Expression of the 1P1 antigen was found to be regulated in radial as well as in tangential dimension of the retina,being preferentially or exclusively located in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the neural retina depending on the stages of development ,With the onset of the formation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 antigen becomes expressed in the retina.With progressing differentiation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 immunofluorescence revealed 2 subbands at E9 and 6 subands at E18,At postnatal stages(after P3) immunoreactivity was reduced in an inside-outside sequence leading to the complete absence of the 1P1 antigen in adulthood.1P1 antigen expression in the outer plexiform layer was also subject to developmental regulation.The spation-temporal pattern of 1P1 antigen expression was correlated with the time course of histological differentation of chick retina,namely the synapse rich plexiform layers.Whether the 1P1 antigen was functionally involved in dendrite extension and synapse formation was discussed.

  7. Rediscovering the chick embryo as a model to study retinal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara M Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The embryonic chick occupies a privileged place among animal models used in developmental studies. Its rapid development and accessibility for visualization and experimental manipulation are just some of the characteristics that have made it a vertebrate model of choice for more than two millennia. Until a few years ago, the inability to perform genetic manipulations constituted a major drawback of this system. However, the completion of the chicken genome project and the development of techniques to manipulate gene expression have allowed this classic animal model to enter the molecular age. Such techniques, combined with the embryological manipulations that this system is well known for, provide a unique toolkit to study the genetic basis of neural development. A major advantage of these approaches is that they permit targeted gene misexpression with extremely high spatiotemporal resolution and over a large range of developmental stages, allowing functional analysis at a level, speed and ease that is difficult to achieve in other systems. This article provides a general overview of the chick as a developmental model focusing more specifically on its application to the study of eye development. Special emphasis is given to the state of the art of the techniques that have made gene gain- and loss-of-function studies in this model a reality. In addition, we discuss some methodological considerations derived from our own experience that we believe will be beneficial to researchers working with this system.

  8. Dynamic transcriptional signature and cell fate analysis reveals plasticity of individual neural plate border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Daniela; Tan-Cabugao, Johanna; Esaian, Sevan; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-03-29

    The 'neural plate border' of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. How these lineages segregate from neural and epidermal fates has been a matter of debate. We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure.

  9. Molecular function of microtubule-associated protein 2 for filial imprinting in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Katagiri, Sachiko; Aoki, Naoya; Iikubo, Eiji; Kitajima, Takaaki; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene-silencing can be a tool for elucidating the role of genes in the neural basis of behavioral plasticity. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into newly-hatched chick brains via electroporation. Here, we used this in vivo gene-transfer technique and showed that transfected microRNA vectors preferentially silence exogenous DNA expression in neuronal cells. Using this system, the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) accompanying filial imprinting was suppressed in vivo, which impaired the filial imprinting in chicks. In addition, the phosphorylation of MAP2 was found to increase in parallel with filial imprinting, and lithium chloride, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), was found to impair filial imprinting. Our results suggest that the regulation of MAP2 expression and its phosphorylation are required for filial imprinting and may modify microtubule stability, thereby leading to cytoskeletal reorganization during imprinting. This in vivo RNAi-mediated gene-silencing system will facilitate the analysis of gene function in the living chick brain and provides further clues regarding the molecular mechanisms underpinning avian learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  11. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  12. A 'tool box' for deciphering neuronal circuits in the developing chick spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Yoav; Etlin, Alex; Falk, Haya; Avraham, Oshri; Kobiler, Oren; Panet, Amos; Lev-Tov, Aharon; Klar, Avihu

    2014-10-29

    The genetic dissection of spinal circuits is an essential new means for understanding the neural basis of mammalian behavior. Molecular targeting of specific neuronal populations, a key instrument in the genetic dissection of neuronal circuits in the mouse model, is a complex and time-demanding process. Here we present a circuit-deciphering 'tool box' for fast, reliable and cheap genetic targeting of neuronal circuits in the developing spinal cord of the chick. We demonstrate targeting of motoneurons and spinal interneurons, mapping of axonal trajectories and synaptic targeting in both single and populations of spinal interneurons, and viral vector-mediated labeling of pre-motoneurons. We also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of the activity pattern of defined spinal neurons during rhythmic motor behavior, and assess the role of channel rhodopsin-targeted population of interneurons in rhythmic behavior using specific photoactivation.

  13. Effects of Multivitamins and Known Teratogens on Chick Cardiomyocytes Micromass Culture Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Memon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study aimed to find out whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM system could be employed to predict the teratogenecity of common environmental factors. Different multivitamins and over the counter drugs were used in this study.   Materials and Methods: White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissected and trypsinized to produce a cardiomyocyte cell suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The cultures were incubated at 370C in 5% CO2 in air, and observations were made at 24, 48 and 144 hr, for the detection of cell beating. Cellular viability was assessed using the resazurin assay and cell protein content was assessed by the kenacid blue assay. It was observed that while not affecting total cell number folic acid, vitamin C, sodium fluoride and ginseng did not significantly reduced cell activity and beating. However cadmium chloride significantly reduced the beating, cell viability and cell protein content in micromass cultures. Results: The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter morphology and function, which may result in either teratogenic outcome or cytotoxicity. Conclusion: This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function

  14. Mouse FGF15 is the ortholog of human and chick FGF19, but is not uniquely required for otic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tracy J; Ladher, Raj; McWhirter, John; Murre, Cornelis; Schoenwolf, Gary C; Mansour, Suzanne L

    2004-05-01

    The inner ear develops from an ectodermal placode that is specified by inductive signals from the adjacent neurectoderm and underlying mesoderm. In chick, fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-19 is expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, and human FGF19 induces expression of otic markers in a tissue explant containing neural plate and surface ectoderm. We show here that mouse Fgf15 is the sequence homolog of chick and human Fgf19/FGF19. In addition, we show that FGF15, like FGF19, is sufficient to induce expression of otic markers in a chick explant assay, suggesting that these FGFs are orthologs. Mouse embryos lacking Fgf15, however, do not have otic abnormalities at E9.5-E10.5, suggesting that Fgf15 is not uniquely required for otic induction or early patterning of the otocyst. To compare FGF15 and FGF19 signaling components and assess where signals potentially redundant with FGF15 might function, we determined the expression patterns of Fgf15 and Fgf19. Unlike Fgf19, Fgf15 is not expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, but is expressed in the adjacent neurectoderm. Fgfr4, which encodes the likely receptor for both FGF19 and FGF15, is expressed in the neurectoderm of both species, and is also expressed in the mesoderm only in chick. These results suggest the hypotheses that during otic induction, FGF19 signals in either an autocrine fashion to the mesoderm or a paracrine fashion to the neurectoderm, whereas FGF15 signals in an autocrine fashion to the neurectoderm. Thus, the FGFs that signal to the neurectoderm are the best potential candidates for redundancy with FGF15 during mouse otic development.

  15. Exploring the caffeine-induced teratogenicity on neurodevelopment using early chick embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-lai Ma

    Full Text Available Caffeine consumption is worldwide. It has been part of our diet for many centuries; indwelled in our foods, drinks, and medicines. It is often perceived as a "legal drug", and though it is known to have detrimental effects on our health, more specifically, disrupt the normal fetal development following excessive maternal intake, much ambiguity still surrounds the precise mechanisms and consequences of caffeine-induced toxicity. Here, we employed early chick embryos as a developmental model to assess the effects of caffeine on the development of the fetal nervous system. We found that administration of caffeine led to defective neural tube closures and expression of several abnormal morphological phenotypes, which included thickening of the cephalic mesenchymal tissues and scattering of somites. Immunocytochemistry of caffeine-treated embryos using neural crest cell markers also demonstrated uncharacteristic features; HNK1 labeled migratory crest cells exhibited an incontinuous dorsal-ventral migration trajectory, though Pax7 positive cells of the caffeine-treated groups were comparatively similar to the control. Furthermore, the number of neurons expressing neurofilament and the degree of neuronal branching were both significantly reduced following caffeine administration. The extent of these effects was dose-dependent. In conclusion, caffeine exposure can result in malformations of the neural tube and induce other teratogenic effects on neurodevelopment, although the exact mechanism of these effects requires further investigation.

  16. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid R. Cordeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1 regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues.

  17. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  18. Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P

    1999-01-01

    Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Spontaneous generalization of abstract multimodal patterns in young domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Elisabetta; Spierings, Michelle J; Caffini, Matteo; Ten Cate, Carel; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    From the early stages of life, learning the regularities associated with specific objects is crucial for making sense of experiences. Through filial imprinting, young precocial birds quickly learn the features of their social partners by mere exposure. It is not clear though to what extent chicks can extract abstract patterns of the visual and acoustic stimuli present in the imprinting object, and how they combine them. To investigate this issue, we exposed chicks (Gallus gallus) to three days of visual and acoustic imprinting, using either patterns with two identical items or patterns with two different items, presented visually, acoustically or in both modalities. Next, chicks were given a choice between the familiar and the unfamiliar pattern, present in either the multimodal, visual or acoustic modality. The responses to the novel stimuli were affected by their imprinting experience, and the effect was stronger for chicks imprinted with multimodal patterns than for the other groups. Interestingly, males and females adopted a different strategy, with males more attracted by unfamiliar patterns and females more attracted by familiar patterns. Our data show that chicks can generalize abstract patterns by mere exposure through filial imprinting and that multimodal stimulation is more effective than unimodal stimulation for pattern learning.

  20. Hypoxia adaptation and hemoglobin mutation in Tibetan chick embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Xiao; LI Ning; LIAN Linsheng; YAN Dawei; ZHANG Hao; WU Changxin

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan chick lives at high altitudes between 2600 and 4200 m with a high hatchability and low land breeds survive rarely with a hatchability of 3.0% under hypoxia of simulated 4200 m. Under hypoxia of whole 21 d, the hatchability of Tibetan chick and Recessive White Feather broiler differed with a greatest disparity from day 4 to 11 and also significantly in other stages except from day 1 to 3. Hypoxia in each stage did not reduce significantly survival rate of this stage except hatchability. These two results indicated that the hypoxia in the early stage had an adverse effect on the later stage. All exons encoding chick hemoglobins were sequenced to analyze gene polymorphism. The functional mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu, related with hypoxia, was found in αD globin chain and the mutation frequency increased with increased altitude. In addition, under hypoxic conditions, the population with higher mutation frequency had a higher hatchability. The automated homology model building was carried out using crystal structure coordinates of chick HbD. The results indicated that the substitution Met-32(B13)-Leu provides a more hydrophobic environment which leads to higher stability of heme and oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The occurrence of the mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu is related to the origin of Tibetan chick.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  2. Modeling chick to assess diabetes pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Savita P; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. Copyright © by Lab & Life Press/SBDR

  3. Cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeto, Amy L; Hymel, Kristen A; Carpenter, Erika C; Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2011-02-10

    Cognitive bias is a phenomenon that presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals tend to adopt a more pessimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli whereas depressed individuals tend to adopt a less optimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. To further validate the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation we sought to quantify this cognitive endophenotype. Chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5m to induce an anxiety-like or 60 m to induce a depressive-like state were then tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. In non-isolated controls, runway start and goal latencies generally increased as a function of greater amounts of aversive characteristics in the cues. In chicks in the anxiety-like state, runway latencies were increased to aversive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like behavior. In chicks in the depression-like state, runway latencies were increased to both aversive and appetitive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like behavior, respectively.

  4. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  5. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of heart disease you have. Symptoms of heart disease in your blood vessels (atherosclerotic disease) Cardiovascular disease ... can sometimes be found early with regular evaluations. Heart disease symptoms caused by abnormal heartbeats (heart arrhythmias) A ...

  6. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S.; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated change...

  7. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  8. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  9. PATHOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SALINOMYCIN ON LAYER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. RIZVI, A. D. ANJUM, A. KHAN, M. MOHSAN AND M. SHAZAD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of continuous and over dosage of salinomycin was studied experimentally in layer chicks.Salinomycin was given to layers @ 60, 120 and 180 ppm in feed up to the age of 12 weeks. During the courseof trial, the birds of all groups were active and did not show any clinical signs. Body weight started decreasingsignificantly (P<0.001 in chicks receiving 60, 120 and 180 ppm salinomycin compared to the control groupfrom the 11th, 5th and 3rd week onward, respectively. Feed conversion ratio at 12th week was 3.537 in the controlcompared with 3.701, 4.250 and 4.465 in layer chicks given salinomycin at the rate of 60, 120 and 180 ppm,respectively. Absolute weight of liver at 12th week and absolute weight of kidneys throughout the experimentdecreased significantly (P<0.001 in chicks receiving 180 ppm salinomycin. Concentrations of AST, ALT,blood urea and creatinine were higher in layers receiving 180 ppm salinomycin, while serum total bilirubinconcentration was increased significantly (P<0.001 in layers receiving 120 and 180 ppm salinomycin. No grosslesions were observed in liver and kidneys of layers receiving various doses of salinomycin. Microscopically,there was congestion of liver sinusides and vacuolization of hepatocytes in chicks receiving 180 ppmsalinomycin. There was hydropic degeneration of tubular epithelium, degeneration and desquamation of most ofcells of Bowman’s capsule epithelium of kidneys in birds receiving 180 ppm salinomycin. Higher doses ofsalinomycin seem to alter liver and kidney functions subclinically in layer chicks.

  10. Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard

    2009-03-01

    In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of 'normal' eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 +/- 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg +/- 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P < or = 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 +/- 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 +/- 0.018 (SE) mm(2) day(-1) for normal chicks, P < or = 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 +/- 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2) in the central cornea and 393 +/- 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2 )peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P < or = 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth.

  11. Immunization of young chicks using graded dose of wild strain of Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Kimbita

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Eimeria tenella was isolated and utilized for immunization studies. Its optimal sporulation was attained at room temperature 24-25 °C after 24-48 h. Two groups of chicks were immunized by dosing a graded dose of five oocysts/chick/day for 6 days followed by 50 oocysts/chick/day for 7 days. A third group was not immunized and served as a negative control. Immunized chicks gained mass at the same rate as unimmunized ones, but when challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick, mass gains declined in the unimmunized group. The growth rate of immunized chicks was not affected by challenge (P > 0.05. Upon challenge, unimmunized chicks produced significantly more oocysts than immunized chicks (P < 0.005. Immunized chicks withstood a challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick without developing any clinical signs whereas the unimmunized chicks developed typical clinical signs of coccidiosis. Unimmunized chicks had significantly more severe lesions in the caecum than any other group (P > 0.005 and also produced significantly more oocysts than any other group (P > 0.005.

  12. Interpreting variation in growth of Eurasian Spoonbill chicks: disentangling the effects of age, sex and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chick body condition can be a sensitive indicator of local environmental conditions and has been shown to be correlated with chick survival. Designing a reliable index of chick body condition for a given species from a single measurement point requires knowledge about the extent of variation in body

  13. AP2γ regulates neural and epidermal development downstream of the BMP pathway at early stages of ectodermal patterning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbo Qiao; Yue Zhu; Nengyin Sheng; Jun Chen; Ran Tao; Qingqing Zhu; Ting Zhang; Cheng Qian; Naihe Jing

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibits neural specification and induces epidermal differentiation during ectodermal patterning.However,the mechanism of this process is not well understood.Here we show that AP2γ,a transcription factor activator protein (AP)-2 family member,is upregulated by BMP4 during neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.Knockdown of AP2γ facilitates mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural fate determination and impairs epidermal differentiation,whereas AP2γ overexpression inhibits neural conversion and promotes epidermal commitment.In the early chick embryo,AP2γ is expressed in the entire epiblast before HH stage 3 and gradually shifts to the putative epidermal ectoderm during HH stage 4.In the future neural plate AP2γ inhibits excessive neural expansion and it also promotes epidermal development in the surface ectoderm.Moreover,AP2γ knockdown in ESCs and chick embryos partially rescued the neural inhibition and epidermal induction effects of BMP4.Mechanistic studies showed that BMP4 directly regulates AP2γ expression through Smad1 binding to the AP2γ promoter.Taken together,we propose that during the early stages of ectodermal patterning in the chick embryo,AP2γ acts downstream of the BMP pathway to restrict precocious neural expansion in the prospective neural plate and initiates epidermal differentiation in the future epidermal ectoderm.

  14. Activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling accompanying filial imprinting in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Aoki, Naoya; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kitajima, Takaaki; Iikubo, Eiji; Katagiri, Sachiko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2011-12-07

    Newly hatched domestic chicks serve as an important model for experimental studies of neural and behavioral plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation, which underlies learning and memory in rodents. Here we show that BDNF mRNA levels increased in the intermediate medial hyperpallium apicale (IMHA), which is the caudal area of the visual Wulst, of imprinted chick brains, and the upregulation of gene expression correlated with the strength of the learned preference to the training object. In addition, activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling was associated with filial imprinting. However, pharmacological deprivation of TrkB phosphorylation in IMHA did not impair memory formation, suggesting that activation of BDNF/TrkB signaling in IMHA is not involved in memory acquisition in filial imprinting.

  15. The Application of Neural Network Technique for Output Estimation of an Impeller Artificial Heart%神经网络在叶轮式人工心脏输出流量 检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚; 曾培; 茹伟民; 袁海宇; 封志刚; 钱坤喜

    2001-01-01

    目的 寻找一种既精确又简便的间接测量方法。方法  应用神经网络技术检测叶轮式人工心脏的输出流量。采用电机功率和转速作为神 经网络输入元,流量作为输出元的网络结构,通过反复训练、测试,使网络掌握输入与输出 之间的非线性关系,能够在一定的误差范围内根据输入得到相应的输出。结果 应用神经网络检测人工心脏输出流量能够达到一定的精度(误差<5%)。结论  该方法简便、精确,在实际测量中避免引入传感器探针,降低装置的复杂性,减小 了感染的机会,具有进一步研究价值。%Objective An accurate,convenient and indirect mea su rement for artificial heart was developed. Methods The neural net work technique was applied to estimate the output of an impeller artificial hear t. The neural network construction including two input units-motor input power, rotational speed and one output unit-rate of flow, was set up. By training and t esting repeatedly, the network can accurately learn the non-linear relationship between the input units and the output units, and estimate the output value acco r ding to input values. Results The application of a neural network can solve the problem successfully with an error under 5%. Conclusion The method was accurate and convenient. Moreover, with no need of sens or, it was less complex and reduced the infection possibility. Thus, it is w orth studying further.

  16. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  17. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tereza C; Gorniak, Silvana L; Oloris, Silvia C S; Raspantini, Paulo C; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Dagli, Maria L Z

    2003-12-01

    Senna occidentalis (L) Link (formerly called Cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the S. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. S. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. This is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by S. occidentalis seeds. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of the treatment with seeds and its fraction external tegument (TE) on the development of chicks and their lymphoid organs bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Chicks that received a commercial ration with 1% TE had reduced body and lymphoid organ weights. The bursa of Fabricius presented reduction in the diameters of the follicles, and in the thickness of the cortical and medullary regions. The spleen presented depleted lymphoid tissue in the white pulp. These results indicate that the active principle of S. occidentalis is more concentrated on its TE fraction, and that it can cause weight loss as well as alterations in the lymphoid organs in chicks. The consequences of these alterations should be further investigated.

  18. Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing Differently Processed ... A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of ... The first batch was soaked in 3% Ca(OH)2 for 48 hours. ... performance of the birds in terms of feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio.

  19. Neurotoxic effect of the dithiocarbamate tecoram on the chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, G. van; Logten, M.J. van

    1971-01-01

    Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts

  20. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Folk, Martin J.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  1. Effects of begging on growth rates of nestling chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, MA; Zuniga, JM; Redondo, T

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether an increase in begging levels delays growth of chicks. In experiment 1, we hand-reared nine pairs of ring dove squabs, divided into a control and a begging group. All squabs received similar amounts of food, but those in the begging group had to beg for a prolonged period in

  2. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  3. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  4. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-11-30

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  5. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  6. Effects of begging on growth rates of nestling chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, MA; Zuniga, JM; Redondo, T

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether an increase in begging levels delays growth of chicks. In experiment 1, we hand-reared nine pairs of ring dove squabs, divided into a control and a begging group. All squabs received similar amounts of food, but those in the begging group had to beg for a prolonged period in

  7. Neural bases of recognition memory investigated through an analysis of imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, G

    1990-08-29

    Through a learning process known as imprinting, the young of some animals, including the domestic chick, come to recognize an object by being exposed to it. Visually naive chicks vigorously approach a wide range of objects. After an adequate period of exposure to one object chicks selectively approach it in a recognition test. The nervous system of dark-reared chicks is not a tabula rasa, as chicks have predispositions to approach some stimuli rather than others. Nevertheless, visual imprinting leads to changes in a nervous system that may not have been 'marked' by previous visual experience, and so encourages the hope of discovering the neural bases of the learning process. The intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale, a sheet of cells within the cerebral hemispheres, plays a crucial role in visual imprinting, particularly in the memory process of recognition. The cellular and sub-cellular changes that take place in this part of the hyperstriatum ventrale after imprinting are described. The right and left hyperstriatum ventrale regions play different roles in the imprinting process, and evidence is given for the existence of multiple memory systems in the chick brain.

  8. Medical diagnosis using neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Siddiquee, Abu Bakar; Mazumder, Md Ehsanul Hoque

    2010-01-01

    This research is to search for alternatives to the resolution of complex medical diagnosis where human knowledge should be apprehended in a general fashion. Successful application examples show that human diagnostic capabilities are significantly worse than the neural diagnostic system. This paper describes a modified feedforward neural network constructive algorithm (MFNNCA), a new algorithm for medical diagnosis. The new constructive algorithm with backpropagation; offer an approach for the incremental construction of near-minimal neural network architectures for pattern classification. The algorithm starts with minimal number of hidden units in the single hidden layer; additional units are added to the hidden layer one at a time to improve the accuracy of the network and to get an optimal size of a neural network. The MFNNCA was tested on several benchmarking classification problems including the cancer, heart disease and diabetes. Experimental results show that the MFNNCA can produce optimal neural networ...

  9. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  10. Development of Experimental Myopia in Chicks in a Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard A.; Cohen, Yuval; McGlinn, Alice M.; Davison, Sherrill; Casavant, Susan; Shaffer, James; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Iuvone, P. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. Methods Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather. Control chicks were reared indoors with incandescent lighting. Besides ocular refraction and ultrasound, we determined dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content in retina and vitreous and measured mRNA expression levels of selected clock and circadian rhythm-related genes in the retina/RPE. Results Myopia developed in the goggled eyes of all cohorts. Whereas outdoor rearing lessened myopia by 44% at 4 days, a protective effect was no longer evident at 11 days. Outdoor rearing had no consistent effect on retinal or vitreous content of dopamine or DOPAC. Conforming to prior data on form-deprivation myopia, retina and vitreous levels of DOPAC were reduced in goggled eyes. Compared with contralateral eyes, the retinal expression of clock and circadian rhythm-related genes was modestly altered in myopic eyes of chicks reared indoors or outdoors. Conclusions Outdoor rearing of chicks induces only a partial decrease of goggle-induced myopia that is not maintained, without evidence that retinal dopamine metabolism accounts for the partial myopia inhibition under these outdoor conditions. Although modest, alterations in retinal gene expression suggest that studying circadian signals might be informative for understanding refractive mechanisms. PMID:27618415

  11. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily aspirin to prevent heart attack? Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease? Does using ... tells you to. Return to top Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease? Taking birth ...

  12. Learning and memory: regional changes in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the chick brain after imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, B J; Horn, G

    1988-01-01

    An extensive series of experiments has implicated a restricted region of the chick forebrain in the learning process of imprinting. The region is the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV). Previous studies have shown that training is associated with an increase in the area of the postsynaptic density of axospinous synapses in the left but not the right IMHV. The postsynaptic density is a site of high receptor density, and at least some axospinous synapses are excitatory. We found that imprinting is associated with a 59% increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive binding of the excitatory amino acid L-[3H]glutamic acid in the left IMHV. The increase is probably due to an increased number of binding sites. The profile of sensitivity of the sites to a series of amino-, phosphono-substituted carboxylic acids (2-amino-3-phosphonopropionate to 2-amino-8-phosphonooctanoate) is characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type receptors. There were no significant effects of training on binding in the right IMHV. The effect of training on left IMHV binding could not be attributed to light exposure, arousal, or motor activity per se but was a function of how much the chicks learned. The changes in the left IMHV could increase the effectiveness of synaptic transmission in a region crucial for information storage and so form a neural basis for recognition memory. PMID:2833757

  13. Glutamine synthetase localization in cortisol-induced chick embryo retinas

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    We report here for the first time, in chick retina, Muller cell localization of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity by an immunohistochemical technique, in agreement with previous reports of glial localization of this enzyme in rat brain and retina. Age- dependent changes in the endogenous enzyme activity as well as cortisol- induced changes in GS activity, both in ovo and in vitro, measured biochemically, reflect the changes observed by staining.

  14. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  15. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  16. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish.

  17. Introduction of DT40 cells into chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariko Toba; Fumio Ebara; Hiroki Furuta; Yuichi Matsushimal; Yasuo Kitagawa; Noboru Fujihara

    2001-01-01

    To examine the transfection of exogenous genes into chick embryos, applying the characteristics of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced chicken B cell line DT40 to the production of chimeric birds. Methods: The DT40cells incorporated with exogenous gene (lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli β-galactosidase: β-gal) were introduced into chick embryos by the injection of cells into stage X blastoderm. Manipulated eggs were incubated for 3 (trial 1 ) or 6 (trial 2) days, and the expression of lacZ DNA was detected by a histochemical staining method of β-galactosidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The survival rates of the manipulated embryos incubated for 3 days (stage 18-20: trial 1) and 6 days (stage 28, 30: trial 2) were about 42% and 38%, respectively.The expression rates of the lacZ gene in the embryos in the trials 1 and 2 were about 60% and 23%, respectively, for the survived embryos. Conclusio: The rate of embryonic viability and expression rate of introduced genes were not so high, but it suggested the possibility of utilizing the DT40 cells as a vector for carrying exogenous genes into chick embryos.

  18. Central administration of neuromedin U suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Sugahara, Kunio; Hasegawa, Shin

    2007-06-08

    The appetite-suppressive action of brain-gut peptides is similar in both chickens and mammals. In mammals, the brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) suppresses food intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. In chickens, central administration of CRF, oxytocin, or arginine-vasotocin (AVT, a nonmammalian equivalent of arginine-vasopressin) suppresses food intake. However, the anorexigenic action of NMU in chickens has not yet been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the central administration of NMU on food intake and hypothalamic mRNA levels of CRF, AVT and mesotocin (a nonmammalian equivalent of oxytocin) in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of NMU in chicks significantly suppressed food intake and induced wing-flapping behavior. NMU also significantly upregulated mRNA expression of CRF and AVT, but did not influence mRNA expression of mesotocin in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that NMU functions as an appetite-suppressive peptide via CRF and AVT in the central nervous system in chicks.

  19. Genetic mapping of habitual substance use, obesity-related traits, responses to mental and physical stress, and heart rate and blood pressure measurements reveals shared genes that are overrepresented in the neural synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpay, Majid; Šeda, Ondrej; Tremblay, Johanne; Petrovich, Milan; Gaudet, Daniel; Kotchen, Theodore A; Cowley, Allen W; Hamet, Pavel

    2012-06-01

    Links between substance use habits, obesity, stress and the related cardiovascular outcomes can be, in part, because of loci with pleiotropic effects. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed genome-wide mapping in 119 multigenerational families from a population in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region with a known founder effect using 58,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 437 microsatellite markers to identify genetic components of the following factors: habitual alcohol, tobacco and coffee use; response to mental and physical stress; obesity-related traits; and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measures. Habitual alcohol and/or tobacco users had attenuated HR responses to mental stress compared with non-users, whereas hypertensive individuals had stronger HR and systolic BP responses to mental stress and a higher obesity index than normotensives. Genetic mappings uncovered numerous shared genes among substance use, stress response, obesity and hemodynamic traits, including CAMK4, CNTN4, DLG2, FHIT, GRID2, ITPR2, NOVA1 and PRKCE, forming network of interacting proteins, sharing synaptic function and display higher and patterned expression profiles in brain-related tissues; moreover, pathway analysis of shared genes pointed to long-term potentiation. Subgroup genetic mappings uncovered additional shared synaptic genes, including CAMK4, CNTN5 and DNM3 (hypertension-specific); CNTN4, DNM3, FHIT and ITPR1 (sex-specific), having protein interactions with genes driven from general analysis. In summary, consistent with the observed phenotypic correlations, we found substantial overlap among genomic determinants of these traits in synapse, which supports the notion that the neural synapse may be a shared interface behind substance use, stress, obesity, HR, BP as well as the observed sex- and hypertension-specific genetic differences.

  20. Pax7 lineage contributions to the mammalian neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Murdoch

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells are vertebrate-specific multipotent cells that contribute to a variety of tissues including the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and craniofacial bones and cartilage. Abnormal development of the neural crest is associated with several human maladies including cleft/lip palate, aggressive cancers such as melanoma and neuroblastoma, and rare syndromes, like Waardenburg syndrome, a complex disorder involving hearing loss and pigment defects. We previously identified the transcription factor Pax7 as an early marker, and required component for neural crest development in chick embryos. In mammals, Pax7 is also thought to play a role in neural crest development, yet the precise contribution of Pax7 progenitors to the neural crest lineage has not been determined.Here we use Cre/loxP technology in double transgenic mice to fate map the Pax7 lineage in neural crest derivates. We find that Pax7 descendants contribute to multiple tissues including the cranial, cardiac and trunk neural crest, which in the cranial cartilage form a distinct regional pattern. The Pax7 lineage, like the Pax3 lineage, is additionally detected in some non-neural crest tissues, including a subset of the epithelial cells in specific organs.These results demonstrate a previously unappreciated widespread distribution of Pax7 descendants within and beyond the neural crest. They shed light regarding the regionally distinct phenotypes observed in Pax3 and Pax7 mutants, and provide a unique perspective into the potential roles of Pax7 during disease and development.

  1. Kidney alkaline phosphatase in mercuric chloride injected chicks resistant and susceptible to leukosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; McIntyre, J.A.; Bearse, G.E.

    1969-01-01

    Two strains of chickens were selected for resistance and susceptibility to avian leukosis. Researchers found that the resistant chicks retained two to four times as much mercury in the liver and kidneys as did the susceptible chicks following injection of mercuric chloride or phenylmercuric acetate. Differences in alkaline phosphatase in the kidneys of the resistant and susceptible chicks, and the effect of the mercuric chloride injection on the alkaline phosphatase activity were reported in this paper. 19 references, 2 tables.

  2. Correlation between plasma steroids and chick visits by nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Elisa M; Wikelski, Martin; Anderson, David J

    2003-03-01

    Nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti) often approach unattended chicks and perform parental and/or aggressive behaviors toward the chicks. Earlier descriptions of these encounters included sexual behaviors as well. We studied hormonal correlates of chick visits by such nonbreeding boobies during the breeding season. We compared the hormonal status of chick-visiting adults with that of nonvisiting adults in the colony. We determined levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T), androstendione, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol as potential candidate hormones controlling parental, aggressive, or sexual behavior. Only T and CORT differed between chick-visiting and nonvisiting adults. Chick-visiting adults had higher CORT levels after the interaction than nonvisiting adults randomly caught in the colony. To the contrary. T levels after interactions were lower in chick-visiting compared to random nonvisiting adults. T levels, however, did not vary with level of aggression among chick-visiting adults. We suggest that chick-visiting behavior may be permitted by low T levels and activated by, or resulting in, high CORT levels.

  3. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  4. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P heat-stressed chicks modulated (P heat-stress-induced growth retardation in broiler chicks. Moreover, supplemental CrMet modulated suppressive effects of heat stress on cellular and humoral immune responses.

  5. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  6. A study on the growth curve of and maximum profit from layer-type cockerel chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, F Y; Zhen, Y S

    1997-09-01

    1. 2900 commercial layer-type cockerel chicks were reared on the floor from 1-day-old to 9 weeks of age. 2. The growth curve of the cockerel chicks was [formula see text] 3. The feeding costs (US$) of layer-type cockerel chicks were described by the equation Y = a + bx + cx2 = 0.0657 - 0.0091x + 0.0069x2. 4. When the layer-type cockerel chicks' marketing price was US$0.82 per kg. (6.8 Renminbi per kg), the optimum marketing age for maximum profit margin was 5.9 weeks (41 to 42 d).

  7. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    .... After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays...

  8. A descriptive study to provide evidence of the teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine and ephedrine on cardiac- and liver-tissue of chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Van Der Schoor, Ciska; Taute, Helena; Bester, Megan Jean

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to drugs during pregnancy is a major concern, as some teratogenic compounds can influence normal foetal development. Although the use of drugs during pregnancy should generally be avoided, exposure of the developing foetus to teratogens may occur unknowingly since these compounds may be hidden in products that are being marketed as "all natural." The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine-a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity-on the heart and liver tissue of chick embryos. Ephedrine was used as a positive control. The chick embryo model was chosen because it has been used in studying developmental and experimental biology and teratology with great success. The embryos were exposed to three different concentrations of sibutramine and ephedrine respectively. The results obtained revealed that both compounds exhibited embryotoxicity when compared to the control groups. Liver and heart tissue of the exposed embryos was severely affected by these compounds in a dose-related manner. Morphology similar to that of muscle dystrophy was observed in the heart, where the muscle tissue was infiltrated by adipose and connective tissue. Severe liver steatosis was also noted. A more in-depth investigation into the molecular pathways involved might provide more information on the exact mechanism of toxicity of these products influencing embryonic development.

  9. Embryonic Heart Progenitors and Cardiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Thomas; Pane, Luna S.; Moretti, Alessandra; Chien, Kenneth R.; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart is a highly specialized organ, comprised of many different cell types arising from distinct embryonic progenitor populations during cardiogenesis. Three precursor populations have been identified to contribute to different myocytic and nonmyocytic cell lineages of the heart: cardiogenic mesoderm cells (CMC), the proepicardium (PE), and cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs). This review will focus on molecular cues necessary for proper induction, expansion, and lineage-specific differentiation of these progenitor populations during cardiac development in vivo. Moreover, we will briefly discuss how the knowledge gained on embryonic heart progenitor biology can be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the management of congenital heart disease as well as for improvement of cardiac function in ischemic heart disease. PMID:24086063

  10. Analysis of cCx39 expression pattern during chick development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Annalisa; Cicirata, Federico; Martinez, Salvador

    2004-02-20

    The present study reports the expression pattern of connexin39 (cCx39) in chick embryos at different stages of central nervous system development. We examined the expression between HH17 and HH40 developmental stages of chicken embryos by in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. Connexin39 was first expressed at HH17. It stained neuroepithelial cells in the optic (OV) and telencephalic (TEL) vesicles, plus in the superficial mesenchyme of the two rostral branchial arches (maxilar and mandibular). These cells probably originated from the neural crest. This expression pattern changed drastically between stages HH17 and HH23, while it showed relatively little modifications from HH23 to HH29. At these times, connexin39 was expressed in three regions: the telencephalic vesicle, the diencephalon and the isthmus. At later stages, HH35 and HH40, connexin39 was mainly expressed in the ventricular epithelium and three cell layers of the stratum griseum and fibrosum superficialis (SGFS) in the optic tectum, as well as in granular and nuclear cells in the cerebellum. In conclusion, the expression pattern of connexin39 in embryonic nervous system is dynamic. This pattern is different from, and in some aspects complementary to, those showed by other connexins during brain development.

  11. Dynamic expression of Notch-dependent neurogenic markers in the chick embryonic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie eRatié

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a functional nervous system requires a highly orchestrated process of neural proliferation and differentiation. The evolutionary conserved Notch signalling pathway is a key regulator of this process, regulating bHLH transcriptional repressors and proneural genes. However little is known about downstream Notch targets and subsequently genes required for neuronal specification.In this report, the expression pattern of Tagln3, Chga and Cntn2 was described in detail during early chick embryogenesis. Expression of these genes was largely restricted to the nervous system including the early axon scaffold populations, cranial ganglia and spinal motor neurons. Their temporal and spatial expression were compared with the neuronal markers Nhlh1, Stmn2 and HuC/D. We show that Tagln3 is an early marker for postmitotic neurons whereas Chga and Cntn2 are expressed in mature neurons. We demonstrate that inhibition of Notch signalling during spinal cord neurogenesis enhances expression of these markers. This data demonstrates that Tagln3, Chga and Cntn2 represent strong new candidates to contribute to the sequential progression of vertebrate neurogenesis.

  12. Electroporation of the hindbrain to trace axonal trajectories and synaptic targets in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2013-05-29

    Electroporation of the chick embryonic neural tube has many advantages such as being quick and efficient for the expression of foreign genes into neuronal cells. In this manuscript we provide a method that demonstrates uniquely how to electroporate DNA into the avian hindbrain at E2.75 in order to specifically label a subset of neuronal progenitors, and how to follow their axonal projections and synaptic targets at much advanced stages of development, up to E14.5. We have utilized novel genetic tools including specific enhancer elements, Cre/Lox - based plasmids and the PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition system to drive GFP expression in a subtype of hindbrain cells (the dorsal most subgroup of interneurons, dA1). Axonal trajectories and targets of dA1 axons are followed at early and late embryonic stages at various brainstem regions. This strategy contributes advanced techniques for targeting cells of interest in the embryonic hindbrain and for tracing circuit formation at multiple stages of development.

  13. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  14. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain. The feeding behavior of chicks was recorded continuously for 6 h. The next day, brain and blood samples were collected when the chicks either attempted to have food (hungry group) or turned food down (satiated group), in order to analyze the concentrations of the free amino acids and monoamines. We confirmed that the feeding behavior of neonatal chicks was characterized by short resting periods between very brief times spent on food intake. Several free amino acids in the mesencephalon were significantly lower in the satiated group than in the hungry group, while l-histidine and l-glutamine were significantly higher. Notably, there was no change in the free amino acid concentrations in other brain regions or plasma. As for monoamines, serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly lower in the mesencephalon of the hungry group compared with the satiated group, but 5 hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) was higher. In addition, serotonin and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in the brain stem of the hungry chicks compared with the satiated group, but levels of 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid were lower. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, were significantly higher in the diencephalon and telencephalon of the chicks in the hungry group. In conclusion, the changes in the free amino acids and monoamines in the brain may have some role in the feeding behavior of

  15. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart failure due to systolic dysfunction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. Colucci WS. ... patient with heart failure or cardiomyopathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. Colucci WS. ...

  16. Heart palpitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  17. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  18. Induction of an antimicrobial biotin-binding egg white protein (avidin) in chick tissues in septic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, H A; Räisänen, S; Tuohimaa, P J

    1980-03-15

    The induction of avidin in chick tissues was found in septic Escherichia coli infection. Avidin concentrations in the plasma roughly corresponded to those in the other tissues studied which suggests that avidin in chicks is a secretory protein.

  19. The impact of caffeine on connexin expression in the embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahir, Bhavesh K; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-07-01

    Cardiomyocytes are electrically coupled by gap junctions, defined as clusters of low-resistance multisubunit transmembrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs). The expression of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45, which are present in cardiomyocytes, is known to be developmentally regulated. This study investigates the premise that alterations in gap junction proteins are one of the mechanisms by which teratogens may act. Specifically, those molecules known to be teratogenic in humans could cause their effects via disruption of cell-to-cell communication pathways, resulting in an inability to co-ordinate tissue development. Caffeine significantly inhibited contractile activity at concentrations above and including 1500 μm (P caffeine on key cardiac gap junction protein (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression were analysed using immunocytochemistry and in-cell Western blotting. The results indicated that caffeine altered the expression pattern of Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≥2000 μm), i.e., at concentrations that did not affect total cell protein and cell viability. In addition the effects of caffeine on cardiomyocyte formation and function (contractile activity score) were correlated with modulation of Cxs (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) expression, at above and including 2000 μm caffeine concentrations (P < 0.05). These experiments provide evidence that embryonic chick cardiomyocyte micromass culture may be a useful in vitro method for mechanistic studies of perturbation of embryonic heart development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Zhe [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Chuai, Manli [College of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Wang, Li-jing [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Geng, Jian-guo, E-mail: jgeng@umich.edu [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Formation of the neural tube is the morphological hallmark for development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, neural tube development is a crucial step in the neurulation process. Slit/Robo signaling was initially identified as a chemo-repellent that regulated axon growth cone elongation, but its role in controlling neural tube development is currently unknown. To address this issue, we investigated Slit/Robo1 signaling in the development of chick neCollege of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UKural tube and transgenic mice over-expressing Slit2. We disrupted Slit/Robo1 signaling by injecting R5 monoclonal antibodies into HH10 neural tubes to block the Robo1 receptor. This inhibited the normal development of the ventral body curvature and caused the spinal cord to curl up into a S-shape. Next, Slit/Robo1 signaling on one half-side of the chick embryo neural tube was disturbed by electroporation in ovo. We found that the morphology of the neural tube was dramatically abnormal after we interfered with Slit/Robo1 signaling. Furthermore, we established that silencing Robo1 inhibited cell proliferation while over-expressing Robo1 enhanced cell proliferation. We also investigated the effects of altering Slit/Robo1 expression on Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Pax7 expression in the developing neural tube. We demonstrated that over-expressing Robo1 down-regulated Shh expression in the ventral neural tube and resulted in the production of fewer HNK-1{sup +} migrating neural crest cells (NCCs). In addition, Robo1 over-expression enhanced Pax7 expression in the dorsal neural tube and increased the number of Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs. Conversely, silencing Robo1 expression resulted in an enhanced Shh expression and more HNK-1{sup +} migrating NCCs but reduced Pax7 expression and fewer Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs were observed. In conclusion, we propose that Slit/Robo1 signaling is involved in regulating neural tube

  1. Retroviral expression of connexins in embryonic chick lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J X; Goodenough, D A

    1998-03-01

    To develop an in vivo model system in which exogenous proteins can be expressed in embryonic chick lens and to further understand the function of connexin-mediated gap junction intercellular communication in lens cell biology. RCAS(A) is a replication-competent chicken retrovirus that infects dividing cells. Retroviral constructs were prepared containing alkaline phosphatase (AP) and FLAG-tagged connexins. Chick lenses were infected in situ by injecting virus into the lumen of lens vesicles at stage 18, cultures were taken at various periods. The lenses were then dissected, and the expressed proteins were visualized by AP histochemical examination and immunostaining. Twenty-four hours after infection, alkaline phosphatase could be seen in epithelia and fibers. As lens fiber maturation progressed, however, the alkaline phosphatase staining was lost as the fibers matured, presumably because of the proteolytic removal of the enzyme. By 72 hours, alkaline phosphatase staining could still be observed in epithelial cells and in differentiating fibers in the bow region but not in the mature lens fibers. FLAG-tagged exogenous lens connexins were also abundantly expressed by viral infection. The exogenous connexins were localized at the cell surfaces in junctional maculae and showed the same cell-type specific distribution as that of their endogenous connexin counterparts. An in vivo model system has been developed in the chick that provides opportunities to study the expression of wild-type and mutant proteins during lens differentiation. Expression of wild-type connexins has revealed that the characteristic distribution of the three different lens connexins is maintained even when expression is driven by a viral promoter.

  2. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  3. EFFECTS OF PRIMARY IMPRINTING ON THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY FILIAL ATTACHMENTS IN THE CHICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVOS, GJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the

  4. Short communication: hippocampal neuronal activity and imprinting in the behaving domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G

    1998-08-01

    The hippocampus of the chick projects to the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) which stores information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. We have investigated whether the response properties of hippocampal neurons are similar to those of IMHV neurons. Chicks were imprinted by exposure, one group (n = 7) to a rotating red box (RB), the other (n = 5) to a rotating blue cylinder (BC). Four chicks were untrained. The following day, when the chicks were approximately 48 h old, neuronal activity was recorded in the left hippocampus. The proportion of neurons responding to the RB and that to the BC in untrained chicks were compared with the proportions in trained birds. (i) In RB-trained chicks both the proportion responding to the RB and that to the BC were significantly increased. (ii) In BC-trained chicks no significant effect on these proportions was found. Of the responsive neurons some were colour (red or blue) sensitive and others were shape (box or cylinder) sensitive; the proportions so responsive were not influenced by training condition. Certain neurons responded significantly differently when a stimulus was 0.5 m or 2 m from the chick (35%; d-sensitive); very few neurons were equivalently responsive to a stimulus at both distances (3%; d-invariant). These proportions were not significantly affected by training condition. Hippocampal responses are compared with those in the left IMHV. It is concluded that IMHV responses do not passively reflect those of hippocampal neurons.

  5. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became...

  6. Classification of neuromuscular blocking agents in a new neuromuscular preparation of the chick in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezen, H. van

    1968-01-01

    A neuromuscular preparation of the chick is described: 1. 1. The sciatic nerve-tibilis anterior muscle preparation of the 2–10 days old chick fulfils all criteria of an assay preparation and differentiates between curare-like and decamethonium-like agents. 2. 2. The preparation responds to

  7. Transplantation of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    NSSCs in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E10 and E11) were cultured for 10 days together with micro-mass cell pellets of hNSSCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or a combination of the two cell types. Changes in femurs gross morphology...

  8. EFFECTS OF PRIMARY IMPRINTING ON THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY FILIAL ATTACHMENTS IN THE CHICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVOS, GJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    1993-01-01

    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the developmen

  9. Foraging behavior and physiological changes in precocial quail chicks in response to low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, KL; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether low ambient temperatures influence foraging behavior of precocial Japanese quail chicks and alter the balance between investment in growth and thermogenic function. To test this, one group of chicks was exposed to 7 degreesC and one group to 24 degreesC during foraging throughout

  10. Efficiency of several cultural methods and a chick bioassay to recover dry stressed Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of 5 enrichment procedures for recovery of dry-atmospheric-temperature stressed C. jejuni and C. coli and determine the viable status of the non-culturable strains using a chick bioassay. Sterile chick paper pads (PP) and filter papers (FP) were i...

  11. Influences of Feeding Lactobacillus on Colonization of the Lactobacillus in Chicks'Digestible Tracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It was carried out with culture solution of Lactobacillus fed to the newborn chicks to observe the influences on colonization of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts. The results showed that after the chicks were fed Lactobacillus, the amount of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts significantly increased (P<0.01) and the Lactobacillus colonized 36h ahead of schedule

  12. Apoptosis is not required for mammalian neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Valentina; Savery, Dawn; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia; Ferraro, Elisabetta; Rongvaux, Anthony; Cecconi, Francesco; Flavell, Richard; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2009-05-19

    Apoptotic cell death occurs in many tissues during embryonic development and appears to be essential for processes including digit formation and cardiac outflow tract remodeling. Studies in the chick suggest a requirement for apoptosis during neurulation, because inhibition of caspase activity was found to prevent neural tube closure. In mice, excessive apoptosis occurs in association with failure of neural tube closure in several genetic mutants, but whether regulated apoptosis is also necessary for neural tube closure in mammals is unknown. Here we investigate the possible role of apoptotic cell death during mouse neural tube closure. We confirm the presence of apoptosis in the neural tube before and during closure, and identify a correlation with 3 main events: bending and fusion of the neural folds, postfusion remodeling of the dorsal neural tube and surface ectoderm, and emigration of neural crest cells. Both Casp3 and Apaf1 null embryos exhibit severely reduced apoptosis, yet neurulation proceeds normally in the forebrain and spine. In contrast, the mutant embryos fail to complete neural tube closure in the midbrain and hindbrain. Application of the apoptosis inhibitors z-Vad-fmk and pifithrin-alpha to neurulation-stage embryos in culture suppresses apoptosis but does not prevent initiation or progression of neural tube closure along the entire neuraxis, including the midbrain and hindbrain. Remodeling of the surface ectoderm to cover the closed tube, as well as delamination and migration of neural crest cells, also appear to be normal in the apoptosis-suppressed embryos. We conclude that apoptosis is not required for neural tube closure in the mouse embryo.

  13. Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs. 3…

  14. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  15. Dual labeling of neural crest cells and blood vessels within chicken embryos using chick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-M. Delalande (Jean-Marie); N. Thapar (Nikhil); A.J. Burns (Alan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAll developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarit

  16. Shh regulates chick Ebf1 gene expression in somite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Allen, Steve; McGonnell, Imelda; Mansour, Ali A; Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    The chick early B-cell factor 1 (cEbf1) is a member of EBF family of helix loop helix transcription factors. Recently, we have proved that cEbf1 expression in feather is regulated by Shh. It is therefore possible that the somitic expression of cEbf1 is controlled by Shh signals from the notochord. To assess this hypothesis, the expression profile of cEbf1 was first detailed in somites of chick embryos (from HH8 to HH28). cEbf1 expression was mainly localised in the medial sclerotome and later around the vertebral cartilage anlagen of body and pedicles. Tissue manipulations (notochord ablation) and Shh gain and loss of function experiments were then performed to analyse whether the notochord and/or Shh regulate cEbf1 expression. Results from these experiments confirmed our hypothesis that the medial somitic expression of cEbf1 is regulated by Shh from the notochord. In conclusion, cEbf1 gene is considered as a medial sclerotome marker, downstream to and regulated by the notochord derived Shh, which may be functionally involved in somitogenesis.

  17. Aquaporin-1 expression in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico; Frigeri, Antonio; Nico, Beatrice; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; De Giorgis, Michela; Roncali, Luisa; Svelto, Maria

    2002-10-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is commonly used in vivo to study both angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis. Rapid membrane water transport is mediated by a family of molecular water channels, called aquaporins (AQPs), which have been identified in the epithelial and endothelial cells of higher vertebrates. AQP1, expressed in adsorptive and secretory epithelia, is also expressed in endothelial cells of capillaries and arteries. Its mRNA has been found in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of arteries and capillaries, as well as in a subset of VSMCs of human atherosclerotic plaques. This study investigated the developmental expression of AQP1 in the chick CAM by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot results show that a major nonglycosylated band was observed with electrophoretic mobility of approximately 28 kDa in the three developmental stages examined. Immunohistochemistry data demonstrate that AQP1 was clearly expressed in the ectodermal and endodermal epithelia, the vascular endothelium, and the VSMCs. Because little information is available on the behavior of microvessel AQP1 during angiogenesis in normal and pathological conditions, our data relative to the pattern of expression of AQP1 in CAM blood vessels in normal conditions may be considered a useful tool to further investigate its modifications in several experimental conditions implying a stimulation or an inhibition of angiogenesis in the CAM assay. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2016-01-01

    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks.

  19. Increased mortality of black-browed albatross chicks at a colony heavily-infested with the tick Ixodes uriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, S; Haemig, P D; Olsen, B

    1999-09-01

    At Bird Island, South Georgia, we studied the effects of the tick Ixodes uriae on survival of chicks at two colonies of the black-browed albatross Diomedea melanophrys, one where most chicks were infested with ticks, the other where most chicks were tick-free. When the two colonies were compared, it was found that the colony heavily-infested with ticks had significantly greater chick mortality than the colony lightly-infested with ticks. However, within each of the two colonies, there was no significant difference in survival between chicks with ticks and those without ticks.

  20. Concurrent Connection of Embryonic Chick Heart Using a Microfluidic Device for Organ-Explant-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Owaki, Hirofumi; Masuda, Taisuke; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Miyasaka, Kota; Ogura, Toshihiko; Arai, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    We propose a concurrent microvascular connection method called suction-induced vascular fixation (SVF) method for the achievement of Organ-Explant-Chip which is a biologically-designed simulator having biological materials such as cells, tissues, and organs. The advantages of proposed method with using a microfluidic device are as follows: (1) operation of flexible objects (blood vessels), (2) alignment the blood vessels concurrently, and (3) reduction of the DOFs of the blood vessels. From t...

  1. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    HLHS; Congenital heart - hypoplastic left heart; Cyanotic heart disease - hypoplastic left heart ... Hypoplastic left heart is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is more common in males than in ...

  2. Heart transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Allen; Slaughter, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure remains a major global problem with approximately 6 million individuals suffering from heart failure in the United States alone. The surgical technique of heart transplantation, popularized by Dr. Norman Shumway, has led to its success and currently remains the best treatment options for patients with end-stage. However, with the continued limitation of donor organs and the rapid development of ventricular assist device technology, the number of patients bridged to transplant wi...

  3. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-04-01

    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision.

  4. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  5. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Smith, M R

    1996-07-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 microg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  6. Progesterone-independent avidin induction in chick tissues caused by tissue injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, H A; Kulomaa, M S; Tuohimaa, P J

    1979-04-01

    Progesterone was administered to oestrogen-treated and untreated chicks, or inflammation in the abdominal cavity was caused by intestine and liver injury or intraperitoneal actinomycin D administration. Local injury to the pectoral muscle was also carried out. Chicks were killed 24--26 h after the treatment and the biotin-binding egg white protein, avidin, was assayed in a number of tissues using a [14C]biotin-binding method and radioimmunoassay. Ovalbumin was also assayed with a radioimmunoassay. Avidin was not found in the tissues of control chicks. Progesterone induced avidin only in the oviducts of oestrogen-treated chicks. After intestine and liver injury avidin was found, however, in all the tissues of oestrogen-treated and untreated chicks studied except for the brain. The concentrations were highest in the oviduct, lung, intestine and bursa of Fabricius. Actinomycin D (200 microgram/kg) caused ascites and subcutaneous oedema in 40--60% of the chicks, and avidin was found only in the tissues of these inflamed animals. Avidin production caused by the local muscular injury was restricted to the injured area. Tissue injury and inflammation did not induce ovalbumin in any tissue. The study shows that avidin can be induced besides the oviduct also in non-oviductal chick tissues, and it is proposed that there are both progesterone-dependent and -independent avidin induction mechanisms.

  7. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  8. Competition with a host nestling for parental provisioning imposes recoverable costs on parasitic cuckoo chick's growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geltsch, Nikoletta; Hauber, Márk E; Anderson, Michael G; Bán, Miklós; Moskát, Csaba

    2012-07-01

    Chicks of the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) typically monopolize host parental care by evicting all eggs and nestmates from the nest. To assess the benefits of parasitic eviction behaviour throughout the full nestling period, we generated mixed broods of one cuckoo and one great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to study how hosts divide care between own and parasitic young. We also recorded parental provisioning behaviour at nests of singleton host nestlings or singleton cuckoo chicks. Host parents fed the three types of broods with similar-sized food items. The mass of the cuckoo chicks was significantly reduced in mixed broods relative to singleton cuckoos. Yet, after the host chick fledged from mixed broods, at about 10-12 days, cuckoo chicks in mixed broods grew faster and appeared to have compensated for the growth costs of prior cohabitation by fledging at similar weights and ages compared to singleton cuckoo chicks. These results are contrary to suggestions that chick competition in mixed broods of cuckoos and hosts causes an irrecoverable cost for the developing brood parasite. Flexibility in cuckoos' growth dynamics may provide a general benefit to ecological uncertainty regarding the realized successes, failures, and costs of nestmate eviction strategies of brood parasites.

  9. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  10. Efficiency of manganese absorption in chicks fed corn-soy and casein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Chausow, D G; Baker, D H

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted with young chicks to quantify the absorption efficiency of manganese (Mn) using tibia Mn uptake as the response criterion. Chicks in experiment 1 were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and either injected intraperitoneally or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn provided as MnSO4 X H2O. After 14 d, chicks were killed, and intact tibias were removed to facilitate calculation of bone Mn concentration. Excellent straight-line fits (bone Mn concentration as a function of Mn administered) allowed estimation of gut absorption efficiency of Mn by slope-ratio methodology. Absorption efficiency of Mn was calculated to be 1.71% for chicks fed the corn-soy diet. Identical methodology was employed in experiment 2 wherein chicks were fed a phytate- and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet. An absorption efficiency of 2.40% was estimated for chicks fed this diet. Hence, absorption efficiency of inorganic Mn was 40% greater in chicks fed the purified diet than in those fed the conventional corn-soy diet.

  11. Heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2014:chap 51. Read More Arrhythmias Cardiogenic shock Diabetes Hardening of the arteries Heart failure - overview High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Lipoprotein- ...

  12. Migratory mechanisms of chick primordial germ cells toward gonadal anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, T; Rogulska, T

    1999-07-01

    After appearing at the germinal crescent region, chick primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate toward the presumptive gonads (pG) till stage 19 (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). This study seeks to elucidate the roles of passive and active factors in the PGC-migration, physical trapping of circulating PGCs by the capillary network and PGC attraction by chemotactic factor from presumptive gonads. Firstly, latex beads/pollens (the same size or larger than PGCs) were injected into the embryonic bloodstream at stage 13-19 (when PGCs are in the migrating and settlement phase to the presumptive gonad) in ovo in order to determine whether the PGCs passively reach pG. Most of such particles accumulated in the head region (60%), whereas the remainder did the same in the gonadal region (23% at the peak) at stage 16 when both the head and gonadal regions are rich in capillary plexus. After 3 days, most particles in the gonadal region were located at the angles of dorsal mesentery near the developing gonads where many extra-gonadal PGCs had been located, and a few particles were detected close to the gonad. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms of PGC-migration to the developing gonads is an autonomous trapping of PGCs by the capillary network quite close to the germinal epithelium (GE) and passive translocation by morphogenetic movement. Secondly, the attraction for PGCs by the gonadal anlage proper was examined in ovo using chick and quail embryos. Grafts of quail gonadal anlage containing gonadal epithelium and neighbouring mesenchymal tissue were excised from the quail embryo at stages 12 to 16 (staging by Zacchei, 1961). With the aims of eliminating the influence of surrounding tissue, the quail graft was ectopically transplanted into the posterior to the optic vesicle of 8 to 17 somite chick embryo from the point of a posterior region to the auditory vesicle by a fine tungsten needle under the illumination by the method of Hara (1971). Then the region posterior to

  13. Expression of neuronal guidance factor Slit2 in the spinal cord of chick embryonic development%神经生长导向因子Slit2在鸡胚脊髓发育中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍思琪; 张玉英; 吴婷; 王丽京; 韩哲; 杨雪松

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察神经生长导向因子Slit2在鸡胚神经管和脊髓不同发育时期的表达变化.方法 用免疫组织化学方法检测Slit2蛋白在鸡胚原肠期(HH6-HH10)神经管和第3d-17d(E3-E17期)脊髓中的表达和分布情况.结果 Slit2蛋白在鸡胚神经管和脊髓不同发育时期均有阳性表达,在脊髓中线结构区呈优势表达,在第9d(E9期)脊髓中线底板处表达最明显,第11d后Slit2蛋白阳性表达逐渐减弱并呈散在分布.结论 神经生长导向因子Slit2在鸡胚各发育时期神经管和脊髓的阳性表达呈动态变化.Slit2蛋白在脊髓发育过程起着重要作用.%Objective To explore the expression of neuronal guidance factor Slit2 in the neural tube and spinal cord of chick embryonic development. Method The protein expression pattern of Slit2 was detected in the neural tube(HH6-HH10) and spinal cord(3d-17d) using immunohistochemistry. Results Slit 2 positive product was detected in different stages of neural tube and spinal cord of chick embryo, superior in the spinal cord midline of neural floor plate to other regions, especially on 9 day chick embryo, but showed an attenuated and diffused trend after 11 days. Conclusion The expression pattern of neuronal guidance factor Slit2 in the neural tube and spinal cord of chick embryo presented a dynamic change.

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social facilitation revisited: increase in foraging efforts and synchronization of running in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation.

  16. Organochlorines accumulate in heron and egret chicks sampled in the Houston Ship Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Shipley, Frank S.; Kiesling, Russell W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Contaminant Monitoring Program (NCBP) is an effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to measure concentrations of DDT and other persistent chemicals in the environment and to quantify changes in these levels. The NCBP has established a network of sampling stations in segments of the environment for which Federal agencies have authority. The wildlife component of this program, administered by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, includes the periodic sampling of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American black ducks (Anas rubripes). In order to include an estuarine component into the NCBP, herons and egrets are being evaluated. Eggs and chicks (five, ten, and 15 days of age) of snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected in Naragansett Bay, RI; the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), TX; and San Francisco Bay, CA. Great egret (Casmerodius albus) eggs and chicks also were collected at the Texas colony. Eggs and chicks were analyzed for organochlorines; trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon analyses are pending. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in all eggs and chicks, and they accumulated as the chicks grew. At each location, black-crowned nightheron chicks accumulated both DDE and PCBs more rapidly than snowy egrets or great egrets. PCBs accumulated more rapidly in night-heron chicks in Rhode Island than California; however, PCB accumulation for snowy egret chicks did not differ among locations. Contaminant accumulation rates in heron and egret chicks could be used as a new wetland component of the NCBP.

  17. On the Elementary Neural Forms of Micro-Interactional Rituals:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2016-01-01

    prosocial behavior. The ritual ingre-dients of mutual attention and shared mood may, moreover, be specified as part of a social engagementsystem, neurally regulating attention and emotional arousal via a face–heart connection. The article suggeststhat this social engagement system provides part of the neural...

  18. Cardiac neural crest contributes to cardiomyogenesis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mariko; Yost, H Joseph

    2003-05-01

    In birds and mammals, cardiac neural crest is essential for heart development and contributes to conotruncal cushion formation and outflow tract septation. The zebrafish prototypical heart lacks outflow tract septation, raising the question of whether cardiac neural crest exists in zebrafish. Here, results from three distinct lineage-labeling approaches identify zebrafish cardiac neural crest cells and indicate that these cells have the ability to generate MF20-positive muscle cells in the myocardium of the major chambers during development. Fate-mapping demonstrates that cardiac neural crest cells originate both from neural tube regions analogous to those found in birds, as well as from a novel region rostral to the otic vesicle. In contrast to other vertebrates, cardiac neural crest invades the myocardium in all segments of the heart, including outflow tract, atrium, atrioventricular junction, and ventricle in zebrafish. Three distinct groups of premigratory neural crest along the rostrocaudal axis have different propensities to contribute to different segments in the heart and are correspondingly marked by unique combinations of gene expression patterns. Zebrafish will serve as a model for understanding interactions between cardiac neural crest and cardiovascular development.

  19. Monitoring phthalates in the tissues of broiler chicks with feedstuffs different phthalate contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAE in animal tissues, samples of muscle, mesenteric fat (fat, skin and liver from broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were given commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate contents, or animal fat with a high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K, nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oils or animal fat. The N chicks were given the grower (BR2 and finisher (BR3 diets supplemented with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The V chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The Z chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% animal fat, respectively. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were found in the tissues of chicks in all the experimental groups. The DBP content in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 0.55 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from < 0.20 to 2.56 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 1.49 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.03 to 0.13 mg . kg−1. The content of DEHP in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 1.15 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from 0.25 to 9.85 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 4.68 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.16 to 0.24 mg . kg−1. The highest concentrations of DBP of 1.28 ± 1.00 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 ± 2.87 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (mean of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. The accumulation of DEHP was 3.2; 2.6 and 2.9 times higher than that of DBP in the muscle, adipose tissue and skin

  20. Myogenic potential of chick limb bud mesenchyme in micromass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C W; Langille, R M; Teran, M A; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    The myogenic potential of chick limb mesenchyme from stages 18-25 was assessed by micromass culture under conditions conductive to myogenesis, and was measured as the proportion of differentiated (muscle myosin-positive) mononucleated cells detected. It was found that similar myogenic potentials existed in mesenchyme from whole limbs between stages 18 and 19, but this potential was halved by stage 20. At stage 21, proximal mesenchyme showed significantly more myogenesis than distal mesenchyme, but this difference was abolished by stage 22. Thereafter, myogenesis was increasingly restricted from the distal mesenchyme, whilst the potential in more proximal regions did not significantly increase after stage 23. When the ratio between total limb myoblasts which differentiated on days 1 and 4 of culture was analysed, it was found that two distinct peaks existed at stages 20 and 23. The significance of these ratio peaks is unclear, but may be related to different proliferative potentials of the pre-myoblasts at these stages.

  1. Fine structure of Plasmodium gallinaceum in embryonic and neonate chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushbaugh, W B; McGhee, R B; Singh, S D

    1976-02-01

    The erythrocytic stages of Plasmdoium gallinaceum in chicken embryos injected with parasited blood either from a syringe-passaged infection in chickens or from a chicken infected with sporozoites were characterized by abnormal structure. Particularly evident were large, unstained vacuoles within the cytoplasm; these occurred with greatest frequency in schizonts. The presence of myelin bodies within these vacuoles was revealed by transmission electron microscopy; abnormal cytokinesis and aberrant merozoites provided additional evidence of the parasite's inability to develop naturally within the milieu of the embryonic erythrocytes. Fifty-five passages were necessary to restore normal structure of the parasites in embryos, while only 5 passages were required for such restoration in neonate chicks. The probable adaptation of the parasite to the proportions of hemoglobin of the adult chicken may be responsible for the abnormal growth in the immature host.

  2. Expression of Fgf19 in the developing chick eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco-Morcillo, Javier; Sánchez-Calderón, Hortensia; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías; Martín-Partido, Gervasio

    2005-04-21

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a new member of the FGF family of growth factors. Here, we describe the localization of Fgf19 mRNA in the developing chick retina and lens in stages from the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 15 (HH15) to postnatal day 30 (P30). Fgf19 was expressed in a transient manner in postmitotic neuroblasts during the migration from the ventricular surface to their final location. Moreover, from HH31 (embryonic day 7, E7) on, a subset of lined up Fgf19 expressing cells was distributed in the outer region of the presumptive INL. These cells were Pax6 immunoreactive horizontal cells. During the last third of embryogenesis, Fgf19 expression in the retina was progressively down-regulated and was not detected at P30. Also, it was transiently expressed in the equatorial region of the lens.

  3. Cytoskeletal elements of chick embryo fibroblasts revealed by detergent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Levinson, W; Spudich, J A

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of chick embryo fibroblasts with 0.5% Triton X-100 extracts most of the cell protein, leaving an organized part of the cell structure attached to the tissue culture dish. This "Triton cytoskeleton" consists largely of intermediate-sized filaments and bundles of microfilaments. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that this cytoskeleton is made up of three main proteins. One protein component is 42,000 daltons and co-migrates with muscle actin. The other two components are 52,000 and 230,000 daltons and remain quantitatively associated with the cytoskeleton during the detergent extraction. The possible identity of these three protein components and their organization into a supramolecular structure is discussed.

  4. The formation of premuscle masses during chick wing bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C; Solursh, M

    1990-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of chick limb buds is derived from somitic cells that migrate into the somatopleure of the future limb regions. These cells become organized into the earliest muscle primordia, the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses, prior to myogenic differentiation. Therefore, skeletal-muscle specific markers cannot be used to observe myogenic cells during the process of premuscle mass formation. In this study, an alternative marking method was used to determine the specific stages during which this process occurs. Quail somite strips were fluorescently labeled and implanted into chick hosts. Paraffin sections of the resulting chimeric wing buds were stained with the monoclonal antibody QH1 in order to identify graft-derived endothelium. Non-endothelial graft-derived cells present in the wing mesenchyme were assumed to be myogenic. At Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20, myogenic cells were distributed throughout the central region of the limb, including the future dorsal and ventral premuscle mass regions and the prechondrogenic core region. By stage 21, the myogenic cells were present at greater density in dorsal and ventral regions than in the core. By stage 23, nearly all myogenic cells were located in the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses. Therefore, the two premuscle masses become established by stage 21 and premuscle mass formation is not complete until stage 23 or later. Premuscle mass formation occurs concurrently with early chondrogenic events, as observed with the marker peanut agglutinin. To facilitate the investigation of possible underlying mechanisms of premuscle mass formation, the micromass culture system was evaluated, to determine whether or not it can serve as an accurate in vitro model system. The initially randomly distributed myogenic cells were observed to segregate from prechondrogenic regions prior to myogenic differentiation. This is similar to myogenic patterning in vivo.

  5. Developmental morphology of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Peng, K M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological development of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks and to examine the changes in the number of goblet cells therein by observing the gross anatomy and performing histochemistry and morphometry. The BW; length, height, and width of the villi; muscle thickness; depth of the crypts; and number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts were measured on neonatal d 1, 45, 90, and 334. Our results revealed that the weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (relative to the BW) peaked on d 90, 45, and 45, respectively, and tended to decline thereafter. The villus height and width and muscle thickness in the small intestine were positively correlated with the age of the birds. The ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth differed among the segments of the small intestine and at the different time points. The number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts increased rapidly up to postnatal d 45 and then decreased rapidly between d 45 and 90. The number of goblet cells in the villi was greatest in the jejunum on d 1 and in the ileum on d 45, whereas that in the crypt was greatest in the ileum on d 1 and 90 and in the duodenum on d 45. These results suggest that the small intestine develops gradually from postnatal d 1 to 90 and that the period up to postnatal d 45 is marked by significant developmental changes in the parameters reflective of the digestive capacity, such as the weight, length, and surface area of the intestine and the number of goblet cells. Therefore, in reared African ostrich chicks, feed management should be enhanced between postnatal d 1 and 45.

  6. A Chick Embryo in-Vitro Model of Knee Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this feasibility study, a mechanically loaded in-vitro tissue culture model of joint morphogenesis using the isolated lower extremity of the 8 day old chick embryo was developed to assess the effects of mechanical loading on joint morphogenesis. Methods: The developed in-vitro system allows controlled flexion and extension of the chick embryonic knee with a range of motion of 20 degrees from a resting position of 90-100 degrees of flexion. Joint morphogenesis at 2, 3, 4 and 7 days of culture was assessed by histology and micro MRI in 4 specimen types: undisturbed in-ovo control embryos, in-ovo paralyzed embryos, in-vitro unloaded limb cultures, and in-vitro loaded limb cultures. Relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG concentration across the joint was assessed with an MRI technique referred to as dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage where T1 is proportional to glycosaminoglycan concentration. Results: Average T1 over the entire tissue image for the normal control (IC knee was 480 msec; for the 4 day loaded specimen average T1 was 354 msec; and for the 7 day loaded specimens T1 was 393 msec. The 4 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 279 msec while the 7 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 224 msec. The higher T1 values in loaded than unloaded specimens suggest that more glycosaminoglycan is produced in the loaded culture than in the unloaded preparation. Conclusion: Isolated limb tissue cultures under flexion-extension load can be viable and exhibit more progression of joint differentiation and glycosaminoglycan production than similarly cultured but unloaded specimens. However, when compared with controls consisting of intact undisturbed embryos in-ovo , the isolated loaded limbs in culture do not demonstrate equivalent amounts of absolute growth or joint differentiation.

  7. Heart transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors include the type and severity of your heart disease, and how sick you are at the time you are listed. The amount of time you spend on a waiting list is usually NOT a factor for how soon you get a heart, except in the case of children. Most, but ...

  8. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970284 Effects of enalapril on heart rate variabilityin patients with congestive heart failure. ZHANGYouhua(章友华), et a1. Dept Cardiol, Cardiovasc Instit& Fuwai Hosp, CAMS & PUMC, Beijing, 100037. ChinCir J 1996; 11(2): 729-732.

  9. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body's largest artery. See also on this site: The Heartbeat The Conduction System (illustration) Electrical impulses from your heart muscle (the myocardium) cause your heart to contract. This electrical signal begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located at ...

  10. Comparison of Gompertz and neural network models of broiler growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, W B; Dozier, W A; Branton, S L

    2006-04-01

    Neural networks offer an alternative to regression analysis for biological growth modeling. Very little research has been conducted to model animal growth using artificial neural networks. Twenty-five male chicks (Ross x Ross 308) were raised in an environmental chamber. Body weights were determined daily and feed and water were provided ad libitum. The birds were fed a starter diet (23% CP and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg) from 0 to 21 d, and a grower diet (20% CP and 3,200 kcal of ME/ kg) from 22 to 70 d. Dead and female birds were not included in the study. Average BW of 18 birds were used as the data points for the growth curve to be modeled. Training data consisted of alternate-day weights starting with the first day. Validation data consisted of BW at all other age periods. Comparison was made between the modeling by the Gompertz nonlinear regression equation and neural network modeling. Neural network models were developed with the Neuroshell Predictor. Accuracy of the models was determined by mean square error (MSE), mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and bias. The Gompertz equation was fit for the data. Forecasting error measurements were based on the difference between the model and the observed values. For the training data, the lowest MSE, MAD, MAPE, and bias were noted for the neural-developed neural network. For the validation data, the lowest MSE and MAD were noted with the genetic algorithm-developed neural network. Lowest bias was for the neural-developed network. As measured by bias, the Gompertz equation underestimated the values whereas the neural- and genetic-developed neural networks produced little or no overestimation of the observed BW responses. Past studies have attempted to interpret the biological significance of the estimates of the parameters of an equation. However, it may be more practical to ignore the relevance of parameter estimates and focus on the ability to predict responses.

  11. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  12. Dynamic behaviors of the non-neural ectoderm during mammalian cranial neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Heather J; Niswander, Lee A

    2016-08-15

    The embryonic brain and spinal cord initially form through the process of neural tube closure (NTC). NTC is thought to be highly similar between rodents and humans, and studies of mouse genetic mutants have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular basis of NTC with relevance for human neural tube defects. In addition, studies using amphibian and chick embryos have shed light into the cellular and tissue dynamics underlying NTC. However, the dynamics of mammalian NTC has been difficult to study due to in utero development until recently when advances in mouse embryo ex vivo culture techniques along with confocal microscopy have allowed for imaging of mouse NTC in real time. Here, we have performed live imaging of mouse embryos with a particular focus on the non-neural ectoderm (NNE). Previous studies in multiple model systems have found that the NNE is important for proper NTC, but little is known about the behavior of these cells during mammalian NTC. Here we utilized a NNE-specific genetic labeling system to assess NNE dynamics during murine NTC and identified different NNE cell behaviors as the cranial region undergoes NTC. These results bring valuable new insight into regional differences in cellular behavior during NTC that may be driven by different molecular regulators and which may underlie the various positional disruptions of NTC observed in humans with neural tube defects.

  13. Dynamic transcriptional signature and cell fate analysis reveals plasticity of individual neural plate border cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Daniela; Tan-Cabugao, Johanna; Esaian, Sevan; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    The ‘neural plate border’ of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. How these lineages segregate from neural and epidermal fates has been a matter of debate. We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21620.001 PMID:28355135

  14. The effects of solcoseryl on the growth and multiplication of chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated "in vitro".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, R; De Paermentier, F

    1979-01-01

    The action of Solcoseryl, a free protein extract of calf blood, was studied on chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro. Solcoseryl stimulates the permitotic DNA synthesis and increases the number of mitoses.,

  15. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. effect on muscle growth of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Khan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the aqueous seed extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek on the weight of breast, thigh and leg of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments i.e., A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate. Groups B, C and D received the aqueous extract of fenugreek @ 10, 20 and 30 ml/L, respectively while group A served as a control. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. The data showed that weight of breast, thigh and leg were significantly (P<0.05 heavier in group C compared to control. It was concluded from this study that Trigonella foenum-graecum at the rate of 30 ml/L aqueous extract has a beneficial impact on the growth of these muscle tissues.

  16. Effects on chicks of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel saponin given by different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, H B; Mohammed, O S; Abu al Futuh, I M; Adam, S E

    1992-06-01

    The effect of oral or parenteral administration of crude saponin extract from Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernal on Hisex-type chicks was studied. Seven-d-old chicks were given 5 mg Balanites crude saponin/kg/d im, 25 mg/kg/d ip or 250 mg/kg/day po for 3 w. When compared to controls, the body weights of dosed chicks were depressed and serum LDH and GOT activities and uric acid concentrations were significantly elevated. There were no consistent differences in serum GGT, CPK, total cholesterol and total protein between control and dosed birds. The main lesions were fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation and necrosis of hepatocytes, lymphocytic nodules, epithelial cell degeneration of the renal tubules, catarrhal enteritis and varying degrees of hemorrhage in the thigh and breast muscles. Myositis or peritonitis were observed in chicks given Balanites crude saponins im or ip, respectively.

  17. A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, R M; Horne, J H; Melo, A; Vidal, J T; Vieceli, F M; Melo, M O; Kanno, T Y N; Fraser, S E; Yan, C Y I

    2013-09-01

    One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation.

  18. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  19. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  20. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  1. All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories.

  2. The importance of endogenous nutrition of chicks from divergent strains for growing tested by deutectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gonzales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of yolk sac removal (deutectomy upon performance of chicks from three divergent strains were tested to evaluate the importance of endogenous nutrition on the post-hatch phase. Chicks from three different strains (Hy-Line W98, Cobb 500, and JA57 were submitted to a surgery procedure after hatching. Half of them had the residual yolk removed, and the other constituted a sham-deutectomized group. After operation, chicks were designated to a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 strains x 2 presence/absence of yolk sac, in a total of six experimental groups and ten replications of two to four birds. During 14 experimental days all birds were fed ad libitum a 21% CP and 3050 kcal/kg EM mash diet. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and Tukey's test (p<0.05. Relative yolk sac weights were similar among chicks from different breeders, averaging 11.7% to 13.5%. Comparing to sham-operated, deuctetomized chicks had lower weight gain at 7 and 14d, indicating that endogenous nutrition, via yolk sac, is very important to galliform birds whatever their strain. Hy-line deutectomized chicks gained 40% less body weight at the 7th day as compared to their sham counterparts. Analysis of the same criterion to Cobb and JA57 groups revealed a decrease of 16.1% and 10.8%, respectively, on weight gain efficiency. At the 14th rearing day, Hy-Line chicks had the lowest weight gain, followed by JA57s' and Cobbs'. The results suggested that chicks selected for fast growth are less dependent on endogenous nutrition, responding better when exogenous nutrition is associated to yolk assimilation.

  3. Response of brown hisex chicks to low levels of Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Mousa, H M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1992-08-01

    Feeding Jatropha curcas seed at 0.5% of the basic diet for 2 w was not lethal to chicks. In chicks fed 0.5% Ricinus communis seed or a mixture of 0.5% J curcas + 0.5% R communis for 2 w, there was dullness, poor growth, locomotor disturbance and death. Pathological changes were correlated with alterations in clinical chemistry and hematology.

  4. Comparative toxicity of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas in Brown Hisex chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1995-02-01

    Symptoms, lesions and changes in growth, haematology and clinical chemistry were investigated in Brown Hisex chicks fed diets containing 0.5% Jatropha curcas seed or 0.5% Ricinus communis seed. High mortality and more severe changes occurred in chicks on Ricinus diet than Jatropha feed. The results indicated that caution should be observed in tropical countries where people are accustomed to chewing castor bean when in need of a laxative.

  5. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

    OpenAIRE

    Imna Trigueros V; Miguel Ramón C; José Vázquez O; Juan Aguirre M; Carlos Garcia C; Jaime Martínez T

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline...

  6. Timing of fledging is influenced by glucocorticoid physiology in Laysan Albatross chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, R S; Breuner, C W

    2010-07-01

    Fledging is a major life transition for birds, when juveniles move from the safety of a nest into an environment where they must find food and avoid predators. The timing of fledging within a season can have significant effects on future survival and breeding success. Proximate triggers of fledging are unknown: though wing development is likely a primary factor, other physiological changes, such as elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT), may affect fledging behavior. Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) chicks have an extended post-hatching period during which they reach 150% of adult mass. However, approaching fledging, chicks fast for days to weeks and lose mass while still putting energy into feather growth. We evaluated chick morphology and physiology to elucidate proximate triggers of fledging. As in some other species, CORT increased as chicks fasted and lost body mass. At the same time, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) declined, thus amplifying free CORT prior to fledging. Once chicks reached a morphological threshold, free CORT levels predicted how long they stayed at the colony: chicks with higher free CORT fledged sooner. To perturb the relationship between body condition, endocrine physiology, and fledging behavior, we supplementally fed chicks for the month before fledging. Fed birds had a slower decrease in body mass, slower decrease in CBG, slower increase in free CORT, and stayed at the colony longer after reaching a morphological threshold. Our study suggests that as chicks lose mass, free CORT acts as a signal of energetic or nutritional state to adjust the timing of fledging. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  8. A new hypothesis for foregut and heart tube formation based on differential growth and actomyosin contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Garcia, Kara E; Taber, Larry A

    2017-07-01

    For decades, it was commonly thought that the bilateral heart fields in the early embryo fold directly towards the midline, where they meet and fuse to create the primitive heart tube. Recent studies have challenged this view, however, suggesting that the heart fields fold diagonally. As early foregut and heart tube morphogenesis are intimately related, this finding also raises questions concerning the traditional view of foregut formation. Here, we combine experiments on chick embryos with computational modeling to explore a new hypothesis for the physical mechanisms of heart tube and foregut formation. According to our hypothesis, differential anisotropic growth between mesoderm and endoderm drives diagonal folding. Then, active contraction along the anterior intestinal portal generates tension to elongate the foregut and heart tube. We test this hypothesis using biochemical perturbations of cell proliferation and contractility, as well as computational modeling based on nonlinear elasticity theory including growth and contraction. The present results generally support the view that differential growth and actomyosin contraction drive formation of the foregut and heart tube in the early chick embryo. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Acoustic imprinting leads to differential 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in the chick forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, V; Scheich, H

    1983-01-01

    This report describes experiments in which successful acoustic imprinting correlates with differential uptake of D-2-deoxy[14C]glucose in particular forebrain areas that are not considered primarily auditory. Newly hatched guinea chicks (Numida meleagris meleagris) were imprinted by playing 1.8-kHz or 2.5-kHz tone bursts for prolonged periods. Those chicks were considered to be imprinted who approached the imprinting stimulus (emitted from a loudspeaker) and preferred it over a new stimulus in a simultaneous discrimination test. In the 2-deoxy-D-glucose experiment all chicks, imprinted and naive, were exposed to 1.8-kHz tone bursts for 1 hr. As shown by the autoradiographic analysis of the brains, neurons in the 1.8-kHz isofrequency plane of the auditory "cortex" (field L) were activated in all chicks, whether imprinted or not. However, in the most rostral forebrain striking differences were found. Imprinted chicks showed an increased 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in three areas, as compared to naive chicks: (i) the lateral neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale, (ii) a medial magnocellular field (medial neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale), and (iii) the most dorsal layers of the hyperstriatum. Based on these findings we conclude that these areas are involved in the processing of auditory stimuli once they have become meaningful by experience. Images PMID:6574519

  10. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors.

  11. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks.

  12. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  13. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  14. How the Heart Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Works Explore How the Heart Works What Is... Anatomy Contraction Circulation Electrical System Heart Disease Related Topics Arrhythmia Congenital Heart Defects Coronary Heart Disease Heart Valve Disease How the Lungs Work Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  15. Heart Disease (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the cardiovascular ...

  16. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  17. About Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talk about your health and the medicines About Heart Failure Heart failure is a disease where the heart cannot do ... very important for your health. common causes of heart failure are diseases or conditions that damage the heart. ...

  18. What Is Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...

  19. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atherosclerosis is also the most common cause of cardiovascular disease. It can be caused by correctable problems, such as an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, being overweight and smoking. Causes of heart arrhythmia ...

  20. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tear in the heart artery (spontaneous coronary artery dissection). Certain factors contribute to the unwanted buildup of ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  1. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008275 Relationship of calcineure in mRNA level in peripheral blood and cardiac muscle of patients with heart failure.WANG Mengmeng(王萌萌),et al.Dept Cardiol,Shandong Prov Hosp,Shandong Univ,Jinan 250021.Chin Cir J 2008;23(2):113-116.Objective To study the relationship of calcineurin mRNA level between peripheral lymphocytes and cardiac muscles of patients with chronic heart failure.Methods

  2. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008037 Factors associated with efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy for patients with congestive heart failure. SHI Haoying(史浩颖), et al. Dept Cardiol, Zhongshan Hosp Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Cardiol 2007;35(12):1099-1163. Objective The efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with congestive heart failure and the potential factors associated with responder or nonresponder were investigated. Methods Fifty

  3. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic heart loops using optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Männer, J.; Thrane, Lars; Norozi, K.

    2008-01-01

    tubes as concentric narrowing and widening of tubes of circular cross-section. We have visualized the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic hearts in chick embryos (HH-stages 9-17) using real-time high-resolution optical coherence tomography. Cardiac contractions are detected from HH...

  4. Screening of central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for sedative and hypnotic effects using chick models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    The chick has a practical advantage in the screening process in that chicks require only small quantities of drugs. The chick separation stress paradigm has traditionally been recognized as a valid form of anxiolytic screening. Further, chick behavior involving standing motionless with eyes closed or sitting motionless with head drooped is nearly always associated with electrophysiological sleep. When centrally administered, some DNA-encoded L-α-amino acids, as well as some DNA-non-encoded amino acids, such as metabolites of L-α-amino acids, D-amino acid and β-amino acid, have shown sedative and/or hypnotic effects in chicks. The effects of some of these amino acids have subsequently been confirmed in humans. In conclusion, the chick model is convenient and useful for screening central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for hypnosis and sedation.

  5. Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

  6. Different concepts of univentricular heart. Experimental embryological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, M V

    1979-04-01

    A brief historical review of the main descriptions, definitions, classifications and nomenclatures of the univentricular heart within the historical context of the evolution of the technical and scientific knowledge, is made. The development of the ventricles and particularly the posterior interventricular septum (posterior smooth plus posterior trabeculated septa), were studied experimentally in the chick embryo, by the vivo labelling technics, since they are very important for the definition of the univentricular heart. It was demonstrated: 1. In the apical region of the embryonic heart only a primitive interventricular septum develops and this gives origin to the posterior interventricular septum. 2. The walls of the bulbus cordis and the primitive ventricle adjacent to the primitive interventricular septum contribute to the development of this septum. 3. Cell division and cell movement are the basic processes of development which seem to take part in the development of the posterior interventricular septum.

  7. Influence of hydrogen peroxide in drinking water on diazepam pharmacokinetics in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaareb J. Mousa

    Full Text Available Aim: Stressful conditions affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study examines the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in a chick model of oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks were either provided with plane tap water (control group or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. On treatment days 7–14, the chicks were treated with a sedative dose of diazepam at 10 mg/kg, intramuscularly. Blood samples were obtained from chicks (5/each sampling time at times of between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of diazepam in the plasma were determined by an HPLC method with UV-detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were calculated from the mean drug concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of diazepam resulted in the appearance of the drug in the plasma of control and H2O2 -treated chicks at mean concentrations ranging between 0.11 to 0.444 and 0.131 to 0.535 μg/ml, respectively when measured between 0.17 to 4 h after administration. Diazepam concentrations of the H O -treated chicks were significantly higher than those of the control group at the sampling times 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 4 h. The highest concentration of diazepam in the plasma of both the control and H2O2 treated chicks occurred one h after the injection. The elimination half-life, mean residence time, maximum plasma concentration, area under the moment curve and area under plasma concentration-time curve in the H2O2 -treated chicks were higher than those of the control group by 35, 28, 23, 91 and 49%, respectively. Correspondingly, the steady state volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and total body clearance in the H2O2 -treated chicks decreased from those of the respective control values by 15, 24 and 33%. Conclusion: The data suggest that oral

  8. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  9. A potential inhibitory function of draxin in regulating mouse trunk neural crest migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sanbing; Su, Yuhong; Gao, Jinbao; Zhang, Chenbing; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein that plays important roles in the formation of three commissures in the central nervous system and dorsal interneuron 3 (dI3) in the chick spinal cord. In the present study, we report the expression pattern of mouse draxin in the embryonic mouse trunk spinal cord. In the presence of draxin, the longest net migration length of a migrating mouse trunk neural crest cell was significantly reduced. In addition, the relative number of apolar neural crest cells increased as the draxin treatment time increased. Draxin caused actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in the migrating trunk neural crest cells. Our data suggest that draxin may regulate mouse trunk neural crest cell migration by the rearrangement of cell actin cytoskeleton and by reducing the polarization activity of these cells subsequently.

  10. Crestospheres: Long-Term Maintenance of Multipotent, Premigratory Neural Crest Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kerosuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Premigratory neural crest cells comprise a transient, embryonic population that arises within the CNS, but subsequently migrates away and differentiates into many derivatives. Previously, premigratory neural crest could not be maintained in a multipotent, adhesive state without spontaneous differentiation. Here, we report conditions that enable maintenance of neuroepithelial “crestospheres” that self-renew and retain multipotency for weeks. Moreover, under differentiation conditions, these cells can form multiple derivatives in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into chick embryos. Similarly, human embryonic stem cells directed to a neural crest fate can be maintained as crestospheres and subsequently differentiated into several derivatives. By devising conditions that maintain the premigratory state in vitro, these results demonstrate that neuroepithelial neural crest precursors are capable of long-term self-renewal. This approach will help uncover mechanisms underlying their developmental potential, differentiation and, together with the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, the pathology of human neurocristopathies.

  11. Bending of the looping heart: differential growth revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfei; Yao, Jiang; Xu, Gang; Taber, Larry A

    2014-08-01

    In the early embryo, the primitive heart tube (HT) undergoes the morphogenetic process of c-looping as it bends and twists into a c-shaped tube. Despite intensive study for nearly a century, the physical forces that drive looping remain poorly understood. This is especially true for the bending component, which is the focus of this paper. For decades, experimental measurements of mitotic rates had seemingly eliminated differential growth as the cause of HT bending, as it has commonly been thought that the heart grows almost exclusively via hyperplasia before birth and hypertrophy after birth. Recently published data, however, suggests that hypertrophic growth may play a role in looping. To test this idea, we developed finite-element models that include regionally measured changes in myocardial volume over the HT. First, models based on idealized cylindrical geometry were used to simulate the bending process in isolated hearts, which bend without the complicating effects of external loads. With the number of free parameters in the model reduced to the extent possible, stress and strain distributions were compared to those measured in embryonic chick hearts that were isolated and cultured for 24 h. The results show that differential growth alone yields results that agree reasonably well with the trends in our data, but adding active changes in myocardial cell shape provides closer quantitative agreement with stress measurements. Next, the estimated parameters were extrapolated to a model based on realistic 3D geometry reconstructed from images of an actual chick heart. This model yields similar results and captures quite well the basic morphology of the looped heart. Overall, our study suggests that differential hypertrophic growth in the myocardium (MY) is the primary cause of the bending component of c-looping, with other mechanisms possibly playing lesser roles.

  12. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  13. In Ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Min; Cai, Demin; Li, Xi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations.

  14. A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipidrich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding colonies apparently exceeded recruitment. No mechanism has been proposed to explain why recruitment would differ among fledglings fed lipid-rich or lipid-poor fish during development. Here we show that diets low in lipids induce nutritional stress and impair cognitive abilities in young red-legged kittiwakes, Rissa brevirostris. Specifically, growth retardation, increased secretion of stress hormones and inferior ability to associate food distribution with visual cues were observed in individuals fed lipid-poor diets. We conclude that lipid-poor diets during development affect the quality of young seabirds, which is likely to result in their increased mortality and low recruitment. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  15. Maturation of firing pattern in chick vestibular nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M; Hirsch, J C; Peusner, K D

    2006-08-25

    The principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus are vestibular nucleus neurons participating in the vestibuloocular and vestibulocollic reflexes. In birds and mammals, spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing of action potentials is essential for vestibular nucleus neurons to generate mature vestibular reflex activity. The emergence of spike-firing pattern and the underlying ion channels were studied in morphologically-identified principal cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from brain slices of late-term embryos (embryonic day 16) and hatchling chickens (hatching day 1 and hatching day 5). Spontaneous spike activity emerged around the perinatal period, since at embryonic day 16 none of the principal cells generated spontaneous action potentials. However, at hatching day 1, 50% of the cells fired spontaneously (range, 3 to 32 spikes/s), which depended on synaptic transmission in most cells. By hatching day 5, 80% of the principal cells could fire action potentials spontaneously (range, 5 to 80 spikes/s), and this activity was independent of synaptic transmission and showed faster kinetics than at hatching day 1. Repetitive firing in response to depolarizing pulses appeared in the principal cells starting around embryonic day 16, when calcium-dependent potassium current modulated both the spontaneous and evoked spike firing activity. Altogether, these in vitro studies showed that during the perinatal period, the principal cells switched from displaying no spontaneous spike activity at resting membrane potential and generating one spike on depolarization to the tonic firing of spontaneous and evoked action potentials.

  16. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  17. Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chick mortality (CM is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829 were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903 mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787 of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n=973, respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5% throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r=0.68, P<0.011 with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n=2,829, it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

  18. Chick embryo proliferation studies using EdU labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle; Puskarczyk, Karolina; Chapman, Susan C

    2009-04-01

    Cell proliferation studies are an important experimental tool. The most commonly used thymidine analogues, tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label cells during S-phase. Both methods have significant drawbacks: low sensitivity in the case of tritiated thymidine and a denaturation step during BrdU detection that destroys most cellular epitopes, requiring careful optimization. The antibody against BrdU is also large and tissue penetration can be difficult. EdU (5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) is closely chemically related to BrdU, with detection achieved by a copper catalyzed reaction requiring a small fluorescently conjugated azide. Cell cultures, flow cytometry and high throughput studies using EdU-labeled cells is exceptionally fast and does not require denaturation or antibodies. We have developed a tissue-labeling technique in chick embryos using EdU. Following EdU chemistry to detect proliferating cells, the tissue can undergo immunolabeling. We demonstrate fluorescent EdU chemistry followed by Tuj1 antibody staining resulting in multiplex fluorescent tissues.

  19. The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Dohra, Hideo; Ono, Tamao; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2014-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully used to produce offspring in several mammalian species including humans. However, ICSI has not been successful in birds because of the size of the egg and difficulty in mimicking the physiological polyspermy that takes place during normal fertilization. Microsurgical injection of 20 or more spermatozoa into an egg is detrimental to its survival. Here, we report that injection of a single spermatozoon with a small volume of sperm extract (SE) or its components led to the development and birth of healthy quail chicks. SE contains three factors - phospholipase Cζ (PLCZ), aconitate hydratase (AH) and citrate synthase (CS) - all of which are essential for full egg activation and subsequent embryonic development. PLCZ induces an immediate, transient Ca(2+) rise required for the resumption of meiosis. AH and CS are required for long-lasting, spiral-like Ca(2+) oscillations within the activated egg, which are essential for cell cycle progression in early embryos. We also found that co-injection of cRNAs encoding PLCZ, AH and CS support the full development of ICSI-generated zygotes without the use of SE. These findings will aid our understanding of the mechanism of avian fertilization and embryo development, as well as assisting in the manipulation of the avian genome and the production of transgenic and cloned birds.

  20. Application of resilient back propagation artificial neural network model on prediction of incidence rate of coronary heart disease%弹性反向传播神经网络在冠心病发病率预报中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先宁; 马亮亮

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨弹性反向传播(BP)神经网络在时间序列资料分析中的应用,建立冠心病发病率的预测模型.方法 利用青海海西州地区2003~2009年登记的冠心病发病率时间序列资料,以双曲正切S型函数为传输函数、隐层节点为4与11的三层BP神经网络,建立两种冠心病发病率的非线性时间序列预测模型.结果 建立的ANN2预测模型简单易行,预测值平均相对误差为0.005 547,预测精度高.结论 BP人工神经网络可以用于冠心病发病率的预测.%Objective To discuss the application of resilient back propagation (BP) artificial neural network predictive model and establish predictive incidence rate model of coronary artery heart disease( CAD). Methods Two nonlinear time series model of resilient BP artificial network were established for the incidence rate of CAD from 2003 to 2009 in Haixizhou region, Qinghai province of China, using three layers BP neural network based on hyperbolic logarithm function with the number of hidden node four and eleven. Results ANN2 predictive model was simpler and more effective with high prediction precision, the average relative error value was 0. 005 547. Conclusions The resilient BP artificial neural network predictive model could be used to forecast CAD incidence rate with high prediction precision of short-term time series.

  1. Effect of chick weight on performance and carcass yield of broilers Influência do peso inicial sobre o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e cortes de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.C. Lara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of weight classes (light, medium and heavy of Ross chicks on performance and carcass yield and main cuts, was studied using a completely randomized design with six replicates of 30 males and 30 females each. The chicks were fed on the same diets during the growing period (1-43 days. The live weight, feed intake, feed:weight gain ratio, viability, carcass yield and main cuts (breast, whole leg, wing and back and percentages of giblets (gizzard, liver, heart and guts were analyzed. The heavy weight class chicks were heavier (P0.05. The males showed higher carcass yield than the females of medium and heavy weight classes chicks. The whole leg yield of heavy weight class chicks was higher than the medium weight class chicks (PEstudou-se a influência do peso de pintos da linhagem Ross sobre o desempenho de 1 a 43 dias de idade e sobre os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres. Pintos das categorias de peso leve, média e pesada foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em seis repetições de 30 machos e 30 fêmeas cada. As rações utilizadas foram as mesmas para todos os tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes (peito, coxa, asa e dorso e a porcentagem de vísceras (moela, coração, fígado e intestinos. As aves da categoria pesada apresentaram maior peso (P0,05. Quanto ao rendimento de carcaça, os machos foram superiores às fêmeas nas categorias média e pesada. O rendimento de coxa mais sobrecoxa na categoria pesada foi maior do que na categoria média (P<0,05. Os tratamentos influenciaram o peso corporal, o consumo de ração, os rendimentos de carcaça e coxa mais sobrecoxa e não influenciaram a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, o rendimento de peito e a porcentagem de vísceras.

  2. Comparative studies in Rous sarcoma with virus, tumor cells, and chick embryo cells transformed in vitro by virus. II. Response of normal and immunized chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOUGHERTY, R M; MORGAN, H R

    1962-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblasts infected in vitro with Rous sarcoma virus have properties similar to tumor cells when injected into virus-immune chickens. When such virus-transformed fibroblasts are injected into normal chickens, they apparently participate in the production of tumors independent of their release of virus and are thus apparently malignant in vivo.

  3. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  4. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  5. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing

    2009-07-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  6. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Guttery

    Full Text Available Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  7. Simultaneous oral administration of Salmonella Infantis and S. Typhimurium in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Onozuka, Daisuke; Noda, Tamie; Sera, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji; Murakami, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar (S.) Infantis has higher basic reproductive rates in chicks compared with other Salmonella serovars, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks (n = 8) were challenged simultaneously with S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium per os. Challenged chicks (Group A) were then housed with non-infected chicks (Group B, n = 4) for 6 days (from 2 to 8 days of age). Group B birds were then housed with other non-infected birds (Group C, n = 4), which were then transferred to cages containing a further group of untreated chicks (Group D, n = 2). A control group consisting of four non-infected chicks was used for comparison. All chickens were humanely sacrificed at 18 days of age, and Salmonella from bowel and liver samples were enumerated. Both serovars were isolated from all groups except the control group. S. Typhimurium was isolated at a greater frequency than S. Infantis from the bowel samples of chicks from Groups B, C and D, while no differences in colonisation rates were observed between the two serovars in liver samples from Groups B, C and D. S. Typhimurium, but not S. Infantis, was immunohistochemically detected in the lamina propria of the cecum and rectum in five birds of Group A. Despite the competitive administration, neither of the two serovars completely excluded the other, and no differences were observed in basic reproductive rates between the two serovars. These findings, together with data from previous studies, suggest that the initial quantitative domination of S. Infantis in chicken flocks may explain why this serovar is predominant in broiler chickens.

  8. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  9. Sex-Based Differences in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jennings

    Full Text Available Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11% as well as bill (~8% and flipper length (~3%. We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica, with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors

  10. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  11. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  12. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  13. L-Ornithine is a potential acute satiety signal in the brain of neonatal chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Do, Phong H; Bahry, Mohammad A; Yang, Hui; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Recently, we observed that neonatal chicks exhibit feeding behavior characterized by frequent food intake and short resting intervals, with changes detected in the brain amino acid and monoamine concentrations. In this study, we aimed to clarify further the relationship between the appetite of neonatal chicks and brain amino acid metabolism. In Experiment 1, changes were investigated in free amino acids in the brain under conditions of regulated appetite induced by fasting and subsequent short-term re-feeding. Chicks (5 days old) were distributed into four treatment groups--namely, fasting for 3h, and fasting for 3h followed by re-feeding for 10, 20 or 30 min. Brain samples were collected after treatment to analyze free amino acid concentrations. Amino adipic acid and proline in all brain parts as well as arginine and ornithine in all brain parts--except mesencephalic arginine and cerebellar ornithine--were increased in a time-dependent manner following re-feeding. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effect of exogenous administration of some amino acids altered in association with feeding behavior in Experiment 1. We chose L-arginine and its functional metabolite, L-ornithine, to analyze their effects on food intake in chicks. Intracerebroventricular injection (2 μmol) of L-ornithine, but not L-arginine, significantly inhibited food intake in neonatal chicks. In Experiment 3, we found that central injection of L-ornithine (2, 4, and 6 μmol) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in chicks. These results suggested that L-ornithine may have an important role in the control of food intake as an acute satiety signal in the neonatal chick brain.

  14. Chick homeobox gene cDlx expression demarcates the forebrain anlage, indicating the onset of forebrain regional specification at gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghjid, S; Siddiqui, M A

    2000-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a chick homeobox-containing gene, cDlx, which shows greater than 85% homology to the homeodomain of other vertebrate Distal-less genes. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization studies reveal that cDlx expression is developmentally regulated and is tissue specific. In particular, the developmental expression pattern is characterized by an early appearance of cDlx transcript in the prospective forebrain region of gastrulating embryos. During neurulation, cDlx is consistently expressed in a spatially restricted domain in the presumptive ventral forebrain region of the neural plate that will give rise to the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis. Our data support the notion that members of the Dlx gene family are part of a homeobox gene code in forebrain pattern formation and suggest that regional specification of the forebrain occurs at much earlier stages than previously thought. The homeobox gene cDlx may thus play a role in defining forebrain regional identity as early as gastrulation.

  15. Neural Network Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, E.; Jain, L.C.; Veelenturf, L.P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, also called neural networks, have been used successfully in many fields including engineering, science and business. This paper presents the implementation of several neural network simulators and their applications in character recognition and other engineering areas

  16. Current perspectives of the signaling pathways directing neural crest induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmiller, Timothy J; García-Castro, Martín I

    2012-11-01

    The neural crest is a migratory population of embryonic cells with a tremendous potential to differentiate and contribute to nearly every organ system in the adult body. Over the past two decades, an incredible amount of research has given us a reasonable understanding of how these cells are generated. Neural crest induction involves the combinatorial input of multiple signaling pathways and transcription factors, and is thought to occur in two phases from gastrulation to neurulation. In the first phase, FGF and Wnt signaling induce NC progenitors at the border of the neural plate, activating the expression of members of the Msx, Pax, and Zic families, among others. In the second phase, BMP, Wnt, and Notch signaling maintain these progenitors and bring about the expression of definitive NC markers including Snail2, FoxD3, and Sox9/10. In recent years, additional signaling molecules and modulators of these pathways have been uncovered, creating an increasingly complex regulatory network. In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of the major signaling pathways that participate in neural crest induction, with a focus on recent developments and current perspectives. We provide a simplified model of early neural crest development and stress similarities and differences between four major model organisms: Xenopus, chick, zebrafish, and mouse.

  17. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE HEART MERIDIAN,CARDIAC REFERRED PAIN AND THE HEART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Peijing; ZHU Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ Purpose: The referred pain of the somatic structure, a response of the visceralgia, is often seen in clinic. But its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. It is interested that cardiac referred pain often appears along the running course of the Heart Meridian (HM), while acupuncture of the acupoints of HM can effectively relieve cardiac pain. In the present study, the neural basis of the relationship among the HM, cardiac referred pain and the heart is investigated by using tri-labeling technique.

  18. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic versus diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure ...

  19. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & ...

  20. Healthy Heart Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & ...

  1. Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & ...

  2. Travel and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & ...

  3. Artificial neural interfaces for bionic cardiovascular treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    An artificial nerve, in the broad sense, may be conceptualized as a physical and logical interface system that reestablishes the information traffic between the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Studies on artificial nerves targeting the autonomic nervous system are in progress to explore new treatment strategies for several cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we will review our research targeting the autonomic nervous system to treat cardiovascular diseases. First, we identified the rule for decoding native sympathetic nerve activity into a heart rate using transfer function analysis, and established a framework for a neurally regulated cardiac pacemaker. Second, we designed a bionic baroreflex system to restore the baroreflex buffering function using electrical stimulation of the celiac ganglion in a rat model of orthostatic hypotension. Third, based on the hypothesis that autonomic imbalance aggravates chronic heart failure, we implanted a neural interface into the right vagal nerve and demonstrated that intermittent vagal stimulation significantly improved the survival rate in rats with chronic heart failure following myocardial infarction. Although several practical problems need to be resolved, such as those relating to the development of electrodes feasible for long-term nerve activity recording, studies of artificial neural interfaces with the autonomic nervous system have great possibilities in the field of cardiovascular treatment. We expect further development of artificial neural interfaces as novel strategies to cope with cardiovascular diseases resistant to conventional therapeutics.

  4. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-03-30

    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  5. Physiological Adaptive Indicators in Fasted Neonate Broiler Chicks in Response to Calcium Gluconate Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravinia H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 hrs after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into 2 groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hrs after chick placement, calcium gluconate (Ca-glu injection (0 and 0.6 mL and sex (male and female. Independent of sex, live body weight (BW of chicks decreased linearly (Y=43.36-0.109BW0h, r2=0.876 as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 mL Ca-glu at 3 hrs post hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR utilized linearly (Y=5.75-0.062YR, r2=0.956 by 0.062 g/hr in neonate fasted chicks showing no effect for Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 hrs increased liver weight (P. The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0h breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (P. Serum glucose concentration in both sexes increased up to 6 hrs fasting, then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dL after 48 hrs feed withdrawal. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 hrs of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to three-fold in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24 hrs feed withdrawal. The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 hrs and significantly elevated in the birds received 0.6 mL Ca-glu injection compared with the non treated chicks. It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 mL Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed deprived neonate chicks.

  6. GABA, taurine and learning: release of amino acids from slices of chick brain following filial imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, B J; Horn, G; Kendrick, K M

    2001-01-01

    The intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is a forebrain region in the domestic chick that is a site of information storage for the learning process of imprinting. We enquired whether imprinting is associated with learning-related increases in calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of neurotransmitter amino acids from the IMHV. Chicks were hatched and reared in darkness until 15-30 h after hatching. They then either remained in darkness or were trained for 2 h by exposure to an imprinting stimulus. One hour later, the chicks were given a preference test and a preference score was calculated from the results of this test, as a measure of imprinting. Chicks were killed 2 h after training. Slices from the left and right IMHV of trained and untrained chicks were superfused with Krebs' solution either with or without calcium and the superfusate assayed for arginine, aspartate, citrulline, GABA, glutamate, glycine and taurine using high-performance liquid chromatography. For calcium-containing superfusates from the left IMHV, preference score was significantly correlated with potassium-stimulated release of (i) GABA (r=0.51, 23 d.f., P=0.008) and (ii) taurine (r=0.77, 23 d.f., Pimprinting is associated with increases in releasable pools of GABA and taurine and/or membrane excitability in the left IMHV.

  7. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  8. Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Barbraud, Christophe; Lormée, Hervé; Prud'homme, François; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-04-01

    The function and causes of kidnapping juveniles are little understood because individuals sustain some breeding costs to rear an unrelated offspring. Here we focus on the proximal causes of this behaviour in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), whose failed breeders often kidnap chicks. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that kidnapping behaviour was the result of high residual levels of prolactin (PRL), a hormone involved in parental behaviour. Penguins with artificially decreased PRL levels by bromocriptine administration kidnapped chicks less often than control penguins. Within the bromocriptine treated group, kidnapping behaviour was not totally suppressed and the probability of kidnapping a chick was positively correlated to PRL levels measured before treatment. During breeding, emperor penguins have to forage in remote ice-free areas. In these birds, PRL secretion is poorly influenced by chick stimuli and has probably evolved to maintain a willingness to return to the colony after a long absence at sea. Therefore, penguins that have lost their chick during a foraging trip still maintain high residual PRL levels and this, combined with colonial breeding, probably facilitates kidnapping. We suggest that kidnapping in non-cooperative systems may result from a hormonal byproduct of a reproductive adaptation to extreme conditions.

  9. USE OF THE CHICK EMBRYO IN MAINTAINING AND RESTORING VIRULENCE OF NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Martin J.; Brown, Bobby C.; Brown, Leonard; Pirkle, Carl I.

    1963-01-01

    Walsh, Martin J. (Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, Ga.), Bobby C. Brown, Leonard Brown, and Carl I. Pirkle. Use of the chick embryo in maintaining and restoring virulence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 86:478–481. 1963.—Data based on its capabilities of producing acute urethritis in human male volunteers showed that Neisseria gonorrhoeae rapidly decreased in virulence after repeated subculture on chocolate agar medium. Cultures of a particular strain (GCM13) in the allantoic cavity of a developing chick embryo maintained virulence after 82 successive transfers. Another strain (GCF62), after loss of virulence through repeated subculture on chocolate agar, was again able to produce infection after 15 consecutive transfers in chick embryo. Thus, chick embryo apparently had the capability not only to maintain the virulence factor but also to reconstitute virulence. It is postulated that chick embryo serves as a selective medium for the growth of virulent gonococci, permitting rapid multiplication of these organisms and suppressing growth of the nonvirulent organisms. PMID:14066424

  10. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  11. Pharmacological reversal of cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Kristen A; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive bias presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals adopt a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and depressed individuals adopt both a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and a less optimistic interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. These biases have been reversed by anxiolytics and antidepressants. In the current study, chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5-min to induce an anxiety-like state or 60-min to induce a depressive-like state were tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. Chicks in the depression-like state displayed more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like approach behavior to ambiguous aversive and appetitive cues, respectively. Both forms of cognitive bias were reversed by 15.0 mg/kg imipramine. Chicks in anxiety-like state displayed more pessimistic-like approach behavior under the ambiguous aversive stimulus cues. However, 0.10 mg/kg clonidine produced modest sedation and thus, was ineffective at reversing this bias. The observation that cognitive biases of more pessimism and less optimism can be reversed in the depression-like phase by imipramine adds to the validity of the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  12. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Sherley

    Full Text Available The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot. Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08 and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10 survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03. Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  13. Morphologic characterization of osteosarcoma growth on the chick chorioallantoic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosheger Georg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM assay is a commonly used method for studying angiogenic or anti-angiogenic activities in vivo. The ease of access allows direct monitoring of tumour growth by biomicroscopy and the possibility to screen many samples in an inexpensive way. The CAM model provides a powerful tool to study effects of molecules, which interfere with physiological angiogenesis, or experimental tumours derived from cancer cell lines. We therefore screened eight osteosarcoma cell lines for their ability to form vascularized tumours on the CAM. Findings We implanted 3-5 million cells of human osteosarcoma lines (HOS, MG63, MNNG-HOS, OST, SAOS, SJSA1, U2OS, ZK58 on the CAM at day 10 of embryonic development. Tumour growth was monitored by in vivo biomicroscopy at different time points and tumours were fixed in paraformaldehyde seven days after cell grafting. The tissue was observed, photographed and selected cases were further analyzed using standard histology. From the eight cell lines the MNNG-HOS, U2OS and SAOS were able to form solid tumours when grafted on the CAM. The MNNG-HOS tumours showed the most reliable and consistent growth and were able to penetrate the chorionic epithelium, grow in the CAM stroma and induce a strong angiogenic response. Conclusions Our results show that the CAM assay is a useful tool for studying osteosarcoma growth. The model provides an excellent alternative to current rodent models and could serve as a preclinical screening assay for anticancer molecules. It might increase the speed and efficacy of the development of new drugs for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  14. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus middle ear columella formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Kathryn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella and ossified columella. Middle and external ear defects are responsible for approximately 10% of congenital hearing defects. Thus, understanding the morphogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of the formation of the middle ear is important to understanding normal and abnormal development of this essential component of the hearing apparatus. Results The columella, which arises from proximal ectomesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, is induced and patterned in a dynamic multi-step process. From the footplate, which inserts into the inner ear oval window, the shaft spans the pneumatic middle ear cavity, and the extracolumella inserts into the tympanic membrane. Through marker gene and immunolabeling analysis, we have determined the onset of each stage in the columella's development, from condensation to ossification. Significantly, a single condensation with the putative shaft and extracolumella arms already distinguishable is observed shortly before initiation of five separate chondrogenic centers within these structures. Ossification begins later, with periosteum formation in the shaft and, unexpectedly, a separate periosteum in the footplate. Conclusions The data presented in this study document the spatiotemporal events leading to morphogenesis of the columella and middle ear structures and provide the first gene expression data for this region. These data identify candidate genes and facilitate future functional studies and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of columella formation.

  15. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) and ...

  16. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  17. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. ...

  18. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009170 Curcumin attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling in rabbits with chronic heart failure. TANG Yanhong(唐艳红),et al.Dept Cardiol,Renmin Hosp,Wuhan Univ,Wuhan 430060.Chin J Cardiol,2009;37(3):262-267.

  19. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008411 Expression of S100B during heart failure in rats. JIANG Zhenni(蒋珍妮), et al. Dept Cardiol, 2nd Affili Hosp, Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med Hangzhou 310009. Chin J Emerg Med 2008;17(5):475-478. Objective To evaluate the value of S100B gene on cardiovascular remodeling in rats with abdominal aorta coarctation.

  20. A chick embryo with a yet unclassified type of cephalothoracopagus malformation and a hypothesis for explaining its genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, B; Geyer, S H; Weninger, W J

    2013-06-01

    Cephalothoracopagus embryos are conjoined twins, who share parts of their heads, necks and bodies. Our study aims at presenting a detailed morphological analysis of a cephalothoracopagus chick embryo of developmental stage 31. Because none of the existing theories can explain the genesis of the phenotype of this embryo, we also suggest a hypothesis, which explains it. Beside the cephalothoracopagus embryo, we investigated five control embryos. With the aid of the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) technique, we created digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the organs and arteries of the embryos. We used the 3D models for topological analysis and for measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracic arteries. The malformed embryo showed two body backs, each containing a notochord, spinal cord and dorsal aorta. The body backs continued into separated lower bodies. The embryo had a single, four-chambered heart, single respiratory tract and single upper alimentary tract. The topology of the pharyngeal arch arteries was normal, and the diameters of these arteries were similar to that of the control embryos. We classified the embryo we investigated as a yet unknown malformation and suggest a hypothesis explaining its genesis.

  1. Leader Cells Define Directionality of Trunk, but Not Cranial, Neural Crest Cell Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective cell migration is fundamental for life and a hallmark of cancer. Neural crest (NC cells migrate collectively, but the mechanisms governing this process remain controversial. Previous analyses in Xenopus indicate that cranial NC (CNC cells are a homogeneous population relying on cell-cell interactions for directional migration, while chick embryo analyses suggest a heterogeneous population with leader cells instructing directionality. Our data in chick and zebrafish embryos show that CNC cells do not require leader cells for migration and all cells present similar migratory capacities. In contrast, laser ablation of trunk NC (TNC cells shows that leader cells direct movement and cell-cell contacts are required for migration. Moreover, leader and follower identities are acquired before the initiation of migration and remain fixed thereafter. Thus, two distinct mechanisms establish the directionality of CNC cells and TNC cells. This implies the existence of multiple molecular mechanisms for collective cell migration.

  2. Changes in the osmolarity of the embryonic microenvironment induce neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Mei; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Li, Shuai; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Henry Siu Sum; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-05-01

    Many maternal disorders that modify the embryonic microenvironment, such as a change in osmolarity, can affect development, but how these changes influence the early embryo remains obscure. Neural tube defects, for example, are common congenital disorders found in fetus and neonates. In this study, we investigated the impact of anisotonic osmolarity (unequal osmotic pressures) on neural tube development in the early chick embryo, finding that neuronal cell differentiation was impaired in the neural tube due to enhanced apoptosis and repressed cell proliferation. Anisotonic osmolarity also affected normal development of the neural crest, which in turn influenced abnormal development of the neural tube. As neural tube development is highly dependent on the proper expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), paired box 7 (PAX7), and sonic hedgehog (SHH) genes in the dorsal and ventral regions along the tube, we investigated the impact of anisotonic osmolarity on their expression. Indeed, small changes in osmolarity could positively and negatively impact the expression of these regulatory genes, which profoundly affected neural tube development. Thus, both the central and peripheral nervous systems were perturbed by anisotonic consitions as a consequence of the abnormal expression of key genes within the developing neural tube.

  3. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  4. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... the type of defect, and the type of surgery that was done. Many children recover completely and lead normal, active lives.

  5. Diabetic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes by itself puts you at risk for heart disease. Other risk factors include Family history of heart disease Carrying extra ...

  6. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... slow down or stop. A risk factor for heart disease is something that increases your chance of getting ...

  7. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular heartbeats, called ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  8. Overview of Heart Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericardium). Tumors in the pericardium may squeeze (constrict) the heart, preventing it from ... Heart wall Fibroma Hemangioma Rhabdomyoma Outside surface Lipoma Pericardium (outer sac covering heart) Pericardial cyst Base of ...

  9. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Classes of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 28,2016 Doctors usually classify patients' ... Blood Pressure Tracker Find additional helpful resources here Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  10. Heart valve surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tricuspid valve stenosis Risks The risks of having cardiac surgery include: Death Heart attack Heart failure Bleeding requiring ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Heart Surgery Read more Heart Valve Diseases Read more Latest ...

  11. Mom's shadow: structure-from-motion in newly hatched chicks as revealed by an imprinting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2009-03-01

    The ability to recognize three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional (2-D) displays was investigated in domestic chicks, focusing on the role of the object's motion. In Experiment 1 newly hatched chicks, imprinted on a three-dimensional (3-D) object, were allowed to choose between the shadows of the familiar object and of an object never seen before. In Experiments 2 and 3 random-dot displays were used to produce the perception of a solid shape only when set in motion. Overall, the results showed that domestic chicks were able to recognize familiar shapes from 2-D motion stimuli. It is likely that similar general mechanisms underlying the perception of structure-from-motion and the extraction of 3-D information are shared by humans and animals. The present data shows that they occur similarly in birds as known for mammals, two separate vertebrate classes; this possibly indicates a common phylogenetic origin of these processes.

  12. Identification and localization of a novel zinc finger gene in developing chick skin and feather buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padanilam, B J; Solursh, M

    1996-03-07

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a novel zinc finger protein (Fzf-1) containing two tandem repeats of zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type. The cDNA is 3.0 Kb long and has an open reading frame which codes for a protein of 789 amino acids. The expression pattern of the zinc finger gene was studied in chick embryonic skin and feathers by in situ hybridization. The expression of the gene is found to be temporally and spatially regulated. In stage 38 chick embryos, the transcripts are localized to the epidermis but in 10-day-old embryos, the signal is localized to the forming dermis. In 12-day-old chick, the transcripts are localized to the mesenchymal region of the elongated feather buds. Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) did not detect the transcripts in any other tissues.

  13. Trivial or Commendable? : Women’s Writing, Popular Culture, and Chick Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  14. Organochlorines and heavy metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs and chicks from the same clutch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P.H. (Institut fur Vogelforschung Vogelwarte Helgoland (West Germany)); Sperveslage, H. (Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Oldenburg (West Germany))

    1989-05-01

    In an earlier paper the authors investigated the intraclutch variability in levels of toxic pollutants and compared this contamination with that of the female Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) after production of the clutch in question. In the present study, they examine the concentrations of contaminants in chicks as compared with one egg of the same clutch. Such studies are important with regard to the question as to which ontogenetic stage is most endangered by toxic pollutants. Some investigations concerning this problem have already been carried out, but they don't refer to samples taken from the same clutches. Chicks receive contaminants mainly from two sources: from the egg, which reflects directly the contamination of the breeding female as well as from the food. Moreover the concentrations of pollutants in chicks vary with growth-dependent body distribution and with a decline of the lipid content.

  15. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  16. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni Gene Expression in the Chick Cecum: Evidence for Adaptation to a Low-Oxygen Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C. A.; Jones, M. A.; Barrow, P. A.; Hinds, J.; Marsden, G. L.; Kelly, D. J.; Dorrell, N.; Wren, B. W.; Maskell, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of Campylobacter jejuni during colonization of the chick cecum identified 59 genes that were differentially expressed in vivo compared with the genes in vitro. The data suggest that C. jejuni regulates electron transport and central metabolic pathways to alter its physiological state during establishment in the chick cecum. PMID:16041056

  18. Analysis of neural crest migration and differentiation by cross-species transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Shannon L; Lwigale, Peter Y

    2012-02-07

    Avian embryos provide a unique platform for studying many vertebrate developmental processes, due to the easy access of the embryos within the egg. Chimeric avian embryos, in which quail donor tissue is transplanted into a chick embryo in ovo, combine the power of indelible genetic labeling of cell populations with the ease of manipulation presented by the avian embryo. Quail-chick chimeras are a classical tool for tracing migratory neural crest cells (NCCs). NCCs are a transient migratory population of cells in the embryo, which originate in the dorsal region of the developing neural tube. They undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and subsequently migrate to other regions of the embryo, where they differentiate into various cell types including cartilage, melanocytes, neurons and glia. NCCs are multipotent, and their ultimate fate is influenced by 1) the region of the neural tube in which they originate along the rostro-caudal axis of the embryo, 2) signals from neighboring cells as they migrate, and 3) the microenvironment of their ultimate destination within the embryo. Tracing these cells from their point of origin at the neural tube, to their final position and fate within the embryo, provides important insight into the developmental processes that regulate patterning and organogenesis. Transplantation of complementary regions of donor neural tube (homotopic grafting) or different regions of donor neural tube (heterotopic grafting) can reveal differences in pre-specification of NCCs along the rostro-caudal axis. This technique can be further adapted to transplant a unilateral compartment of the neural tube, such that one side is derived from donor tissue, and the contralateral side remains unperturbed in the host embryo, yielding an internal control within the same sample. It can also be adapted for transplantation of brain segments in later embryos, after HH10, when the anterior neural tube has closed. Here we report techniques for generating quail-chick

  19. Learning-related changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity in the chick forebrain after imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, B J; Horn, G

    1994-01-01

    The intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is a part of the chick forebrain that is critical for the learning process of imprinting and may be a site of information storage. Chicks were either trained on an imprinting stimulus or dark-reared. Trained chicks were classified as good or poor learners by their preference score (a measure of the strength of imprinting). A monoclonal antibody against the immediate early gene product Fos was applied to sections through IMHV and other forebrain regions. In the IMHV, significantly more immunopositive nuclei were counted in good learners than in poor learners or dark-reared chicks. There was a positive correlation between counts of labeled nuclei and preference score that was not attributable to sensory activity per se, locomotor activity during training, or a predisposition to learn well; rather, the results indicated that the change in Fos immunoreactivity in the IMHV was related to learning. In the hyperstriatum accessorium, significantly fewer immunopositive nuclei were counted in good learners than in poor learners or in dark-reared chicks. In the dorsolateral hippocampal region, more immunopositive nuclei were counted in trained than in dark-reared chicks. No significant effects of training were found in the anterior hyperstriatum ventrale, lobus parolfactorius, neostriatum, medial hippocampal region, or ventrolateral hippocampal region, but counts in this last region were positively correlated with training approach. The results for IMHV implicate Fos or Fos-related proteins in memory processes and pave the way for the identification of the cell types that show the learning-related increase in gene expression. Images PMID:7972076

  20. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  1. Experimental evidence for chick discrimination without recognition in a brood parasite host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Tomás

    2007-02-01

    Recognition is considered a critical basis for discriminatory behaviours in animals. Theoretically, recognition and discrimination of parasitic chicks are not predicted to evolve in hosts of brood parasitic birds that evict nest-mates. Yet, an earlier study showed that host reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) of an evicting parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), can avoid the costs of prolonged care for unrelated young by deserting the cuckoo chick before it fledges. Desertion was not based on specific recognition of the parasite because hosts accept any chick cross-fostered into their nests. Thus, the mechanism of this adaptive host response remains enigmatic. Here, I show experimentally that the cue triggering this 'discrimination without recognition' behaviour is the duration of parental care. Neither the intensity of brood care nor the presence of a single-chick in the nest could explain desertions. Hosts responded similarly to foreign chicks, whether heterospecific or experimental conspecifics. The proposed mechanism of discrimination strikingly differs from those found in other parasite-host systems because hosts do not need an internal recognition template of the parasite's appearance to effectively discriminate. Thus, host defences against parasitic chicks may be based upon mechanisms qualitatively different from those operating against parasitic eggs. I also demonstrate that this discriminatory mechanism is non-costly in terms of recognition errors. Comparative data strongly suggest that parasites cannot counter-evolve any adaptation to mitigate effects of this host defence. These findings have crucial implications for the process and end-result of host-parasite arms races and our understanding of the cognitive basis of discriminatory mechanisms in general.

  2. Filial responses as predisposed and learned preferences: Early attachment in chicks and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-08

    To what extent are filial responses the outcome of spontaneous or acquired preferences? The case of domestic chicks illustrates the connection between predisposed and learned knowledge in early social responses. In the absence of specific experience, chicks prefer to approach objects that are more similar to natural social partners (e.g. they prefer face-like configurations, biological motion, self-propelled objects and those that move at variable speed). Spontaneous preferences are complemented by filial imprinting, a powerful learning mechanism that enables chicks to quickly learn the features of specific social partners. While neurobiological studies have clarified that the substrates of spontaneous and learned preferences are at least partially distinct in chicks, evidence shows that spontaneous preferences might orient and facilitate imprinting on animate stimuli, such as the mother hen, and that hormones facilitate and strengthen preferences for predisposed stimuli. Preferences towards animate stimuli are observed in human neonates as well. The remarkable consistency between the perceptual cues attended to by newborn babies and naïve chicks suggests that the attentional biases observed in babies are unlikely to result from very rapid post-natal learning, and confirms that research on precocial species can inform and guide human infant research with regards to both typical and atypical development. This has potentially important biomedical implications, opening new possibilities for the early detection of subjects at risk for autism spectrum disorders. We show how the parallel investigation of predispositions in naïve chicks and human infants, both benefiting from contact with social partners since the beginning of life, has greatly improved our understanding of early responses to social stimuli at the behavioural and neurobiological level.

  3. Phenylalanine requirement, imbalance, and dietary excess in one-week-old chicks: growth and phenylalanine hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, F M; Austic, R E

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments were performed to study Phe imbalance and toxicity in 1-wk-old Babcock B380 chicks resulting from the addition of either a mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) or excess Phe to a diet that was nutritionally adequate in Phe. Chicks received a preexperimental semipurified diet for 1 wk and experimental diets from 7 to 14 d of age. In the first experiment, the chicks were given diets with Phe levels at 0.24, 0.29, 0.34, 0.39, 0.44, and 0.49% of the diet to determine the Phe requirement. The requirement of the chicks for Phe, based on weight gain and feed efficiency, was determined to be 0.39% of the diet. In experiment 2, the IAA - Phe (10% of the diet) or excess Phe (2% of the diet) was added to a diet containing 0.44% Phe. Chicks given the IAA - Phe or excess Phe had significantly slower growth rates than chicks given the basal diet (P > or = 0.05). The activities of the major hepatic enzyme of Phe catabolism, Phe hydroxylase (PAH), were significantly higher than that of chicks fed the basal diet when the chicks were fed the diets containing IAA - Phe plus 1.1% Phe (P > or = 0.05) but not when chicks were fed the diet containing IAA - Phe alone. The activity of PAH in chicks given the excess (2%) Phe was nearly 4 times the activity of PAH in chicks given the basal diet. Adding IAA - Phe to the diet containing excess Phe also resulted in higher PAH activity than was observed in chicks fed the basal diet, although the activity was significantly lower than observed for chicks receiving the diet containing excess Phe alone (P > or = 0.05). It is concluded that hepatic PAH activity in chicks increases primarily in response to its substrate, Phe. A dietary amino acid load without Phe reduces this response to excess Phe.

  4. In vitro prevention of chick pancreatic lipase activity by Abroma augusta extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Gupta; Aditya Ganeshpurkar; Nishikant Jatav; Divya Bansal; Nazneen Dubey

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate chick pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the Abroma augusta (A. augusta). Methods: A. augusta was first extracted with methanol and subjected to phytochemical screenings. Quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenolics and alkaloids was done. Pancreatic lipase from chick pancreas was isolated and used as substrate for anti-lipase studies. Results:A. augusta extract effectively inhibited concentration dependent lipase activity, whereby extract at concentration 100 μg/mL inhibited 88.6% enzyme activity. Conclusions: From these results, it could be concluded that A. augusta can be used as a potential source anti-lipase agents.

  5. Neural Induction, Neural Fate Stabilization, and Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A. Moody

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The promise of stem cell therapy is expected to greatly benefit the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. An underlying biological reason for the progressive functional losses associated with these diseases is the extremely low natural rate of self-repair in the nervous system. Although the mature CNS harbors a limited number of self-renewing stem cells, these make a significant contribution to only a few areas of brain. Therefore, it is particularly important to understand how to manipulate embryonic stem cells and adult neural stem cells so their descendants can repopulate and functionally repair damaged brain regions. A large knowledge base has been gathered about the normal processes of neural development. The time has come for this information to be applied to the problems of obtaining sufficient, neurally committed stem cells for clinical use. In this article we review the process of neural induction, by which the embryonic ectodermal cells are directed to form the neural plate, and the process of neural�fate stabilization, by which neural plate cells expand in number and consolidate their neural fate. We will present the current knowledge of the transcription factors and signaling molecules that are known to be involved in these processes. We will discuss how these factors may be relevant to manipulating embryonic stem cells to express a neural fate and to produce large numbers of neurally committed, yet undifferentiated, stem cells for transplantation therapies.

  6. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  7. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005186 The diagnostic application of bedside measurement of plasma brain natriuretic in patients with heart failure. SHAO Le-wen (邵乐文) , Advanced Ward Dept, 1st Hosp, Med Sch, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310003. Chin J Intern Med, 2005;44(2): 99-101. Objective: To investigate differential diagnosis value of ultra-rapid bedside measurement of brain na-triuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with dyspnea.

  8. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010316 Tissue doppler imaging observation on effect of long-term use of gingko biloba tabtet on left ventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure. ZHANG Hui(张辉),et al. Dept Cardiovasc Med, 2nd Hosp, Hebei Med Univ,Shijiazhuang 050000. Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30(5):478-481. Objective To quantitatively observe the effect of long-term

  9. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern.

  10. Central neural pathways for thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate a homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and to alter body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the functional organization of the neural pathways through which cutaneous thermal receptors alter thermoregulatory effectors: the cutaneous circulation for heat loss, the brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart for thermogenesis and species-dependent mechanisms (sweating, panting and saliva spreading) for evaporative heat loss. These effectors are regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific neural pathways that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The thermal afferent circuits include cutaneous thermal receptors, spinal dorsal horn neurons and lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons projecting to the preoptic area to influence warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. PMID:21196160

  11. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  12. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  13. cMyc Regulates the Size of the Premigratory Neural Crest Stem Cell Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerosuo, Laura; Bronner, Marianne E

    2016-12-06

    The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process. Interestingly, rather than via E-Box binding, cMyc acts in the dorsal neural tube by interacting with another transcription factor, Miz1, to promote self-renewal. The finding that cMyc operates in a non-canonical manner in the premigratory neural crest highlights the importance of examining its role at specific time points and in an in vivo context.

  14. Light exposure of chick embryo influences lateralized recall of imprinting memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A N; Rogers, L J

    1999-12-01

    Environmental cues, such as light during the later part of incubation, are known to establish lateralization of some forms of visually guided behaviors in birds. The authors investigated the effect of light on lateralized recall of imprinting memory in chicks. On Day E19 of incubation, one eye was occluded for 24 hr. The other eye received stimulation by light. Chicks were imprinted and then tested for their imprinting preferences after administration of a low dose (500 ng) of glutamate into either hemisphere. Chicks that had the right eye exposed to light during incubation showed recall of the imprinting stimulus after injection of the left hemisphere but not after injection into the right hemisphere. The reverse was found for chicks that had the left eye exposed to light. Hence, the hemisphere ipsilateral to the eye exposed to light before hatching became essential for recall of imprinting memory. The hemisphere used in recall of imprinting memory received indirect visual inputs and was determined by environmental stimulation (asymmetrical light input).

  15. Effect of growth rate and body mass on resting metabolic rate in galliform chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Drent, RH

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we asked whether within-species variation in chick resting metabolic rate was related to variation in growth and whether this relationship changed during development in three galliform species (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, and Japanese quail, Coturnix co

  16. Daily energy expenditure in precocial shorebird chicks : Smaller species perform at higher levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, Karen L.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Visser, G. Henk

    2012-01-01

    We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) during the development periods of precocial chicks of five species of Arctic shorebirds spanning a broad range in size, in order to investigate the relationships between DEE, body size, and growth rate. We also quantified the effect of weather conditions on

  17. Ethical euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Herr, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs are suggested as an alternative to mammalian models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is widely used for examination of angiogenesis, xenotransplants and for virus production. Unfortunately, it is mostly not taken into account, that the chick embryo's ability to experience pain starts to develop at day 7 of breeding. In our view, this model is only in accordance with the 3 R principles, if an appropriate anesthesia of the chick embryo in potentially painful procedures is provided. Although many experimental approaches are performed on the none-innervated CAM, the euthanasia of the embryo strongly requires a more human technique than the usually used freezing at -20°C, decapitation or in ovo fixation with paraformaldehyde without prior anesthesia. However, protocols regarding feasible and ethical methods for anesthesia and euthanasia of avian embryos are currently not available. Therefore, we established an easy and reliable method for the euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

  18. Detailed histopathologic characterization of the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) chick phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Fischer, A.; Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Kiupel, M.; Grip, W.J. de; Sherry, D.; Cho, S.S.; Shaw, G.C.; Evans, M.G.; Hocking, P.; Petersen-Jones, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphological abnormalities in the retinas of chicks (Gallus gallus) suffering from the autosomal recessive disease, retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge/rge). METHODS: rge/rge affected and age matched control retinas were examined from hatch up

  19. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  20. Anthelminthic treatment negatively affects chick survival in the Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K; Heg, D; Quenec'hdu, SLD

    2002-01-01

    Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus are infested with a wide range of gut parasites, but experimental evidence of their effects on host fitness is scant. We investigated prevalence of parasites, and experimentally tested the effects of gut parasites on chick survival and growth. One hundre

  1. Preventive effect of selenium, methionine and antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks induced by dilauryl succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Hoshi, H

    1977-01-01

    The protective effect of supplemental selenium, methionine, ascorbic acid, menaquinone and five antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks fed a diet containing dilauryl succinate was examined. Diauryl succinate induces vitamin E deficiency signs such as fragility of the erythrocytes and encephalomalacia. Supplementation of selenium and methionine with or without simultaneous supplementation of a low level of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate had little effect on preventing encephalomalacia. The preventive effect of ascorbic acid, methylene blue, ethoyquine, 2,6-ditertiary-butyl-p-cresol and butylated hydroxyanisole was roughly in proportion to their dietary level, and a high level of any of them could almost completely protect the chicks from encephalomalacia, while diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine was not as effective and the effect was not proportional to the dose. Menaquinone had little effect. No difference was observed in the plasma tocopherol levels and peroxide levels in the adipose tissueof the chick fed eith er dilauryl succinate or cornstarch. The effect of dilauryl succinate appears to be independent of peroxides generated in the chick.

  2. Feeding and growth of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) chicks with unpredictable food access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of unpredictable feeding times on feeding activity and body mass gain in fast growing Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) from 7 to 31 d of age. Quail chicks were subjected to a long day length (18L:6D) with ad libitum food during (1) 17.5 h of the light period, starting

  3. Mucin dynamics in the chick small intestine are altered by starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Asya; Sklan, David; Uni, Zehava

    2004-04-01

    The absorptive surface of the small intestine is covered by a layer of mucus secreted by goblet cells. The secreted mucins and thickness of the adherent layer influence nutrient digestion and absorption processes as well as the functionality of the mucosa. In this study, methods for the analysis of mucin synthesis and dynamics in the chick small intestine are described. A fragment of chicken mucin cDNA was isolated and characterized; this fraction had 60% homology to human mucin MUC-5AC. The thickness of the mucus adherent layer and the relative amounts of mucin glycoprotein and mRNA were also examined in the small intestines of control and starved chicks. Relative amounts of intestinal mucin mRNA and protein increased in the duodenum and jejunum of starved chicks, and mucus adherent layer thickness decreased throughout the small intestine. In starved chicks, higher mRNA expression and protein concentrations with lower amounts of adherent mucus may be related to a higher rate of degradation of the mucus layer, a lower rate of mucus secretion, or an altered rate of mucin turnover. It thus appears that starvation alters mucus dynamics in the small intestine, and this may affect intestinal digestive function and defense.

  4. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen.

  5. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main…

  6. Intracerebroventricular administration of novel glucagon-like peptide suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Glucagon-related peptides such as glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin suppress food intake in mammals and birds. Recently, novel glucagon-like peptide (GCGL) was identified from chicken brain, and a comparatively high mRNA expression level of GCGL was detected in the hypothalamus. A number of studies suggest that the hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake in mammals and birds. In the present study, we investigated whether GCGL is involved in the central regulation of food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of GCGL in chicks significantly suppressed food intake. Plasma glucose level was significantly decreased by GCGL, whereas plasma corticosterone level was not affected. Central administration of a corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, attenuated GCGL-suppressed food intake. It seems likely that CRF receptor is involved in the GCGL-induced anorexigenic pathway. All our findings suggest that GCGL functions as an anorexigenic peptide in the central nervous system of chicks.

  7. A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  8. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  9. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-07-28

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.

  10. Chick metabolic rate and growth in three species of albatross: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R A; Green, J A; Phalan, B; Croxall, J P; Butler, P J

    2003-05-01

    The relative importance of genetic vs. environmental factors in determining the pattern of avian post-embryonic development is much debated. Previous cross-fostering of albatrosses suggested that although inter-specific variation in growth rate was determined primarily by differences in dietary energy content, species-specific constraints might have evolved that could limit maximal growth, even in chicks fed at similar rates and on similar diets. This study aimed to determine whether intrinsic differences in resting metabolic rate were apparent during the linear phase of growth in chicks of three species (black-browed, grey-headed and light-mantled sooty albatrosses). There was a gradual increase in absolute, and a reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate from 5.0 W kg(-1) during the earliest part of linear growth, to 3.5 W kg(-1) by the time chicks reached peak mass. These values are considerably higher than in resting adults of comparable or lower mass, presumably reflecting the large size and high metabolic demand of organs involved in rapid nutrient processing and tissue synthesis by chicks. The lack of any detectable inter-specific variation in the pattern of metabolic rate changes casts some doubt on the existence of fundamental differences in growth rate that cannot be attributed simply to differences in dietary energy or nutrient delivery rate.

  11. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. CONCLUSION: The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  12. MEMORY FOR THE SPATIAL POSITION OF AN IMPRINTING OBJECT IN JUNGLEFOWL CHICKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKAMPEN, HS; DEVOS, GJ

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of memory for the position of an imprinting object were investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). Subjects were exposed individually and continuously to an imprinting object located in one of the two back quadrants of their home cage ('training quadrant'). Posi

  13. Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.

    2007-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ??g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  14. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stekelenburg-de Vos (Sandra); N.T.C. Ursem (Nicolette); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); A.C. Gittenberger-de Groot (Adriana); R.E. Poelmann (Robert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical

  15. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  16. From high heels to weed attics: a syntactic investigation of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.; Koolen, C.W.; van Cranenburgh, Andreas; de Jong, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stylometric analysis of prose is typically limited to classification tasks such as authorship attribution. Since the models used are typically black boxes, they give little insight into the stylistic diff erences they detect. In this paper, we characterize two prose genres syntactically: chick lit (

  17. Effect of feeding poultry manure treated with antibiotic, bacteriostat, and lime on the performance of chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, V.R.; Rao, P.V.; Reddy, V.R.

    1977-01-01

    A 4-week experiment was conducted with 5-week-old New Hampshire chicks employing treated and untreated dried poultry manure (DPM) at 15% level in the diet. Treating the fresh manure either with antibiotic, bacteriostat, or lime did not show any beneficial effect over untreated manure. DPM at 15% of the feed showed a nonsignificant beneficial effect on weight gain.

  18. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, D J; Schutte, J B

    1996-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of feeding high-methylated (HM) and low-methylated (LM) pectin on performance and physiological characteristics in broiler chicks. Two levels each (1.5 and 3%) of HM citrus pectin (HMC), LM citrus pectin (LMC), or HM sugar beet pectin (HMS) were added to a semi-purified basal diet. The experiment was conducted in battery brooders, and chicks received the diets as pellets from 6 to 27 d of age. The inclusion of LMC or HMS in the diet had little or no effect on the performance of chicks; however, when HMC was added to the diet growth and feed utilization were reduced significantly (P Waterholding capacity of the diets and the excreta were increased significantly by including one (P 0.05) on the concentration of VFA. In contrast, inclusion of HMS in the diet significantly increased the concentration of VFA in the cecal content (P < 0.05) dose-dependently. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of dietary pectin on chick performance is dependent on the degree of carboxyl groups that is esterified, the origin of the pectin product, and the amount added to the diet.

  19. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to coccidiosis in broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    For this study, threonine (Thr) deficiency was hypothesized to exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdrawal and coccidiosis infection because of its high obligatory requirement of the gut. Two dietary Thr treatments (0.49 and 0.90%) were fed to chicks from 1-21 d of age. At 13 d of a...

  20. Doing What Your Big Sister Does: Sex, Postfeminism and the YA Chick Lit Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Toffoletti, Kim; Parsons, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Mass-marketed teen chick lit has become a publishing phenomenon and has begun to attract critical interest among children's literature scholars. Much of this critical work, however, has shied away from robust critical assessment of the postfeminist conditions informing the production and reception of young adult series like Private, Gossip Girl…

  1. Generation of the Dimensional Embryology Application (App) for Visualization of Early Chick and Frog Embryonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca L.; Bilitski, James; Zerbee, Alyssa; Symans, Alexandra; Chop, Alexandra; Seitz, Brianne; Tran, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The study of embryonic development of multiple organisms, including model organisms such as frogs and chicks, is included in many undergraduate biology programs, as well as in a variety of graduate programs. As our knowledge of biological systems increases and the amount of material to be taught expands, the time spent instructing students about…

  2. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  3. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive super

  4. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  5. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole

    2009-11-30

    Chicken eggs in the early phase of breeding are between in vitro and in vivo systems and provide a vascular test environment not only to study angiogenesis but also to study tumorigenesis. After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays. Since the lymphoid system is not fully developed until late stages of incubation, the chick embryo serves as a naturally immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition to nurturing developing allo- and xenografts, the CAM blood vessel network provides a uniquely supportive environment for tumor cell intravasation, dissemination, and vascular arrest and a repository where arrested cells extravasate to form micro metastatic foci. For experimental purposes, in most of the recent studies the CAM was exposed by cutting a window through the egg shell and experiments were carried out in ovo, resulting in significant limitations in the accessibility of the CAM and possibilities for observation and photo documentation of effects. When shell-less cultures of the chick embryo were used(1-4), no experimental details were provided and, if published at all, the survival rates of these cultures were low. We refined the method of ex ovo culture of chick embryos significantly by introducing a rationally controlled extrusion of the egg content. These ex ovo cultures enhance the accessibility of the CAM and chick embryo, enabling easy in vivo documentation of effects and facilitating experimental manipulation of the embryo. This allows the successful application to a large number of scientific questions: (1) As an improved angiogenesis assay(5,6), (2) an experimental set up for facilitated injections in the vitreous of the chick embryo eye(7-9), (3) as a test environment for dissemination and intravasation of dispersed tumor

  6. Immunoreactive cortisone in droppings reflect stress levels, diet and growth rate of gull-billed tern chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Santiago-Quesada, Francisco; Masero, José A; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Möstl, Erich

    2015-03-01

    Blood levels of corticosterone have been traditionally analyzed to assess stress levels in birds; however, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in feces and droppings has gained much interest as a noninvasive technique successfully used for such purposed in vertebrates. Diet may affect these fecal metabolite levels (e.g., due to nutritional stress), however, this variable has not been taken into account in studies with chicks despite the great dietary flexibility of many avian species. In this study, we addressed for the first time this key issue and validated the technique in wild gull-billed tern chicks (Gelochelidon nilotica). Several enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the most appropriate test to measure the stress response. Subsequently, we performed an experiment in captivity to assess adrenocortical activity in gull-billed tern chicks fed with two diets: piscivorous vs. insectivorous. Finally, the relation between the chicks' growth rate and excreted immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites (EGMs) was also evaluated. We found the immunoreactive cortisone metabolites to be a good index of stress (as being an index of adrenocortical reactivity) in chicks of this species. Fish-fed chicks had higher levels of cortisone metabolites when comparing both concentration and total daily excreted metabolites. Within each treatment diet, cortisone metabolite levels and growth rates were negatively correlated. These findings suggest that the diet should be considered when using this technique for comparative purposes and highlight the trade-off between stress levels and chicks growth rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Koshiba

    Full Text Available Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

  9. Introducing a novel mechanism to control heart rate in the ancestral Pacific hagfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher M; Roa, Jinae N; Cox, Georgina K; Tresguerres, Martin; Farrell, Anthony P

    2016-10-15

    Although neural modulation of heart rate is well established among chordate animals, the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) lacks any cardiac innervation, yet it can increase its heart rate from the steady, depressed heart rate seen in prolonged anoxia to almost double its normal normoxic heart rate, an almost fourfold overall change during the 1-h recovery from anoxia. The present study sought mechanistic explanations for these regulatory changes in heart rate. We provide evidence for a bicarbonate-activated, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)-dependent mechanism to control heart rate, a mechanism never previously implicated in chordate cardiac control. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Effect of dietary buffer additions on gain, efficiency, duodenal pH, and copper concentration in liver of Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M C; Brown, D R; Southern, L L

    1987-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to investigate the effect of dietary additions of NaHCO3(1%), A1(OH)3(.5%), kaolin(1%), A1(OH)2NaCO3(.23%), CaCO3(.37%), and MgO(1%) on gain, efficiency, duodenal pH, and liver Cu concentration of Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. Experimental coccidial infection consistently reduced chick gain, efficiency, and duodenal pH, but it increased liver Cu concentration of chicks fed excess Cu. Sodium bicarbonate addition improved chick gain and efficiency slightly, whereas the MgO addition reduced these performance criteria. Sodium bicarbonate improved gain more in coccidiosis-infected chicks than in uninfected chicks, but it failed to alleviate, to any extent, the coccidiosis-induced liver Cu increase of the duodenal pH decrease.

  11. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; Han, Zhe; Chuai, Manli; Wang, Li-jing; Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka; Geng, Jian-guo; Yang, Xuesong

    2013-05-01

    Formation of the neural tube is the morphological hallmark for development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, neural tube development is a crucial step in the neurulation process. Slit/Robo signaling was initially identified as a chemo-repellent that regulated axon growth cone elongation, but its role in controlling neural tube development is currently unknown. To address this issue, we investigated Slit/Robo1 signaling in the development of chick neCollege of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UKural tube and transgenic mice over-expressing Slit2. We disrupted Slit/Robo1 signaling by injecting R5 monoclonal antibodies into HH10 neural tubes to block the Robo1 receptor. This inhibited the normal development of the ventral body curvature and caused the spinal cord to curl up into a S-shape. Next, Slit/Robo1 signaling on one half-side of the chick embryo neural tube was disturbed by electroporation in ovo. We found that the morphology of the neural tube was dramatically abnormal after we interfered with Slit/Robo1 signaling. Furthermore, we established that silencing Robo1 inhibited cell proliferation while over-expressing Robo1 enhanced cell proliferation. We also investigated the effects of altering Slit/Robo1 expression on Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Pax7 expression in the developing neural tube. We demonstrated that over-expressing Robo1 down-regulated Shh expression in the ventral neural tube and resulted in the production of fewer HNK-1(+) migrating neural crest cells (NCCs). In addition, Robo1 over-expression enhanced Pax7 expression in the dorsal neural tube and increased the number of Slug(+) pre-migratory NCCs. Conversely, silencing Robo1 expression resulted in an enhanced Shh expression and more HNK-1(+) migrating NCCs but reduced Pax7 expression and fewer Slug(+) pre-migratory NCCs were observed. In conclusion, we propose that Slit/Robo1 signaling is involved in regulating neural tube development by tightly

  12. Short copy number variations potentially associated with tonic immobility responses in newly hatched chicks.

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    Hideaki Abe

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tonic immobility (TI is fear-induced freezing that animals may undergo when confronted by a threat. It is principally observed in prey species as defence mechanisms. In our preliminary research, we detected large inter-individual variations in the frequency and duration of freezing behavior among newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus. In this study we aim to identify the copy number variations (CNVs in the genome of chicks as genetic candidates that underlie the behavioral plasticity to fearful stimuli. METHODS: A total of 110 domestic chicks were used for an association study between TI responses and copy number polymorphisms. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was conducted between chicks with high and low TI scores using an Agilent 4 × 180 custom microarray. We specifically focused on 3 genomic regions (>60 Mb of chromosome 1 where previous quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis showed significant F-values for fearful responses. RESULTS: ACGH successfully detected short CNVs within the regions overlapping 3 QTL peaks. Eleven of these identified loci were validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR as copy number polymorphisms. Although there wkas no significant p value in the correlation analysis between TI scores and the relative copy number within each breed, several CNV loci showed significant differences in the relative copy number between 2 breeds of chicken (White Leghorn and Nagoya which had different quantitative characteristics of fear-induced responses. CONCLUSION: Our data shows the potential CNVs that may be responsible for innate fear response in domestic chicks.

  13. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  14. EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION OF ETIZOLAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHICK EMBRYO

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    Shweta P. Alai et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are various drugs used in daily life. Some of them show hazardous effect on various organs and some of them shows even lethal effect. Such drugs are required to banned. One of them is Etizolam (marketed under the brand name Sedekopan, Pasaden or Depas is a drug which is a thiebenzothiodiazepines analog. The aim of this work is done to compare the effect of administration of the etizolam drug at (Zero-day before incubation and at the (5-day first week of incubation, to get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effect of this drug on the development of chick embryo. So that morphological and biochemical studies were done on the chick embryo of 8- and 16-days old chick embryos treated with (0.5mg/ml egg of etizolam on the (zero and 5-th days of incubation. Etizolam caused abnormality in concentration dependent manner. Enlarged remains of primitive streak was seen at 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml concentration of Etizolam embryo dies. Etizolam inhibit development of somites of the development of 5-day at of incubation also it does not allow the development of notochord. The toxic effects of the drug was seen also more at 16-days treated chick embryos and the drug induced death of chick embryo at both 8- and 16-days treated with 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml. The conclusion from this study was the etizolam drug has dangerous effects on tissues and with powerful toxicity on the cells, because the drug absorbed rapidly with peak plasma levels achieved between 30 minutes and 2 hours and has a mean elimination half life of about 3 and a half hours.

  15. Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Austic, R E

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the influence of Phe imbalance and excess on Phe-pyruvate aminotransferase (PAT) activity in the chick. Five replicates of 3 chicks (experiment 1) or 2 chicks (experiment 2) of a commercial brown egg layer strain were fed a semipurified diet for 1 wk and then received experimental diets for 10 d. Three diets were used in experiment 1: the basal diet contained 0.46% Phe; the imbalance diet was similar to the basal diet except that it contained a 10% mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to create a Phe imbalance; the imbalance corrected diet was similar to the imbalance diet except that it was supplemented with 1.12% Phe to correct the imbalance. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in experiment 2 provided 3 dietary levels (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) of Phe and either no supplement or 10% supplement of IAA - Phe. Nonfasted chicks were killed and livers were sampled in experiment 1, and livers, kidneys, brains, and pectoralis major muscles were sampled in experiment 2. In experiment 1, liver PAT activity per gram of liver was 80 and 55% higher (P PAT per gram of tissue per minute and per milligram of tissue protein extract per minute than chicks that did not receive IAA - Phe (P PAT activity was detected (P > 0.05). Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity appears to be regulated in response to dietary content of indispensable amino acids but not by the dietary level of Phe.

  16. Polyamines metabolically labeled two cellular proteins in fibroblasts isolated from chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.Y.; Dou, Q.P.

    1987-05-01

    A hypusine-containing protein (Mw=18,000) has been reported to be present in all mammalian cells examined. The formation of the unusual amino acid residue in this 18,000-dalton protein is due to a posttranslational modification of lysine residue by spermidine. To search for an abundant source for the purification of this protein, they have examined possible existence of this protein in chick embryos using metabolical labeling method. Metabolical labeling of chick embryo fibroblasts prepared from the Day 11 embryos by (2,3-TH)putrescine resulted in two prominently labeled protein bands as shown by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The apparent molecular weights of the labeled proteins were 20,000- and 18,000-daltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis indicated that the 20,000-dalton protein had a pI of 5.5 and the 18,000-dalton protein exhibited isoform structures with pI values ranging from 4.6 to 5.1. Peptide map analysis showed that the 18,000-dalton protein from chick embryos was identical to the 18,000-dalton protein isolated from mouse neuroblastoma cells. The purification procedure that they have developed for mouse neuroblastoma 18,000-dalton protein was found to be also applicable in isolating the 18,000-dalton protein from chick embryos. Both the 18,000- and the 20,000-dalton proteins in chick embryos were enriched after Cibacron-Blue column and omega-diaminooctyl-agarose column chromatography.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  18. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Chima NWORGU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  19. Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y

    2011-10-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n = 840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n = 210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000 mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500 mg/kg YE + 500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60 d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW + YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW + YE groups during the 60 d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60 d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE + YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60 d growing period.

  20. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocyst vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Jenkins, Mark C; Miska, Katarzyna B; Barfield, Ruth C

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, 1-day-old chicks were immunized with oocysts of Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella exposed to gamma radiation ranging from 0-500 Gy. The litter oocyst counts at 7 days postimmunization, and the effect on weight gain following a challenge infection, decreased with an optimum dose between 150-200 Gy. Based on this finding, broiler chicks were immunized with a mixture of E. maxima, E. acervulina, and E tenella that had been exposed to 150 or 200 Gy. This resulted in more than a 100-fold reduction in litter oocyst counts and significant protection from a challenge infection, as measured by improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Immunization of birds with oocysts receiving 200 Gy was less effective in providing protection from a challenge infection. An additional formulation of vaccines containing two different oocyst doses of the three species that had been irradiated with 150 Gy were evaluated in their ability to attenuate oocyst output and convey protection to challenge. Results were similar with both high and low numbers of irradiated oocysts. Immunized chicks shed less oocysts at 7 days postimmunization and were protected from negative effects of challenge infection as measured by FCR, changes in weight gain, lesion scores, and measurement of body composition. However, the level of protection was somewhat less than that achieved by immunization with nonirradiated oocysts. The overall conclusion is that an irradiated oocyst vaccine developed in this study can effectively protect chicks that are raised on litter from challenge infection with multiple species of Eimeria, comparable to vaccines with virulent or precocious strains.

  1. Prediction of optimal vaccination timing for infectious bursal disease based on chick weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziry, Asaad; Venne, Daniel; Frenette, Diane; Gingras, Sylvain; Silim, Amer

    2007-12-01

    Growth rate in broiler birds has increased substantially in the last decade due to improvement in genetics, feed formulation, cleaner environment, and vaccine formulations. As a result, it has become necessary to review and revise prediction method for vaccination in chicks. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of the rate of weight gain rather than age in predicting vaccination time. Two groups of 1-day-old broilers originating from old and young breeders, respectively, and with different levels of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were used in this study. The chicks were divided into four groups and subjected to two feed regiments: groups A1 and B1 were fed broiler feed for normal growth rate, and groups A2 and B2 were fed breeder feed for slower growth rate. At 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 29, and 36 days of age, 22 chicks in each group were weighed, and blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against IBDV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. Maternal antibody decline curves for each group were plotted according to chick age and chick weight. Fast-growing birds in groups A1 and B1 showed a faster rate of antibody decline, whereas slow-growing birds in groups A2 and B2 had a slower rate of antibody decline. Based on the effect of weight gain on maternal antibody decline, a new way of predicting vaccination time for IBDV based on measuring maternal antibody titers at 4 days of age was proposed and tested. The predicted antibody decline was shown to correspond to the real ELISA titers measured in our experiments (R = 0.9889), whereas a lower correlation (R = 0.8355) was detected between real ELISA titers and the titers predicted by the current method using age-based Deventer formula.

  2. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A S; Kitaiskaia, E V; Piatt, J F; Wingfield, J C

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages.

  3. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka N. Salka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  4. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Heart Failure Updated:Feb 9,2017 Left-sided heart failure ... making. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  5. A novel effect of MARCKS phosphorylation by activated PKC: the dephosphorylation of its serine 25 in chick neuroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Toledo

    Full Text Available MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate is a peripheral membrane protein, especially abundant in the nervous system, and functionally related to actin organization and Ca-calmodulin regulation depending on its phosphorylation by PKC. However, MARCKS is susceptible to be phosphorylated by several different kinases and the possible interactions between these phosphorylations have not been fully studied in intact cells. In differentiating neuroblasts, as well as some neurons, there is at least one cell-type specific phosphorylation site: serine 25 (S25 in the chick. We demonstrate here that S25 is included in a highly conserved protein sequence which is a Cdk phosphorylatable region, located far away from the PKC phosphorylation domain. S25 phosphorylation was inhibited by olomoucine and roscovitine in neuroblasts undergoing various states of cell differentiation in vitro. These results, considered in the known context of Cdks activity in neuroblasts, suggest that Cdk5 is the enzyme responsible for this phosphorylation. We find that the phosphorylation by PKC at the effector domain does not occur in the same molecules that are phosphorylated at serine 25. The in situ analysis of the subcellular distribution of these two phosphorylated MARCKS variants revealed that they are also segregated in different protein clusters. In addition, we find that a sustained stimulation of PKC by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA provokes the progressive disappearance of phosphorylation at serine 25. Cells treated with PMA, but in the presence of several Ser/Thr phosphatase (PP1, PP2A and PP2B inhibitors indicated that this dephosphorylation is achieved via a phosphatase 2A (PP2A form. These results provide new evidence regarding the existence of a novel consequence of PKC stimulation upon the phosphorylated state of MARCKS in neural cells, and propose a link between PKC and PP2A activity on MARCKS.

  6. Striatal and Tegmental Neurons Code Critical Signals for Temporal-Difference Learning of State Value in Domestic Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chentao; Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD) method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards. We recorded neuronal activities from the medial striatum or tegmentum in a freely behaving condition and examined how reward omission changed neuronal firing. To compare neuronal activities with the signals assumed in the TD method, we simulated the behavioral task in the form of a finite sequence composed of discrete steps of time. The three signals assumed in the simulated task were the prediction signal, the target signal for updating, and the TD-error signal. In both the medial striatum and tegmentum, the majority of recorded neurons were categorized into three types according to their fitness for three models, though these neurons tended to form a continuum spectrum without distinct differences in the firing rate. Specifically, two types of striatal neurons successfully mimicked the target signal and the prediction signal. A linear summation of these two types of striatum neurons was a good fit for the activity of one type of tegmental neurons mimicking the TD-error signal. The present study thus demonstrates that the striatum and tegmentum can convey the signals critically required for the TD method. Based on the theoretical and neurophysiological studies, together with tract-tracing data, we propose a novel model to explain how the convergence of signals represented in the striatum could lead to the computation of TD error in tegmental dopaminergic neurons. PMID:27877100

  7. Striatal and Tegmental Neurons Code Critical Signals for Temporal-Difference Learning of State Value in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentao Wen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards. We recorded neuronal activities from the medial striatum or tegmentum in a freely behaving condition and examined how reward omission changed neuronal firing. To compare neuronal activities with the signals assumed in the TD method, we simulated the behavioral task in the form of a finite sequence composed of discrete steps of time. The three signals assumed in the simulated task were the prediction signal, the target signal for updating, and the TD-error signal. In both the medial striatum and tegmentum, the majority of recorded neurons were categorized into three types according to their fitness for three models, though these neurons tended to form a continuum spectrum without distinct differences in the firing rate. Specifically, two types of striatal neurons successfully mimicked the target signal and the prediction signal. A linear summation of these two types of striatum neurons was a good fit for the activity of one type of tegmental neurons mimicking the TD-error signal. The present study thus demonstrates that the striatum and tegmentum can convey the signals critically required for the TD method. Based on the theoretical and neurophysiological studies, together with tract-tracing data, we propose a novel model to explain how the convergence of signals represented in the striatum could lead to the computation of TD error in tegmental dopaminergic neurons.

  8. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  9. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  10. Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ming Kuan

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  11. Constructive neural network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Zhang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at developing scalable neural network-type learning systems. Motivated by the idea of "constructive neural networks" in approximation theory, we focus on "constructing" rather than "training" feed-forward neural networks (FNNs) for learning, and propose a novel FNNs learning system called the constructive feed-forward neural network (CFN). Theoretically, we prove that the proposed method not only overcomes the classical saturation problem for FNN approximation, but also ...

  12. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  13. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Heart-Healthy Exercise Lauren Healey Mellett , Gisele Bousquet Download PDF https:// ... if you already have heart disease. How Can Exercise Help? There are many modifiable risk factors for ...

  14. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pacemaker can be used for patients with heart failure. It has three leads to help the heart beat in a more coordinated manner. Some pacemakers also can deliver electric shocks to the heart that can stop life-threatening ...

  15. Honolulu Heart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Heart Failure, Congestive; Myocardial Infarction; Asthma; Emphysema; Lung Diseases, Obstructive; Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Bronchitis; Dementia; Hypertension; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Heart Failure

  16. Heart Health Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is easier to treat. Blood tests and heart health tests can help find heart diseases or identify ... diseases. There are several different types of heart health tests. Your doctor will decide which test or ...

  17. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  18. Heart and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

  19. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001114.htm Congenital heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure ...

  20. Cyanotic heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001104.htm Cyanotic heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cyanotic heart disease refers to a group of many different heart ...

  1. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...

  2. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  3. Living with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

  4. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat ... will work with you to decide whether you need heart surgery. A cardiologist specializes in diagnosing and ...

  5. Revealing Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Pattison, George; Lindgren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Some small business owners want to balance personal values as well as economic values. “I have to follow my heart” or “it must be meaningful” some of them say. But how might they be able to know what gives meaning to the heart? The philosophical theologian Paul Tillich finds that the problem...... with reference to Tillich’s account of the meaning of revelation through culture and art, summed up in the statement that “(...) revelation is the manifestation of the ground of being for human knowledge” (Tillich, 1951, p.94), which, we argue, can be extended to everyday experiences, for example, in business...... life. In Tillich’s own terms, even preliminary concerns may point at an ultimate concern (Tillich, 1964), which can also be understood as ‘knowledge of the heart’. Our account is also connected to wider discussions concerning the nature of intuition....

  6. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  7. Generalized classifier neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyildirim, Buse Melis; Avci, Mutlu

    2013-03-01

    In this work a new radial basis function based classification neural network named as generalized classifier neural network, is proposed. The proposed generalized classifier neural network has five layers, unlike other radial basis function based neural networks such as generalized regression neural network and probabilistic neural network. They are input, pattern, summation, normalization and output layers. In addition to topological difference, the proposed neural network has gradient descent based optimization of smoothing parameter approach and diverge effect term added calculation improvements. Diverge effect term is an improvement on summation layer calculation to supply additional separation ability and flexibility. Performance of generalized classifier neural network is compared with that of the probabilistic neural network, multilayer perceptron algorithm and radial basis function neural network on 9 different data sets and with that of generalized regression neural network on 3 different data sets include only two classes in MATLAB environment. Better classification performance up to %89 is observed. Improved classification performances proved the effectivity of the proposed neural network.

  8. Understanding chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Matthew; Burch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The key principles of chronic heart failure and the development of clinical management strategies are described. The physiological changes in chronic heart failure and the clinical management of children with heart failure are considered, but the treatment of heart failure related to congenital heart disease or the intensive care management of heart failure are not mentioned as both topics require consideration in their own right. A greater understanding of the maladaptive responses to chroni...

  9. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ask ... Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, ...

  10. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the

  11. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  12. Temporal distribution of encapsulated bacteriophages during passage through the chick gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Islam, Golam S; Wu, Ying; Sabour, Parviz M; Chambers, James R; Wang, Qi; Wu, Shirley X Y; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2016-12-01

    Encapsulation of bacteriophages ("phage") protects phage against environmental deactivation and provides a product that is easy to handle for storage and application with animal feed as an antibiotic alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate an orally administered, encapsulated phage for efficient phage release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of young chicks receiving feed. An optimized formulation that consisted of 0.8% low molecular weight (MW) alginate, 2% ultra-low molecular weight alginate and 3% whey protein completely released the encapsulated phage within 60 min under simulated intestinal conditions. This product was given to broiler chicks to determine passage time and distribution of the viable phage within the GIT. Following a single oral dose of 10(9) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/chick, the major portion (peak concentration) of the encapsulated phage passed through the chick's GIT and was detected in the feces within 4 h, with low levels being continuously excreted for up to 24 h. In comparison, the passage of free phage through the GIT occurred faster as indicated by a peak concentration in feces after 1.5 h. In assessing the temporal phage distribution, both encapsulated and free phage treatments showed no apparent difference, both having low levels of 10(2) to 10(6) PFU/g of contents along the entire GIT after 1, 2 and 4 h. These low concentrations recovered in vivo led us to examine various exposure conditions (with feed, fecal material, and buffer solutions) that were suspected to have affected phage viability/infectivity during oral delivery, sample recovery, and enumeration by plaque assay. Results showed that the exposure conditions examined did not significantly reduce phage viability and could not account for the observed low phage levels following oral administration in chicks that are on feed. In conclusion, an oral encapsulated phage dose can take more than 4 h to completely move through the GIT of young chicks. Thus

  13. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  14. The Effect of Choice Feeding Based on Threonine on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Male Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of choice feeding based on threonine on performance characteristics and carcass parameters of male broiler chicks. Day old, thirty Ross 308 male chicks were divided into two dietary treatment groups. In the experiment, choice feding did not affect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio. Feed intake and carcass parameters significantly affected by experimental treatments.

  15. Plxdc2 is a mitogen for neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F C Miller-Delaney

    Full Text Available The development of different brain regions involves the coordinated control of proliferation and cell fate specification along and across the neuraxis. Here, we identify Plxdc2 as a novel regulator of these processes, using in ovo electroporation and in vitro cultures of mammalian cells. Plxdc2 is a type I transmembrane protein with some homology to nidogen and to plexins. It is expressed in a highly discrete and dynamic pattern in the developing nervous system, with prominent expression in various patterning centres. In the chick neural tube, where Plxdc2 expression parallels that seen in the mouse, misexpression of Plxdc2 increases proliferation and alters patterns of neurogenesis, resulting in neural tube thickening at early stages. Expression of the Plxdc2 extracellular domain alone, which can be cleaved and shed in vivo, is sufficient for this activity, demonstrating a cell non-autonomous function. Induction of proliferation is also observed in cultured embryonic neuroepithelial cells (ENCs derived from E9.5 mouse neural tube, which express a Plxdc2-binding activity. These experiments uncover a direct molecular activity of Plxdc2 in the control of proliferation, of relevance in understanding the role of this protein in various cancers, where its expression has been shown to be altered. They also implicate Plxdc2 as a novel component of the network of signalling molecules known to coordinate proliferation and differentiation in the developing nervous system.

  16. Neural induction and factors that stabilize a neural fate

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Crystal; Moody, Sally A.; Casey, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The neural ectoderm of vertebrates forms when the BMP signaling pathway is suppressed. Herein we review the molecules that directly antagonize extracellular BMP and the signaling pathways that further contribute to reduce BMP activity in the neural ectoderm. Downstream of neural induction, a large number of “neural fate stabilizing” (NFS) transcription factors are expressed in the presumptive neural ectoderm, developing neural tube, and ultimately in neural stem cells. Herein we review what i...

  17. On the Elementary Neural Forms of Micro-Interactional Rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2016-01-01

    prosocial behavior. The ritual ingredients of mutual attention and shared mood may, moreover, be specified as part of a social engagement system, neurally regulating attention and emotional arousal via a face–heart connection. The article suggests that this social engagement system provides part...

  18. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  19. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken oxyntomodulin suppresses food intake and increases plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-03

    Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino acid sequence and peptide length of chicken OXM differ from those of bovine OXM. In the present study, we examined the effect of chicken OXM on food intake and plasma components in chicks to investigate the mechanisms underlying the OXM effect. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone were significantly increased by chicken OXM. These phenomena were also observed after bovine OXM injection in chicks. In contrast, central administration of chicken GLP-1 significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration and did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. We previously showed that central administration of chicken glucagon significantly increased plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone in chicks. All our findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the anorexigenic action of OXM is similar to that of glucagon in chicks.

  20. Take heart!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Recently, ten new semi-automatic defibrillators were installed at various locations around CERN. This is a preventive measure intended to provide cardiac arrest victims with the best possible response. The first responder could be you!   The Director-General has welcomed the initiative of the Medical Service and Fire Brigade for the installation of ten new semi-automatic defibrillators. You have probably seen them on your way to the restaurant, for example:  brand new semi-automatic defibrillators, ready for an emergency. Housed in a white wall-mounted case, the bright red defibrillators are marked with a white heart symbol crossed by a lightning bolt (see photo). The defibrillator is designed so that anyone can use it. “Anyone can use it, you don’t need to be a health professional,” says Dr Reymond from CERN's Medical Service. Together with the CERN Fire Brigade, he is behind the initiative to have these units put in place. And with good reason, as the unit...

  1. Reelin inhibits migration of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord of the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yee Ping; Zhou, Guangdou; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Yip, Joseph W

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of Reelin in the migration of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the spinal cord of the chick. SPN in the chick first migrate from the neuroepithelium to the ventrolateral spinal cord. They then undergo a secondary migration to cluster adjacent to the central canal, forming the column of Terni (CT). During secondary migration, abundant Reelin is found in large areas of the ventral spinal cord; the only areas devoid of Reelin are areas occupied by SPN or somatic motor neurons and the pathway along which SPN migrate. Ectopic expression of Reelin in the pathway of SPN through electroporation of full-length Reelin DNA stopped SPN migration toward their destination. The spatiotemporal pattern of Reelin expression, along with the inhibition of SPN migration by exogenous Reelin, suggests that Reelin functions as a barrier to SPN migration during normal development of the spinal cord.

  2. Pyridoxine treatment alters embryonic motility in chicks: Implications for the role of proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew A; Bekoff, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6 ), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic motility in the chick. Injection of pyridoxine on embryonic day 7 (E7) and E8 reduced the amplitude of leg movements recorded on E9 and the number of large, healthy neurons in the ventral-lateral portion of the DRGs. We conclude that proprioception is initially used during embryogenesis to modulate the strength of motor output, but that it is not incorporated into other aspects of pattern generation until later in development as poly-synaptic pathways develop.

  3. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... from domestic breeds. Using the Red Jungle Fowl genome sequence as a reference, we identified 3.1 million non-redundant DNA sequence variants. To facilitate the application of our data to avian genetics and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies, we created the 'Chicken...... Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information...

  4. Effects of polysaccharide on chicks co-infected with Bordetella avium and Avian leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fanxia; Xue, Cong; Wu, Cun; Zhao, Xue; Qu, Tinghe; He, Xiaohua; Guo, Zhongkun; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-08-30

    Chicks' co-infection with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria seriously threaten the development of the poultry industry. In this study, a model was established in which chicks were injected with either subgroup B ALV (ALV-B)+Bordetella avium (B. avium), or ALV-B+B. avium+Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), or B. avium only, or B. avium+TPPPS. The data showed that the group injected with ALV-B and B. avium exhibited significant inhibition of the immune function and therefore increased pathogenicity compared with the group injected with B. avium-only. Application of TPPPS effectively alleviated immunosuppression, and body weights increased sharply in the TPPPS groups compared with non-TPPPS groups. To some extent, TPPPS may reduce the proliferation of ALV-B. These results suggest that Pinus pollen polysaccharides are beneficial treating co-infections with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria and therefore have potential for development into safe and effective immunoregulator.

  5. Evidence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the retinal centrifugal system of the chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calaza K.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we characterize the presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR in the isthmo-optic nucleus (ION of chicks by immunohistochemistry with the M35 antibody. Some M35-immunoreactive fibers were observed emerging from the retinal optic nerve insertion, suggesting that they could be centrifugal fibers. Indeed, intraocular injections of cholera toxin B (CTb, a retrograde tracer, and double-labeling with M35 and CTb in the ION confirmed this hypothesis. The presence of M35-immunoreactive cells and the possible mAChR expression in ION and ectopic neuron cells in the chick brain strongly suggest the existence of such a cholinergic system in this nucleus and that acetylcholine release from amacrine cells may mediate interactions between retinal cells and ION terminals.

  6. Eradication of Salmonella Typhimurium in broiler chicks by combined use of P22 bacteriophage and probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Marietto Gonçalves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that the phage therapy is effective in controlling the number of colony-forming unit (CFU of Salmonella spp. in chicken gut. This paper describes the protective effect of phage and Lactobacilli administration on Salmonella infection in 1-day-old chicks. We administered the bacteriophage P22 in a single dose and a probiotic mixture of four species of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus once a day for one week. Samples were analyzed every 48 hours, and intestinal eradication of S. Typhimurium was confirmed after treatments. We observed an increase in the size of duodenal villi and cecal crypts, as well as an increase in body weight in groups that received daily doses of Lactobacilli. This study confirms the efficiency of bacteriophage therapy in controlling salmonellosis in chicks and the beneficial effect of Lactobacilli mixtures in the weight gain of the birds.

  7. Heart-brain interactions in cardiac arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, P; Critchley, H; Lambiase, P D

    2011-05-01

    This review examines current knowledge of the effects of higher brain centres and autonomic control loops on the heart with particular relevance to arrhythmogenesis. There is now substantial evidence that higher brain function (cortex), the brain stem and autonomic nerves affect cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmia, and that these may function as an interactive system. The roles of mental stress and emotion in arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death are no longer confined to the realms of anecdote. Advances in molecular cardiology have identified cardiac cellular ion channel mutations conferring vulnerability to arrhythmic death at the myocardial level. Indeed, specific channelopathies such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome are selectively sensitive to either sympathetic or vagal stimulation. There is increasing evidence that afferent feedback from the heart to the higher centres may affect efferent input to the heart and modulate the cardiac electrophysiology. The new era of functional neuroimaging has identified the central neural circuitry in this brain-heart axis. Since precipitants of sudden fatal arrhythmia are frequently environmental and behavioural, central pathways translating stress into autonomic effects on the heart might be considered as therapeutic targets. These brain-heart interactions help explain the apparent randomness of sudden cardiac events and provide new insights into future novel therapies to prevent sudden death.

  8. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart condition that occurs during the development of the heart in the ... womb. During the heart's development, parts of the left side of the heart (mitral valve, left ventricle ...

  9. Neurofibrillar differentiation in 8- to 14- somites chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Abrantes Erhart

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de estudar o início da diferenciação neurofibrilar de neuro-blastos foram preparados cortes seriados de embriões de galinha impregnados pela prata, modificação de De Castro do método de Cajal. A diferenciação neurofibrilar inicia-se em fases mais jovens que as descritas na literatura. Em embriões de galinha de 8 somitos, os primeiros neuroblastos são encontrados na região rombencefálica do tubo neural, ainda aberto, na altura da invaginação ótica. Aos 12 somitos, os neuroblastos começam a aparecer, também, na junção prosencéfalo-mesencefálica, e aos 14 somitos, bem mais diferenciados, apresentam evidente, aumento numérico. Os neuroblastos localizados na junção prosencéfalo-mesencefálica enviam seus axônios caudalmente, constituindo o que parece ser o primórdio do fascículo longitudinal medial. Os neuroblastos rombencefálicos enviam seus axônios ventral, cranial e caudalmente, na espessura das paredes neurais, constituindo, provàvelmente, os primórdios dos sistemas cordonais e de associação; por apresentarem-se mais ou menos grupados nos níveis do trigêmio, facial e vago, talvez induzam, também, a pré-organização dos primórdios dos núcleos motores dos nervos V, VII e do complexo vagal.

  10. The response of early neural genes to FGF signaling or inhibition of BMP indicate the absence of a conserved neural induction module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Crystal D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanism that initiates the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has long been debated. Studies in Xenopus and mouse demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissue in explants or ES cells respectively, whereas studies in chick argue that instructive FGF signaling is also required for the expression of neural genes. Although additional signals may be involved in neural induction and patterning, here we focus on the roles of BMP inhibition and FGF8a. Results To address the question of necessity and sufficiency of BMP inhibition and FGF signaling, we compared the temporal expression of the five earliest genes expressed in the neuroectoderm and determined their requirements for induction at the onset of neural plate formation in Xenopus. Our results demonstrate that the onset and peak of expression of the genes vary and that they have different regulatory requirements and are therefore unlikely to share a conserved neural induction regulatory module. Even though all require inhibition of BMP for expression, some also require FGF signaling; expression of the early-onset pan-neural genes sox2 and foxd5α requires FGF signaling while other early genes, sox3, geminin and zicr1 are induced by BMP inhibition alone. Conclusions We demonstrate that BMP inhibition and FGF signaling induce neural genes independently of each other. Together our data indicate that although the spatiotemporal expression patterns of early neural genes are similar, the mechanisms involved in their expression are distinct and there are different signaling requirements for the expression of each gene.

  11. Passive avoidance training enhances cell proliferation in 1-day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermon, C R; Zikopoulos, B; Panagis, L; Harrison, E; Lancashire, C L; Mileusnic, R; Stewart, M G

    2002-10-01

    One-day-old domestic chicks were injected i.p. with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) before training on a one-trial passive avoidance task where the aversive experience was a bead coated with a bitter tasting substance, methyl anthranilate (MeA). Animals were tested 24 h later; those avoiding (if MeA-trained) or pecking if water (W)-trained (which they peck appetitively), along with a group of untrained naïve chicks, were used to determine cell proliferation either 24 h or 9 days post BrdU injection. In all three groups, BrdU positive cells were identified sparsely throughout the forebrain but labelling was pronounced around ventricular zone (VZ) surfaces at both 24 h and 9 days post-BrdU-injection. Double immunolabelling with neuronal specific antibodies, to either NeuN, or beta-tubulin III, confirmed that most BrdU labelled cells appeared to be neurons. Unbiased stereological analysis of labelled cells in selected forebrain areas 24 h post BrdU injection showed a significant MeA-training induced increase in labelled cells in both the dorsal VZ surface bordering the intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) and the tuberculum olfactorium (TO). By 9 days post-BrdU-injection, there was a significantly greater number of BrdU labelled cells in MeA-trained birds within the IMHV, lobus parolfactorius (LPO) and TO. These results demonstrate that avoidance training in 1-day-old chicks has a marked effect on cell proliferation, in the LPO and IMHV, regions of the chick previously identified as a key loci of memory formation, and in a second region (TO), which has olfactory functions, but has not been previously investigated in relation to avoidance learning.

  12. Effects of magnesium and high dietary intakes of pyridoxine on the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, G; Singsen, E P

    1976-05-01

    Day-old broiler-type male chicks were used to determine what effects magnesium and high dietary pyridoxine had on the chick's performance. The chicks were randomly assigned to 15 treatments of magnesium at 875, 1375 and 1875 mg/kg. diet and pyridoxine at 1, 4, 31, 301, and 3001 mg/kg. diet in a 3 x 5 factorial block design. A regression was used to study some of the criteria. The highest mortality of 20% occurred in chicks on the 1875 mg. magnesium-3001 mg. pyridoxine treatment. Magnesium and pyridoxine had highly significant effects on body moisture. Effects due to magnesium and pyridoxine and the interaction between the two were highly significant for weight gain and the efficiency of feed utilization (E.F.U.) At 1875 mg. magnesium/kg diet, maximum growth response and E.F.U. were predicted to occur on 10 and 39 mg pyridoxine/kg diet, respectively, Neither magnesium nor the interaction between magnesium and pyridoxine had any significant effect on carcass protein. Pyridoxine had a highly significant effect on carcass protein. Maximum response in carcass protein occurred at 31 mg. pyridoxine/kg diet irrespective of magnesium level. Serum aminotransferase activity (S.A) was significant for magnesium, pyridoxine and the interaction between the two. Pyridoxine requirement for maximum S.A. was 49 mg/kg diet at 1875 mg magnesium/kg diet. Pyridoxine requirement for maximum response was highest for S.A. and least for growth. But S.A. had the highest R2 whereas growth had the least.

  13. Energy and Protein Requirements for - to -Week-Age Gushi Chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiang-tao; TIAN Ya-dong; SONG Su-fang

    2002-01-01

    In this experiment, 540 male and female chicks of 1-day-age were selected respectively and reared separately. 3 × 3 factorial experiment was designed. Gushi chicks were fed with nine diets under different metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP). Effects of different diets on the performances and carcass ingredients of 0-to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were studied by rearing, comparative slaughter and metabolism experiments. Based on the results of three experiments, ME intake per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as dependent variable (Y), and its corresponding net energy (NE) deposition per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as independent variable (X), respectively. Lineal regressive analysis was made according to the mathematic model: Y=a+bX. Maintenance ME(MEm) and the converted coefficient from net energy for gain(NEg) to ME for gain(MEg) were found out, then ME requirement was divided into MErm+ MEg,which is ME = 359.14 W0.75 + 10.47/△W; CP intake and corresponding metabolic weight were regarded as dependent variable and independent variable respectively, and then regressive analysis was made. The result was CP = 0. 57 + 8.21 W0.75. Consequently, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake and metabolic weight were put into the regressive equations, and then ME and CP requirements for 0- to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were obtained, 12.38 MJ kg-1 and 20.13%, respectively, the ratio of CP to ME was 16.26 g MJ-1.

  14. A receptor that is highly specific for extracellular ATP in developing chick skeletal muscle in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S A; Zawisa, M. J.; X. Lin; Hume, R. I.

    1991-01-01

    1. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activated an early excitatory conductance followed by a late potassium conductance in developing chick skeletal muscle. A series of ATP analogues were tested for their ability to activate these two conductances. All compounds tested were either agonists for both responses or for neither. Furthermore, the potency of agonists was similar for the two responses. 2. The order of potency for agonists was ATP approximately adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotripho...

  15. Task- and Time-Dependent Memory Enhancement by Dehydroepiandosterone in Day-Old Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, A. N. B.; Migues, P. V.

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) in the dayold- chick brain, and a role for it in enhanced memory formation. Here we confirm that intracerebral injections of DHEA 5 min before training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 hours after training. Recall per se on an appetitive visual categorization task was not altered by administration of DHEA 5 min before training. However administration of DHEA 5 min before limited or very limited train...

  16. Exposure to Excess Phenobarbital Negatively Influences the Osteogenesis of Chick Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Yan; Xin Cheng; Ren-hao Yang; He Li; Jian-long Chen; Zheng-lai Ma; Guang Wang; Manli Chuai; Xuesong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phe...

  17. Influence of rapeseed meal on productivity and health of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjecić, Z; Grbesa, D; Muzic, S; Curić, S; Rupić, V; Liker, B; Dikić, Marija; Antunović, B; Zupanić, D

    2002-01-01

    Research was focussed on investigating the influence of different quantities (0, 10, 20 and 30%) of rapeseed meal (RM), 00-cultivar Silvia on production results, as well as on the morphological and pathohistological changes in the internal organs of chicks during the course of the experiment, measured on the 21st and 42nd days of the 42-day experiment. The experiment involved 120 chicks divided into four groups: a control group (C) and three experimental groups (E1-3). It was found that chicks in Groups C, E1 and E2 realised significantly (P days, but following the finisher diet Group E3 had a significantly (P < 0.05) lighter gizzard. Compared with birds in Group C, those in Groups E2-3 had significantly heavier (P < 0.05) unevacuated intestines when fed the starter diet, and those in Groups E1-2 showed a similar result when fed the finisher diet. Chicks in Group E3 had a significantly lower grill weight than those in Groups C, E1 and E2, both in the first half of the experiment and at the end. The starter diet did not result in any differences in the quantity of abdominal fat among groups, but following the finisher diet Groups E2-3 showed significantly less abdominal fat in comparison to Groups C and E1 (P < 0.05). Group C showed a significantly higher carcass yield than Groups E1-3 (P < 0.05) in the first half of the experiment and at the end. Groups E1-3 manifested a slight to medium hypertrophy of thyroid epithelial tissue as well as slight thymus hypertrophy and slight atrophy of the cloacal bursa follicles.

  18. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  19. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastrointestinal absorption of lead in chicks: involvement of the cholecalciferol endocrine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, S.; Fullmer, C.S.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1984-04-01

    The role of dietary calcium and phosphorus in modifying the intestinal absorption of lead and also the effect of lead ingestion on the metabolism of cholecalciferol were studied in chicks. The efficiency of absorption of /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca was increased when the animals were fed a low calcium diet and treated with cholecalciferol. The synthesis of the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP) was correspondingly increased. When the chicks were depleted of vitamin D and repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) as their only source of the vitamin, the absorption of both /sup 47/Ca and /sup 203/Pb was unaffected by dietary calcium levels, and no change in CaBP levels occurred. Low dietary intake of phosphorus resulted in an increase in /sup 47/Ca and /sup 203/Pb absorption and in CaBP synthesis when the animals were treated with cholecalciferol. However, when the birds were repleted with 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, the intestinal absorption of /sup 47/Ca and of /sup 203/Pb was increased, as well as the intestinal CaBP levels. Intracardial injection of increasing doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ to rachitic chicks resulted in a concomitant increase in /sup 203/Pb absorption in a manner that correlated with the degree of synthesis of CaBP. Ingestion of lead by the chicks was found to impair growth and renal production of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, resulting in lowered circulating and intestinal content of the hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol.