Sample records for chicago-st louis high

  1. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.


    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  2. Louis Braille

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    One day Louis was in arestaurantfriend read 1 ofwith a friend. The an article about awriting that could beused in the 2 . It was called“ight writing” . Louis was ex-cited. He went to the 3 ofthe system and asked manyquestion.

  3. Louis Vuitton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On general design, fabrics and styles my heart belongs to the reminiscent 40's of Louis Vuitton. with their classic chequered patterns, V collars over 3 buttons, is an acclamation of the traditional Oxford college culture.

  4. Louis Mialhe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Wisniak


    Full Text Available Louis Mialhe (1807-1886 fue un médico y farmacéutico francés que estudió las transformaciones químicas de los cloruros de mercurio, la fabricación del éter etílico, etc., y numerosos fenómenos fisiológicos en seres humanos, entre ellos, la diabetes, los mecanismos de la asimilación de carbohidratos, grasas, y albuminoides, la acción de la saliva, pepsina, y el jugo gástrico sobre los alimentos, la acción de diversos purgantes de acuerdo con su naturaleza, etc. Sus trabajos sobre fisiología humana lo llevaron a descubrir la presencia de una diastasa en la saliva y a sugerir una teoría sobre el origen de la diabetes.

  5. 76 FR 8397 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Program Corridor (United States)


    ... mph project concept, including ] development of an investment-grade business plan and the preparation... Joliet and St. Louis to support additional passenger trains while accommodating the anticipated growth in... Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). The FRA and IDOT will ] use a tiered process, as provided for in...

  6. Louis Dick (1921 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia


    Louis Dick, a CERN experimental physicist of international renown, passed away on 14 July.   Louis in his office, a veritable archaeological wonder with strata of documents corresponding to various eras of physics. Born in Geneva on 27 April 1921, Louis obtained a physics degree at ETH-Zurich in 1946 before moving to the Institut du Radium in Paris, where he joined the group led by Frédéric and Irène Joliot-Curie. He took a leave of absence in 1957 to go to CERN, where he remained until well beyond his retirement in 1986. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Louis worked at CERN’s Synchrocyclotron (SC) and later on studies at the Proton Synchrotron (PS). When the first polarised proton target arrived at CERN from Saclay in 1963, Louis proposed using it for studies of spin effects in pion-proton elastic scattering at the PS, and between 1964 and 1966 sizeable spin effects were found. Louis and his collaborators then continued these studies wi...

  7. Le style Louis XVI


    Kivland, Sharon


    A small catalogue of Louis XVI furniture, which makes a rapport between style and revolution, furniture and its naming, femininity and the neo-classical. The ambience is welcoming, despite its sobriety and a whiff of the Terror. The book contains six duo-tone photographic plates, tipped-in by hand. The book is published in a edition of 50 copies at the kind invitation of AM Bruno on the occasion of the 16th International Contemporary Artists' Book Fair, Leeds.

  8. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution. (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H


    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  9. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.


    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction.

  10. Louis Pasteur's beer of revenge. (United States)

    Baxter, A G


    Although by the mid-nineteenth century evidence existed for an association between micoorganisms and disease, it was the combined efforts of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch that created the germ theory of disease--the theory that specific microbes cause specific diseases. Surprisingly, the relationship between the two founders of microbiology and immunology was far from friendly.

  11. [Saint Louis encephalitis: case report]. (United States)

    Carballo, Carolina; Cabana, Magdalena; Ledezma, Francisca; Pascual, Carolina; Cazes, Claudia; Mistchenko, Alicia; López, Eduardo


    Saint Louis encephalitis is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. In Argentina sporadic cases are registered. Symptomatic illness is unusual in children. We present a case of meningoencephalitis caused by an uncommon viral infection. The clinical signs and symptoms are unusual for pediatric patients and the bilateral thalamic compromise showed on magnetic resonance has not been described previously. An 8-year-old girl consulted due to fever, behavior disorders and ataxia. Clonus and neck stiffness were detected at physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed mononuclear leukocytosis; bilateral ischemic compromise was observed in thalamus by magnetic resonance. Saint Louis virus was confirmed by serology: serum and cerebrospinal fluid IgM were positive during the acute phase of the disease and serum IgG was positive four weeks later. Most of the signs and symptoms of the disease were resolved, however mild behavior disorders were observed as acute sequelae up to 45 days after hospital discharge.

  12. General Revenue Sharing in St. Louis City and County. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Etta Lou; Barnett, Malcolm Joel

    Unlike typical Federal catergorical grants which are highly specific, General Revenue Sharing grants (GRS) are free of restrictions or conditions. The Missouri Advisory Committee, in viewing the impact of GRS on St. Louis City and County, received evidence regarding: (1) the nature of GRS-funded expenditures; (2) the limits of citizen…

  13. The new borders of Saint Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Delsahut


    Full Text Available In 1904 the Olympic and Anthropologic Games in Saint Louis, Missouri, were lost in the chaos of the Louisiana Purchase (Universal Exposition. Although the expected universal spirit, for a long time Saint Louis expressed racial prejudices of its personal. This paper shows up how Sport Sciences and growing up Anthropology acted together in sense of serving questioned causes like racial ranking and colonization right. They were important in improving a feeling of nation in North American that took in grant sport as part of its constitution. The Universal Exposition and Market of Saint Louis offered new possibilities in definition of technological, racial, geographic and corporal borders.

  14. Obituary: John Louis Perdrix (1926-2005) (United States)

    Orchiston, W.


    On 27 June 2005 the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage lost its founder and Australia lost one of its leading historians of astronomy when John Louis Perdrix died in Dubai after a brief battle with cancer.

  15. Louis Kahn. Ajaloost ajatust otsides / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-


    6.-7. okt. 2006. a. toimuvad Kuressaares esimesed Kahni päevad. Eestist pärit ameerika arhitekti Louis Isadore Kahni (1901-1974) eluloolisi andmeid ja loomingust. Kommenteerivad Mart Kalm, Raine Karp, Veljo Kaasik, Toivo Tammik

  16. Eesti mees - arhitekt Louis Kahn / Toivo Tammik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammik, Toivo


    1901. aastal Saaremaal sündinud mehest, kelle elutee viis USA-sse ja koostöös eestlase August Komendantiga valmisid suurepärased projektid. Eestis, Saaremaal, valmistutakse Louis Kahni päevadeks 2006. aasta oktoobris

  17. Inventory of Endangered Plants, Saint Louis District, (United States)


    MISSOURIRVR lIIN .. .Jee . j ..- .. ,,,....VER ,RONDAL t7S - .I" D1ŕC / LITLE OCKDISTRICT \\/ SA T "PTRK DIVISIONEI O PER .......... tKENTUAKY tQ*StJ tim ...on September 10, 1937, by B. C. Tharp , that may prove to be this species. The Cass County station is within the boundaries of the St. Louis District

  18. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  19. Louis Pasteur, the Father of Immunology?


    Kendall A Smith


    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such ...

  20. Ameerikast Kuressaare lossi Louis Kahni hingust otsima / Sirli Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Sirli


    Suvel viibisid Kuressaares kaks härrasmeest Ameerikast, arhitekt Louis Kahni projekti järgi valminud eramu omanikud, kelle eesmärk oli külastada Kuressaare lossi kui Louis Kahni inspiratsiooniallikat. Neid saatis Kuressaares Louis Kahni näituse "Kahn. Saarlane" üks initsiaatoritest Heie Treier. Vestlusest ka Heie Treieriga näitusest ja ameerika külaliste arhitektuurihuvist

  1. American Press Coverage of the Execution of Louis XVI: A Lesson Strategy for Gauging Opinion. (United States)

    Lankiewicz, Donald


    In this unit of study high school students read and discuss U.S. newspaper articles reporting the trial and execution of the French king Louis XVI. Students look for key words and phrases that might indicate a subtle favorable or unfavorable opinion. (RM)

  2. The Catholicity of the University of Saint Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Jan C. Tindowen


    Full Text Available As it celebrates its 50th year of life of mission and excellence, the University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City, Northern Philippines is facing challenges posed in the education apostolate, and one of which is to uphold a good institutional image of being a truly Catholic institution. This study aimed to assess the level of Catholicity of the university along the five key area standards which are communicated vision and mission, religious curriculum, prayer and liturgy integration, service and social justice, and ecumenical initiatives as perceived by the respondents. Two thousand six hundred twenty respondents across the Louisian community were considered in the study through a descriptive survey and Focus Group Discussion. Results show that the respondent school manifests a Very High level of Catholicity along the five key area standards. Moreover, results of the independent sample T-test and Analysis of Variance test reveal that gender, religious affiliations, and student’s educational level affect the level of Catholicity of the respondent school. The study concluded that the University of Saint Louis is a Catholic institution forming and training Jesus’ disciples of today. As an offshoot of the results of the study, a three-year sustainability program for the Catholicity of the institution was developed.

  3. André-Louis Cholesky mathematician, topographer and army officer

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, Claude


    Outside the professional circles of topography and applied mathematics, the life and work of André-Louis Cholesky (1875–1918) are still relatively unknown to the scientific community. This new book appreciably widens the exposure of his remarkable personal achievements in topography and mathematics to a much larger international audience.   Cholesky is also interesting to historians because he is a perfect representative of the "scientists engineers" that, since the early 19th century, had issued from the French scientific high schools. Because they had received a high level of mathematical education, they were able to innovate in their practice of engineering. In the case of Cholesky, this resulted in original contributions in artillery, topography, numerical analysis and graphical calculation. In addition, the book places his education and works within the history of several European countries through the 17th to 19th centuries.   The book begins with Cholesky's biography, followed by his family’s hi...

  4. Tribute to Louis Leprince-Ringuet

    CERN Multimedia


    Louis Leprince-Ringuet, a great figure of French science, promoter of scientific cooperation in Europe and ardent supporter of CERN, passed away on 23 December 2000 at the age of 99. This multi-facetted scholar was at the same time a director of major laboratories, a renowned scientist, an outstanding teacher, instilling a passion for physics in all his pupils, a promoter of European construction, a populariser of science, a brilliant satirist, a painter and an accomplished sportsman. As a scientist, he pioneered the study of cosmic rays, establishing himself as a world authority in the field. His memory will be honoured at CERN on 3 May. After a tribute to his life by Maurice Jacob, Professor Livio Scarsi will give a lecture on the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) programme, one of the most ambitious projects in the field of cosmic ray physics. Louis Leprince-Ringuet (right) with John B. Adams in 1961. Thursday 3 May Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 3.30 p.m Coffee 4.00 p.m. Welcome by CERN's Direc...

  5. Louis de Broglie und die Quantenmechanik

    CERN Document Server

    Sievers, H


    In 1923 Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) discovered the material waves and six years later received the Nobel price for this discovery. Apart these well known facts this French physicist nevertheless seems to be forgotten. Details of his life are as unknown as his efforts to describe quantum mechanics in a deterministic and objective way. Especially the actual discussion concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics seems to justify a deeper occupation with the scientific work of Louis de Broglie. In this context the important influence of Albert Einstein is of special interest; for his photons announce the existence of material waves and it may surprise that Einstein himself did not postulate them. The basis of this short scientific biography are the publications of de Broglie (a complete bibliography is given at the end), some more or less short memories of his students and some unpublished documents found in the "Archives de l'Academie des Sciences" at Paris. The original text of the correspondence betwee...

  6. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. (United States)

    Jehaes, E; Pfeiffer, H; Toprak, K; Decorte, R; Brinkmann, B; Cassiman, J J


    According to official historiography, the 10-year-old Louis XVII died in the Temple of Paris on June 8, 1795. However, public rumour spread the theory that Louis XVII escaped and that his descendants would be alive today. One such putative 'Louis XVII' was Carl Wilhelm Naundorff, who died in 1845 in Delft (the Netherlands). Comparative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis gave evidence that his remains could not be identified as those of Louis XVII. In the present study, mtDNA analysis was performed on the heart of the young boy who died in the prison of Paris in 1795. In order to obtain the strongest evidence possible, two laboratories independently analysed the heart. The results showed that the consensus mtDNA sequence of the heart was identical to that of the maternal relatives of Louis XVII.

  7. St. Louis River Estuary 2011 - 2013 Faucet snail location data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of GPS coordinates for benthic invertebrate collections made in the St. Louis River Estuary in 2011 through 2013, and information on whether and...

  8. St. Louis River water quality assessment 2012, 2013 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — St. Louis River Area of Concern surface water nutrient (TP, TN, NOx-N, NH4-N), dissolved oxygen, and particulate (TSS, chlorophyll a) concentration data from 2012...

  9. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa


    Full Text Available As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  10. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil. (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Costa, Eliane Veiga da; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Murta, Michele; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Nogueira, Márcia Furlan; Silva, Edson Elias da


    As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  11. Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith


    Full Text Available Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late 19th century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  12. Louis Aragon y el quotidien merveilleux surrealista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Hoyos Gómez


    Full Text Available El artículo propone un análisis de la mirada y de la imaginación en el paseo urbano por el parisino Pasaje de la Ópera narrado en El campesino de París , de Louis Aragon. En este texto se propone un conocimiento sensible del mundo que parte de la experiencia de lo concreto. De esta manera, el conocimiento de lo concreto y un nuevo acercamiento sobre el mundo circundante le permiten a Aragon desarrollar la teoría del quotidien merveilleux , que consiste en la posibilidad de contemplar imágenes provenientes de la imaginación e impulsadas por el contacto con lo real. A partir de la importancia de la mirada en la ciudad, Aragon establece una nueva epistemología de la mirada, puesto que determina la “lluvia de imágenes” que provienen de un espacio interior de quien camina la ciudad. Este texto, uno de los primeros y fundamentales libros del surrealismo, es una apología de la ciudad y del conocimiento sensorial del mundo y parte de la experienc ia en la ciudad como lugar mágico y cotidiano.

  13. Los juegos antropologicos de Saint-Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Delsahut


    Full Text Available En 1904, en medio de la feria de la exposición universal de Saint-Louis, los Juegos olimpicos no pudieron escapar a la ascención de ideologías racistas del principios del siglo XX y contibuyeron a la discusión del mérito atlético de diferentes razas. Los organisadores prepararon competiciones especiales que llamaron en esta ocasión «Jornadas antropológicas» reservadas a los que la América segregacionista del momento consideraba como primitivos. El impacto de los estudios sobre las razas, sobre la manera de pensar en el deporte no fue, al contrario de lo que se esforzaron hacer creer los diferentes presidentes del C.O.I en el curso de las siguientes decadas, un simple avatar del movimiento olimpico. Veremos la influencía de este espectáculo atletico interracial en los Estados Unidos pero tambien en el mundo, particularmente a través del papel de la prensa. Las jornadas antropológicas permitieron indudablemente elaborar una cierta percepción de la otricidad y limitaran la integración de los pueblos autóctonas en la maquina deportiva mundial.

  14. Louis pasteur, the father of immunology? (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A


    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria, or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur's presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur's remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  15. El legado de Louis Pasteur The legacy of Lous Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz


    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se destacan cualidades de Louis Pasteur como la precocidad de su aptitud artística, la capacidad de concentración y reflexión y la perseverancia en sus empeños para lograr lo deseado; luego se hace una síntesis de su vida a través de sus logros científicos: sentar las bases de la estereoquímica, demostrar que las fermentaciones se deben a la acción de organismos vivos, probar que no existe la generación espontánea, aclarar la etiología de varias enfermedades humanas y animales y proponer soluciones para ellas, incluyendo la producción de vacunas, que culminó con el éxito de la vacunación antirrábica. Pasteur había nacido en una época en que predominaba la insalubridad y se corría grave riesgo de fallecer de enfermedades infectocontagiosas; a su muerte había contribuido inmensamente a mejorar esa situación.

    Several qualities of Louis Pasteur are emphasized in this paper, namely: his artistic gift, his capacity for concentration and reflection and his perseverance in working to achieve his goals; a sinthesis of his life is presented through his scientific achievements: to establish the bases of stereochemistry, to prove that fermentations are due to the action of living organisms and that no spontaneous generation exists, to elucidate the etiology of several human and animal diseases and to propose solutions for them including the production of vaccines that culminated with the success of rabies vaccination. Pasteur had been born at a time of great unhealthiness and high risk of death due to infectious diseases; through his life-Iong research he considerably improved such situation.

  16. Provenance and geographic spread of St. Louis encephalitis virus. (United States)

    Kopp, Anne; Gillespie, Thomas R; Hobelsberger, Daniel; Estrada, Alejandro; Harper, James M; Miller, Richard A; Eckerle, Isabella; Müller, Marcel A; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Leendertz, Fabian H; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra


    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is the prototypic mosquito-borne flavivirus in the Americas. Birds are its primary vertebrate hosts, but amplification in certain mammals has also been suggested. The place and time of SLEV emergence remain unknown. In an ecological investigation in a tropical rainforest in Palenque National Park, Mexico, we discovered an ancestral variant of SLEV in Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes. Those SLEV-Palenque strains form a highly distinct phylogenetic clade within the SLEV species. Cell culture studies of SLEV-Palenque versus epidemic SLEV (MSI-7) revealed no growth differences in insect cells but a clear inability of SLEV-Palenque to replicate in cells from birds, cotton rats, and free-tailed bats permissive for MSI-7 replication. Only cells from nonhuman primates and neotropical fruit bats were moderately permissive. Phylogeographic reconstruction identified the common ancestor of all epidemic SLEV strains to have existed in an area between southern Mexico and Panama ca. 330 years ago. Expansion of the epidemic lineage occurred in two waves, the first representing emergence near the area of origin and the second involving almost parallel appearances of the virus in the lower Mississippi and Amazon delta regions. Early diversification events overlapped human habitat invasion during the post-Columbian era. Several documented SLEV outbreaks, such as the 1964 Houston epidemic or the 1990 Tampa epidemic, were predated by the arrival of novel strains between 1 and 4 years before the outbreaks. Collectively, our data provide insight into the putative origins of SLEV, suggesting that virus emergence was driven by human invasion of primary rainforests. IMPORTANCE St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is the prototypic mosquito-transmitted flavivirus of the Americas. Unlike the West Nile virus, which we know was recently introduced into North America from the Old World, the provenience of SLEV is obscure. In an ecological investigation in a primary

  17. Genetic variation of St. Louis encephalitis virus. (United States)

    May, Fiona J; Li, Li; Zhang, Shuliu; Guzman, Hilda; Beasley, David W C; Tesh, Robert B; Higgs, Stephen; Raj, Pushker; Bueno, Rudy; Randle, Yvonne; Chandler, Laura; Barrett, Alan D T


    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) has been regularly isolated throughout the Americas since 1933. Previous phylogenetic studies involving 62 isolates have defined seven major lineages (I-VII), further divided into 14 clades. In this study, 28 strains isolated in Texas in 1991 and 2001-2003, and three older, previously unsequenced strains from Jamaica and California were sequenced over the envelope protein gene. The inclusion of these new sequences, and others published since 2001, has allowed better delineation of the previously published SLEV lineages, in particular the clades of lineage II. Phylogenetic analysis of 106 isolates identified 13 clades. All 1991 and 2001-2003 isolates from Nueces, Jefferson and Harris Counties (Texas Gulf Coast) group in clade IIB with other isolates from these counties isolated during the 1980s and 1990s. This lack of evidence for introduction of novel strains into the Texas Gulf Coast over a long period of time is consistent with overwintering of SLEV in this region. Two El Paso isolates, both from 2002, group in clade VA with recent Californian isolates from 1998-2001 and some South American strains with a broad temporal range. Overall, these data are consistent with multiple introductions of SLEV from South America into North America, and provide support for the hypothesis that in most situations, SLEV circulates within a locality, with occasional incursions from other areas. Finally, SLEV has much lower nucleotide (10.1 %) and amino acid variation (2.8 %) than other members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex (maximum variation 24.6 % nucleotide and 11.8 % amino acid).

  18. Experimental St. Louis encephalitis virus infection of sloths and cormorants. (United States)

    Seymour, C; Kramer, L D; Peralta, P H


    Experimental infection of 11 Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 to 6.5 (median 5.1) log10 median suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses (SMicLD50) per ml. Experimental SLE viremia onset was delayed and maximum titer depressed in two sloths concurrently infected with naturally acquired viruses. SLE viremias in four experimentally inoculated cormorants Phalacrocorax olivaceus were shorter, and of equal or lower titer, than in sloths. Colonized Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were infected by feeding on sloths circulating at least 4.8 log10 SMicLD50 of SLE virus per ml, and subsequently transmitted the infection to mice and chicks. An uninoculated baby Bradypus became infected by contact transmission from its mother. The antibody response of sloths to SLE virus was slow, being undetectable until several weeks post-inoculation. However, both sloth species developed high and long-lasting neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. The complement-fixation antibody response in Bradypus was lower and slower to develop than in Choloepus. Sloths with naturally acquired SLE virus antibody did not become detectably viremic after experimental inoculation. Neither sloths nor cormorants become overly ill from SLE virus infection.

  19. Marketingová analýza hotelu Louis Leger


    Řehák, Vojtěch


    This bachelor thesis deals with analysis of the marketing strategy of the hotel Louis Leger. The main goal of the thesis is to evaluate this strategy and alternatively to suggest specific changes. First part of the thesis is aimed at the theory of internet marketing, marketing mix and SWOT analysis. In the second part there are information about the company Czech Inn Hotels and the hotel Louis Leger. In the next part there is the analysis itself, which took place on the basis of the data from...

  20. Kuressaares tulevad Louis Kahni päevad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti Arhitektide Liit korraldab 6.-7.okt. 2006 rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonverentsi ja näituse Saaremaalt pärit arhitekti Louis Kahni loomingust. Kuressaare raekotta pannakse üles Kahni portree, autoriks tema tütar Alexandra Tyng

  1. Annual Convention in St. Louis: A Dynamic Convergence (United States)

    Emeagwali, N. Susan


    Nearly 3,000 career and technical educators from across the country converged upon St. Louis, Missouri, for the premier professional development event in career and technical education (CTE). The Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) held its Annual Convention and Career Tech Expo November 17-19, bringing together teachers,…

  2. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary (United States)

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  3. Louis J. Lanzerotti receives 2011 William Bowie Medal: Citation (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Kennel, Charles F.


    Louis J. Lanzerotti was awarded the 2011 William Bowie Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “outstanding contributions to fundamental geophysics and for unselfish cooperation in research.”

  4. Louis J. Lanzerotti receives 2011 William Bowie Medal: Response (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.


    Louis J. Lanzerotti was awarded the 2011 William Bowie Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “outstanding contributions to fundamental geophysics and for unselfish cooperation in research.”

  5. Conceptualising Childhood: Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Child's Garden of Verses." (United States)

    Webb, Jean


    Discusses the construct of childhood in Robert Louis Stevenson's collection of poems, "A Child's Garden of Verses," by employing notions of child development drawn from Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Finds, from a literary perspective, Stevenson's collection located on the boundaries of romanticism and modernism. (BT)

  6. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet. (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze


    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  7. Toward Voluntary Desegregation: The Beginnings of the St. Louis Plan. (United States)

    Foote, Edward T. II


    The human drama in beginning St. Louis's desegregation plan is presented. As the chair of a citizen's committee, the author worked with the superintendent and the Board of Education to create a plan. Implementation was accomplished in a few months. The desegregation of suburban districts was settled in court. (VM)

  8. Kus sündis Louis Kahn? / Olavi Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Olavi, 1950-


    Eesti päritolu ameerika arhitekti Louis Kahni (sünd. Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) perekonnalugu. 6.-7. okt. 2006. a. Kuressaares toimuvatest Kahni päevadest, küsimustele vastab peakorraldaja Ingrid Mald-Villand

  9. Louis Isidore Kahni jäljed Saaremaal / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-


    Eesti päritolu ameerika arhitektist Louis Kahnist, tema mälestuse jäädvustamisest. Le Corbusier'i ja Kahni loomingut meenutavatest majadest Kuressaares. Kuressaare elektrijaamast, mis ehitati töödejuhataja Aleksei Võrgu jooniste järgi. Kommentaar Mart Kalmult

  10. School Food Environment of Charter Schools in St. Louis (United States)

    Linsenmeyer, Whitney; Kelly, Patrick; Jenkins, Steve; Mattfeldt-Berman, Mildred


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the school food environment of charter schools in Saint Louis, Missouri. The objectives were to: (1) describe the participation of charter schools in the National School Lunch Program and (2) describe the prevalence of competitive foods in charter schools. Methods: School administrators…

  11. Obituary: John Louis Perdrix, 1926-2005 (United States)

    Orchiston, D. Wayne


    John Perdrix, astronomical historian and co-founder of the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, died on 27 June 2005. John Louis Perdrix was born in Adelaide, Australia, on 30 June 1926. After studying chemistry at Melbourne Technical College and working in industry, he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Minerals and Geochemistry. In 1974 the Division relocated to the Western Australian capital, Perth, and John spent the rest of his working life there involved in geochemical research. From his teenage years John had a passion for astronomy, which he fine-tuned through the Astronomical Society of Victoria and the Victorian Branch of the British Astronomical Association. He was very active in both groups, serving as President of the former and Secretary/Treasurer of the latter. He was also an FRAS, and a member of the AAS, the BAA parent body, and the IAU (Commission 41)?no mean feat for an Australian amateur astronomer. Throughout his life, he was a strong advocate of close amateur-professional relations. John's main research interest was history of astronomy, and over the years he wrote a succession of research papers, mainly about aspects of Australian astronomy. His well-researched and neatly-illustrated papers on the Melbourne Observatory and the Great Melbourne Telescope are classics, and when the Observatory's future was in the balance they played a key role in the State Government's decision to convert this unique facility into a museum precinct. To support his research activities, John built up an amazing library that developed its own distinctive personality and quickly took over his house and garage before invading commercial storage facilities! Apart from writing papers, John had an even greater passion for editing and publishing. From 1985 to 1997 he produced the Australian Journal of Astronomy, and in 1998 this was replaced by the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage (JAH2). Both

  12. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes (United States)

    Blazer, V.S.; Hoffman, J.; Walsh, H.L.; Braham, R.P.; Hahn, C.; Collins, P.; Jorgenson, Z.; Ledder, T.


    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River area of concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abnormalities were documented and preserved for microscopic analyses, as were five to eight representative pieces of liver tissue. A piece of dorsal muscle was preserved for stable isotope analyses and otoliths removed for age determination. The incidence of raised skin lesions (mucoid plaques) was high (31 %), however, microscopically only 4.5 % of the white suckers had neoplasia (papillomas). The remaining lesions were epidermal hyperplasia. Superior Bay had the lowest percentage of skin/lip lesions (10 %), while St. Louis Bay had the highest (44 %). St. Louis Bay also had the highest incidence of skin neoplasms (12 %). No hepatocellular neoplasms were documented, however bile duct tumors were observed in 4.5 % of the suckers. Foci of cellular alteration were observed in fish from all sites except the upper AOC. Stable isotope data indicated that most of the suckers relied on the St. Louis River AOC for the majority (>75 %) of their diet, indicating they were resident within the AOC and not in Lake Superior. The amount of diet obtained from the upper estuary was a significant predictor of skin lesion incidence. Hence, habitat use within the AOC appears to be an important risk factor for skin and possibly, liver lesions.

  13. St. Louis FUSRAP-A Strategy for Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerla, M.; Fox, B.; Chinnock, J.; Haase, A.; Wojinski, S.; Bretz, M.; Cotner, S.; Dellorco, L.; Mueller, D.; Roberts, S.; Overmohle, D.


    In October 1997, Congress transferred the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) from the Department of Energy (DOE) to the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). FUSRAP addresses contamination generated by activities of the Manhattan Engineering District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the 1940's and 50's in support of the nation's nuclear weapons development program. The USACE Operation Order for FUSRAP gave responsibility for remediation of five sites in Missouri and Illinois to the USACESt. Louis District. The principal site is the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS), which involves the removal, transportation, disposal, and restoration of approximately 28 acres and 245,000 bank cubic yards (bcy) of contaminated soils. This paper will focus on the progress and achievements in removal action efficiencies of the SLAPS team. This team consists primarily of the USACE and Stone & Webster, Incorporated.

  14. [The oral health problems of Sun King Louis XIV]. (United States)

    Eijkman, M A J


    King Louis XIV (1638-1715) of France was a man plagued by a variety of chronic diseases, such as rheumatism, intestinal infections, fistula, headaches, chronic fever, malaria, urinary infections, gout, and chronic oral problems. At his birth, 2 deciduous teeth were already erupted, and at a very young age he already suffered from caries. In 1685, when he revoked the Edict of Nantes, a clumsy extraction of all maxillary teeth gave rise to a large maxillary bone defect and an oroantral communication.

  15. Louis Kahni Päevad Kuressaares / Ingrid Mald-Villand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mald-Villand, Ingrid


    6.-7. oktoobril toimunud üritustest, millega tähistati arhitekt Louis Kahni 105. sünniaastapäeva ja eesti inseneri August Komendanti 100. sünniaastapäeva. 6. oktoobril alustati arhitekti portree avamisega, mille oli maalinud tütar Alexandra Tyng, sama päeva õhtul avati näitus Kahni loomingust Kuressaare lossis ja linnateatris esitleti Nathaniel Kahni dokumentaalfilmi "My architect". 7. oktoobril peeti rahvusvaheline arhitektuurikonverents

  16. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)--chance and the prepared mind. (United States)

    Manchester, K L


    Louis Pasteur is often regarded as one of the founders of microbiology, and is chiefly famous for his discovery of the role that microorganisms play in health and disease. However, he was trained as a physical scientist, and his research began with the discovery of the stereoisomerism of the different forms of tartaric acid. As a biotechnologist, he is remembered for his studies on the nature of fermentation, and for his rebuttal of the theory of spontaneous generation.

  17. Assessing the Bicycle Network in St. Louis: A PlaceBased User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Boettge


    Full Text Available To transition towards sustainability and increase low-impact transportation, city planners are integrating bicycle infrastructure in urban landscapes. Yet, this infrastructure only promotes cycling according to how well it is sited within a specific city. How to best site bicycle facilities is essential for sustainability planning. We review approaches to assessing and siting new bicycle facilities. Following sustainability science, we argue that active cyclists should be consulted to incorporate users’ site-specific knowledge into bicycle infrastructure assessments. We then pilot an approach that surveys cyclists concerning level of stress along routes ridden in St. Louis, MO, USA. Among the active cyclists surveyed (n = 89, we found stress correlates with speed limit, roadway classification, and number of lanes. Although cyclists surveyed in St. Louis prefer roads with bike lanes over roads with sharrows or no infrastructure, the presence of bicycle infrastructure had no correlation with reported levels of stress. The piloted survey and spatial analytic tool are transferable to other localities. For planners, the maps generated by this participant data approach identify high-stress routes as targets of new infrastructure or information to direct cyclists to safer routes. For bicyclists, the maps generated identify low-stress routes for recreation and commuting.

  18. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR


    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  19. Did Robert Louis Stevenson have hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia? (United States)

    Guttmacher, A E; Callahan, J R


    Chronic illness played a major role in the life and literary success of Robert Louis Stevenson. However, the exact nature of his chronic illness remains unclear. It is possible that Stevenson had hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Rendu-Weber Syndrome). This would explain his chronic respiratory complaints, recurrent episodes of pulmonary hemorrhage, and his death, at age 44 years, of probable cerebral hemorrhage. It would also explain his mother's hitherto unreported but apparent stroke, at age 38 years. Further support for this hypothesis might come from new details about the health of Stevenson and his relatives or from molecular analysis of tissue specimens remaining from him.

  20. First Olin - Fudan EMBA's Scheduled for St. Louis Residency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The first 18-month EMBA program offered by Washington University in St. Louis (Olin) and Fudan University in Shanghai is quickly nearing an end. Students in the joint EMBA program, which began in April 2002, will complete their studies this fall during their residency on campus at Washington University in St. Louis.

  1. A predictive model for floating leaf vegetation in the St. Louis River Estuary (United States)

    In July 2014, USEPA staff was asked by MPCA to develop a predictive model for floating leaf vegetation (FLV) in the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE). The existing model (Host et al. 2012) greatly overpredicts FLV in St. Louis Bay probably because it was based on a limited number of...

  2. Resources for Economic Educators from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (United States)

    Suiter, Mary C.; Taylor, Keith G.


    The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis has a long history of providing economic and financial information to the public that continues today, although the format, delivery, and amount of information have changed over the years. Today, the St. Louis Fed provides Web-based data and information services, including FRED® and FRASER®, and publications,…

  3. Geeniuste tagasitulek : Louis Kahni päevad Kuressaares / Toivo Tammik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammik, Toivo


    6. X avatakse Louis Kahni portree Kuressaare raekojas ja näitus Kuressaare linnuses, Kuressaare Linnateatris linastub arhitekti poja Nathaniel Kahni film "My architect. Son's journey" (2003). 7. X toimuva rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonverentsi kava. 1956. a. Philadelphias kohtunud Saaremaal sündinud Louis Isadore Kahnist ja Järvamaal sündinud August Eduard Komendandist

  4. Seeds of Knowledge: The Evolution of the Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library. (United States)

    Miraglia, Laurie L.

    The Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library is located in Lucas, Ohio, at Malabar Farm State Park. Established in 1992, the library is jointly maintained by the Ohio State University Sustainable Agriculture Program and the Ohio Department of Agriculture. The library's namesake, Louis Bromfield, was a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and noted…

  5. Muusikale meeldib olla kõikjal / Louis Andriessen ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Andriessen, Louis


    Hollandi heliloojast Louis Andriessenist ja tema loomingust. 19. ja 20. sajandi ooperi erinevusest. Ka 1999. a. Amsterdamis esietendunud Louis Andriesseni ja Peter Greenaway ooperist "Writing to Vermeer", mis on pühendatud Jan Vermeer van Delfti ühele elulõigule 1672. a. Kommenteerinud Harry Liivrand, Olari Elts

  6. XVI 'Jacques-Louis Lions' Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Roldán, Teo; Torrens, Juan


    This book presents lecture notes from the XVI ‘Jacques-Louis Lions’ Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering, held in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain) in September 2014. The subjects covered include: numerical analysis of isogeometric methods, convolution quadrature for wave simulations, mathematical methods in image processing and computer vision, modeling and optimization techniques in food processes, bio-processes and bio-systems, and GPU computing for numerical simulation. The book is highly recommended to graduate students in Engineering or Science who want to focus on numerical simulation, either as a research topic or in the field of industrial applications. It can also benefit senior researchers and technicians working in industry who are interested in the use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques in the fields addressed here. Moreover, the book can be used as a textbook for master courses in Mathematics, Physics, or Engineering.

  7. Eli Fischer-Jørgensen, Eugeniu Coseriu et Louis Hjelmslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Viggo Bank


    Based on a correspondence between Eugenio Coseriu (1921-2002) and Eli Fischer-Jørgensen (1911-2010), the article discusses the importance of Louis Hjelmslev (1899-1965) for the development of the theory of Coseriu. In a letter dated 1955, Fischer-Jørgensen agrees with Coseriu in his criticism...... of Hjelmslev’s neglect of substance in phonology, but she also makes some critical remarks on Coseriu’s account. Starting from Fischer-Jørgensen’s remarks, it will be shown that there is some ambiguity in Coseriu’s attitude towards Hjelmslev’s terms norm and usage. Moreover, it will be shown that there seems...... to be a slight change in Coseriu’s view on content substance. This way, the article aims to show that Fischer-Jørgensen played an important role as a critical mediator between Hjelmslev and Coseriu....

  8. Louis Vuitton与村上隆(Takashi Murakami)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    高级时装与艺术的结合总是叫人欣喜兴奋,这样的跨界合作,不是炒红了艺术家就是抬高了品牌的知名度,这样相得益彰的事似乎已经不是设计师的心血来潮,而是成为了品牌每年固定“玩”的项目,甚至能够为一整季的服装配饰提供灵感。村上隆与Louis Vuictton的合作,简直成为了日后crossover合作的标本。高高在上的著名品牌LV皮包虽然一直以经典高贵著称,

  9. Louis XVI et Marie-Antoinette. Un couple en politique


    Wolikow, Claudine


    « Louis XVI. Toujours dire : cet infortuné monarque », avait noté Flaubert dans son Dictionnaire des idées reçues. Dans son ample biographie critique jumelée, Joël Félix s’en réclame comme d’une devise programmatique étayant son travail de décapage de l’image du couple formé par « le roi bienfaisant » et « la reine scélérate », formée tant par les protagonistes eux-mêmes que par leurs panégyristes ou détracteurs contemporains, sans oublier l’apport de « l’archéologie mystique » des nostalgiqu...

  10. Symmetries in nature the scientific heritage of Louis Michel

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Ivan; Zhilinskii, Boris


    Reflecting the oeuvre of “a man of two cultures: the culture of pure mathematics and the culture of theoretical physics” (in the words of his long time friend and co-author, Kameshwar Wali), this volume is centred around the notion of symmetry and its breaking. Starting with particle physics, the content proceeds to symmetries of matter, defects, and crystals. The mathematics of group extensions, non-linear group action, critical orbits and phase transitions is developed along the way. The symmetry principles and general mathematical tools provide unity in the treatment of different topics. The papers and lecture notes are preceded by a lively biography of Louis Michel and a commentary that relates his selected works both to the physics of his time and to contemporary trends. This book should be of interest to theoretical physicists, chemists, applied mathematicians and historians of science, and is accessible to graduate (and advanced undergraduate) students.

  11. Louis Pasteur, from crystals of life to vaccination. (United States)

    Berche, P


    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is an exceptional scientist who opened a new era in medicine and biology. Starting from studies on crystals of by-products of wine fermentation, he first defined a distinct chemistry between dead and living matters. He then showed the role of living microbes in the fermentation and putrefaction processes. This brought him to challenge the two-millennium-old theory of spontaneous generation, using remarkably well-designed experiments. His observations on epidemics in silkworms allowed him to demonstrate the role of specific germs in infectious diseases. His discovery of the vaccine against fowl cholera can be considered as the birth of immunology. Finally, he became universally recognized through his famous vaccinations against anthrax and rabies.

  12. [Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system]. (United States)

    Maciejewicz, Piotr; Kopacz, Dorota


    Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages.

  13. 请称呼Hip-Hop为Mr.Louis Vuitton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在Mr.Louis Vuitton这个称号下面,出身于知识分子家庭的Kanye West掀开的是一场艰巨而伟大的革命:改良与净化Hip-Hop,不让它继续以街头、毒品、暴力、攻击、色情、辱骂为音乐的主题,而是令其格调高雅、正义与健康起来。甚至连编曲也要革新,至少你不会在Kanye West的唱片里听到诸如女人呻吟、警车呼啸、街头群殴等等这些Hip-Hop里司空见惯的音乐采样。

  14. Introduction to Louis Michel's lattice geometry through group action

    CERN Document Server

    Zhilinskii, Boris


    Group action analysis developed and applied mainly by Louis Michel to the study of N-dimensional periodic lattices is the central subject of the book. Different basic mathematical tools currently used for the description of lattice geometry are introduced and illustrated through applications to crystal structures in two- and three-dimensional space, to abstract multi-dimensional lattices and to lattices associated with integrable dynamical systems. Starting from general Delone sets the authors turn to different symmetry and topological classifications including explicit construction of orbifolds for two- and three-dimensional point and space groups. Voronoï and Delone cells together with positive quadratic forms and lattice description by root systems are introduced to demonstrate alternative approaches to lattice geometry study. Zonotopes and zonohedral families of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-dimensional lattices are explicitly visualized using graph theory approach. Along with crystallographic applications, qualitative ...

  15. Centro Federal de Comunidad Saint Louis - EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George


    Full Text Available The Community Federal Center lies in the outskirts of the town of Saint Louis. It was conceived and designed by the project authors — in a style characteristic of them — as a suburban architectonic complex for office use. The work, standing out over an open stretch of land, has an ample base, with a volume that is neither the actual tower of the city centre nor the classic low rural construction. The building's architectonic language permits an integration, by sympathy, in the context of the neighbouring uni-family housing zone, without naturally being assimilated in them, due to the disparity of functions. It is achieved through a fracture of scaled volumes, breaking the classic coldness of the big office building, whilst at the same time thanks to its robustness, it indicates the activity housed inside.

    El Community Federal Center está emplazado en las afueras de la ciudad de Saint Louis. Fue concebido y diseñado por los autores del proyecto —en un estilo que les es característico—, como un complejo arquitectónico suburbano destinado a oficinas. La obra, que se eleva sobre un terreno despejado, es amplía de base, presentando un volumen que no es ni la torre propia del centro urbano ni la clásica construcción rural de baja altura. El lenguaje arquitectónico del edificio permite una integración, por simpatía, en el contexto de la zona de viviendas unifamiliares cercana, sin llegar, naturalmente, a asimilarse a ellas dada la disparidad de funciones. Se lleva a cabo por medio de una fractura de volúmenes, escalonados, que rompen la frialdad clásica del gran edificio de oficinas, sin dejar de indicar, por su robustez, la actividad que alberga en su interior.

  16. Sources of Heavy Metal Pollution into the St. Louis River, Lake Superior Watershed (United States)

    Sternberg, S. P.; Palokangas, C.


    The St. Louis River begins in Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota and enters Lake Superior between Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin. The Partridge River and the Embarrass River are two of its main tributaries. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits are issued for surface water dischargers under the Clean Water Act. The Permit Compliance System (PCS) and the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a tool allowing public access to information contained in NPDES permits. Along the way to Lake Superior, 19 facilities list the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, part of the St. Louis River estuary, or one of its tributaries as a receiving water. Of these 19 locations, four report discharging heavy metals into the receiving water. Copper and Lead are the metals most frequently discharged.

  17. Dr. Louis Sullivan: Treating America's Most Critical Health and Human Services Ills. (United States)

    Cox, William E,; Matthews, Frank L.


    Interview with Dr. Louis Sullivan, Secretary of Health and Human Services. Discusses his views on health education, budget, access to health care, minority health, abortion, infant mortality, drugs, the Head Start Program, federal planning effects, and family influences. (JS)

  18. Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 from St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 2016 (United States)

    Wylie, Todd N.; Storch, Gregory A.


    ABSTRACT Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was rarely observed prior to a widespread outbreak in 2014. We observed its reemergence in St. Louis in 2016 and sequenced the EV-D68 genomes from two patient samples. The 2016 viruses in St. Louis differed from those we had sequenced from the 2014 outbreak but were similar to other viruses circulating nationally in 2016. PMID:28254971

  19. Algumas reflexões sobre a autobiografia de Louis Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rezende Cardoso

    Full Text Available L’avenir dure longtemps (O futuro dura muito tempo, relato autobiográfico de Louis Althusser, é um texto de grande riqueza, e que se presta à investigação psicanalítica. Neste artigo, nossa leitura foi orientada por uma reflexão sobre o tema do superego. Explorando a história de Althusser, observamos um conflito interminável: ser subjugado, internamente, pela sexualidade inconsciente do outro. Analisamos o aspecto traumático e violento desta “relação de poder” – poder sexual – mostrando como esta se exerce na economia psíquica, aí delineando, a nível das instâncias psíquicas, uma configuração particular. Mediante este material, desenvolvemos a idéia de que a instância do superego é ancorada no pulsional, e que impõe no psiquismo um modo de “legalidade interna” implacável e contraditória na qual o indivíduo pode, de certa forma, permanecer prisioneiro.

  20. François Louis (1928-2010)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    François Louis, who was a CERN mathematician from 1957 to 1988, passed away on 23 March 2010.   Everyone who was at CERN in the early years will remember the important role he played before the advent of computers, as well as his skills as a teacher when it became imperative for us all to make use of them. His lessons, at all levels, were remarkable for their precision and clarity. François loved to share his gifts of intelligence and culture with his friends and colleagues. Never turning down a request for help, he imparted his wisdom to the many who sought it with unfailing modesty and wit. We recall with affection his wonderful conversation, where mathematics merged with literature, cinema and his other great passion, music. Indeed he will also be remembered as a gifted pianist. His critical spirit and impeccable manners, born of a bygone era, left an indelible mark on us all. We are deeply saddened by his death. His friends      

  1. Presence of selected chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment from the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2010 (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Kieta, Kristen A.; Elliott, Sarah M.


    The St. Louis Bay of Lake Superior receives substantial urban runoff, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and industrial effluent. In 1987, the International Joint Commission designated the St. Louis Bay portion of the lower St. Louis River as one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Concerns exist about the potential effects of chemicals of emerging concern on aquatic biota because many of these chemicals, including endocrine active chemicals, have been shown to affect the endocrine systems of fish. To determine the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River, the St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources collected water and bottom-sediment samples from 40 sites from August through October 2010. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the extent to which chemicals of emerging concern, including pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic chemicals, occur in the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, and (2) identify the extent to which the chemicals may have accumulated in bottom sediment of the study area. Samples were analyzed for selected wastewater indicators, hormones, sterols, bisphenol A, and human-health pharmaceuticals. During this study, 33 of 89 chemicals of emerging concern were detected among all water samples collected and 56 of 104 chemicals of emerging concern were detected in bottom-sediment samples. The chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was the most commonly detected chemical in water samples and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene was the most commonly detected chemical in bottom-sediment samples. In general, chemicals of emerging concern were detected at a higher frequency in bottom-sediment samples than in water samples. Estrone (a steroid hormone) and hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabensopyran (a synthetic fragrance) were the most commonly detected endocrine active chemicals in

  2. Obituary: John Louis Africano III, 1951-2006 (United States)

    Barker, Edwin, S.


    The orbital debris, space surveillance, and astronomical communities lost a valued and beloved friend when John L. Africano passed away on July 27, 2006, at the young age of 55. John passed away in Honolulu, Hawaii, from complications following a heart attack suffered while playing racquetball, which was his avocation in life. Born on February 8, 1951, in Saint Louis, Missouri, John graduated with a B.S. in Physics from the University of Missouri at Saint Louis in 1973, and received a Master's degree in Astronomy from Vanderbilt University in 1974. John had a real love for astronomical observing and for conveying his many years of experience to others. He encouraged many young astronomers and mentored them in the basics of photometry and astronomical instrumentation. John was author or co-author on nearly one-hundred refereed publications ranging from analyses of cool stars to the timing of occultations to space surveillance. He was honored for his contributions to minor planet research when the Jet Propulsion Laboratory named Minor Planet 6391 (Africano) after him. John held operational staff positions at several major observatories including McDonald Observatory in Texas, Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, and the Cloudcroft Telescope Facility in New Mexico. He observed at numerous observatories worldwide, including Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, developing a world-wide network of friends and colleagues. John's ability to build diverse teams through his managerial and technical skills, not to mention his smiling personality, resulted in numerous successes in the observational astronomy and space surveillance arenas. As an astronomer for Boeing LTS Inc., he worked for many years at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance site (AMOS) on Maui, Hawaii, where he contributed his operational and instrumental expertise to both the astronomy and space surveillance communities. He was also the co-organizer of the annual AMOS

  3. Louis Blajan, DVM, 1924-2010: The dynamic veterinarian who brought the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE into the modern age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Terrestrial animal health code and was the mastermind behind the Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, both of which are invaluable to the Organisation today.In 1982, he created the Scientific and technical review which soon became a highly respected international veterinary journal. The fundamental procedures that Louis created in the ten years he occupied the position of Director General are still used today, especially in regard to disease reporting, drafting of final reports of meetings and conferences. Gifted with exceptional linguistic skills and writing style in French, Spanish and English, he could spend hours perfecting a text.He was greatly respected and admired by the representatives of member countries. His knowledge of many different cultures and languages was comprehensive and extensive. He was conscious of the widening gap between developed and developing countries and was always supportive of and attentive to the concerns expressed by less economically privileged nations.He ensured that the OIE staff received health cover and that regulations were drafted and a pension fund created for all members of staff. Despite his important and influential position, he remained modest and was always keen to listen to and share his good humour with colleagues at all levels. He valued his friendships and continued to correspond with and meet delegates and specialists of member countries during the twenty years after he left the OIE.During his retirement, Louis was the driving force behind the book entitled L’histoire des services vétérinaires français (History of the French Veterinary Services… a mammoth task.Louis was a warm man, had a wonderful sense of humour and is remembered by many as ‘a true gentleman’. One of his long-standing colleagues wrote ‘As a veterinarian he provided leadership and direction, particularly when with OIE, and brought the organisation into the modern era. He was highly respected and admired by his peers

  4. Louis Pasteur, language, and molecular chirality. I. Background and dissymmetry. (United States)

    Gal, Joseph


    Louis Pasteur resolved sodium ammonium (±)-tartrate in 1848, thereby discovering molecular chirality. Although hindered by the primitive state of organic chemistry, he introduced new terminology and nomenclature for his new science of molecular and crystal chirality. He was well prepared for this task by his rigorous education and innate abilities, and his linguistic achievements eventually earned him membership in the supreme institution for the French language, the Académie française. Dissymmetry had been in use in French from the early 1820s for disruption or absence of symmetry or for dissimilarity or difference in appearance between two objects, and Pasteur initially used it in the latter connotation, without any reference to handedness or enantiomorphism. Soon, however, he adopted it in the meaning of chirality. Asymmetry had been in use in French since 1691 but Pasteur ignored it in favor of dissymmetry. The two terms are not synonymous but it is not clear whether Pasteur recognized this difference in choosing the former over the latter. However, much of the literature mistranslates his dissymmetry as asymmetry. Twenty years before Pasteur the British polymath John Herschel proposed that optical rotation in the noncrystalline state is due to the "unsymmetrical" [his term] nature of the molecules and later used dissymmetrical for handed. Chirality, coined by Lord Kelvin in 1894 and introduced into chemistry by Mislow in 1962, has nearly completely replaced dissymmetry in the meaning of handedness, but the use of dissymmetry continues today in other contexts for lack of symmetry, reduction of symmetry, or dissimilarity.

  5. Skewed Riskscapes and Environmental Injustice: A Case Study of Metropolitan St. Louis (United States)

    Abel, Troy D.


    This article presents a case study of Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) air pollution exposure risks across metropolitan St. Louis. The first section critically reviews environmental justice research and related barriers to environmental risk management. Second, the paper offers a conventional analysis of the spatial patterns of TRI facilities and their surrounding census block group demographics for metropolitan St. Louis. Third, the article describes the use of an exposure risk characterization for 319 manufacturers and their air releases of more than 126 toxic pollutants. This information could lead to more practical resolutions of urban environmental injustices. The analysis of TRIs across metropolitan St. Louis shows that minority and low-income residents were disproportionately closer to industrial pollution sources at nonrandom significance levels. Spatial concentrations of minority residents averaged nearly 40% within one kilometer of St. Louis TRI sites compared to 25% elsewhere. However, one-fifth of the region’s air pollution exposure risk over a decade was spatially concentrated among only six facilities on the southwestern border of East St. Louis. This disproportionate concentration of some of the greatest pollution risk would never be considered in most conventional environmental justice analyses. Not all pollution exposure risk is average, and the worst risks deserve more attention from environmental managers assessing and mitigating environmental injustices.

  6. Temporal and spatial alterations in mutant swarm size of St. Louis encephalitis virus in mosquito hosts. (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Koch, Evan M; Willsey, Graham G; Davis, Lauren J; Jerzak, Greta V S; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Wilke, Claus O; Kramer, Laura D


    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex and a close relative of West Nile virus (WNV). Although SLEV remains endemic to the US, both levels of activity and geographical dispersal are relatively constrained when compared to the widespread distribution of WNV. In recent years, WNV appears to have displaced SLEV in California, yet both viruses currently coexist in Texas and several other states. It has become clear that viral swarm characterization is required if we are to fully evaluate the relationship between viral genomes, viral evolution, and epidemiology. Mutant swarm size and composition may be particularly important for arboviruses, which require replication not only in diverse tissues but also divergent hosts. In order to evaluate temporal, spatial, and host-specific patterns in the SLEV mutant swarm, we determined the size, composition, and phylogeny of the intrahost swarm within primary mosquito isolates from both Texas and California. Results indicate a general trend of decreasing intrahost diversity over time in both locations, with recent isolates being highly genetically homogeneous. Additionally, phylogenic analyses provide detailed information on the relatedness of minority variants both within and among strains and demonstrate how both geographic isolation and seasonal maintenance have shaped the viral swarm. Overall, these data generally provide insight into how time, space, and unique transmission cycles influence the SLEV mutant swarm and how understanding these processes can ultimately lead to a better understanding of arbovirus evolution and epidemiology.

  7. [Louis Ombrédanne (1871-1956) pediatric and plastic surgeon]. (United States)

    Glicenstein, J


    One of the fathers of pediatric surgery in France, Louis Ombrédanne (1871-1956) was a great plastic surgeon. During his residency he was initiated to plastic surgery by Charles Nélaton (1851-1911). Both wrote two books: "La rhinoplastie" and "Les autoplasties", taking stock of these techniques in the early 20th century. In 1906, he was the first to describe the pectoral muscle flap for immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. He used this flap in conjunction with an axillo thoracic flap. From 1908 to 1941, Louis Ombrédanne practised pediatric surgery, most of which was devoted in reconstruction of congenital and acquire anomalies. From 1924 to 1941, he was Professor of pediatric surgery at the hospital Enfants-Malades in Paris. In 1907, Louis Ombrédanne created a prototype of an ether inhaler as a safe anesthetic device. The device was successfully used for fifty years in Europe.

  8. "Vältimatud nuhtlused" : August Komendant, Louis I. Kahn ja arhitektuuri ning insenerikunsti keerulised suhted / Thomas Leslie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leslie, Thomas


    Artikkel põhineb Thomas Leslie Kuressaares Louis Kahni päevadel peetud ettekandel. Louis Kahni koostöös August Komendandiga projekteeritud hoonetest pikemalt Richardsi Meditsiiniliste Uuringute laboratooriumist, Salki bioloogianistituudist (1959-1965, La Jolla, Kalifornia) ja Kimbelli kunstimuuseumist (1966-1972, Texas, Fort Worth). Bibl. lk. 75

  9. Louis Kahni mateeria, valguse ja energia arhitektuur = Louis Kahn's Architecture of Matter, Light and Energy / Anne Griswold Tyng ; tõlk. Tiina Randus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tyng, Anne Griswold


    Louis Kahni betoonarhitektuurist (Weissi maja, 1947-1949), Yale'i kunstigaleriist (1951-1953), City Toweri projektist (1952-1958), Trentoni supelmajast (1954-1956), Salki instituudist (1959-1965, La Jolla, California), Kimbelli kunstimuuseumist (1968-1974), pealinnakompleksist Dhakas (1965-1974). Anne Griswold Tyng hakkas L. Kahni juures tööle 1945. a., tema algkooli projektist (1949-50), oma Philadelphia maja juurdeehitusest (1965-1968)

  10. Mounting a Curricular Revolution: An Interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (United States)

    von Zastrow, Claus


    This article presents an interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Harvard professor and cultural critic who has captured 25 million viewers with his PBS documentary series, African American Lives (WNET). Using genealogical research and DNA science, Gates traces the family history of 19 famous African Americans. What results is a rich and moving…

  11. The Reversed Role of Magnets in St. Louis: Implications for Black Student Outcomes (United States)

    Grooms, Ain A.; Williams, Sheneka M.


    Magnet schools were originally created to attract a diverse student population. Using data from the 23 magnet schools in St. Louis, this longitudinal study is twofold: first, to review the performance outcomes of the magnet schools across a 5-year period, between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010, and second, to examine whether the magnet schools are…

  12. Sulfuric acid-ammonium sulfate aerosol: optical detection in the St. Louis region. (United States)

    Charlson, R J; Vanderpol, A H; Covert, D S; Waggnoner, A P; Ahlquist, N C


    Nephelometric sensing of the deliquescence of ammonium sulfate produced by the reaction of sulfuric acid or ammonium bisulfate aerosol with ammonia provides a means for detecting these substances in air. Field experiments show them to be the dominant substances in the submicrometer, light-scattering aerosol in the St. Louis region.

  13. Current Status of the St. Louis Plan: The Magnet School Component. (United States)

    Libros, Tracy


    The results and prospects of the magnet school component of desegregation efforts in St. Louis are presented. Demand for magnet seats is outstripping the supply, and thus, the pace of desegregation is limited. But these schools offer an improved educational program and provide more educational choices for families. (VM)

  14. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the St. Louis River System (United States)

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort represents the most spatially and ta...

  15. 76 FR 29652 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Missouri; Saint Louis... (United States)


    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to submit an...; Saint Louis Nonattainment Area; Determination of Attainment of the 1997 Annual Fine Particle Standard... ) nonattainment area in Illinois and Missouri has attained the 1997 annual PM 2.5 National Ambient Air...

  16. School Haze: A Response to Louis Menand's View on Multicultural Education. (United States)

    Franklin, Godfrey; Heath, Inez A.

    This essay discusses multicultural education in the context of responding to an article in a national magazine, which critiqued multicultural education. This essay argues that the article, "School Daze" (Louis Menand) in "Harper's Bazaar" magazine in September, 1992, oversimplifies and misrepresents key issues of multicultural education and its…

  17. Ice Events in the St. Louis District. Ice Engineering, Number 20, February 1999 (United States)


    primarily breakup ice events, no events within the District are specifically identified as breakup events, while 29 are classified freezeup jams. The...75 ice events listed as being “closure” events (when the ice cover freezes at St. Louis) are thought to be primarily due to freezeup pro- cesses. The

  18. Louis L'Amour's American West. A Sound Filmstrip Program. Study Guide. (United States)

    Peters, John; Peters, Frances

    Adapted from the motion picture based on two of Louis L'Amour's novels of the American West, "The Daybreakers" and "Sackett," this filmstrip program will help secondary students interpret the meaning of the frontier experience in American history. In the first three filmstrips--"Heading West,""Staking…

  19. The faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) invades the St. Louis River Estuary (United States)

    The European-origin faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) now numbers among the aquatic invasive species present in the St. Louis River Estuary. This snail has been in the lower Great Lakes since the early 20th century but is new to the Lake Superior basin. We found faucet snails...

  20. Biology, History and Louis Pasteur: A New Approach to Teaching Science. (United States)

    Hendrick, Robert


    Presents a rationale for using the history of science in science education. Uses the life and work of Louis Pasteur to illustrate how the history of science can illustrate the nature of science. Describes how Pasteur's bourgeois ideology and ambition influenced his selection of problems to investigate. (over 35 references) (PR)

  1. Investigating phenology of larval fishes in St. Louis River estuary shallow water habitats (United States)

    As part of the development of an early detection monitoring strategy for non-native fishes, larval fish surveys have been conducted since 2012 in the St. Louis River estuary. Survey data demonstrates there is considerable variability in fish abundance and species assemblages acro...

  2. Habitat use and trophic position effects on contaminant bioaccumulation in St. Louis River Estuary fishes (United States)

    The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between fish tissue stable isotope composition and total mercury or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the St. Louis River estuary food web. We sampled two resident fishes, Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) ...

  3. Louis Leprince-Ringuet 1901-2000 A Scientist in the service of Europe

    CERN Multimedia


    The renowned French physicist, Louis Leprince-Ringuet, writer, painter and sportsman, who would have been 100 in the spring, died in Paris on 23 December 2000. A convinced European, Louis Leprince-Ringuet supported the creation of CERN. From 1956, he was Vice-Chairman of the Scientific Policy Committee, later becoming its Chairman from 1964 to 1966. After graduating from the Ecole Polytechnique, Louis Leprince-Ringuet began his career in telecommunications as an engineer working on submarine cables. His vocation as a physicist emerged in 1929 when he met Maurice de Broglie, director of a laboratory studying X-rays. For ten years Louis Leprince-Ringuet worked as de Broglie's assistant before moving into the field of cosmic ray research. As director of a research centre devoted to nuclear physics and cosmic rays at the Ecole Polytechnique, he took part in the 1930s in elucidating the nature of these rays, which had previously been unknown. His team pioneered the use of bubble chambers and the observation of hea...

  4. Robert Louis Stevenson and Children's Play: The Contexts of "A Child's Garden of Verses." (United States)

    Rosen, Michael


    Examines a classic text, Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Child's Garden of Verses," within the context of several of Stevenson's own essays. Suggests that unlike many children's books, it was an experiment and one that Stevenson, for various reasons, including his premature death, was never able to adapt for future use. (RS)

  5. Saint-Louis du Sénégal, un enjeu pour le patrimoine mondial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Toulier


    Full Text Available A l’origine, la ville de Saint–Louis est un comptoir européen installé au XVIIe siècle à l’embouchure du fleuve Sénégal sur l’île de N’dar. Cette île longue et étroite constitue le noyau de la ville coloniale. Les grandes étapes de son urbanisation sont encore lisibles. Elles ont justifié l’inscription du centre historique sur la liste du patrimoine mondial de l’humanité en décembre 2000. L’âge d’or de la ville s’étend durant le dernier quart du XIXe siècle. En 1895, Saint–Louis devient la capitale de l’Afrique Occidentale Française. L’île de Saint–Louis conserve un ensemble urbain sur plan en damiers parmi les plus remarquables de l’Afrique de l’ouest. La sauvegarde de Saint–Louis est un enjeu pour le Ministère de la culture du Sénégal, elle passe par un inventaire systématique du bâti en vue de réaliser une base de données et par des mesures de protection sans pour autant transformer le centre historique en ville musée.First of all, the town of Saint–Louis is a European trading post established in the XVIIth at the mouth of the river Senegal, on N’dar island. This long and narrow island constitutes the historical heart of the old colonial town. Different phases of its expansion are still visible. They explained the inscription of the historical center on the list of mondial heritage, in December 2000. The golden age of the town goes all along the last quarter of the XIXth. In 1895, Saint–Louis became the capital of West French Africa. The town has a very famous chequered urban plan, one of the most remarkable in West Africa. Saint–Louis town’s safeguard is an important stake for the ministry of cultural affairs. It needs an inventory work of architectural heritage in order to set up a database and to take action of preservation, without however changing the historical heart into a museaum–town.

  6. [Louis Maurice Champagne and the "Ecole dentaire française"]. (United States)

    Rousseau, Claude


    The Royal Edict of Louis XIV had created a new category of practitioners, "The Teeth Experts", and at the dawn of the second half of the 19th century, France had no dental school nor specific legislation. The situation worsened when many American dentists settled in France. Thus the creating of the "Ecole dentaire de Paris" in 1880 constituted a significant event which was followed by the opening of the "Ecole Dentaire de France" in 1884 and of the "Ecole Dentaire Française" in 1896. Louis Maurice Champagne will be its director from 1926. At the St Ouen Jules Vallés Market, we fortuitously discovered a framed document containing three photographs of Louis Maurice Champagne's surgery located, 3 Place de la Madeleine in Paris. Thanks to his son and through various documents, we could trace the exceptional professional carrier of this practitioner who eventually bought the "Ecole Dentaire Française" from Dr Louis-Jules Rousseau. Then, we discuss the legal frame work of the 1892 law created the "Chirurgien-dentiste" diploma and we describe the scientific and practical teaching for the "Ecole dentaire française". The operating layout of the clinical rooms is presented by opposing the ergonomic aspect of the demonstration surgery of the director and the two large operative dentistry rooms used for students. We conclude by emphasizing Louis Maurice Champagne's determination to overcome adversity which was peculiar to him as a young orphan immigrant without resources. To solve the problem of the "Chirurgien Dentiste" statute considered by its promoters as a stage of transition towards fuller reforms, we present various projects like from Dr Hulin's. This practitioner presided the Dental Section of the Medical Council Order before being voted in the first President of the "Chirurgien Dentiste" National Council Order in 1945. In 1942 he was the first to advocate a legislation based on the independence of the dental profession, still in force nowadays.

  7. Geostatistical three-dimensional modeling of oolite shoals, St. Louis Limestone, southwest Kansas (United States)

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.; Goldstein, R.H.


    In the Hugoton embayment of southwestern Kansas, reservoirs composed of relatively thin (oil. The geometry and distribution of oolitic deposits control the heterogeneity of the reservoirs, resulting in exploration challenges and relatively low recovery. Geostatistical three-dimensional (3-D) models were constructed to quantify the geometry and spatial distribution of oolitic reservoirs, and the continuity of flow units within Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. Lithofacies in uncored wells were predicted from digital logs using a neural network. The tilting effect from the Laramide orogeny was removed to construct restored structural surfaces at the time of deposition. Well data and structural maps were integrated to build 3-D models of oolitic reservoirs using stochastic simulations with geometry data. Three-dimensional models provide insights into the distribution, the external and internal geometry of oolitic deposits, and the sedimentologic processes that generated reservoir intervals. The structural highs and general structural trend had a significant impact on the distribution and orientation of the oolitic complexes. The depositional pattern and connectivity analysis suggest an overall aggradation of shallow-marine deposits during pulses of relative sea level rise followed by deepening near the top of the St. Louis Limestone. Cemented oolitic deposits were modeled as barriers and baffles and tend to concentrate at the edge of oolitic complexes. Spatial distribution of porous oolitic deposits controls the internal geometry of rock properties. Integrated geostatistical modeling methods can be applicable to other complex carbonate or siliciclastic reservoirs in shallow-marine settings. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  8. [Could phimosis have been the cause of sexual difficulties and delayed fertility of Louis XVI (1754-1793)?]. (United States)

    Androutsos, Georges


    The great majority of historians agree that the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette was only consumated seven years after the official ceremony. This delay could have been due to a genital malformation (phimosis) of Louis XVI, a strict religious education, a traumatic childhood and the young age of the two spouses, factors that may have inhibited their sexuality. In this article, the authors try to determine whether Louis XVI was able to overcome his sexual difficulties following an operation (circumcision) or as a result of spontaneous cure.

  9. Marly. Art de vivre et pouvoir de Louis XIV à Louis XVI : une réponse de Stéphane Castelluccio à Bruno Bentz


    Castelluccio, Stéphane


    Cher Monsieur, Il est toujours flatteur et enrichissant d’être lu et critiqué avec tant de pertinence par un si grand historien de l’art, spécialiste reconnu de l’ameublement de Marly, dont la seule publication un peu consistante à ce sujet est restée dans toutes les mémoires pour sa rigueur scientifique et sa précision (Bentz (Bruno), « Le château de Marly sous Louis XVI », Gazette des Beaux-Arts, mars 1991, p. 113-122). La profondeur de ses critiques et remarques (index, bibliographie, comm...

  10. 解读Louis Vuitton打造顶级品牌形象之谜%Unscramble the Top Brand Image of Louis Vuitton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Brand image is core of competitive power of an enterprise. In this paper, the top luxury bag brand was analyzed from brand image, the most important part for establishing brand, in or-der to give some enlightenment to our national enterprises.%品牌形象是企业竞争力的核心。本文从树立品牌最为重要的部分--品牌形象入手,对国际顶级箱包品牌Louis Vuitton进行剖析,企图找到对民族企业有所启迪的东西。

  11. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela. (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart


    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette. (United States)

    Jehaes, E; Decorte, R; Peneau, A; Petrie, J H; Boiry, P A; Gilissen, A; Moisan, J P; Van den Berghe, H; Pascal, O; Cassiman, J J


    Carl Wilhelm Naundorff was buried in 1845 in Delft as Louis Charles, Duc de Normandie, 'Louis XVII'. However, the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette-Louis XVII--officially died in the Temple of Paris in 1795. In order to resolve the identity of Naundorff, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of his remains were compared with the sequences obtained from the hairs of two sisters of Marie-Antoinette, Marie-Antoinette herself, and with the sequences obtained from DNA samples of two living maternal relatives. The mtDNA sequence of a bone sample from Naundorff showed two nucleotide differences from the sequences of the three sisters and four differences from the sequences of living maternal relatives. Based on this evidence it becomes very unlikely that Naundroff is the son of Marie-Antoinette.

  13. Recension de Chrisman-Campbell, "Fashion Victims. Dress at the Court of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette"


    Chery, Aurore


    International audience; Book review : Fashion Victims. Dress at the Court of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. By Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-300-15438-2. 352 pp. £35.

  14. Louis Vivet, un cas paradigmatique des personnalités multiples et de la méthode cathartique


    Stéphane Laurens; Toshiaki Kozakaï


    A clinical case of Louis Vivet, described by Bourru and Burot (1888), contributed to elaborate the concepts of multiple personality and cathartic method. The authors present this clinical case, the cultural context of this mental illness, and the relevant theories. The genetic analysis of Louis Vivet's iatrogenic disorder or transient mental illness (Hacking, 2002) shows how the dominant theories on identity and memory contributed to construct the symptoms observed by Bourru and Burot (1888) ...

  15. Louis Vivet, un cas paradigmatique des personnalités multiples et de la méthode cathartique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Laurens


    Full Text Available A clinical case of Louis Vivet, described by Bourru and Burot (1888, contributed to elaborate the concepts of multiple personality and cathartic method. The authors present this clinical case, the cultural context of this mental illness, and the relevant theories. The genetic analysis of Louis Vivet's iatrogenic disorder or transient mental illness (Hacking, 2002 shows how the dominant theories on identity and memory contributed to construct the symptoms observed by Bourru and Burot (1888 and validated the therapeutic methods.

  16. Ambrogio A. Caiani, Louis XVI and the French Revolution 1789-1792


    Becquet , Hélène


    Dressant le constat d’un vide historiographique sur le règne constitutionnel de Louis XVI et son système de représentation, Ambrogio A. Caiani se propose de prendre comme objet d’étude la cour de Louis XVI de 1789 à 1792 et de montrer comment celle-ci contribue à la radicalisation révolutionnaire et, finalement, à la chute de la monarchie. Compte tenu de l’état lacunaire des sources, l’auteur a préféré présenter une série d’études de cas plutôt qu’une étude systématique de son objet. Bien que...

  17. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.


    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  18. [About two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur belonging to the Academie national de pharmacie]. (United States)

    Storck, J


    Two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur, dated respectively november 26th 1853 and december 22nd 1853 in Strasbourg, were found in unclassified archives of the Academie nationale de pharmacie - Paris. They are described in the paper. They are related to the prize of F 1500 given to him by the Societe de pharmacie, the previous name of the Academy. This award concerned his famous studies on the racemic or paratartric acid.

  19. Mapping environmental susceptibility to Saint Louis encephalitis virus, based on a decision tree model of remotelysensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo H. Rotela


    Full Text Available In response to the first human outbreak (January - May 2005 of Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE virus in Córdoba province, Argentina, we developed an environmental SLE virus risk map for the capital, i.e. Córdoba city. The aim was to provide a map capable of detecting macro-environmental factors associated with the spatial distribution of SLE cases, based on remotely sensed data and a geographical information system. Vegetation, soil brightness, humidity status, distances to water-bodies and areas covered by vegetation were assessed based on pre-outbreak images provided by the Landsat 5TM satellite. A strong inverse relationship between the number of humans infected by SLEV and distance to high-vigor vegetation was noted. A statistical non-hierarchic decision tree model was constructed, based on environmental variables representing the areas surrounding patient residences. From this point of view, 18% of the city could be classified as being at high risk for SLEV infection, while 34% carried a low risk, or none at all. Taking the whole 2005 epidemic into account, 80% of the cases came from areas classified by the model as medium-high or high risk. Almost 46% of the cases were registered in high-risk areas, while there were no cases (0% in areas affirmed as risk free.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Abeijón


    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo reconstruir el itinerario intelectual de la obra de Louis Althusser respecto a sus relaciones con el psicoanálisis y la psicología. De acuerdo con nuestra hipótesis, Althusser recurrió al psicoanálisis con el objetivo de darle un uso particular: impugnar las ciencias psicológicas y la noción burguesa de sujeto. Así, el psicoanálisis habría servido al desarrollo de sus conocidas críticas a la categoría de sujeto, en tanto este se presentaría como una alternativa a las lecturas que consideran al “yo” como dominio de instancia psíquica // The objective of this paper is to reconstruct the intellectual itinerary of Louis Althusser’s work regarding its relationship to psychoanalysis and psychology. According to our more general hypothesis, Althusser resorted to psychoanalysis in order to use it in a particular way: to disprove both the psychological sciences and the bourgeois notion of subject. Hence, psychoanalysis would have been useful to the development of his well-known criticism of the category of subject. This would be presented as an alternative to the readings of the "ego" as domain of psychic instance.

  1. Long Term Stewardship Challenges at the St. Louis District FUSRAP Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Orco, L.; Chambers, D.


    Non-Federally owned radioactively contaminated sites in St. Louis, Missouri are currently being remediated by the St. Louis District Corps of Engineers under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). When FUSRAP remediation is complete, inaccessible soils which have levels of contamination greater than unrestricted use standards, will remain. The purpose of this paper is to document the initial challenges facing the project team during its development of the Long Term Stewardship plan for the management of these soils. These soils are located under buildings, roads, railroads and bridges. The Long Term Stewardship plan for the majority of the sites is being developed simultaneously with the remedy selection process. A living document, it will ultimately document the remedial action end state and location of inaccessible soils and implement the plan for ensuring these soils are not a threat to human health and the environment. Although these soils are protective in their current configuration, at some point in time, when activities such as maintenance, utility or property improvement occur, the soils will become accessible and need to be addressed by the federal government. Up until that point in time they will need to be effectively managed to ensure they remain protective. The St. Louis District is in the process of collaboratively developing this plan with its regulators, affected stakeholders and interested parties.

  2. Monoclonal antibody against Saint Louis encephalitis prM viral protein. (United States)

    Pupo-Antúnez, M; Vázquez, S; Sosa, A L; Caballero, Y; Vásquez, Y; Morier, L; Álvarez, M; Guzmán, M G


    Saint Louis encephalitis virus belongs to Flavivirus genus; Flaviviridae family jointly with other medically important flaviviruses including dengue virus and West Nile virus. The biological properties and functions of prM flavivirus protein are under investigation due to its importance in the generation of infectious virion and host interactions. Monoclonal antibodies have become powerful tools in this approach. Also the use of monoclonal antibodies has been successfully applied for antigenic analysis, clinical diagnosis and treatments. Here, using an immunofluorescence assay we describe a monoclonal antibody (mAb 3D2) that uniquely recognizes native prM Saint Louis encephalitis virus protein expressed in either C6/36-HT or Vero cells. In conclusion, mAb3D2 has significant potential for use in (a) the diagnosis of infections caused by this virus and (b) therapeutic use to treat patients infected by this virus and fundamental research to understand the role of the prM in the Saint Louis encephalitis virus infectious process.

  3. Genetic analysis of the presumptive blood from Louis XVI, King of France. (United States)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Bini, Carla; Calafell, Francesc; Luiselli, Donata; Pelotti, Susi; Pettener, Davide


    A text on a pyrographically decorated gourd dated to 1793 explains that it contains a handkerchief dipped with the blood of Louis XVI, king of France, after his execution. Biochemical analyses confirmed that the material contained within the gourd was blood. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and 2 (HVR2), the Y-chromosome STR profile, some autosomal STR markers and a SNP in HERC2 gene associated to blue eyes, were retrieved, and some results independently replicated in two different laboratories. The uncommon mtDNA sequence retrieved can be attributed to a N1b haplotype, while the novel Y-chromosome haplotype belongs to haplogroup G2a. The HERC2 gene showed that the subject analyzed was a heterozygote, which is compatible with a blue-eyed person, as king Louis XVI was. To confirm the identity of the subject, an analysis of the dried heart of his son, Louis XVII, could be undertaken.

  4. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754-1793), king of France. (United States)

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M; Chiang, Charleston W K; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles


    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754-1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king.

  5. The mysterious fate of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). (United States)

    Oertling, Sarita B; Marlin, Robert O; Goldman, Armond S


    In addition to the holdings at Bibliothèque Nationale de France and Musée du Pasteur Institut à Paris, major parts of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur are in four institutions in the United States - Reynolds Historical Library at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama; Burndy Library on the History of Science and Technology at Huntington Library in San Marino, California; Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at University of Texas in Austin, Texas; and Truman G Blocker History of Medicine Collections, The Moody Medical Library, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas. The circuitous paths that led each part of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur to their present locations were traced and the lives of key individuals in medicine, science and the humanities who obtained these valuable documents were recounted. The documents in each institution were discussed and a plan was considered to make them accessible to scholars who wish to further explore the life of Louis Pasteur.

  6. Electromagnetic rail launchers developed by the Franco-German Saint-Louis research institute; Les lanceurs electromagnetiques a rails de l'Institut franco-allemand de recherches de Saint-Louis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P. [Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis, 68 (France)


    Electromagnetic rail launchers are already known to be capable of accelerating objects to speeds in excess of 2000 m/s with an overall efficiency of greater than 30%. Electromagnetic rail launchers are already finding numerous applications including the acceleration of small particles with a mass of around 1 g to speeds of over 12 km/s, the application of surface treatments, and the injection of solid deuterium pellets into the plasma in Tokamak fusion reactors. Future applications are expected to include the launching of small Earth orbiting satellites and as an alternative to traditional propellants in armaments. The current research at the St Louis Institute is concentrating on high-speed high-current sliding contacts and the electrical circuits needed to generate the powerful current pulses needed by this type of launcher. Researchers are developing multi-filament metal brushes capable of carrying a peak current of 700 kA when moving at 2000 m/s with no arcing at the interface between the rail and the projectile. The new launcher has an overall efficiency of around 30% and projectiles with a mass of between 350 g and 650 g have been accelerated to speeds of 2300 m/s. (authors)

  7. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota (United States)

    Hult, M.F.


    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  8. 村上隆点火路易·威登Louis Vuitton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 阎晨


    以精致、品质、舒适形成"旅行哲学"并以此作为设计出发点,路易·威登(Louis Vuitton)这个名字现已传遍世界,成为旅行用品最精致的象征。而日本最新艺术偶像村上隆(Takashi Murakami)的加入,为路易·威登注入了新的时尚元素,点燃了又一把流行旺火。

  9. Louis Pasteur: a controversial figure in a debate on scientific ethics. (United States)

    Ligon, B Lee


    Louis Pasteur long has been heralded as the "father of modern hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine," despite early controversies regarding his findings and methodology. A recently published biography, however, has shed new light on both Pasteur's scientific acumen and integrity. Reactions to this portrayal have been mixed. This article provides an overview of Pasteur's life and the debate regarding his scientific discoveries and honesty that has ensued for more than 100 years, with insights gained from both supporters and critics of the new biography by Gerald L. Geison.

  10. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes (United States)

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abno...

  11. The spirit of St Louis: the contributions of Lee N. Robins to North American psychiatric epidemiology. (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy D


    This article takes up the history of North American psychiatric epidemiology with reference to production of knowledge concerning sociopathic or antisocial personality disorder and drug dependence, abuse, and/or addiction. These overlapping arenas provide a microcosm within which to explore the larger shift of postwar psychiatric epidemiology from community studies based on psychological scales to studies based on specific diagnostic criteria. This paper places the figure of sociologist Lee Nelken Robins within the context of the Department of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. The St Louis research group--to which Robins was both marginal and central--developed the basis for specific diagnostic criteria and was joined by Robert Spitzer, Jean Endicott and other architects of DSM-III in reorienting American psychiatry towards medical, biological and epidemiological models. Robins was a key linchpin working at the nexus of the psychiatric epidemiological and sociological drug addiction research networks. This article situates her work within the broader set of societal and governmental transformations leading to the technologically sophisticated turn in American psychiatric epidemiology and research on the aetiology of drug abuse and mental health and illness.

  12. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL. Part II: Leaching characteristics and modeling. (United States)

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S


    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produced organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. Following a gross assessment of heavy metals in the community soils (see Part I of this two-part series), leaching tests were performed on specific soils to elucidate heavy metal-associated mineral fractions and general leachability. Leaching experiments, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TLCP) and column tests, and sequential extractions, illustrated the low leachability of metals in East St. Louis soils. The column leachate results were modeled using a formulation developed for fly ash leaching. The importance of instantaneous dissolution was evident from the model. By incorporating desorption/adsorption terms into the source term, the model was adapted very well to the time-dependent heavy metal leachate concentrations. The results demonstrate the utility of a simple model to describe heavy metal leaching from contaminated soils.

  13. Pouvoir et religion à la chapelle royale de Versailles sous Louis XIV Power and religion at the royal chapel of Versailles under Louis XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Maral


    Full Text Available D’une manière peut‑être plus sensible que partout ailleurs, les objets et les insignes du pouvoir prennent une importance particulière dans le contexte du cérémonial liturgique de la religion catholique. À la chapelle royale de Versailles, la présence régulière du monarque et de sa cour complique encore la situation, d’autant que la desserte est assurée par deux corps distincts d’ecclésiastiques. Dépassant le simple cadre des préséances, Louis XIV a défini autour de sa personne royale un système rituel susceptible d’en manifester le caractère épiscopal dérivé du sacre. De même, l’enjeu juridictionnel représenté par la Chapelle royale se traduit par un jeu subtil d’attitudes, de gestes et de rites, chorégraphie sacrée qui accompagne et exprime les revendications des partisans et des adversaires de l’exemption du lieu de culte royal au regard du diocèse de Paris. Ce discours trouve un écho partiel dans le programme décoratif de la chapelle définitive du palais, achevée en 1710.Objects and symbols of power take on a particular importance in the liturgical ceremony of the Catholic Church, perhaps more so than in any other context. At the royal chapel of Versailles, the regular presence of the king and his court complicated the situation further, all the more so in that religious ceremony was administered by two distinct ecclesiastic bodies. Beyond the rules of precedence, Louis XIV had introduced around his royal persona a system of ritual that would manifest the episcopal identity conferred upon him by his coronation. Similarly, the jurisdictional authority represented by the royal chapel was conveyed in a subtle play of attitudes, gestures and rites, a symbolic choreography that accompanied and expressed the claims of the partisans and adversaries of the exemption of the royal place of worship with regard to the diocese of Paris. This stance was reflected in the decorative scheme of the palace

  14. St. Louis Regional Library Network Manuals: Delivery System Manual, INFO-PASS Manual, Interlibrary Loan Protocol, Procedures and Policies Manual. (United States)

    Saint Louis Regional Library Network, MO.

    Included in this set of manuals are: (1) guidelines for document delivery to member libraries within the St. Louis Regional Library Network (SLRLN) in which eligible materials are described, addressing and packing are outlined, routing and deliveries are discussed, and a list of delivery system participants is provided; (2) a descriptive guide to…

  15. Reducing Nutrients and Nutrient Impacts Priority Issue Team - St. Louis Bay Project: Implementing Nutrients PIT Action Step 1.1 (United States)

    Mason, Ted


    The NASA Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center(SSC) used satellites, in-situ measurements and computational modeling to study relationships between water quality in St. Louis Bay, Mississippi and the watershed characteristics of the Jourdan and Wolf rivers from 2000-2010.

  16. Using side-scan sonar to characterize and map physical habitat and anthropogenic underwater features in the St. Louis River. (United States)

    Characterizing underwater habitat and other features is difficult and costly, especially in the large St. Louis River Estuary. We are using side-scan sonar (SSS), first developed in the 1960s to remotely sense underwater habitat features from reflected acoustic signals (backscatt...

  17. Shoreline Classification of the St. Louis River Estuary using Geographic Information Systems and Standard Landuse/Landcover Data Sets (United States)

    The St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) shoreline is ~300 km in length and borders MN and WI from the MN highway 23 downstream to Lake Superior. The shoreline is a complex and diverse mixture of many features from industrial docks and slips in the lower SLRE to complex wetlands and na...

  18. Evaluating impacts of pulp and paper mill process changes on bioactive contaminant loading to the St. Louis River, Duluth, MN (United States)

    Past in vivo and in vitro studies have found estrogenic and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated bioactivities associated with final treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharging to the St. Louis River Area of Concern near Duluth, MN, USA. A long-stand...

  19. Louis de brogue: conferencia presentada en el seminario grandes pensadores del fin de milenio


    Wolff Isaza, Luis Fernando


    Para comprender mejor el aporte fundamental de Louis De Broglie a la Física Moderna, es necesario repasar sintéticamente el contexto de la Física de finales del siglo XIX y principios del Siglo XX. De manera paradójica, mientras fracasaba la teoría clásica de la Termodinámica para explicar fenómenos como el “Efecto Fotoeléctrico” y la “Radiación del cuerpo negro”, se reconfirmaba la Electrodinámica clásica con la verificación experimental de la velocidad de la luz como invariante, tal como...

  20. Louis Gill, George Orwell, de la guerre civile espagnole à 1984


    David, Eric


    Publié en 2005, le livre de l’économiste canadien Louis Gill, George Orwell, de la guerre civile espagnole à 1984, a été réédité en 2012. L’auteur a souhaité mettre en lumière, à partir d’une période marquante de la vie d’Eric Arthur Blair (le vrai patronyme d’Orwell), les causes (intellectuelles) qui l’ont conduit à produire des œuvres retentissantes mais pas toujours décryptées à leur juste mesure, notamment quant à leur nature ou leur portée : La Ferme des animaux et 1984. Découpé en cinq ...

  1. Bathymetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, 2010 (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.


    Bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the vicinity of 12 bridges at 7 highway crossings near St. Louis, Missouri, in October 2010. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 3,280 to 4,590 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. These bathymetric scans provide a snapshot of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour.

  2. Histoire d’un non-objet historiographique : le cas Louis xvi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Chery


    Full Text Available Bien que la Révolution française ait suscité l’intérêt des chercheurs du monde entier, Louis xvi fait figure de parent pauvre des études universitaires. Même si c’est à son corps défendant, il en est tout de même l’un des principaux protagonistes et la Révolution s’est aussi construite en interrogeant le rôle et la place du roi. Cette situation a eu pour conséquence de conserver vivace la légende dorée que le roi s’est construite en exerçant un contrôle sur son image dès le début de son règne. Elle l’assimile à un nouvel Henri iv, profondément concerné par les maux de ses sujets. Malgré les attaques de la Révolution, cette image continue à exercer une influence considérable sur les biographes de Louis xvi et les historiens de la Révolution.Si la Restauration en a fait un usage sans surprise, elle a, de manière plus étonnante, séduit jusqu’à Jaurès avant de souffrir du discrédit dans lequel sombre le royalisme en choisissant l’antisémitisme au xxe siècle. Néanmoins, c’est aujourd’hui par le détour de l’historiographie anglo-saxonne qu’elle fait sa réapparition et commence seulement à être questionnée.Although the French Revolution has aroused interest of international researchers, Louis xvi is widely neglected by the academic studies. Even if reluctantly, he is yet one of the main protagonists and it is also by questioning the role and the place of the king that the Revolution took its shape.This led to the consequence that the golden legend the king constructed by controlling his image from the beginning of his reign is still very lively today. In it, he is presented as a new Henri iv, deeply concerned by the misfortunes of his subjects. In spite of the attacks of the Revolution, this image still considerably influences Louis xvi’s biographers and the historians of the Revolution.If the Restoration made a not surprising good use of it, it more astonishingly seduced Jaur

  3. Richard Wagner, Louis de Fourcaud, and a Path for French Opera in the 1880s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Benoit-Otis


    Full Text Available In a much-quoted interview with Richard Wagner conducted by the French critic Louis de Fourcaud in 1879, and published in different versions in 1880, 1884, and 1886, the composer allegedly advised the French to write operas drawing on their own legendary sources. Contemporary works such as d’Indy’s Fervaal, Chausson’s Le Roi Arthus, and Massenet’s Esclarmonde suggest that Fourcaud’s interview did indeed have a profound impact on the Wagnerian movement in France. However, a close examination of the sources reveals that his text owes much less to Wagner than scholars have previously assumed: in fact, evidence suggests that the most important part of the interview (that is, the advice to French composers was added by Fourcaud himself after Wagner’s death.

  4. Dr Louis T. Wright and the NAACP: pioneers in hospital racial integration. (United States)

    Reynolds, P P


    Louis Tompkins Wright, the son of a man born into slavery, was an outstanding African American surgeon who devoted his life to the racial integration of health care in the United States. Despite the fact that both his father and stepfather were physicians, despite his innate intellectual gifts and disciplined character, Wright experienced discrimination throughout his life and career. This experience led him to fight for the rights of African Americans, both health care professionals and patients. In addition to making numerous contributions in the fields of surgery and infectious disease, Wright held leadership positions in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People for more than 20 years, leaving a legacy of equity for African Americans in medical education and in health care.

  5. Louis-Eugène Varlin e a Comuna de Paris (1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Costa Pinto


    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma breve notícia sobre a trajetória política de Louis-Eugène Varlin (1839 - 1871, operário francês (encadernador de livros radicado em Paris (1852 - 1871, intelectual autodidata, um dos principais organizadores da seção francesa da AIT (Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores a partir de 1865. Personagem emblemático nas lutas sociais acontecidas no período de setembro de 1870 a maio de 1871, quando do cerco à cidade pelas tropas prussianas e depois pelas tropas do governo Thiers, motivos que o levaram à participação no Comitê Central da Guarda Nacional, assim como à organização dos comitês distritais da Comuna (março a maio de 1871.     

  6. [The "Health system delay" in tuberculosis patients in Saint-Louis Senegal]. (United States)

    Massenet, D; Diop, M; Fall, D; Kante, S; Ndoye, B


    Sixty patients with positive acid fast bacilli sputum smears between were enrolled consecutively between March and August 2012 in the Saint-Louis (Senegal) health district to determine the Health System Delay in response to tuberculosis. The length of time between the first consultation of a TB patient and the start of treatment was, on average, 8.1 days and is among the shortest in the literature. This promptness reduces the risk of infection related to delayed care. This is one of the focuses of the National Programme of Fight against nosocomial infections in Senegal (PRONALIN), as well as the implementation of environmental procedures and the use of masks and respiratory protection equipment.

  7. Pintura y Terror : Jacques-Louis David en 1793-1794


    García Hernández, Miguel Ángel


    Entre 1793 y 1794, durante el llamado «Gran Terror», los retratos de los «mártires revolucionarios» de Jacques-Louis David han desarticulado las bases de la pintura de historia al eliminar la narración y el espacio de la perspectiva tal y como habían sido concebidos desde el Renacimiento. Este artículo indaga en este proceso a través del entramado político, social y religioso que se puso en marcha durante la República jacobina. Entre 1793 i 1794, durant l’anomenat «Gran Terror», els retrat...

  8. Louis Jacques Thenard's chemistry courses at the College de France, 1804-1835. (United States)

    García Belmar, Antonio; Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón


    This article is concerned with the public courses and lecture demonstrations given by Louis Jacques Thenard at the College de France during the first decades of the nineteenth century. The expectations and needs of Thenard's auditors will be studied in order to understand the role played by chemistry courses at the College in the context of the growing and changing Parisian teaching market during the first third of the nineteenth century. The preparation and performance of lecture demonstrations was the main driving force of several major changes in the premises and the personnel associated with the chair of chemistry. Our analysis of the parallel process of expansion and functional differentiation of spaces and personnel will show the multiple interactions taking place between the research and teaching activities developed by Thenard and his team of assistants and students.

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  10. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)


    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  11. Seroprevalence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae in Horses, Uruguay

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    Analía Burgueño


    Full Text Available St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV and West Nile virus (WNV belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family. They show antigenic close relationships and share many similarities in their ecology. Both are responsible for serious human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. As a result, 205 sera (48.2% were found positive for SLEV, with titers ranging between 10 and 80. Two sera remained inconclusive, since they showed low titers to WNV and SLEV (10 and 20, not allowing us to demonstrate activity of WNV in our territory. This is the first report of circulation of SLEV in horses in Uruguay.

  12. [A brief philatelic evocation of Louis Pasteur and of his disciples]. (United States)

    Jouzier, E


    Philately is an important source of knowledge on numerous items. Evocation of Louis Pasteur's as well as his disciples life and works throughout stamp collection is a perfect example of this. Born in Dôle in 1822, he spent his youth in Arbois. It is at the Ecole normale supérieure that he performed his work on cristals which led him to establish molecular dissymetry principles. Later, he studied of the fermentation process, he searched the reason of wines' disease and the means to prevent it (i.e. pasteurisation), he solved the problem of the silkworm disease and discovered agents of numerous infectious diseases. He demonstrated scientifically the vaccination principle. In 1885 he tried with success the first human antirabic vaccination. Three years later, the Pasteur Institute was inaugurated. After his death, his works survived in numerous institutes all over the world. Many pasteurians received the Nobel Prize.

  13. Isolation of saint louis encephalitis virus from a horse with neurological disease in Brazil.

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    Roberta Rosa


    Full Text Available St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil.

  14. Seroprevalence of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) in horses, Uruguay. (United States)

    Burgueño, Analía; Spinsanti, Lorena; Díaz, Luis Adrián; Rivarola, María Elisa; Arbiza, Juan; Contigiani, Marta; Delfraro, Adriana


    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family). They show antigenic close relationships and share many similarities in their ecology. Both are responsible for serious human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. As a result, 205 sera (48.2%) were found positive for SLEV, with titers ranging between 10 and 80. Two sera remained inconclusive, since they showed low titers to WNV and SLEV (10 and 20), not allowing us to demonstrate activity of WNV in our territory. This is the first report of circulation of SLEV in horses in Uruguay.

  15. Development of the St. Louis audit of fall risks at residential construction sites. (United States)

    Kaskutas, Vicki K; Dale, Ann M; Lipscomb, Hester J; Evanoff, Bradley A


    We describe the development and pilot testing of the St. Louis Assessment of Fall Risks, a worksite audit to assess fall prevention safety practices on residential construction sites. Surveillance data and feedback from carpenters and safety instructors regarding work tasks associated with falls from heights were used to develop the audit instrument. The audit focuses on the framing process, including general safety climate/housekeeping, floor joist/sub-floor installation, walking surfaces/edges, wall openings, truss setting, roof sheathing, ladders, scaffolds, and personal fall arrest equipment. The audit was tested at sixteen residential construction sites, documenting excellent inter-rater reliability (kappa = 0.93). Results suggest that the audit has good face and content validity and is a reliable instrument for measuring fall safety risks at residential construction sites. It is practical, easy, and safe to administer, making it a potentially useful instrument for field research as well as regular safety monitoring by foremen and crew.

  16. Louis Wirth y el individuo promedio: Un salto cualitativo al individuo metropolitano de G. Simmel

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    Gino Bailey


    Full Text Available Louis Wirth nunca tuvo el reconocimiento científico e institucional dentro de la sociología, diferenciándolo de sus pares: Park, Burgess, Mckenzie y Small. Su cambio de perspectiva y enfoque al interior de la escuela de Chicago, lo distingu e respecto de sus colegas y lo conecta directamente con la visión de la ciudad que G. Simmel promulgó, abriendo de esta forma una perspectiva crítica que pretendía cuestionar el modo de vida urbano entendido como un modelo de desarrollo de las ciudades. Así, Wirth, identifica las fuerzas que forman la ciudad contemporánea como propias del saber sociológico, dando un paso cualitativo respecto Simmel, al asociar el aislamiento del individuo metropolitano a un modelo de desarrollo urbano particular, basado en la organización económica de las sociedades de masas, que aumenta aún más la coexistencia molecular de individuos que han perdido sus lazos más íntimos de amistad. Abstract Louis Wirth was never awarded in sociology, differentiating it from its peers: Park, Burgess, McKenzie and Small. The change of perspective and focus within the Chicago school, what distinguishes respect of his colleagues and the city approximates G. Simmel thought, placing a critical perspective that sought to understand the urban lifestyle as a model of development of cities. So Wirth, identifies the forces that shape the contemporary city as typical of sociological knowledge, qualitative stepping on Simmel, the isolation of the individual associate a metropolitan urban development model particular, based on the economic organization of mass society , which further increases the molecular coexistence of individuals who have lost their closest ties of friendship.

  17. National Dam Safety Program. Woodridge Lake Dam (MO 11005), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, Warren County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report. (United States)


    KASKASKIA. ST. LOUIS BAS WOODRIDGE LAKE DAM WARREN COUNTY, MISSOURI MO 11005 (9) Final rept., DACW43-79-C.-#A)75 J (i) Sep 79 (10) Walter G. /Shifrin...Dam Inspection Report National Dam Safety Program Final Report Woodridge Lake Dam (MO 11005) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Warren County, Missouri 7...Norvell Construction of 3320 Hermoso St., St. Louis, MO. After the structure was completed, a 2 inch water- line with a water faucet was installed on the

  18. Water Resources Investigation. St. Louis Metropolitan Area, Missouri and Illinois. Maline Creek, Missouri Survey Report. Volume 2. Appendices. (United States)


    the extension of Chippewa Street) against a 52-foot Mississippi River flood stage ( Market Street gage). Details regarding the overall city of St. Louis...significantly contribute to outdoor recreation objective by increasing the opportunity for such activities as nature hiking and birdwatching . wildlife...resources related to any proposed project. The changes may be of a market or non- market character, but generally the latter. Such effects are inextricably

  19. Genetic comparison of the head of Henri IV and the presumptive blood from Louis XVI (both Kings of France). (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Olalde, Iñigo; Solé, Neus; Ramírez, Oscar; Babelon, Jean-Pierre; Galland, Bruno; Calafell, Francesc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles


    A mummified head was identified in 2010 as belonging to Henri IV, King of France. A putative blood sample from the King Louis XVI preserved into a pyrographically decorated gourd was analyzed in 2011. Both kings are in a direct male-line descent, separated by seven generations. We have retrieved the hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial DNA as well as a partial Y-chromosome profile from Henri IV. Five STR loci match the alleles found in Louis XVI, while another locus shows an allele that is just one mutation step apart. Taking into consideration that the partial Y-chromosome profile is extremely rare in modern human databases, we concluded that both males could be paternally related. The likelihood ratio of the two samples belonging to males separated by seven generations (as opposed to unrelated males) was estimated as 246.3, with a 95% confidence interval between 44.2 and 9729. Historically speaking, this forensic DNA data would confirm the identity of the previous Louis XVI sample, and give another positive argument for the authenticity of the head of Henri IV.

  20. Morphology of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) protolarvae from the St. Louis River, Lake Superior (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Edsall, Thomas A.


    We describe hatching and the morphological and meristic characteristics of 2.5-5.6 mm long ruffe protolarvae (Gymnocephalus cernuus). Eggs and sperm from St. Louis River ruffe were mixed, producing fertilized eggs that were 0.9-1.2 mm in diameter. Newly hatched protolarvae were 2.5-3.2 mm long. They had 14-15 preanal and 23-24 postanal myomeres, a continuous finfold of even width, unpigmented eyes, and a large anterior oil globule in the yolk sac, and the head deflected over the yolk sac. Pectoral fin buds appeared on the dorsal side of the yolk sac 5 hours after hatching. Two-day-old protolarvae had fully pigmented eyes, and the head was free from the yolk sac. Three-day-old protolarvae were 3.9-4.3 mm long and possessed opercula, gills, pectoral fins, and a functional jaw. Feeding and swimming began about one week after hatching when the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed. Protolarvae grew rapidly at 20-22 degrees C and were 4.9-5.6 mm long after 13 days. Newly hatched ruffe protolarvae are distinguished from other Lake Superior percids by having the fewest preanal myomeres (14-15), the head deflected over the yolk sac, continuous finfold of even width, and a total length of less than 4.0 mm.

  1. The Effects of NSTP on the Lives of Saint Louis University Students

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    Marilyn L. Balmeo


    Full Text Available The National Service Training Program (NSTP of the Philippines is a form of service learning which is defined as the integration of community services to instruction in order to strengthen the civic and community responsibilities of the students. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the NSTP for the students, its influences along self-improvement, performance, community involvement, and demonstration of abilities and skills, and the difficulties encountered by the students while enrolled in their respective NSTP courses. The 1421 respondents of the study were the undergraduate students of Saint Louis University who finished the NSTP courses last school year 2012-2013. The study utilized an adapted survey-type questionnaire to gather the data needed in the study. The findings of the study suggest that NSTP courses are effective and they influenced the self-improvement, performance, community involvement, and demonstration of abilities and skills of the students to an extent. The students are also able to continue to demonstrate the different competencies they learned or acquired from NSTP courses. Moreover, this study reveals that the students often encountered many difficulties while they were enrolled in the NSTP courses.

  2. Politica e censura nella Francia di Louis XIV: Chavigny de La Bretonnière

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    Chiara Mainardi


    Full Text Available During the reign of Louis XIV French libertines were expressing their intellectual dissent by opposing absolutism and criticising historical and religious conflicts. While in France, before abrogating the Edict of Nantes, any opposition was suppressed, Chavigny de La Bretonnière supported a revolt against the Church and political power. The prominent role of clandestine literature in Old Regime France will be analysed in this paper by considering critical studies about libertinage. In particular, the political and antireligious discourse carried on by this author will be highlighted by taking into account his ‘lardons’, satirical articles against French government, his erotic novel La Religieuse en chemise and his ecclesiastic pamphlet Le Cochon mitré. In a true editorial campaign, Chavigny de La Bretonnière attaches French royal power, through the use of satire he depicts corrupted prelates as obscene creatures and he reforms libertine dialogue by enhancing broad political purposes. As a response to his critics and claims, Chavigny was kidnapped, tortured and imprisoned for life. His name disappeared from history.

  3. Predictors of Size for Gestational Age in St. Louis City and County

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    Pamela K. Xaverius


    Full Text Available Objective. To identify social, behavioral, and physiological risk factors associated with small for gestational age (SGA by gestational age category in St. Louis City and County. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth certificate and fetal death records from 2000 to 2009 (n = 142,017. Adjusted associations of risk factors with SGA were explored using bivariate logistic regression. Four separate multivariable logistic regression analyses, stratified by gestational age, were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain contributed significantly to increased odds for SGA across all gestational age categories. The point estimates ranged from a 3.41 increased odds among women with preeclampsia and 1.76 for women with inadequate weight gain at 24–28 weeks’ gestational age to 2.19 and 2.11 for full-term infants, respectively. Among full-term infants, smoking (aOR = 2.08, chronic hypertension (aOR = 1.46, and inadequate prenatal care (aOR = 1.25 had the next most robust and significant impact on SGA. Conclusion. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain are significant risk factors for SGA, regardless of gestational age. Education on the importance of nutrition and adequate weight gain during pregnancy is vital. In this community, disparities in SGA and smoking rates are important considerations for interventions designed to improve birth outcomes.

  4. The renaissance of Peiresc: Aubin-Louis Millin and the postrevolutionary republic of letters. (United States)

    Adkins, G Matthew


    This essay argues for the emergence of a cultural and epistemological divide between amateur savants and members of the Royal Academy of the Sciences in late Old Regime and revolutionary France and suggests that the amateur ideal rose in significance even as intellectual activity came to be increasingly centralized in the postrevolutionary era. At the crux of the tensions between the amateur ideal and the professionalizing reality in the immediate postrevolutionary period stood Aubin-Louis Millin and his journal, the Magasin Encyclopédique. The essay examines, in particular, the revival in the pages of the Magasin Encyclopédique of interest in Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, the seventeenth-century icon of an amateur ideal in which investigations in the natural sciences and scholarship were private, decentralized, often provincial activities. Although the sciences in the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras were often perceived as forward looking and dismissive of the past, this essay finds that a sentimental and nostalgic attachment to the past-to a myth of Peiresc-continued to play an important role in the identity of postrevolutionary men of letters.

  5. Detection of Saint Louis encephalitis virus in dengue-suspected cases during a dengue 3 outbreak. (United States)

    Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Mondini, Adriano; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Moraes; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Ferro, Bianca Piovezan; Cabrera, Eliana Márcia Sotello; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu Moraes; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda


    Arboviruses are frequently associated with outbreaks in humans and represent a serious public health problem. Among the Brazilian arboviruses, Mayaro virus, Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow Fever virus, Rocio virus, Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Oropouche virus are responsible for most of human cases. All these arboviruses usually produce undistinguishable acute febrile illness, especially in the acute phase of infection. In this study we investigated the presence of arboviruses in sera of 519 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in São José do Rio Preto City (São Paulo, Brazil). A multiplex-nested RT-polymerase chain reaction assay was applied to detect and identify the main Brazilian arboviruses (Flavivirus, Alphavirus, and Orthobunyavirus genera). The molecular analysis showed that 365 samples were positive to DENV-3, 5 to DENV-2, and 8 to SLEV. Among the positive samples, one coinfection was detected between DENV-2 and DENV-3. The phylogenetic analysis of the SLEV envelope gene indicated that the virus circulating in city is related to lineage V strains. These results indicated that during that large DENV-3 outbreak in 2006, different arboviruses cocirculated causing human disease. Thus, it is necessary to have an efficient surveillance system to control the dissemination of these arboviruses in the population.

  6. Seroconversion for West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses among sentinel horses in Colombia. (United States)

    Mattar, Salim; Komar, Nicholas; Young, Ginger; Alvarez, Jaime; Gonzalez, Marco


    We prospectively sampled flavivirus-naïve horses in northern Colombia to detect West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) seroconversion events, which would indicate the current circulation of these viruses. Overall, 331 (34.1%) of the 971 horses screened were positive for past infection with flaviviruses upon initial sampling in July 2006. During the 12-month study from July 2006-June 2007, 33 WNV seroconversions and 14 SLEV seroconversions were detected, most of which occurred in the department of Bolivar. The seroconversion rates of horses in Bolivar for the period of March-June 2007 reached 12.4% for WNV and 6.7% for SLEV. These results comprise the first serologic evidence of SLEV circulation in Colombia. None of the horses sampled developed symptoms of encephalitis within three years of initial sampling. Using seroconversions in sentinel horses, we demonstrated an active circulation of WNV and SLEV in northern Colombia, particularly in the department of Bolivar. The absence of WNV-attributed equine or human disease in Colombia and elsewhere in the Caribbean Basin remains a topic of debate and speculation.

  7. Molecular identification of Saint Louis encephalitis virus genotype IV in Colombia. (United States)

    Hoyos-López, Richard; Soto, Sandra Uribe; Rúa-Uribe, Guillermo; Gallego-Gómez, Juan Carlos


    Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a member of the Japanese-encephalitis virus serocomplex of the genus Flavivirus. SLEV is broadly distributed in the Americas and the Caribbean Islands, where it is usually transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Culex and primarily to birds and mammalian-hosts. Humans are occasionally infected by the virus and are dead-end hosts. SLEV causes encephalitis in temperate regions, while in tropical regions of the Americas, several human cases and a wide biological diversity of SLEV-strains have been reported. The phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein genes indicated eight-genotypes of SLEV with geographic overlap. The present paper describes the genotyping of two SLEV viruses detected in mosquito-pools collected in northern Colombia (department of Cordoba). We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify a fragment of the E-gene to confirm the virus identity and complete E-gene sequencing for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping of the two-SLEV viruses found circulating in Córdoba. This is the first report of SLEV genotype IV in Colombia (Córdoba) in mosquitoes from a region of human inhabitation, implicating the risk of human disease due to SLEV infection. Physicians should consider SLEV as a possible aetiology for undiagnosed febrile and neurologic syndromes among their patients who report exposure to mosquito-bites.

  8. Degradation of phenolic contaminants in ground water by anaerobic bacteria: St. Louis Park, Minnesota (United States)

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Godsy, E.M.; Hult, M.F.


    Coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-treating plant that operated from 1918 to 1972 at St. Louis Park, Minnesota contaminated the near-surface ground water. Solutions of phenolic compounds and a water-immiscible mixture of polynuclear aromatic compounds accumulated in wetlands near the plant site and entered the aquifer. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the aqueous phase under the wetlands is about 30 mg/1 but decreases to less than 0.2 mg/1 at a distance of 430 m immediately downgradient from the source. Concentrations of naphthalene (the predominant polynuclear compound in the ground water) and sodium (selected as a conservative tracer) range from about 20 mg/1 and 430 mg/1 in the aqueous phase at the source to about 2 mg/1 and 120 mg/1 at 430 m downgradient, respectively. Phenolic compounds and naphthalene are disappearing faster than expected if only dilution were occurring. Sorption of phenolic compounds on aquifer sediments is negligible but naphthalene is slightly sorbed. Anaerobic biodegradation of phenolic compounds is primarily responsible for the observed attenuation. Methane was found only in water samples from the contaminated zone (2-20 mg/1). Methane-producing bacteria were found only in water from the contaminated zone. Methane was produced in laboratory cultures of contaminated water inoculated with bacteria from the contaminated zone. Evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of naphthalene under either field or laboratory conditions was not obtained.

  9. A Saint Louis encephalitis and Rocio virus serosurvey in Brazilian horses

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    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva


    Full Text Available Introduction Arboviruses are an important public health problem in Brazil, in especially flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV and the Rocio virus (ROCV, are especially problematic. These viruses are transmitted to humans or other vertebrates through arthropod bites and may cause diseases with clinical manifestations that range from asymptomatic infection, viral hemorrhagic fever to encephalitis. Methods A serological survey of horses from various regions of Brazil using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with recombinant SLEV domain III peptides and ROCV E protein as antigens. Results Overall, 415 (55.1% of the 753 horses that were screened were seropositive for flavivirus and, among them, monotypic reactions were observed to SLEV in 93 (12.3% and to ROCV in 46 (6.1%. These results suggested that these viruses, or other closely related viruses, are infecting horses in Brazil. However, none of the studied horses presented central nervous system infection symptoms. Conclusions Our results suggest that SLEV and ROCV previously circulated among horses in northeast, west-central and southeast Brazil.

  10. Microbiology of diabetic foot infections: from Louis Pasteur to 'crime scene investigation'. (United States)

    Spichler, Anne; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Armstrong, David G; Lipsky, Benjamin A


    Were he alive today, would Louis Pasteur still champion culture methods he pioneered over 150 years ago for identifying bacterial pathogens? Or, might he suggest that new molecular techniques may prove a better way forward for quickly detecting the true microbial diversity of wounds? As modern clinicians faced with treating complex patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI), should we still request venerated and familiar culture and sensitivity methods, or is it time to ask for newer molecular tests, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing? Or, are molecular techniques as yet too experimental, non-specific and expensive for current clinical use? While molecular techniques help us to identify more microorganisms from a DFI, can they tell us 'who done it?', that is, which are the causative pathogens and which are merely colonizers? Furthermore, can molecular techniques provide clinically relevant, rapid information on the virulence of wound isolates and their antibiotic sensitivities? We herein review current knowledge on the microbiology of DFI, from standard culture methods to the current era of rapid and comprehensive 'crime scene investigation' (CSI) techniques.

  11. Louis Massignon l'amour mystique ou l'extase dans l'abandon

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    Jacques Keryell


    Full Text Available Parler de Massignon et de son Amour de Dieu n'est pas chose aisée. En effet, si les mystiques musulmans des premiers siècles de l'hégire ont été les hérauts de cet Amour : Al-Hallâj, Râbia al-Adawiyya, Al-Niffâri, Ibn Arabi, Ansâri, Al-Ghazâli, l'Amour de Dieu comme tel, n'est pas au cœur du "ilm al kalâm", de la théologie musulmane traditionnelle. Pour Massignon, langue et spiritualité étaient intimement liées. Si je devais me placer dans une perspective musulmane, je dirais que Louis Massignon se situe dans la ligne de la "wahdat al shuhûd", celle de "l'unicité du témoignage" ou Dieu se témoigne Lui-même en son mystère dans le cœur du soufi.

  12. Making another world possible: the Torah, Louis Kelso, and the problem of poverty. (United States)

    Greenfield, Sidney M


    Why is it that after centuries of concerted efforts to eliminate it, and decades of unprecedented economic growth that should have accomplished it, poverty not only is still with us but actually is increasing? Starting with a passage in the Old Testament, the source of moral behavior for believers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, this author argues that the postulation of the labor theory of value and scarcity by Adam Smith, and accepted as part of the basic framework of the discipline of economics, has prevented us from formulating public policies that would enable us to implement the way the God of the Abrahamic faiths intended the poor to be cared for. Substituting modifications in economic theory proposed originally by Louis Kelso, a model acknowledging the independent contribution of capital in the productive process is proposed that would enable us to formulate policies for the production and distribution of wealth and that would make the scourge of human poverty a bad dream of the past.

  13. Science and the applications of science from Louis Pasteur to Jacques Monod. (United States)

    Schwartz, Maxime


    Jacques Monod's ideas on the applications of science came within the scope of a long tradition at the Institut Pasteur. Louis Pasteur, whose scientific career was characterized by a permanent come and go between science and its applications, long opposed the idea of getting any income from his research, until the financial needs of the Institut Pasteur made him change his mind. As for Jacques Monod, he remained a fervent supporter of basic science during his whole scientific career. However, once he became director of the Institut Pasteur, he realized that the applications of research had to be developed to support the institute from a financial point of view. Thus, he reorganized the valorization of research in the institute, through an incitation of scientists to develop projects with possible applications, and by creating a company, Institut Pasteur Production, for which he had a factory built, and which was in charge of producing and commercializing the vaccines and reagents stemming from the research at the Institut Pasteur.

  14. [Alain Georges: in the footsteps of Louis Pasteur and Eugène Jamot]. (United States)

    Bélec, L; Milleliri, J M


    The biography of the physician general Alain Jean Georges (1946-2012) shows the exceptional career of a military physician-clinical pathologist specialized in tropical medicine and educated at the Navy Health School in Bordeaux and the Pharo School in Marseille. He completed his education at the Institut Pasteur de Paris in courses still conducted in the spirit of those taught by Louis Pasteur. In 1979, he became director of the Pasteur Institute of Bangui, following in the steps of Eugène Jamot, in the long tradition of military doctors from the Institut Pasteur overseas network committed to a career in Africa. For more than 12 years, Alain Georges directed the Pasteur Institute of Bangui, one of the last citadels of French postcolonial military medicine, in a very personal and charismatic style. He was thus a pioneer in research about both AIDS in Africa and hemorrhagic fevers. His methods were widely misunderstood later as the traditional networks of French biomedical research in its former African colonies modernized and opened internationally, including to national elites. Alain Georges was probably one of the last important figures of the golden age of French colonial medicine.

  15. Molecular identification of Saint Louis encephalitis virus genotype IV in Colombia

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    Richard Hoyos-López


    Full Text Available Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV is a member of the Japanese-encephalitis virus serocomplex of the genus Flavivirus. SLEV is broadly distributed in the Americas and the Caribbean Islands, where it is usually transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Culex and primarily to birds and mammalian-hosts. Humans are occasionally infected by the virus and are dead-end hosts. SLEV causes encephalitis in temperate regions, while in tropical regions of the Americas, several human cases and a wide biological diversity of SLEV-strains have been reported. The phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E protein genes indicated eight-genotypes of SLEV with geographic overlap. The present paper describes the genotyping of two SLEV viruses detected in mosquito-pools collected in northern Colombia (department of Cordoba. We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify a fragment of theE-gene to confirm the virus identity and completeE-gene sequencing for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping of the two-SLEV viruses found circulating in Córdoba. This is the first report of SLEV genotype IV in Colombia (Córdoba in mosquitoes from a region of human inhabitation, implicating the risk of human disease due to SLEV infection. Physicians should consider SLEV as a possible aetiology for undiagnosed febrile and neurologic syndromes among their patients who report exposure to mosquito-bites.

  16. Seroconversion for west Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses among sentinel horses in Colombia

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    Salim Mattar


    Full Text Available We prospectively sampled flavivirus-naïve horses in northern Colombia to detect West Nile virus (WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV seroconversion events, which would indicate the current circulation of these viruses. Overall, 331 (34.1% of the 971 horses screened were positive for past infection with flaviviruses upon initial sampling in July 2006. During the 12-month study from July 2006-June 2007, 33 WNV seroconversions and 14 SLEV seroconversions were detected, most of which occurred in the department of Bolivar. The seroconversion rates of horses in Bolivar for the period of March-June 2007 reached 12.4% for WNV and 6.7% for SLEV. These results comprise the first serologic evidence of SLEV circulation in Colombia. None of the horses sampled developed symptoms of encephalitis within three years of initial sampling. Using seroconversions in sentinel horses, we demonstrated an active circulation of WNV and SLEV in northern Colombia, particularly in the department of Bolivar. The absence of WNV-attributed equine or human disease in Colombia and elsewhere in the Caribbean Basin remains a topic of debate and speculation.

  17. [Malaria and the work of two writer-physicians: Louis Ferdinand Celine and Carlo Levi]. (United States)

    Theodorides, J


    Malaria rarely mentioned in literary works has been dealt with by the two writers, both physicians, studied here. Louis-Ferdinand Destouches (1894-1961) alias Celine, studied medicine in Rennes and Paris from 1921 to 1924. He had been previously engaged by the Rockefeller Foundation to lecture on tuberculosis in Brittany. He later worked for the Commission of Hygiene of the League of Nations in Geneva and took part in 1925 to a long voyage in America (Cuba, United States) and Italy where malaria was still occurring. In 1926 he published a book: La quinine en therapeutique and participated to another voyage in West Africa where he contracted malaria. Numerous hints to this disease inspired to Celine by his first trip to Africa (Cameroun) in 1916-17 are found in Voyage au bout de la nuit (1932). Carlo Levi (1902-1975) studied medicine in Torino from 1919 to 1924. Painter and writer he wrote there his masterpiece: Christ has stopped in Eboli (1945). Malaria which then decimated a very poor population of peasants abandoned to themselves represents the background of the book and it is as a competent and human physician that C. Levi gained the friendship of the inhabitants of this remote and inhospitable province.

  18. A methodological approach to assess sensitivity to desertification in two sub-Saharan urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) (United States)

    Iavazzo, P.; Terracciano, S.; Topa, M. E.; Adamo, P.; Coly, A.; De Paola, F.; Giordano, S.; Giugni, M.; Touré, H.


    , arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Indices of Environmental Sensitivity (ESAI). As expected, the results highlighted an overall high sensitivity to desertification. In Ouagadougou, the poorly vegetated peri-urban zone, affected by an increasing demographic pressure as the result of immigration from surrounding rural areas, was found as the most vulnerable area; in Saint Louis, the critical zones were located mostly in the northern part of the study area, where both low quality of soil and overexploitation of vegetation, due to grazing and domestic use, increase the sensitivity to desertification. The described methodological approach has a potential to represent a valuable tool to orientate effective policies preventing and mitigating land degradation processes. Model validation and comparison with other widely applied methods to assess desertification are in progress.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Borges da Silva HEINEN


    Full Text Available The dengue virus (DENV, which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV, which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT.

  20. Silent circulation of St. Louis encephalitis virus prior to an encephalitis outbreak in Cordoba, Argentina (2005.

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    Luis Adrian Díaz


    Full Text Available St. Louis encephalitis virus is a complex zoonoses. In 2005, 47 laboratory-confirmed and probable clinical cases of SLEV infection were reported in Córdoba, Argentina. Although the causes of 2005 outbreak remain unknown, they might be related not only to virological factors, but also to ecological and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that one of the factors for SLE reemergence in Córdoba, Argentina, was the introduction of a new SLEV genotype (SLEV genotype III, with no previous activity in the area. In order to evaluate this hypothesis we carried out a molecular characterization of SLEV detections from mosquitoes collected between 2001 and 2004 in Córdoba city. A total of 315 mosquito pools (11,002 individuals including 12 mosquitoes species were analyzed. Overall, 20 pools (8 mosquitoes species were positive for SLEV. During this study, genotypes II, V and VII were detected. No mosquito pool infected with genotype III was detected before the 2005 outbreak. Genotype V was found every year and in the 8 sampled sites. Genotypes II and VII showed limited temporal and spatial activities. We cannot dismiss the association of genotype II and V as etiological agents during the outbreak. However, the silent circulation of other SLEV strains in Córdoba city before the 2005 outbreak suggests that the introduction of genotype III was an important factor associated to this event. Not mutually exclusive, other factors such as changes in avian hosts and mosquitoes vectors communities, driven by climatic and environmental modifications, should also be taken into consideration in further studies.

  1. The influences of wildfires and stratospheric-tropospheric exchange on ozone during seacions mission over St. Louis (United States)

    Wilkins, Joseph L.

    The influence of wildfire biomass burning and stratospheric air mass transport on tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations in St. Louis during the SEAC4RS and SEACIONS-2013 measurement campaigns has been investigated. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF analysis reveals that 55% of ozonesonde profiles during SEACIONS were effected by biomass burning. Comparing ozonesonde profiles with numerical simulations show that as biomass burning plumes age there is O3 production aloft. A new plume injection height technique was developed based on the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) detection algorithm for pyro-convection. The NRL method identified 29 pyro-cumulonimbus events that occurred during the summer of 2013, of which 13 (44%) impacted the SEACIONS study area, and 4 (14%) impacted the St. Louis area. In this study, we investigate wildfire plume injection heights using model simulations and the FLAMBE emissions inventory using 2 different algorithms. In the first case, wildfire emissions are injected at the surface and allowed to mix within the boundary layer simulated by the meteorological model. In the second case, the injection height of wildfire emissions is determined by a guided deep-convective pyroCb run using the NRL detection algorithm. Results show that simulations using surface emissions were able to represent the transport of carbon monoxide plumes from wildfires when the plumes remained below 5 km or occurred during large convective systems, but that the surface effects were over predicted. The pyroCb cases simulated the long-range transport of elevated plumes above 5 km 68% of the time. In addition analysis of potential vorticity suggests that stratospheric intrusions or tropopause folds affected 13 days (48%) when there were sonde launches and 27 days (44%) during the entire study period. The largest impact occurred on September 12, 2013 when ozone-rich air impacted the nocturnal boundary layer. By analyzing ozonesonde profiles with

  2. Serological detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in equines from Santa Fe, Argentina. (United States)

    Tauro, Laura; Marino, Betina; Diaz, Luis Adrian; Lucca, Eduardo; Gallozo, Debora; Spinsanti, Lorena; Contigiani, Marta


    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) present ecological and antigenic similarities and are responsible for serious human diseases. In addition, WNV is a significant pathogen in terms of equine health. The purpose of our study was to analyse the seroprevalence of SLEV and WNV in equine sera collected in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. The seroprevalence determined using the plaque reduction neutralisation test was 12.2% for SLEV, 16.2% for WNV and 48.6% for a combination of both viruses. These results provide evidence of the co-circulation of SLEV and WNV in equines in Santa Fe.

  3. Unidad didáctica de reciclaje urbano. Intervención en la trama urbana de Saint Louis. Senegal


    Mfomo Zembou, Thomas


    [ES]Saint Louis es la segunda ciudad más relevante de Senegal (África) y nace de una antigua ciudad colonial francesa. Situado en la desembocadura del río Senegal, sus problemas de movilidad congestionada, saneamiento e inundaciones periódicas van en aumento. Nuestra intervención trata de responder al desafío con una propuesta sobre como reactivar espacios urbanos degradados para conseguir una mayou satisfacción ciudadana. Mediante la implantac...

  4. Françoise Mengin et Jean-Louis Rocca éds., Politics in China : Moving Frontiers


    White, Lynn T.


    Françoise Mengin et Jean-Louis Rocca ont réuni un groupe de chercheurs étonnamment international. Quatre des dix contributeurs à cet ouvrage travaillent en France et abordent en anglais (comme China Perspectives) des questions théoriques importantes, très présentes chez les sinologues d’Europe continentale. Mais des chercheurs travaillant aux Etats-Unis, au Japon, en Grande-Bretagne et à Hong Kong ont également participé à ce travail. Aucun ouvrage ne présente plus clairement les paradoxes de...

  5. Marseille et L'Invasion italienne vue par Louis Bertrand. « Ribattiamo il chiodo » Marseilles and the Italian Invasion as seen by Louis Bertrand Marsella y la Invasión italiana, vista por Louis Bertrand

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    Isabelle Felici


    Full Text Available Cet article traite du roman L'invasion publié en 1907, dont l'auteur Louis Bertrand accumule les clichés xénophobes et racistes sur les immigrés italiens à Marseille, qui constituaient alors un cinquième de la population de la ville. Le roman exprime non seulement la peur de l'"invasion" du territoire français par des étrangers, mais reflète aussi la progression d'idées que Bertrand – ultranationaliste et antidémocrate, considérait comme dangereuses pour le bon peuple travailleur et respectueux.This article is about a novel which was published in 1907, L’Invasion. Louis Bertrand, the author, presented the reader with a collection of xenophobic and racist clichés about Italian immigrants in Marseilles, who accounted for one fifth of the town’s population at the time. But the novel expresses the fear not only of the « invasion » of French territory by strangers, but also of the spread of ideas which Bertrand, as a nationalist extremist and an anti-democrat, deemed dangerous for the good, respectful and hard-working people.En este artículo se considera una novela publicada en 1907, L’Invasion. El autor, Louis Bertrand, va acumulando los clichés xenófobos y racistas sobre los inmigrados italianos de Marsella, quienes representan entonces más o menos una quinta parte de la población de Marsella. Pero esa novela no sólo expresa el miedo de la "invasión" del territorio francés por unos extranjeros, sino que refleja sobre todo el miedo a que se propaguen las ideas que Bertrand, ultranacionalista y antidemócrata, considera peligrosas para la gente buena del pueblo, trabajadora y respetuosa.

  6. Louis Vuitton: El alma del viaje. El viaje como concepto idealista de una marca a través de la publicidad


    González Revuelta, Paula


    La publicidad del sector de la moda y concretamente de Louis Vuitton presenta en la actualidad un nivel de sofisticación y notoriedad elevado porque introduce un lenguaje onírico, simbólico y emocional en sus relatos. La investigación sitúa y da significado a la simbología del concepto del viaje presente en las campañas publicitarias y en la esencia de la marca Louis Vuitton, y su constante evocación al pasado. Tomando como objeto de análisis las campañas gráficas realizadas desde los inicios...

  7. Test of the Louis scheme and COARE algorithm for friction velocity in different wind-sea/swell regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Louis scheme and the COARE algorithm (version 3.0) are tested against eddy covariance and inertial dissipation methods for friction velocity estimates in different wind-sea/swell regimes. Atmospheric forcing data, tabulated by Donelan et al. (1997.J Phys Oceanog, 27:2 087~2 099), were collected from a mast on the foredeck ofa SWATH (small water-plane area, twin hull) ship in deep sea off the State of Virginia during the surface wave dynamics experiment. These data are representative of low to moderate wind regimes.The aerodynamic roughness length is determined by using the Charnock relationship. The intercomparison shows that the Louis scheme and the COARE algorithm underestimate the friction velocity by 6% and 3% respectively under pure wind sea conditions, 15% and 13% respectively under cross swell conditions, and 21% and 17% respectively under counter swell conditions. The analysis shows that these underestimations were caused by the method chosen to determine the aerodynamic roughness length because it significantly underestimates the aerodynamic roughness length. It is especially true under the cross swell and counter swell conditions.

  8. Effects of Organic Amendments on Microbiota Associated with the Culex nigripalpus Mosquito Vector of the Saint Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses (United States)

    Hall, Michael W.; Smartt, Chelsea T.


    ABSTRACT Pollution from nutrients in aquatic habitats has been linked to increases in disease vectors, including mosquitoes and other pestiferous insects. One possibility is that changes in mosquito microbiomes are impacted by nutrient enrichments and that these changes affect various traits, including larval development, susceptibility to larval control agents, and susceptibility of the adult mosquitoes to pathogens. We tested this hypothesis using field mesocosms supplemented with low- and high-organic-nutrient regimens and then sampled microbial communities associated with the naturally colonizing Culex nigripalpus mosquito vector. By high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences, we found no significant differences in overall microbial communities associated with sampled mosquitoes, despite detecting discernible differences in environmental variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient amendments. Nevertheless, indicator species analysis revealed that members of the Clostridiales were significantly associated with mosquitoes that originated from high-nutrient enrichments. In contrast, members of the Burkholderiales were associated with mosquitoes from the low-nutrient enrichment. High bacterial variability associated with the life stages of the C. nigripalpus was largely unaffected by levels of nutrient enrichments that impacted larval microbial resources, including bacteria, ciliates, and flagellates in the larval environments. IMPORTANCE Mosquito microbiota provide important physiological and ecological attributes to mosquitoes, including an impact on their susceptibility to pathogens, fitness, and sensitivity to mosquito control agents. Culex nigripalpus mosquito populations transmit various pathogens, including the Saint Louis and West Nile viruses, and proliferate in nutrient-rich environments, such as in wastewater treatment wetlands. Our study examined whether increases in nutrients within larval mosquito developmental habitats impact

  9. Opera and the French Revolution. Syllabus for a Series of Graduate Seminars in the MAT In-service Program at Webster University, St. Louis. (United States)

    Brooks, Clifford J.

    Created for the Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) in-service program at Webster University (St. Louis, Missouri), this series of seminars, presented over a 9-day period, focuses on a comparative study of four operas set in the time period of the French Revolution. The operas examined are: (1) Mozart's "Marriage of Figaro" (1786); (2)…

  10. Louis I. Kahn ja Aldo van Eyck : paralleelid moodsa arhitektuuri teises traditsioonis / Robert McCarter ; tõlk. Tiina Randus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McCarter, Robert


    Vaadeldakse Louis I. Kahni ja Aldo van Eycki esinemist 1959. a. CIAMi (Congres Internatinaux d'Architecture Moderne) XI kongressil Otterlos, ajaloolistes paikades saadud kogemuste mõju nende loomingule, suhteid kaasaja kunstnikega ja kunstnike loomingu mõju neile, hoonete kavandamist, linnaarhitektuuri ja -planeerimist. Bibliograafia lk.101-102

  11. Issues in Career and Human Resource Development. Research Papers from the ASTD National Conference (St. Louis, Missouri, 1979). ASTD Research Series. Paper No. 5. (United States)

    Springer, Judith W., Ed.

    This book contains six presentations from the American Society of Training and Development National Conference in St. Louis. The paper, Career Development, Personal Growth, and Experiential Learning, sees learning as the central task of career development, with experiential learning theory providing a framework for mapping career changes and a…

  12. The Emperor Jones de Louis Gruenberg : le long voyage au cœur/corps de l’Autre race Louis Gruenberg’s Emperor Jones: The Long Journey into the Heart of the Other Race

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    Benoît Depardieu


    Full Text Available On January 7, 1933, two years before Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess, The Emperor Jones, composed by Louis Gruenberg in 1931, had its world premiere at the Metropolitan Opera of New York. Although Gruenberg’s opera looks like a mere musical adaptation of O’Neill’s acclaimed play, first performed in 1920, some alterations made by the composer allow to question its ambivalent reception by the audience and the critics. Apart from the singular choice of O’Neill’s play and Gruenberg’s special interest in African American music and vocal traditions, this paper analyses the influence of the Harlem Renaissance period and the fantasmatics of race, present in both the play and the opera, albeit exacerbated in the latter through the scopic enjoyment of the body of the black Other.

  13. Les nouvelles frontières des Jeux Anthropologiques de Saint-Louis The new frontiers of the St. Louis Anthropological Games: sport and the racialization of the American nation at the onset of the twentieth century

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    Fabrice Delsahut


    Full Text Available En 1904, à Saint-Louis, les compétitions olympiques furent perdues dans le chaos d’une exposition universelle, la Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Les Jeux olympiques ne purent échapper à la montée des idéologies racistes du début du xxe siècle et ils contribuèrent à discuter du mérite athlétique des différentes races. Malgré l’esprit universel qu’on voulait y voir présider, Saint-Louis refléta longtemps les préjugés raciaux de leurs organisateurs. Ces derniers mirent aussi sur pied des compétitions spéciales, appelées pour l’occasion « journées anthropologiques », réservées à ceux que l’Amérique ségrégationniste du moment considérait comme des sous-hommes. À partir de ces faits, nous essaierons de montrer comment les sciences du sport et l’anthropologie naissante se mirent ensemble au service de causes aussi discutables que la hiérarchisation raciale et le droit à la colonisation et contribuèrent grandement à la naissance d’une nation américaine mettant le sport au cœur de sa constitution. L’impact des race studies sur les façons de penser le sport ne furent pas, contrairement à ce que s’efforcèrent de faire croire les différents présidents du C.I.O. au cours des décennies suivantes, qu’un simple avatar du mouvement olympique. Enfin, nous verrons l’influence de ce spectacle athlétique interracial en dehors des États-Unis qui a assurément permis d’élaborer une certaine perception de l’altérité et limiter l’insertion des peuples autochtones dans le tissu sportif mondial.In 1904, in St. Louis, the Olympic competitions were lost in the chaos of a World Fair called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The Olympic Games could not escape the rise in the racist ideologies of the 20th century and they contributed to the discussing of the athletic merit of the different races. In spite of the universal spirit that was expected to prevail, the Games of St. Louis showed the racial

  14. Anatole Louis Garraux e o comércio de livros franceses em São Paulo (1860-1890 Anatole Louis Garraux and the trade of French books in São Paulo (1860-1890

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    Marisa Midori Deaecto


    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca recuperar o papel de Anatole Louis Garraux na promoção do comércio de livros franceses em São Paulo. Negociante natural de Paris, instalou-se na capital paulistana em 1860, vindo a se tornar o maior livreiro da cidade nas últimas décadas do século. Entre o processo de instalação da Casa Garraux e sua consagração no meio intelectual citadino, descobrimos que foram variados os seus empreendimentos e suas relações com o comércio franco-brasileiro. Todas, porém, situam-se no período de expansão do comércio de bens de consumo importados. Nesse sentido, o problema da circulação do livro será abordado na perspectiva de expansão do capitalismo editorial francês e das condições de consumo de livros existentes na capital.This article approaches some aspects of the bookseller Anatole Louis Garraux and the environment of the French publishing market in São Paulo. A French businessmen that came to this city in 1860, he became its biggest bookseller in the end of 19th century. Between the foundation of Casa Garraux and his recognition by city's intellectuals, we have found out his business had been become diversified in French-Brazilian trade. All of them, however, are located in time of international trade expansion of consumer goods. On this way, book will be approached by the point of view of Publishing Capitalism expansion and the consumption potential observed in the city.

  15. Detección molecular de virus de encefalitis de Saint Louis en mosquitos de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Fernando J Beltrán


    Full Text Available Durante el mes de marzo de 2013 una población de palomas torcazas (Zenaida auriculata se instaló en una zona céntrica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Conociendo el rol que poseen estas aves como hospedadores competentes del virus de la encefalitis de Saint Louis (SLEV, fue colocada en el lugar una trampa de luz tipo CDC, a fin de realizar una vigilancia entomológica. Durante ese mes,fueron capturados 5 grupos de mosquitos (n = 48, 3 correspondieron a la especie Culex pipiens (n = 10 y 2 a Culex spp.(n = 38, no pudiéndose determinar en estos últimos con precisión la especie por encontrarse dañados. En un grupo de mosquitos Culex spp. se detectó el SLEV por técnicas moleculares. Posteriormente fue secuenciado y clasificado como perteneciente al genotipo III.

  16. Les collections de modèles anatomiques équins de Louis Auzoux, une collection à constituer


    Degueurce, Christophe


    Le docteur Louis Auzoux (1797-1880) est bien connu pour les mannequins anatomiques de papier qu’il produisit et exporta dans le monde entier. Si les modèles se rapportant à l’homme ont une force esthétique qui leur a donné une visibilité prépondérante, ils sont loin d’être les seuls que le célèbre industriel a conçus et commercialisés ; les animaux, les végétaux et tout particulièrement les fleurs, constituent une autre facette de son art. Mais les modèles dédiés au cheval eurent une importan...

  17. Le Chasse-ennuy de Louis Garon : pour une poétique du rire


    Macé, Stéphane


    Dans la version actualisée du Dictionnaire des Lettres françaises, on peut trouver, sous la plume de Jean Serroy, une brève notice consacrée à Louis Garon (1574-1631) : cet écrivain lyonnais, d’origine genevoise, est l’auteur d’un copieux volume d’anecdotes intitulé Le Chasse-ennuy, qu’il fallait assurément toute la curiosité de notre collègue grenoblois pour chasser de notre oubli ! L’ouvrage est organisé en cinq « centuries », c’est-à-dire en cinq groupes de cent petits récits généralement ...

  18. Collaboration of Art and Science in Albert Edelfelt's Portrait of Louis Pasteur: The Making of an Enduring Medical Icon. (United States)

    Weisberg, Richard E; Hansen, Bert


    Historians of medicine--and even Louis Pasteur's biographers--have paid little attention to his close relationship with the Finnish artist Albert Edelfelt. A new look at Edelfelt's letters to his mother, written in Swedish and never quoted at length in English, reveals important aspects of Pasteur's working habits and personality. By understanding the active collaboration through which this very famous portrait was made, we also discover unnoticed things in the painting itself, gain a new appreciation of its original impact on the French public's image of science, and better understand its enduring influence on the portrayal of medicine in the art and the popular culture of many countries even to the present day.

  19. Louis Blaringhem (1878-1958), un généticien néo-lamarckien


    Thomas, Marion


    Louis Blaringhem (1878-1958) présente la figure originale d’un biologiste universitaire français qui, après avoir négligé l’impact de la redécouverte des lois de Mendel, sera l’un des premiers à enseigner la génétique mendélienne en France et qui, tout au long de sa carrière, entretiendra une collaboration étroite avec le monde agricole. L’étude de sa biographie nous a permis d’interroger la notion de style de recherche en histoire des sciences et de revisiter le débat autour de l’introductio...

  20. Activity Patterns of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Free Ranging Birds during a Human Encephalitis Outbreak in Argentina (United States)

    Quaglia, Agustín Ignacio; Konigheim, Brenda Salomé; Boris, Analia Silvana; Aguilar, Juan Javier; Komar, Nicholas; Contigiani, Marta Silvia


    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) (Flavivirus) is a reemerging arbovirus in the southern cone of South America. In 2005, an outbreak of SLEV in central Argentina resulted in 47 human cases with 9 deaths. In Argentina, the ecology of SLEV is poorly understood. Because certain birds are the primary amplifiers in North America, we hypothesized that birds amplify SLEV in Argentina as well. We compared avian SLEV seroprevalence in a variety of ecosystems in and around Córdoba city from 2004 (before the epidemic) and 2005 (during the epidemic). We also explored spatial patterns to better understand the local ecology of SLEV transmission. Because West Nile virus (WNV) was also detected in Argentina in 2005, all analyses were also conducted for WNV. A total of 980 birds were sampled for detection of SLEV and WNV neutralizing antibodies. SLEV seroprevalence in birds increased 11-fold from 2004 to 2005. Our study demonstrated that a high proportion (99.3%) of local birds were susceptible to SLEV infection immediately prior to the 2005 outbreak, indicating that the vertebrate host population was primed to amplify SLEV. SLEV was found distributed in a variety of environments throughout the city of Córdoba. However, the force of viral transmission varied among sites. Fine scale differences in populations of vectors and vertebrate hosts would explain this variation. In summary, we showed that in 2005, both SLEV and to a lesser extent WNV circulated in the avian population. Eared Dove, Picui Ground-Dove and Great Kiskadee are strong candidates to amplify SLEV because of their exposure to the pathogen at the population level, and their widespread abundance. For the same reasons, Rufous Hornero may be an important maintenance host for WNV in central Argentina. Competence studies and vector feeding studies are needed to confirm these relationships. PMID:27564679

  1. Les apparences vestimentaires de Louis XV : la composition de la garde-robe du souverain pour l’année 1772

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    Marie Chiozzotto


    Full Text Available La série de documents comptables provenant de la Garde-robe royale et conservée aux Archives Nationales est une source remarquable et inédite sur la culture vestimentaire curiale de l’époque moderne. L’analyse du corpus concernant l’année 1772 permet de reconstituer le contenu du vestiaire de Louis XV et d’identifier les acteurs de l’apparence royale. Un très grand nombre de pièces, habits habillés, habits-uniformes mais aussi manteaux et robes de chambre est commandé sur l’année. Toutes sont marquées par le luxe et la diversité de l’ornementation, des étoffes et des coloris. Quant au linge et aux accessoires, ils sont confectionnés dans les matières les plus nobles. La garde-robe du souverain répond à deux exigences, l’ostentation et le luxe qui définissent le statut du roi, et le respect du cérémonial de la vie de cour. Le faste de la parure royale participe ainsi pleinement à l’élaboration des signes de distinction de Louis XV, souverain parmi les courtisans.France, XVIIIe siècle, cour de France, Louis XV, garde-robe royale, vêtements, textilesRoyal Appearances. The Louis XV’s wardrobe in 1772 - The series of accounts from the French royal wardrobe, preserved at the National Archives in Paris, is a remarkable and original source about the court clothing culture of the 18th century. The study of the 1772 documents gives us the chance to reconstitute the content of the Louis XV’s wardrobe and to identify the actors of the royal appearance. A very large number of clothes, court costumes, uniforms, coats and dressing gowns is ordered all over the year. All of these items are sumptuous and the variety of the ornamentation, the fabrics and the colours is impressive. The underwear and the accessories are made in the most luxurious materials. The king’s wardrobe corresponds to two requirements : the ostentation and the luxury which define king’s status, and the respect of the court ceremonial. The

  2. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from the PITTSBURGH and ST.LOUIS using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 19 June 1984 to 25 June 1986 (NODC Accession 8600373) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from the PITTSBURGH and ST.LOUIS. Data were collected...

  3. [Louis Vincelet, medical historian, chronicler of the work of de Maupassant, a Normand passionate about the sea and a dreamer of becoming a white clown]. (United States)

    Vincelet, Patrick


    Son, grandson, great grandson, grandnephew of a medical doctor on both sides, Louis Vincelet dreamt of becoming a white clown, and ultimately his medical uniform in the merchant navy was not so different, during his long career with the Transatlantic General Company up to the age of 55. The sea has been his great source of inspiration, even when he had settled in Paris, taking care of the "forts des halles" and of artists in the main Parisian circuses.

  4. Minutes of the Explosives Safety Seminar (24th) Held in St. Louis, Missouri on 28-30 August 1990. Volume 1 (United States)


    Characterize Propellant and Combustible Case Extinguishment ............................ 579 C. J. Dahn, B. Reyes , A. Kashani, E. Applet New Concepts in...Safety Seminar St. Louis, Missouri VENTED BOMB TESTS TO CHARACTERIZE PROPELLANT AND COMBUSTIBLE CASE EXTINGUISHMENT by C. James Dahn Bernadette N. Reyes ...No. 2 fuel oil mixtures showed no propagation of detonation characteristics in static testa at TNT concentrations up to 78 wt percent. TNT-toluene

  5. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil



    Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the ser...

  6. A Joint Venture in Urban High School Reform. (United States)

    Weinman, Janice; Jackson, Otis


    Describes a joint attempt by the Federal government, a private foundation, local social service agencies, and a local school district to revitalize an urban high school and its neighboring community in St. Louis through a system for disseminating information about educational and job opportunities for students and community residents. (EF)

  7. Urban growth and cultural identity; fractures and imbalances in heritage values: A case study of the island of Saint-Louis, Senegal

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    Lucía Martínez-Quintana


    Full Text Available The island of Saint-Louis of Senegal was awarded the status of world heritage site by UNESCO in 2000 as an “outstanding example” of urban heritage. This island city comes with a unique heritage: development planning that combines a strong historical French influence with a gridiron urban morphology and building typology. The island must be interpreted within its total territorial context that includes both the island of Sor (on the mainland and La Langue de la Barberie, a sandy barrier that separates the mouth of the river from the sea. The city of Saint-Louis itself has grown enormously and haphazardly from the latter part of the 20th century: it is now the fourth most populous city in Senegal. At present, the city is undergoing a serious period of decline and recession due, in part, to the overriding influence of the capital, Dakar, and the centralized political forces in the country. This article looks at the key morphological and functional reasons behind the development and evolution of the island of Saint-Louis and that persist in the present context, with justifications for the deep-rooted heritage values that maintain its prestige as a World Heritage Site.

  8. Age-related seroprevalence study for St. Louis encephalitis in a population from Cordoba, Argentina Estudo da prevalência para vírus da encefalite St. Louis relacionado com a idade em uma população de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Lorena Ivana SPINSANTI


    Full Text Available A serological screening was performed in 615 individuals aged 0-87 years, living in the city of Cordoba, Argentina to study the relationship between antibody prevalence for the SLE virus and age. A 13.98% prevalence of neutralizing antibodies was obtained and its relation to age was significantly high (p = 0.045. The highest seroprevalence was noted on individuals over 60 years old (>20%, whereas no subject under 10 was seropositive for this virus. Our results confirm that the agent is endemic in this area and neurological pathology studies should be performed on those individuals aged 60 since they represent the most susceptible group to SLE virus.Com a finalidade de estudar a relação entre prevalência de anticorpo para o vírus da encefalite St. Louis (ESL e a idade, foram analisados 615 soros de indivíduos entre 0-87 anos de idade, morando na cidade de Córdoba, Argentina. Detectou-se uma prevalência de anticorpos neutralizantes de 13,98% e observou-se uma relação com a idade estatisticamente significante (p = 0,045. A soroprevalência mais alta foi encontrada em indivíduos de mais de 60 anos (> 20%, enquanto nenhum com menos de 10 anos foi soropositivo para este vírus. Nossos resultados confirmam que o agente é endêmico nesta área. Por esse motivo os autores sugerem que deveríam se realizar estudos de patologias neurológicas nesses indivíduos de 60 anos de idade dado que eles representam o grupo mais suscetível ao vírus ESL.

  9. Louis Sambon and the Clash of Pellagra Etiologies in Italy and the United States, 1905-14. (United States)

    Gentilcore, David


    This article explores the extent to which the bacterial concept of disease acted as an obstacle to the understanding of deficiency diseases, by focusing on explorations into the cause of pellagra in the early twentieth century. In 1900, pellagra had been epidemic in Italy for 150 years and was soon to become so in the United States, yet the responses of medical investigators differed substantially. To account for these, the article reconstructs the sharply contrasting reactions to a provocative theory proposed by Louis Sambon. Applying a tropical diseases approach to pellagra, Sambon argued that pellagra had nothing at all to do with maize consumption, as the Italians had long thought, but was caused by the bite of a parasite-carrying insect. Italian pellagrologists, involved in a dogmatic quest for a toxin in maize, and with pellagra rates there on the decline, marginalized the Sambon hypothesis. By contrast, in the United States, with pellagra on the rise, the dominant infectious paradigm put Sambon center stage, his proposed etiology shaping the earliest American investigations. When the deficiency disease concept gained currency in 1913, the relatively closed world of Italian pellagrology was wrong-footed, while the more open-ended U.S. community was better able to follow up the new lead. The article discusses what these shifts and the resulting controversies reveal about the medical contexts. The actor-centered approach, with reaction to Sambon's intervention as a kind of test-case, is the key to understanding these controversies and why they mattered.

  10. Use of Satellite Images to map Flood Extension around the city of Saint Louis in the Senegal River Estuary

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    Aliou Dia


    Full Text Available The traditional method of landsat satellite data combination and the gathering of important information made it possible to produce a Geographical Information System to monitor floods in the lower estuary of the Senegal River valley (Sandholt,I., Fog, B. & Fensholt, R., 2001. This technical approach is a powerful tool for combining important information for a better comprehension of the floods and the characterization of surface qualities on the estuary. By way of a multi-temporal approach, the study team established the qualitative and quantitative impact of floods on the various geographical objects, a detailed cartography of the land use and the surfaces flooded in 1998 and 1999. The study undertaken in Saint Louis made it possible to consider surfaces flooded in 1999, and to understand the extent of these floods compared to those of 1998. The constitution of a tool of decision-making aid makes it possible to have information relating to the extent of the flood, the scope of flooded surfaces and to detect the more exposed zones in order to establish a hierarchical map according to the percentage of exposure to the risk of the geographical objects affected by the floods (populations, road infrastructures and tracks, medical and social infrastructures and perimeters of cultures (agriculture.

  11. The Condition of the Lyon Weavers in the Letters to Louis XV and Monseigneur Poulletier (1731 and 1732

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    Carmelina Imbroscio


    Full Text Available On 8th May, 1731, an ordinance of Louis XV, King of France, imposed separation between the production and sale activities of the weavers of ‘gold, silver and silk’ at the famous Lyon Manufactory in which hundreds of families worked. The ordinance plunged into despair the workers (maîtres ouvriers who, up till then, for centuries, had been allowed to sell their goods freely and were now in danger of being reduced to poverty by a handful of traffickers who knew nothing about their extremely sophisticated, skilful trade, but would be enabled to capitalize on their work. They therefore addressed two petitions (the first in 1731 and the second in 1732 to the King and Monseigneur Poulletier, the King’s Superintendent and the Manufactory’s Overseer, asking for the abrogation of the ordinance and a revision of the Manufactory’s regulations. The interesting aspect of these two petitions is that they show the workers’ consciousness of their rights; indeed, their denunciation of these abuses foretells, a century before, the two important revolts of the canuts (as the Lyon textile workers were known which were to break out in 1831 and 1834.

  12. Virulence variation among epidemic and non-epidemic strains of Saint Louis encephalitis virus circulating in Argentina

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    María Elisa Rivarola


    Full Text Available Saint Louis encephalitis virus caused an outbreak of febrile illness and encephalitis cases in Córdoba, Argentina, in 2005. During this outbreak, the strain CbaAr-4005 was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. We hypothesised that this epidemic variant would be more virulent in a mouse model than two other non-epidemic strains (78V-6507 and CorAn-9275 isolated under different epidemiological conditions. To test this hypothesis, we performed a biological characterisation in a murine model, including mortality, morbidity and infection percentages and lethal infection indices using the three strains. Mice were separated into age groups (7, 10 and 21-day-old mice and analysed after infection. The strain CbaAr-4005 was the most infective and lethal of the three variants, whereas the other two strains exhibited a decreasing mortality percentage with increasing animal age. The strain CbaAr-4005 produced the highest morbidity percentages and no significant differences among age groups were observed. The epidemic strain caused signs of illness in all inoculated animals and showed narrower ranges from the onset of symptoms than the other strains. CbaAr-4005 was the most virulent for Swiss albino mice. Our results highlight the importance of performing biological characterisations of arbovirus strains likely to be responsible for emerging or reemerging human diseases.

  13. Study of air pollution scavenging. Fifteenth progress report. [Air pollution over St. Louis, Missouri and rural Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Ackerman, B.; Gatz, D.F.; Rilberg, S.D.; Peden, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.K.; Stensland, G.J.


    Selected analyses of air and rainwater chemistry and meteorological data are presented as part of the final efforts on the 5-year METROMEX study. The size characterization, air concentration, and source identification of aerosols over and near St. Louis are related to the urban-industrial activities of the metropolitan area. The precipitation studies are comprised of a comparison of chemical analyses of simulated rain samples between several laboratories, including the Survey. The results showed that the analytical technique used by the Survey for the chemical analysis of the METROMEX samples is excellent for increasing confidence in the published data. Other precipitation analyses are directed toward the acid rain problem as demonstrated by historical and current measurements in Illinois. The meteorological investigations consist of analysis of diurnal temperature and moisture cycles at urban and rural sites which relates to the development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as perturbed by the city. The three-dimensional character of the PBL is also presented as determined by the radiosonde operations during METROMEX. Finally, the technique to calculate three-dimensional trajectories of air motion using the numerous pilot balloon observations acquired during the project is presented. These data are essential for the full interpretation of the air and rain chemistry observations, and the development of empirical models of pollutant scavenging.

  14. Finestre e finestrini: sguardi plurimi e incrociati sul “pays-temps” di Louis-Philippe Dalembert

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    Emanuela Cacchioli


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the presence and the absence of windows, and specifically windows with shutters, car windows and rear-view mirrors in the novels by Haitian writer Louis-Philippe Dalembert. In his work, we can identify three tendencies. First of all, windows with shutters allow the passage from childhood to adulthood. Secondly, the absence of openings projects the character in heterotopias, which cause a language breakdown. Thirdly, the use of literary windows is linked with vagabondage and pays-temps. An image of the landscape is selected through a frame and we have the perception of a fragmentary vision. According to Dalembert, this world vision becomes a narrative element and a creative technique. This partial image which emerges from the symbolic space of the window allows us to talk about the childhood of the narrator from different perspectives: we can identify a geographical and temporal landscape (pays-temps thanks to a reflection on the surface of the window and the possibility of remembering and imaging the past. Fiction is able to complete omissions, gaps, lapses.

  15. [Louis-Marie Rousseau and the "Chocolat rationnel des pharmaciens français" (Rational Chocolate of French pharmacists)]. (United States)

    Raynal, Cécile


    In 1883, the chemist Louis-Marie Rousseau (1849-1930) creats the "Compagnie hygiénique française" (French Hygienic Company). The company manufactures and sells the "Poudre de viande Rousseau" (Rousseau meat powder) and the "Chocolat Rousseau" (Rousseau Chocolate) by methods developed and patented by the pharmacist. Ten years after a successful collaboration, L.-M. Rousseau separates from his associates and founds the "Chocolaterie spéciale d'Ermont" (Special Chocolate factory of Ermont) in the village of Ermont near Paris. Here is manufactured the "Chocolat Rationnel des pharmaciens français" (Rational Chocolate of French pharmacists), hygienic chocolate sold only in pharmacies. The factory is also a pharmaceutical laboratory where is extracted theobromine from waste vegetable substances of cocoa. It then produces the "Théobromine Rousseau cristallisée" (crystallized Rousseau's Theobromine) sold as tablets, then the "Théosol" that will be commercialized until the middle of 1930s.

  16. Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde-was Robert Louis Stevenson inspired by Horace Wells? (United States)

    Vyas, Rini A; Desai, Sukumar P


    It has been suggested that Robert Louis Stevenson's masterpiece Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde derived inspiration from the real-life tragedy of the final days of Connecticut dentist Horace Wells, innovator of the clinical use of the anesthetic properties of nitrous oxide. We examined Stevenson's letters, biographies, and other references in the literature, press, and online to determine whether any factual basis exists for Stevenson to be aware of Wells' life, and also if it played any role in creating the novel's plot. Stevenson was born in Scotland, several years after Wells had committed suicide in New York. Wells' life and death received widespread coverage in the northeastern United States, but there is no evidence that it was printed in newspapers or periodicals in England or Scotland. On the other hand, novelists of the period, psychologists, and the lay public were quite interested in the concept of split personalities and the dual nature of man, so these may have been natural substrates for the novel. There is evidence that Stevenson dreamt about episodes similar to those depicted in his novel. All claims to any relationship between Wells and the novel come from the United States, and none of them are backed by evidence. In the absence of evidence supporting a relationship between the behavior exhibited by Wells during his final days and any inspiration that Stevenson might have derived from it, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to suggest any relationship between them.

  17. La couleur à Lille au xviie siècle, de Philippe IV à Louis XIV The colour of Lille in the seventeenth century, from Philippe IV to Louis XIV

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    Étienne Poncelet


    Full Text Available Pays polychrome, de pierres blanches ou bleues et de briques roses, jaunes ou noires, la Flandre manie depuis le Moyen Âge les jeux colorés de matériaux. Sa capitale wallonne, Lille, est la ville méridionale des Pays‑Bas catholiques où s’acclimatent les plantes de la compagnie des Indes néerlandaises et où se déroulent les « joyeuses entrées » des comtes, ducs de Bourgogne, archiducs et autres rois d’Espagne. Cette tradition de luxuriance se traduit à l’âge d'or bourguignon par une efflorescence de couleurs sur les édifices qui durera jusqu’à la prise de Lille par Louis XIV en 1667. Les portes « espagnoles » affichent leurs briques émaillées de couleur. L’hospice Comtesse placarde son retable de pierres peintes sur sa façade d’entrée. La Vieille Bourse colore ses façades au modèle d’un cabinet d’ébénisterie avec ses incrustations de pierres nacrées et de brique luisantes comme les écailles de tortue. Le style franco‑lillois transmettra ce goût pour la couleur à travers la reconstitution du centre ville au xviie siècle, ce dont témoigne le plan-relief de 1743. Les restaurations depuis une dizaine d’années retrouvent cette tradition de joie urbaine dans les autres « grand-places » des villes du Nord.A polychromatic land of white and blue stone and pink, yellow and black brick, Flanders has sought colour combinations in building materials since the Middle Ages. Its French-speaking capital, Lille, was the city in the south of the Catholic Netherlands where plants imported by the Dutch East Indies Company acclimatized and where the ‘Joyous Entry’ celebrations of the counts, Dukes of Burgundy, archdukes and kings of Spain took place. During the golden age of Burgundy, this tradition of luxuriance was reflected in the increasing use of colours on buildings, a trend that would endure until the siege of Lille by Louis XIV in 1667. The ‘Spanish’ gates display brickwork enamelled in


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    Esteban Dominguez


    Full Text Available El presente artículo se inscribe en el ámbito de la teoría política contemporánea pretendiendo indicar a Louis Althusser como un autor clave para la interrogación sobre la política en la actualidad. Se propone una revisión de la lectura althusseriana de Maquiavelo que permita esbozar dos puntos a desarrollar de manera preliminar. En primer lugar, responder a la pregunta sobre el por qué de la recurrencia al fiorentino por parte del filósofo comunista. Se sostendrá que la lectura de Maquiavelo sobredetermina la intervención teórica de Althusser incorporando ‘nuevos’ temas y reactualizando ‘viejos’ interrogantes del althusserianismo. De modo que una lectura como esta permitiría recuperar de una manera específica cierto legado del autor. En segundo lugar, por medio del tratamiento de la problemática del comienzo en política en sus condiciones de imposibilidad -entre la eterna repetición de lo mismo y la absoluta contingencia por venir-, se señalará que lo que el autor encuentra frente a Maquiavelo es la posibilidad de una expansión del potencial de sentido de la política frente a quienes pretenden reducirla en su concepto y sus efectos. Producto de este análisis se señalará hasta qué punto la interrogación de Althusser por la política puede ser inscripta en un horizonte teórico posfundacional.

  19. Histoire, histoires… Blood Upon the Rose de Gerry Hunt et Louis Riel. A Comic Strip Biography de Chester Brown

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    Valérie Morisson


    Full Text Available Dans deux bandes dessinées historiques abordant des épisodes centraux de l’histoire nationale irlandaise et manitobienne, Gerry Hunt et Chester Brown mettent en scène des héros devenus martyrs en leur pays. Leurs choix scénaristiques et graphiques sont très éloignés mais les deux auteurs se penchent sur l’exemplarité contestée des héros et revendiquent le droit de fournir aux lecteurs des points de vue audacieux sur les mythes fondateurs de la nation. La bande dessinée leur permet de s’affranchir d’une tradition historiographique nationaliste. Blood Upon the Rose et Louis Riel sont néanmoins sous-tendues par deux visions divergentes de l’histoire. La lutte pour l’indépendance est présentée soit comme le fait d’un individu soit comme un élan collectif.In their historical graphic novels, focused on pivotal episodes of Irish and Manitobian history, Gerry Hunt and Chester Brown put in the limelight two heroes that are, in their countries, elevated to the status of martyrs. If the authors’ graphic and narrative choices differ, both of them question the virtues of these much-debated heroes and claim their right to provide well-grounded but daring interpretations of the forging of the nation and its myths. Blood Upon the Rose and Chester Brown are nonetheless underpinned by two diverging visions of History since the fight for independence is viewed either as the achievement of an enlightened individual or as the result of a collective rebellion.

  20. The Priest and the King in Hierarchy:on Louis Dumont’s The Conception of Kingship in Ancient India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zha Caoman; Zhang Yuan


    I. The Caste System and the Hierar-chy:Dumont and his Indian Study As one of the most important anthropologists in 20th century, Louis Dumont, on one hand, suc-cessfully introduced anthropological theory and methodology to Indian Studies,on the other hand, he contributed a lot to anthropology through his In-dian studies. He applied structuralism and ideology in his fieldwork and ethnography,and refocused at-tention on comparative studies based on local con-cepts, categories and values. In his Homo Hierar-chicus,he applied his mentor Marcel Mauss’ idea of totality,and emphasized that : “it is only in rela-tion to the totality thus reconstructed that the ideol-ogy takes on its true sociological significance.”This book is also remarked on as one of the best studies for understanding other societies based on this society’s social theory. Another book by him, Essays on Individualism,is praised as presenting an anthropological way of rethinking the locality of western civilization and its ideology,instead of re-garding it as universal. Based on the comparative study of“western” and “eastern” civilizations, he proposes: “our problem is: how can we build a bridge between our modern ideology that separates values and ‘fact’ and other ideologies that embed values in their world view?”His most famous and important concept is“hierarchy”,which he believes is the key to under-standing the Indian caste system and Indian socie-ty. He emphasizes that hierarchy cannot be ex-plained by the western idea of class or social strati-fication. He defines hierarchy as a concept derived from traditional Hindu theory,as “the principle by which the elements of a whole are ranked in rela-tion to the whole.” Hierarchy,with the caste sys-tem as its social form, is underlined by the Hindu opposition between pure and impure. Dumont high-lights this opposition as a “Synthetic a priori”op-position which follow such a principle:“the whole is founded on the

  1. Espíritos cheios de bichos: A fauna nas viagens de Louis Agassiz e Richard Francis Burton pelo Brasil oitocentista

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    Janaina Zito Losada


    Full Text Available O Brasil do século XIX foi alvo de inúmeras viagens realizadas por cientistas estrangeiros. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as impressões sobre a fauna brasileira presentes nos relatos das viagens realizadas pelo naturalista suíço Louis Agassiz, em 1865, e pelo explorador inglês Richard Francis Burton, em 1868. Destes relatos privilegiam-se as descrições do meio natural de diferentes regiões brasileiras e das particularidades da fauna silvestre por eles encontrada.

  2. [Pierre-Joseph Duhem (1758-1807), doctor regicide, and other National Convention physician-deputies vis-a-vis the lawsuit of Louis XVI]. (United States)

    Dupont, Geneviève; Lellouch, Alain; Olry, Régis


    On January 16, 1793, seven hundred aud forty nine deputies of the National Convention are called on to express their opinion by word of mouth about this question: "What penalty Louis, former king of the French, brought upon himself ?" Among these deputies, 47 are or were physicians : 22 vote for death without delay, 3 for suspended death sentence, 20 for indulgence (imprisonment till the peace and banishment thereafter), and 2 refuse to vote. This paper aims at summarizing the attitude of the physicians-deputies, and more specifically those of Pierre-Joseph Duhem, at the time of one of the most famous trials of the history of France.

  3. En torno a la diferencia entre la dialéctica hegeliana y la dialéctica marxista según Louis Althusser


    Viglione, María Paula


    El desarrollo filosófico que emprende Louis Althusser en el seno de la teoría marxista exige, como él mismo señala, enmarcarlo en la coyuntura histórica de los años sesenta. El movimiento comunista internacional se encontraba convulsionado a partir de dos hechos acontecidos después de la muerte de Stalin: el XX° Congreso del PCUS en 1956 que proclama el inicio del proceso de “desestalinización” y la crítica del “culto a la personalidad” y el XXII° Congreso en 1961 que marca la ruptura defi...

  4. Das utopias e revoluções: representações sobre o incesto em Le Souffle Au Coeur de Louis Malle

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    Débora Breder


    Full Text Available This article analyses the representations of incest and its forbiddance in Louis Malle's feature movie Le Souffle au coeur (1971, french movie maker whose work, from his own point of view, would be marked by the theme of “transgression”. The movie plot shows the incestuous relationship, conscious and consented, between mother and son. A relationship that happens in a torrid summer of 1954, year that foretells the beginning of French colonial empire collapse; such relationship is consummated under the fireworks of a July 14th, date when France celebrates the revolution triumph.

  5. Proceedings of Conference XVIII: a workshop on "Continuing actions to reduce losses from earthquakes in the Mississippi Valley area," 24-26 May, 1982, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    Gori, Paula L.; Hays, Walter W.; Kitzmiller, Carla


    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Federal Emergency Management Agency sponsored a workshop on, "Continuing Actions to Reduce Losses from Earthquakes in the Mississippi Valley area," in St. Louis, Missouri, on May 24-26, 1982. Seventy individuals (see Appendix A) representing local, State, and Federal government; business and industry; and the research community participated in the three day workshop. Collectively, the participants had backgrounds in disaster preparedness, disaster response and recovery, geology, geophysics, seismology, engineering, architecture, social science, law, insurance, and land-use planning. Two-thirds of them came from the Mississippi Valley area

  6. Responses of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide to High Intensity Submaximal Exercise in the Heat, (United States)


    Natriuretic Peptide to LnHigh Intensity Submaximal Exercise in the Heat 0 " William J. Kraemer. Lawrence E. Armstrong, Roger W. Hubbard. :I[_] Louis J...atriopeptins in rat adrenal cells. Cir Res 57: 113-118. f V-0C -- V- - IF -I 7 - % 7 -. 17 Chartier L. Schiffrin EL. Thibault G (1984). Effects of atrial

  7. Edificio de la American Zinc Co. - St. Louis - Missouri – (EE. UU.

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    Hellmuth, George


    Full Text Available This design serves two very clearly distinct purposes: on the one hand, the three office floors, 2,800 m2 each, assure a high degree of interior lay-out flexibility, and on the other, the exterior appearance displays the nature of the Company, active in the metal field. For the first purpose, two piers 15 m appart on the main façade leave free from obstacles the entire floor space of the several storeys, while for the other purpose, the stinless-steel-covered outside surfaces form an Identification sign for the Company occupying the buildings. The inpressively broad bays between piers that turn the ground floor into a virtually diaphanous and unobstructed area, give the feeling of a very light building, almost suspended in mid-air.

    El proyecto satisface dos objetivos claramente definidos: por un lado asegura, para las plantas de oficina —tres en total, con 2.800 m2 de superficie—, un alto grado de flexibilidad en la distribución interior, y por otro refleja, exteriormente, la naturaleza de la empresa, dedicada al ramo de la metalurgia. Para el primer propósito se dispusieron sobre la fachada principal dos pilares distanciados unos 15 m entre sí, que dejan libres de obstáculos toda la superficie de las plantas. Para el otro fin se utilizó un revestimiento de fachadas con módulos de acero inoxidable, como signo de identidad para la compañía. Destaca en la obra la imponente luz entre pilares que, al dejar prácticamente diáfana la planta baja, dan al edificio la impresión de un volumen ligero, casi suspendido en el aire.

  8. The political and economic impacts of writing across the curriculum in chemistry at the University of Missouri-St. Louis (United States)

    Klein, William Dixon

    Writing Across the Curriculum at most institutions is a web of local knowledges and techniques "situated" within the historical and immediate contexts of academic departments, disciplines, and disciplinary cultures. Because of political and economic tensions existing within colleges and universities, and within academic disciplines themselves, WAC can become a "contact zone," where individuals and institutional structures struggle for power, influence, and in some cases, survival. This dissertation uses the work of Anthony Giddens and Pierre Bourdieu to examine such a struggle as it occurred at the University of Missouri-St. Louis in the early 1980s. A WAC program was initiated there, but eventually failed as a result of political and economic influences. In the time since that failure, a growing emphasis on teaching and learning has helped create new potential for WAC at UMSL. Yet, to make it viable, WAC proponents there must recognize existing realities, attitudes, and conventions within each discipline or department, and develop new methods and approaches to writing and teaching that are relevant to that discipline or department. This examination then focuses on writing in chemistry to discover the realities, attitudes, and conventions used in teaching and learning writing at the undergraduate level. Standards for content acquisition are gathered from ACS accreditation requirements, and from a study of educators and practitioners from a variety of professions. A study of Chemistry students in an NSF-funded educational program suggests that science students may learn as much or more about disciplinary discourse from sources other than the traditional writing course. Interaction with the literature and with graduate students, professors, and professionals may teach students more about disciplinary discourse conventions than a composition-trained specialist might accomplish in a writing course. Still, the writing course can be useful. These findings suggest that

  9. When did Louis Pasteur present his memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences? Analysis of a discrepancy. (United States)

    Gal, Joseph


    Louis Pasteur presented his historic memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences in Paris on May 22nd, 1848. The literature, however, nearly completely ignores this date, widely claiming instead May 15th, 1848, which first surfaced in 1922 in Pasteur's collected works edited by his grandson Louis Pasteur Vallery-Radot. On May 21st, 1848, i.e., one day before Pasteur's presentation in Paris, his mother died in Arbois, eastern France. Informed at an unknown point in time that she was "very ill," Pasteur left for Arbois only after his presentation. Biographies of Pasteur by his son-in-law René Vallery-Radot or the grandson, and Pasteur's collected correspondence edited by the grandson are incomprehensibly laconic or silent about the historic presentation. While no definite conclusions are possible, the evidence strongly suggests a deliberate alteration of the record by the biographer relatives, presumably for fear of adverse public judgment of Pasteur for a real or perceived insensitivity to a grave family medical emergency. Such fear would have been in accord with their hagiographic portrayal of Pasteur, and the findings raise questions concerning the extent of their zeal in protecting his "demigod" image. Universal recognition of the true date of Pasteur's announcement of molecular chirality is long overdue.

  10. Optic Pathway Gliomas in Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1

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    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Advances in the pathophysiology and clinical behavior of NF-1 associated optic pathway gliomas (OPG made over the past 10 years are examined, and evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management are proposed by researchers from Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago; St Thomas's Hospital, London; Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia; and Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, The initial diagnostic and management guidelines proposed by a task force in 1997 are extended, and unanswered questions are addressed.

  11. The share of renewable energies in electricity generation - Interview wit= h Jean-Louis Bal, Chairman of the Renewable Energies Association; La place des EnR dans la production d'electricite - Entretien avec Jean-Louis Bal, President du Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, Jean-Louis [Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables, 13-15, rue de la Baume, 75008 Paris (France); Hauet, J.P. [SEE - 17 rue de l' Amiral Hamelin F-75783 Paris Cedex 16 (France)


    In this interview, Jean-Louis Bal, Chairman of the French Renewable Energies Association (SER), expresses his viewpoint concerning the French and European energy policies and in particular concerning the share of renewable energy sources in the 2020 prospects. Different aspects of these policies are debated: the impact of the development of renewable energies on power generation and electricity prices, the French policy of photovoltaic energy development, the problem of electricity storage, the development of solar projects in the Mediterranean area, and the employment in France in relation with the renewable energy industries. (J.S.)

  12. The Matrix Regained: Reflections on the Use of the Grid in the Architectural Theories of Nicolaus Goldmann and Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Goudeau


    Full Text Available In addition to the superficial visual similarities between the architectural theories of the Silesian-born, seventeenth-century Dutch mathematician Nicolaus Goldmann and the early nineteenth-century French architect Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, there is a more profound interconnection: their use of the grid. This article evaluates the relation between the two theories and argues how Durand could have been influenced by Goldmann’s writings. It turns out to be more than likely that the two were linked by Durand´s German pupils who brought the tradition of German eighteenth-century architectural theory with them. This corpus was nourished by Leonhard Christoph Sturm´s ‘Goldmannic’ architecture.

  13. Entre Maquiavelo y Adorno: Louis Althusser y las relaciones entre teoría y práctica política : Una interpretación


    Cardella, Sebastián


    La lectura de Maquiavelo realizada por Louis Althusser en la década de los ‘70, le permitirá a éste último recuperar y renovar los postulados del propio Marx y del marxismo “clásico”, en aras de volverlos útiles y acordes para abordar las problemáticas que marcaba una coyuntura signada por la “crisis” del movimiento comunista internacional. En este marco, Althusser logrará –vía Maquiavelo- producir una nueva visión de la política -o, más específicamente, de la práctica política- en su relació...

  14. Reagire alla dominazione sociale: classe, sesso e politica nelle narrazioni autobiografiche di Didier Éribon ed Édouard Louis

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    Silvia Nugara


    Full Text Available Iscrivendosi nella scia dell’autobiografia sociologica di Bourdieu, Retour à Reims (2009 del sociologo Didier Éribon e En finir avec Eddy Bellegueule (2014 del suo allievo ventiduenne Édouard Louis raccontano l’esperienza dei rispettivi autori a partire dalle dinamiche di dominazione sociale e sessuale che l’hanno determinata. Entrambi i testi chiamano in causa la figura dell’intellettuale come transfuga di classe che tramite la scrittura rielabora i conflitti identitari che lo attraversano e apre a una riflessione sui rapporti tra potere politico e potere simbolico. Inoltre, questi due esempi di auto-socio-analisi possono essere interpretati come contributi a un dibattito pubblico che in Francia e non solo si confronta con il valore politico di identità sociali sempre più complesse e con dinamiche elettorali che dagli anni Sessanta a oggi hanno sciolto il legame tra forze politiche della sinistra e classi sociali più svantaggiate.

  15. Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa. (United States)

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad


    The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides.

  16. "Comets, Origins, and Life:” Promoting Interdisciplinary Science in Secondary and Middle Schools in the Washington, DC and Saint Louis, MO Metro Areas (United States)

    Bonev, Boncho; Gibb, E. L.; Brewer, G.; Novak, R.; Mandell, A. M.; Seaton, P.; Price, J.; Long, T.; Bahar, S.; Edwards, S. S.


    Developing a full-year program to support secondary and middle school science education is a key part of the "broader impact” component of NSF Grant AST- 0807939 (PI/Co-PI Bonev/Gibb). This program is realized at two stages: (1) a professional development course for teachers is offered during the summer; (2) during the subsequent academic year we collaborate with educators in lessons planning or curriculum development as demanded in their particular schools. We successfully offered the course “ Comets, Origins, and Life: Interdisciplinary Science in the Secondary Classroom ” (45 contact hours; 3 credits) in the summers of 2009 and 2010 at the Catholic University of America. This class demonstrates how a complex hypothesis - for the delivery of water and prebiotic organic matter to early Earth - is being tested by integrating astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary science. Collaborations with participants from the 2009 class include curriculum development within the Earth Science program in Prince Georges county, MD and strengthening science in Washington DC public schools. Our next step is to offer our class in the Saint Louis, MO area. The main challenge in our work with educators is not to present them with "interesting information", but to fit what we offer within the very particular curriculum expectations of their school districts. These curriculum expectations often vary from district to district and sometimes from year to year. We gratefully acknowledge the support by the NSF, allowing to fully integrate our research area into education. We also gratefully acknowledge our collaborations with the Goddard Center for Astrobiology and the Howard B. Owens Science Center (both in MD) in developing our class curriculum. Educators interested in this program can contact Boncho Bonev (; for the Washington DC and Baltimore, MD areas) and Erika Gibb (; for the Saint Louis, MO area).

  17. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

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    Horacio López


    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea from 1997-09-24 to 1997-10-15 (NODC Accession 0113984) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113984 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea from...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Beaufort Sea and Northwest Passage from 1997-08-31 to 1997-09-16 (NODC Accession 0116061) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116061 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Beaufort Sea and Northwest Passage...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait and others from 1997-08-03 to 1997-08-18 (NODC Accession 0114432) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114432 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Hudson...

  1. Evaluation of sensitivity to desertification by a modified ESAs method in two sub-Saharan peri-urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) (United States)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric


    Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of

  2. Le contact eau douce-eau de mer entre Dakar et Saint-Louis (Sénégal) : une étude géoélectrique


    Diouf, Same; Gomis, Raymond; Tchani, Joseph


    Resistivity methods were used with a vertical electrical sounding network to investigate the relationship between freshwater and saltwater along the northern coastline of Senegal, from Dakar to Saint-Louis. The water-table aquifer lies in quaternary sands with very low piezometric heads, less than one meter near the coast. The depth of the saltwater interface, as revealed by the water resistivity using Archie's formula, is consistent with a gentle slope of the watertable towards the sea. Alon...

  3. Drivers of land cover and land use changes in St. Louis metropolitan area over the past 40 years characterized by remote sensing and census population data (United States)

    Maimaitijiang, Maitiniyazi; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Sandoval, J. S. Onésimo; Maimaitiyiming, Matthew


    In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover and land use (LCLU) and population change dynamics in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. The goal of this paper was to quantify the drivers of LCLU using long-term Landsat data from 1972 to 2010. First, we produced LCLU maps by using Landsat images from 1972, 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Next, tract level population data of 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were converted to 1-km square grid cells. Then, the LCLU maps were integrated with basic grid cell data to represent the proportion of each land cover category within a grid cell area. Finally, the proportional land cover maps and population census data were combined to investigate the relationship between land cover and population change based on grid cells using Pearson's correlation coefficient, ordinary least square (OLS), and local level geographically weighted regression (GWR). Land cover changes in terms of the percentage of area affected and rates of change were compared with population census data with a focus on the analysis of the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban growth patterns. The correlation coefficients of land cover categories and population changes were calculated for two decadal intervals between 1970 and 2010. Our results showed a causal relationship between LCLU changes and population dynamics over the last 40 years. Urban sprawl was positively correlated with population change. However, the relationship was not linear over space and time. Spatial heterogeneity and variations in the relationship demonstrate that urban sprawl was positively correlated with population changes in suburban area and negatively correlated in urban core and inner suburban area of the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. These results suggest that the imagery reflects processes of urban growth, inner-city decline, population migration, and social spatial inequality. The implications provide guidance for sustainable urban

  4. Mosquito fauna inhabiting water bodies in the urban environment of Córdoba city, Argentina, following a St. Louis encephalitis outbreak. (United States)

    Pires, Diego A; Gleiser, Raquel M


    An understanding of urban aquatic environments as mosquito larval habitats is necessary to prioritize sites for surveillance and control of arbovirus vectors in urban areas. Natural and artificial water bodies at ground level that may be larval mosquito habitats in Córdoba city, Argentina were surveyed. Data on the characteristics of aquatic sites and the presence and abundance of mosquito larvae and pupae were collected in the summer of 2006, coinciding with the first report of human WNV and following an outbreak of St. Louis encephalitis in 2005. Eight species in the genera Aedes, Culex, and Mansonia were identified. At 64.2% (34 of 53) of the sites, only one species was collected, while 3.8% (2 of 53) had three associated species, the highest richness found per site. Culex quinquefasciatus represented over 99% (out of 32,729) of the specimens. It was also the most widely distributed and detected under diverse habitat conditions. Although puddles and semi-permanent pools harbored a greater number of species, drainages and channels may be more relevant as risk factors from an epidemiological point of view because they showed the highest larval densities, mainly of Cx. quinquefasciatus (vector of SLE and WNV). Also, higher densities of this species were associated with stormwater runoff and sewage water, thus water management systems should be targeted and closely monitored for mosquito control purposes.

  5. "A different kind of beauty": scientific and architectural style in I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute. (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart W


    I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory for the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, are rare examples of laboratories as celebrated for their architecture as for their scientific contributions. Completed in the mid-1960s, these signature buildings still express the scientific style of their founding directors, Walter Roberts and Jonas Salk. yet in commissioning their laboratories, Roberts and Salk had to work with architects as strong-willed as themselves. A close reading of the two laboratories reveals the ongoing negotiations and tensions in collaborations between visionary scientist and visionary architect. Moreover, Roberts and Salk also had to become architects of atmospheric and biomedical sciences. For laboratory architecture, however flexible in theory, necessarily stabilizes scientific practice, since a philosophy of research is embedded in the very structure of the building and persists far longer than the initial vision and mission that gave it life. Roberts and Salk's experiences suggest that even the most carefully designed laboratories must successfully adapt to new disciplinary configurations, funding opportunities, and research priorities, or risk becoming mere architectural icons.

  6. The discovery of biological enantioselectivity: Louis Pasteur and the fermentation of tartaric acid, 1857--a review and analysis 150 yr later. (United States)

    Gal, Joseph


    Nearly a decade after discovering molecular chirality in 1848, Louis Pasteur changed research direction and began investigating fermentations. Conflicting explanations have been given for this switch to microbiology, but the evidence strongly suggests that Pasteur's appointment in 1854 to the University of Lille--an agricultural-industrial region where fermentation-based manufacturing was of great importance--and an appeal for help in 1856 by a local manufacturer experiencing problems in his beetroot-fermentation-based alcohol production played a significant role. Thus began, in late 1856, Pasteur's pioneering studies of lactic and alcoholic fermentations. In 1857, reportedly as a result of a laboratory mishap, he found that in incubations of ammonium (+/-)-tartrate with unidentified microorganisms (+)-tartaric acid was consumed with considerable preference over (-)-tartaric acid. In 1860, he demonstrated a similar enantioselectivity in the metabolism of tartaric acid by Penicillium glaucum, a common mold. Chance likely played a significant role both in Pasteur's shift to microbiology and his discovery of enantioselective tartrate fermentations, but he rejected pure serendipity as a significant factor in experimental science and in his own career. Pasteur's milestone discovery of biological enantioselectivity began the process that in the long run established the fundamental importance of molecular chirality in biology.

  7. “A source of satisfaction to all Jews, wherever they may be living”. Louis Miller between New York and Tel Aviv, 1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Manor


    Full Text Available Although throughout the middle-ages Jews used to live in urban environment more than non-Jews, urbanization process in the 19th century was as critical to Jewish modern history as in other cases. Modernization, in all aspects, had a deep impact on Jewish demography, socio-economic life and self understanding. On the same time Jews were immigrating by the millions to the “new world” (mainly to the United States, a small current of Jews was heading to Palestine (Eretz Israel if to use their specific term. As opposed to a common understanding of Zionism, the future city and the neo-urbanization of the Jews – and not only the new villages (Moshavot, Kibbutzim, Moshavim – was a main Zionist goal. This article describes one of the first comprehensive observations of these issues, as seen from the eyes of Louis Miller, himself a Jewish immigrant that settled in the outmost city of the modern world: New York. In 1911 he paid a visit to the one-year-old Tel Aviv, and managed to see in this new modest garden-city the cradle of the Zionist revolution. Not less important: Miller understood as early as 1911, the crucial role Jewish settlements in Palestine would have in the crystallization of modern Jewish peoplehood. Tel Aviv took major part in this development. It still does.

  8. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. [Dept. of Chemistry, Washington Univ. , St. Louis, Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.


    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A [approx equal] 182 region, structure of [sup 182]Hg and [sup 182]Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in [sup 136]Pm and the anomalous h[sub 11/2] proton crossing in the A[approximately]135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier [alpha] particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative [sup 209]Bi + [sup 136]Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4[pi] channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  9. The Preliminary Ruling Decision in the Case of Google vs. Louis Vuitton Concerning the AdWord Service and its Impact on the Community Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Gongol


    Full Text Available The internet user after entering the keywords obtains two kinds of search results – natural and sponsored ones. The following paper deals with the issue of using keywords which correspond to trademarks registered by a third party for advertising purposes through internet search portals such as Google, Yahoo, Bing, Seznam, Centrum etc. (in principle web search portals. The objective of this article is to analyze decided cases dealing with the AdWords service issued by the Court of Justice of the European Union and compare them also with the attitude in similar disputes in the U.S. Within this knowledge it is necessary to determine the impact of these decisions on further national courts decisions of European Union member states. Moreover there is also legal impact on copyright law and responsibility of internet search engines deduced. The method of the analysis of courts decisions is used and the method of legal comparison is applied to different attitudes in similar cases. Where a third party uses a sign which is identical with the trademark in relation to goods or services identical with those for which the mark is registered, the trademark proprietor is allowed to prohibit such use if it is liable to affect one of the functions of the mark (particularly the function of indicating origin. Regarding to the liability of the Internet search engine itself, decisions of the courts in matters of Internet search engines in the European Union vary from state to state. Whereas the German courts tend to currently access the responsibility for the outcome of the search engines more freely, the French courts are often more stringent. Differently, we can say much more liberal, is the access of the U.S. courts to this issue. Preliminary ruling decision in case of Louis Vuitton Malletier SA vs. Google, Inc. and community practice in further cases follow similar (liberal decisions of the courts of the U.S.

  10. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

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    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda


    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  11. Encargo, autoría y ejecución de La familia de Felipe V (Palacio Real de La Granja), copia del original de Louis-Michel van Loo


    Azanza López, José Javier


    Este artículo aporta nuevos datos acerca de La familia de Felipe V del Palacio Real de La Granja de San Ildefonso (Segovia), copia del original realizado en 1743 por Louis-Michel van Loo. Certifica su ejecución a mediados del siglo XIX por el pintor Isidoro Lozano (Logroño, 1826-Madrid, 1895), en el marco de la promoción artística del joven discípulo de Federico de Madrazo que culminará con la obtención en 1853 del premio de Roma; y documenta su traslado a La Granja ...

  12. Louis Blajan, Dottore in Medicina Veterinaria: Il dinamico veterinario che seppe traghettare l’Organizzazione Mondiale per la Sanità Animale (Office International des Épizooties: OIE nel mondo moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nato il 10 aprile 1924 a Lahage (nell’Alta Garonna, in Francia, Louis Blajan si è spento lo scorso 10 febbraio 2010 a Mont-de-Marsan.Dopo aver frequentato il Lycée Pierre de Fermat di Tolosa, nel 1948 Louis completa gli studi presso la Scuola di Veterinaria di Tolosa. Nel 1949, si diploma all’Institut d’élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux (IEMVT e dal 1949 al 1952 è nel territorio d’oltremare francese del Mali. Tornato in Francia, dal 1953 al 1968 Louis esercita come veterinario di Stato presso il Ministero dell’Agricoltura, responsabile per l’afta epizootica, la peste suina e la malattia di Newcastle, nonché come Presidente del Comitato consultivo per le malattie infettive. In seguito, viene nominato Ispettore capo veterinario e Responsabile per la politica di controllo delle frontiere.Nel 1952, Louis sposa Janine, moglie affezionata che lo appoggia con ardore in ogni fase della sua carriera e perde la vita in un incidente un mese prima che il marito vada in pensione nel 1990.Dal 1968 al 1977, Louis è Direttore tecnico di Cofranimex (Compagnie Française pour l’importation et l’exportation des animaux reproducteurs et leur semence e dal 1977 al 1978 riveste il ruolo di Direttore dell’Association pour le développement des techniques de l’élevage français (ADETEF.Louis entra a lavorare nell’Office International des Épizooties (oggi noto come Organizzazione Mondiale per la Sanità Animale o ‘OIE’ dove, dal 1978 al 1980, occupa la posizione di Direttore del Dipartimento tecnico. Due anni più tardi, nel 1980, viene eletto Direttore Generale, coronando il sogno di ogni professionista della medicina veterinaria e raggiungendo l’apice della propria carriera. Rieletto nel 1985, si ritira dalla vita lavorativa nel 1990.Durante gli anni in cui fu a capo dell’OIE, Louis seppe trasformare quella che all’epoca era una struttura antiquata in un’organizzazione internazionale moderna ed

  13. Tribute to dr louis keith: twin and physician extraordinaire/twin research reports: influences on asthma severity; chimerism revisited; DNA strand break repair/media reports: twins born apart; elevated twin frequencies; celebrity father of twins; conjoined twinning. (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L


    The International Society for Twin Studies has lost a valued friend and colleague. Dr Louis Keith, Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Northwestern University, in Chicago, passed away on Sunday, July 6, 2014. His life and work with twins will be acknowledged at the November 2014 International Twin Congress in Budapest, Hungary. Next, twin research reports on the severity of asthma symptoms, a case of chimerism, and factors affecting DNA breakage and repair mechanisms are reviewed. Media reports cover twins born apart, elevated twin frequencies, a celebrity father of twins, and a family's decision to keep conjoined twins together.

  14. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)


    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  15. High Flux Neutral Beams (United States)


    California, Department of Physics Irvine, California 92717 a jid C. E. Wiswall, S. L. Cartier and J. C. Leader McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, MO...discharges on hydrocarbon containing polymers , C II and H I emission lines are expected to be the most prominent. In this case, the line width of the Ha...Department of Physics Irvine, California 92717 and S. L. Cartier and C. E. Wiswall McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, MO 63166 ABSTRACT Conventional dc

  16. Schnittke, Alfred: Requiem / Didier Louis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Louis, Didier


    Uuest heliplaadist "Schnittke, Alfred: Requiem; Gorecki: Miserere. Solistes vocaux et instrumentaux, Choeur de chambre Eric Ericson, Choeur de la Radio Suedoise, Tõnu Kaljuste" Caprice CAP 21 515, distribution Disques Concord (CD: 160F). TT: 1h 08'49"

  17. Reconciling scientific approaches for organic farming research. Part I. Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands. Part II. Effects of manure types and white clover (Trifolium repens) cultivars on the productivity of grass-clover mixtures on a humid sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.


    Part I : Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The NetherlandsKey words: organic agriculture, anthroposophy, methodology, research strategy, experiential science, multidisciplinary science, Goethean scienceThis dissert

  18. The First Published History of Universal Architectural Models. Jean-Nicholas-Louis Durand’s Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes (Paris 1800, and the Extended Italian Edition of Giuseppe Antonelli (Venice 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fontana


    Full Text Available “Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes”, published in Paris in 1799-1800 by Jean- Nicholas-Louis Durand, at the height of the positivistic climate engendered by the contemporary culture of encyclopedism, plays an important role in architectural historiography. The volume allowed architectural students and architectural enthusiasts alike the first opportunity to study a vast range of architectural design models of all periods and places organised into typological categories, illustrated in highly didactic and homogenous drawings. The immediate success of the “Recueil” was guaranteed by the simultaneous publication (in 1800 of an explanatory text to accompany the illustrative material, written by Jacques Guillaume Legrand in accordance with Durand. More than thirty years later, the Venetian editor Giuseppe Antonelli proposed a re-launch of the “Recueil” intended to meet the contemporaneous historical and critical context of modern Europe, publishing a bilingual Italian-French edition of highly commercially ambitious scope. The Venetian “Raccolta”, which appeared in 1833, united Legrand’s text with Durand’s illustrations, - and importantly included almost double the illustrations- with the addition of antique buildings, and also included modern architectural models, alongside contemporary Italian, French and German architectural design projects. This contribution intends to set Antonelli’s ambitious undertaking into the contemporaneous critical and vivacious academic cultural climate of the Venice of the 1830’s, and also includes a thorough examination of the additional illustrations that were added by the Venetian publisher to the original French canon.

  19. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France]. (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min


    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  20. L’importation du marbre de Carrare à la cour de Louis XIV : rivalités des marchands et échecs des compagnies

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    Geneviève Bresc-Bautier


    Full Text Available La difficulté d’approvisionnement en marbre statuaire a été un problème récurrent pour la sculpture, sauf évidemment en Italie, lieu d’exploitation de carrières, spécialement de celles de Carrare. La France a cherché à exploiter, difficilement, le marbre des Pyrénées, qui a mauvaise réputation auprès des sculpteurs. Les conditions d’extraction, de transport et de commerce du marbre de Carrare en France sous le règne personnel de Louis XIV seront présentées ici. Vers 1660-1662, une première période voit la concurrence entre deux équipes rivales, l’une, envoyée par Fouquet, est composée de Girardin et de Pierre Puget, et celle de Colbert est dirigée par le marchand toulonnais Jacques Beuf, avec son commis Delamer. Cette dernière équipe réussit à débaucher Puget et va, évidemment, l’emporter. Puis Colbert installe deux autres équipes, officielles celles-ci, qui font tirer du marbre par des sculpteurs français envoyés en mission : Antoine André pour le grand banquier Pierre Formont et Nicolas Ménard pour Jacques Beuf - le premier réussissant à évincer le second. Mais Formont, qui avait fait arrêter son sculpteur André et l’avait remplacé par des Flamands, est évincé en raison de sa religion et meurt peu avant la Révocation de l’édit de Nantes (1685. Parallèlement des artistes génois, le peintre Borzone puis les sculpteurs Solaro père et fils, parviennent à imposer des cargaisons de marbre, de même que Puget continue à se procurer directement du marbre à Carrare et même à en vendre. Louvois, prenant le contre-pied de la politique de Colbert, change le système. Il installe d’abord une seule compagnie des marbres officielle, puis lui retire sa charge pour en protéger une seconde, où se retrouvent les mêmes responsables, Haudiquer de Blancourt et André Lebrun. Cette compagnie s’arrête en 1687 devant les risques de la guerre. Un nouvel épisode se situe durant la période d

  1. Anne-Hélène Allirot, Filiae regis Francorum : princesses royales, mémoire de saint Louis et conscience dynastique (de 1270 à la fin du XIVe siècle

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    Anne-Hélène Allirot


    Full Text Available L’étude propose une histoire du sang royal au féminin. De 1270 à la fin du XIVe siècle, le statut des princesses royales en France est en cours de normalisation. Les filles du roi sont progressivement exclues du trône, des apanages et de la pairie. Mais la canonisation de Louis IX et la valorisation du lignage royal renforcent leur prestige. Elles obtiennent, sinon un patrimoine, du moins un rang spécifique et la reconnaissance d’une qualité. Les « Filiae regis Francorum » sont ainsi le résul...

  2. Compte rendu de Juan Carlos Garrot, Jean-Louis Guereña, Mónica Zapata (dir., Figures de la censure dans les mondes hispanique et hispano-américain

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    Emilie Mendonça


    Full Text Available Publicada en el 2009, esta compilación prolonga el trabajo llevado a cabo por el grupo de investigación francés CIREMIA (Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur l’Education et la Culture dans le Monde Ibérique et Ibéro-Américain en su colección «Études hispaniques», cuyos últimos volúmenes analizaban texto e imagen en el ámbito escolar, literario y cultural. Bajo la coordinación de Juan Carlos Garrot, Jean-Louis Guereña y Mónica Zapata, estas Figures de la censure dans les mondes hispaniq...

  3. Cohésion et disparités démographiques de l’intendance du Hainaut français au début du règne de Louis XVI


    Guignet, Philippe


    Note portant sur l'auteur Quiconque s’intéresse à la situation démographique du royaume au siècle des Lumières ne peut éprouver que des sentiments de gratitude pour l’abbé Terray, qui fut le contrôleur général des finances, du reste critiqué par l’opinion pour ses expédients fiscaux, de la fin du règne de Louis XVI. C’est qu’en effet les préoccupations statistiques de l’abbé permettent aux historiens de disposer de l’ample documentation démographique dont ils sont privés faute de dénombrement...

  4. “The Shame of the Nation”: The Force of Re-Enslavement and the Law of “Slavery” under the Regime of Jean-Louis Ferrand in Santo Domingo, 1804-1809

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    Graham Nessler


    Full Text Available From 1804 to 1809, the slaveholding Napoleonic regime of General Jean-Louis Ferrand attempted to erase the gains of the era of French Republican emancipation (1793-1802 by re-enslaving thousands of individuals in Santo Domingo (modern Dominican Republic. This article examines the aims and methods of the Ferrand regime, situating it within the contexts of the birth of independent Haiti and the resurgence of institutionalized racism and slavery in the French world. Using governmental correspondence, notarial acts, and other sources, I argue that those targeted by Ferrand’s racist laws and efforts to re-impose slavery devised innovative means of carving out their own versions of freedom. The article centers on the ways in which “slaves” and colonial officials negotiated the meanings of slavery in a context in which the institution’s legality was unclear.

  5. Evaluation to Improve a High School Summer Science Outreach Program

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    Katherine Bakshian Chiappinelli


    Full Text Available The goal of the Young Scientist Program (YSP at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (WUSM is to broaden science literacy and recruit talent for the scientific future. In particular, YSP seeks to expose underrepresented minority high school students from St. Louis public schools (SLPS to a wide variety of careers in the sciences. The centerpiece of YSP, the Summer Focus Program (SFP, is a nine-week, intensive research experience for competitively chosen rising high school seniors (Scholars. Scholars are paired with volunteer graduate student, medical student, or postdoctoral fellow mentors who are active members of the practicing scientific community and serve as guides and exemplars of scientific careers. The SFP seeks to increase the number of underrepresented minority students pursuing STEM undergraduate degrees by making the Scholars more comfortable with science and science literacy. The data presented here provide results of the objective, quick, and simple methods developed by YSP to assess the efficacy of the SFP from 2006 to 2013. We demonstrate that the SFP successfully used formative evaluation to continuously improve the various activities within the SFP over the course of several years and in turn enhance student experiences within the SFP. Additionally we show that the SFP effectively broadened confidence in science literacy among participating high school students and successfully graduated a high percentage of students who went on to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at the undergraduate level.

  6. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.


    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  7. 金庸武侠故事在《行为矫正》课程案例教学中的应用%The Application of Louis Cha's Novels of Martial Arts to the Case Teaching of the Behavioral Modification Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are many story fragments in Louis Cha's novels of martial arts involving the application of the behavioral modification principle. Researchers start with eight different methods or concepts related to behavioral modification, including conditioned response, positive reinforcement, differential reinforcement, shaping, fading, chaining, isolation and corporal punishment to discuss behavioral modification principle embodied in Louis Cha's novels of martial arts.%金庸的武侠小说中有许多故事片段涉及了行为矫正原理的应用。研究者分别从条件反射、正强化、区别强化、塑造、渐隐、链锁、隔离、体罚等八个有关行为矫正的概念或技术方法入手,分析了故事中体现的行为矫正原理。

  8. Conclusion of No Prerequisite--- Louis Althusser’ s “epistemological rupture”%无前提的断定--路易·阿尔都塞“认识论断裂”解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    马克思主义的人道主义解释涉及的不仅仅是一个普通概念,而是直接关系到马克思主义生死攸关的命运。作为马克思主义者,阿尔都塞对此作出了自卫反击,他提出“认识论断裂”策略,断定已经被误解为人道主义的青年马克思思想并不属于马克思主义,以保卫马克思主义的纯洁性。%Humanitarian interpretation of Marxism is not just a general concept involved, it is directly related to the life and death fate of Marxism. As a Marxist, Louis Althusser made a self-defense response that posed“epistemological rupture” strategy and concluded that the thought which had been misinterpreted as a humanitarian ideology of the young Marx did not belong to Marxism,to defend the purity of Marxism. This paper discussed the “epistemological break” without prerequisite.

  9. Research, methodology, and applications of probabilistic seismic-hazard mapping of the Central and Eastern United States; minutes of a workshop on June 13-14, 2000, at Saint Louis University (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Perkins, David M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is updating and revising its 1996 national seismic-hazard maps for release in 2001. Part of this process is the convening of four regional workshops with earth scientists and other users of the maps. The second of these workshops was sponsored by the USGS and the Mid-America Earthquake Center, and was hosted by Saint Louis University on June 13-14, 2000.The workshop concentrated on the central and eastern U.S. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountains. The tasks of the workshop were to (1) evaluate new research findings that are relevant to seismic hazard mapping, (2) discuss modifications in the inputs and methodology used in the national maps, (3) discuss concerns by engineers and other users about the scientific input to the maps and the use of the hazard maps in building codes, and (4) identify needed research in the CEUS that can improve the seismic hazard maps and reduce their uncertainties. These minutes summarize the workshop discussions. This is not a transcript; some individual remarks and short discussions of side issues and logistics were omitted. Named speakers were sent a draft of the minutes with a request for corrections of any errors in remarks attributed to them. Nine people returned corrections, amplifications, or approvals of their remarks as reported. The rest of this document consists of the meeting agenda, discussion summaries, and a list of the 60 attendees.

  10. 《路易·波拿巴的雾月十八日》的问题结构%Problematics of "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    问题结构是指历史理论的一系列预设与核心概念,它决定了历史理论可能的反思范围和限度。《路易·波拿巴的雾月十八日》是一本重要的历史学著作。在这本著作中,马克思建构出“历史形势”这个独特的问题结构,营造出历史人物活动的理论框架。在历史形势的问题结构中,个人的偶然性和能动性得到严肃的考虑,经济因素和意识形态因素获得了新的理论意义。这表明马克思开创了一种新的历史理论形态。%"Problematics" is the relativey premise and core concept of history theory, which determines the reflection range and limits. " The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte" is an important historic work, in which Marx formed a special concept of "historical situation" and the theoretical framework of personal activities of past people. In the problematics of the "historical situation" , the occasionality and initiativeness of individual are seriously considered and economic factors and ideological factors have a new theoretical meaning, which proves that Marx created a new theory form.

  11. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) of Northeastern Argentina (United States)

    Morales, María A.; Fabbri, Cintia M.; Zunino, Gabriel E.; Kowalewski, Martín M.; Luppo, Victoria C.; Enría, Delia A.; Levis, Silvana C.; Calderón, Gladys E.


    Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July–August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free–ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3), ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108). Monotypic (13/70, 19%) and heterotypic (27/70, 39%) patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33%) monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT)-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health. PMID:28187130

  12. Research Needs: Prime-Power for High Energy Space Systems. (United States)


    34The MHD Disk Generator as a Multimegawatt Power Supply Operating with Chemical and Nuclear Sources" 1. Louis, J. F., "Disk Generator", AIAA J., Vol. VI...May 16-18, 1977. 8. Lytle, J. K. and Louis, J. F., "The Effects of AnisotropicNonuniformities in a Nonequilibrium MHD Disk Generator , presented at

  13. The Paradox of American Slavery and Freedom Manifested in Louis Kossuth's Visit of the United States%从科苏特访美看美国自由与奴役的悖论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Louis Kossuth,a leader of the Hungarian Revolution in 1848,had been regarded by Americans of his era as a champion of liberty like George Washington.However,when he visited the United States from Dec.1851 to July 1852,in order to win financial,material,and moral support of Americans and to push American government to interfere in Hungarian affairs,he intentionally evaded the issue of American slavery and declared that he would not meddle with America's "omestic affairs" He kept silent on the sensitive political issue of slavery but gave fulsome praises to American liberty which aroused the anger of the abolitionists and African Americans.The Kossuth's case had highlighted the paradox of freedom and slavery and had promoted some Americans to scrutiny the deep contradictions between them.%路易斯·科苏特是1848年匈牙利独立革命的领袖,被那个时代的美国人视为华盛顿式的自由战士。然而,他于1851年12月至1852年7月访问美国期间,为了争取美国的财政、物资和道义支持以及美国对匈牙利事务的干预,故意回避美国的奴隶制问题,宣布不干预美国的"国内问题"。他在美国奴隶制问题上保持沉默,对美国的"自由"制度极尽溢美之词,引起了废奴主义者和非裔美国人的愤怒。科苏特在美国奴隶制问题上的立场以及美国人对于他访美的反应,凸显了美国自由与奴隶制之间的悖论,促进了美国人对二者之间的矛盾的审视。

  14. Measurement and Analysis of Coherent Flow Structures over Sand Dunes in the Missouri River near St. Louis, MO, by means of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler and a Multibeam Echo Sounder (United States)

    Boldt, J.; Oberg, K. A.; Best, J. L.; Parsons, D. R.


    The topology, magnitude, and sediment transport capabilities of large-scale turbulence generated over alluvial sand dunes is influential in creating and maintaining dune morphology and in dominating both the flow field and the transport of suspended sediment above dune-covered beds. Combined measurements by means of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and a multibeam echo sounder (MBES) were made in order to examine flow over a series of sand dunes in the Missouri River, near St. Louis, MO, USA in October 2007. The bed topography of the Missouri River was mapped using a RESON 7125 MBES immediately before the ADCP data collection. Time series of velocity and acoustic backscatter were measured using a down-looking 1200 kHz ADCP while anchored at two locations in the dune field. The ADCP used in this study has a sampling rate of 2-3 Hz with 20-25 cm bin sizes. Two time series were collected having durations of 712 and 589 seconds at one location, while the third time series, collected about 4 meters upstream, was 2,270 seconds in duration. Measured streamwise velocities ranged from 0.1 to 2.7 ms-1 for all three stationary time series. Sediment concentration profiles were obtained at the same two locations as the stationary ADCP data using a P-61 sediment sampler and were compared to ADCP acoustic backscatter. Characteristics of turbulent flow structures in a sand bed river are presented. This paper presents data that can be used to investigate the issue of obtaining reliable estimates of turbulence parameters with an ADCP. The analyses will include mean velocity profiles, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stresses, quadrant analysis, power spectra, cross-correlation, and frequency analysis. Semi-periodic patterns were observed in each time series, characterized by periods of elevated acoustic backscatter with positive vertical velocities, followed by reduced acoustic backscatter with negative vertical velocities. The utility and limitations of combined

  15. Proceedings of the AFOSR Special Conference on Prime-Power for High Energy Space Systems, Norfolk, Virginia, 22-25 February 1982. Volume I. (United States)


    34NASA Lewis Research Center 111-2 Combustion MHD Experiment" Louis, J. F., "THE MHD Disk Generator as a 111-3 Multimegawatt Power Supply Operating...Performance of MHD Ducts at High B-Field," 20th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, January 11-14, 1982. I 111-2-10 The MHD Disk Generator as a...Technology ABSTRACT The characteristics, performance and status of the MHD disk generator are reviewed as a potential multimegawatt power supply working

  16. The Memories of the Past and Identity Construction——Taking Louis Chu's Eat a Bowl of Tea as an Example%历史记忆与身份建构——以雷霆超的《吃碗茶》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The memories of the past have profound influence on identity construction.The academic circle generaliy focuses on the positive impact that memories of the past exert on the identity construction while the negative impact is often neglected.This paper takes a classical work—Louis Chu's Eat a Bowl of Tea as an example to illustrate the negative impact and argues that only by forgetting about the past can the immigrants realize the real identity construction.%历史记忆对自我身份建构有着极大的影响。学者普遍关注的历史记忆对自我身份建构的积极作用,然而历史记忆对自我身份建构的消极作用却鲜有人提及。以美国亚裔文学评论家和作家公认的一部划时代的作品---雷霆超(Louis Chu)的《吃碗茶》(Eat a Bowl of Tea)为例来阐述历史记忆对自我身份建构的消极作用,并说明只有忘记历史才能实现移民真正的身份建构。

  17. Novaja jadernaja ugroza / Louis-Rene Beres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beres, Louis-Rene


    Tänapäeval võib terroristide käsutuses olla nii tuumarelv kui ka teisi massihävitusrelvi ning sellest tingituna on vaja ka uut julgeolekustrateegiat. On tulnud aeg välja töötada kaasaegne Manhattani projekti analoog


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  19. TERRAIN, ST. LOUIS COUNTY, Missouri USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. Œuvre de Louis Amable Crapelet



    Institution patrimoniale conservant l’œuvre Musée national du Louvre, département des Arts graphiquesPalais du Louvre, Aile de Flore 75058 PARIS Cedex 01Site web : http://www.louvre.frLe département des Arts graphiques du musée du Louvre, l’un des sept départements du musée, regroupe trois fonds différents : le Cabinet des dessins, issu de l’ancienne collection des rois de France (plus de 130 000 œuvres), la Chalcographie, réunissant les cuivres provenant notamment du Cabinet des planches gra...

  1. St. Louis encephalitis vírus: first isolation from a human in São Paulo state, Brasil Vírus da encefalite São Luis: primeiro isolamento de humano no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iray M. Rocco


    Full Text Available This paper reports the isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV from a febrile human case suspected to be dengue, in São Pedro, São Paulo State. A MAC-ELISA done on the patient's acute and convalescent sera was inconclusive and hemagglutination inhibition test detected IgG antibody for flaviviruses. An indirect immunofluorescent assay done on the C6/36 cell culture inoculated with the acute serum was positive for flaviviruses but negative when tested with dengue monoclonal antibodies. RNA extracted from the infected cell culture supernatant was amplified by RT-PCR in the presence of NS5 universal flavivirus primers and directly sequenced. Results of BLAST search indicated that this sequence shares 93% nucleotide similarity with the sequence of SLEV (strain-MSI.7, confirmed by RT-PCR performed with SLEV specific primers. Since SLEV was identified as the cause of human disease, it is necessary to improve surveillance in order to achieve early detection of this agent in the state of São Paulo and in Brazil. This finding is also an alert to health professionals about the need for more complete clinical and epidemiological investigations of febrile illnesses as in the reported case. SLEV infections can be unrecognized or confused with other ones caused by an arbovirus, such as dengue.O presente estudo relata o isolamento do vírus da encefalite São Luis (SLEV de um caso febril humano suspeito de dengue, em São Pedro, Estado de São Paulo. MAC-ELISA realizado com soros das fases aguda e convalescente foi inconclusivo e anticorpos IgG foram detectados por inibição da hemaglutinação para flavivirus. Imunofluorescência indireta com cultura de células C6/36 inoculadas com soro da fase aguda foi positivo para flavivirus mas negativo quando testado com anticorpos monoclonais para dengue. O RNA extraído de cultura de células infectadas foi amplificado na presença de primers universais para o gênero Flavivirus, deduzidos de uma regi

  2. Reading, Writing, and Presenting Original Scientific Research: A Nine-Week Course in Scientific Communication for High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sarah Danka


    Full Text Available High school students are not often given opportunities to communicate scientific findings to their peers, the general public, and/or people in the scientific community, and therefore they do not develop scientific communication skills. We present a nine-week course that can be used to teach high school students, who may have no previous experience, how to read and write primary scientific articles and how to discuss scientific findings with a broad audience. Various forms of this course have been taught for the past 10 years as part of an intensive summer research program for rising high school seniors that is coordinated by the Young Scientist Program at Washington University in St. Louis. The format presented here includes assessments for efficacy through both rubric-based methods and student self-assessment surveys.

  3. Infantile nystagmus syndrome: Broadening the high-foveation-quality field with contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Taibbi


    Full Text Available Giovanni Taibbi1,4,5, Zhong I Wang1,3, Louis F Dell’Osso1–31The Daroff-Dell’Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and CASE Medical School; 2Department of Neurology; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA; 4Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Unit, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5University of Milan, Milan, ItalyAbstract: We investigated the effects of contact lenses in broadening and improving the high-foveation-quality field in a subject with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS. A high-speed, digitized video system was used for the eye-movement recording. The subject was asked to fixate a far target at different horizontal gaze angles with contact lenses inserted. Data from the subject while fixating at far without refractive correction and at near (at a convergence angle of 60 PD, were used for comparison. The eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX was used to evaluate the foveation quality at each gaze angle. Contact lenses broadened the highfoveation-quality range of gaze angles in this subject. The broadening was comparable to that achieved during 60 PD of convergence although the NAFX values were lower. Contact lenses allowed the subject to see “more” (he had a wider range of high-foveation-quality gaze angles and “better” (he had improved foveation at each gaze angle. Instead of being contraindicated by INS, contact lenses emerge as a potentially important therapeutic option. Contact lenses employ afferent feedback via the ophthalmic division of the V cranial nerve to damp INS slow phases over a broadened range of gaze angles. This supports the proprioceptive hypothesis of INS improvement.Keywords: contact lenses, infantile nystagmus, visual function

  4. Louis Pasteur: el hombre y el artista Louis pasteur: the man and the artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Vélez Arango


    Full Text Available

    El artista finlandés A. Edelfelt, autor del famoso retrato de Pasteur en el laboratorio en 1887, expresó el siguiente Juicio sobre Pasteur como pintor en una carta a uno de sus amigos: ";aparte de la ciencia, la pintura es una de las pocas cosas que le interesaban. Cuando tenía dieciséis años había intentado hacerse pintor y se entretenía haciendo retratos al pastel, de ciudadanos de Arbois; algunos de estos cuadros se encuentran en su casa o en el instituto; los he observado muy a menudo, son extremadamente buenos y superiores al trabajo habitual de los jóvenes que se dedican a la carrera artística. Hay algo del gran investigador en estos retratos: expresan la verdad absoluta y un poder de voluntad poco común. Estoy seguro de que si Pasteur hubiera elegido el arte en vez de la ciencia, Francia contaría hoy con uno de sus pintores más capaces";.

    The Finnish artist A. Edelfelt. author of the famous portrait of Pasteur in his laboratory (1887. expressed the following Judgement about Pasteur as a painter. in the letter addressed to one of his friends: ";besides science. painting is one of the few things that interested him. When he was sixteen he had attempted to become a painter and entertained himself making pastel portraits of citizens of Arbors; some of those portraits hang In his house or at the Institute; I have often observed them; they are extremely good and much better than the usual work of young people who devote themselves to artistic life. In those portraits there Is something of the great Investigator: they express absolute truth and a not-so-common will power. I am sure that had Pasteur opted for art Instead of science France would count him now among Its most gifted painters.";

  5. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.


    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  6. 走向成熟的心灵之旅--路易斯·萨奇尔小说《洞》的成长主题探析%The Spiritual Journey into Maturity-A Probe into the Initiation Theme in Louis Sachar’ s Novel Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    成长是青少年文学作品的永恒主题。美国作家路易斯·萨奇尔的优秀青少年小说《洞》曾荣获1999年纽伯瑞儿童文学金奖,它展示了小主人公史丹利在历险与磨难中步入成熟的艰辛成长历程。独特的经历为他踏上追寻自我发展的精神之旅提供内在动力,提升了他的认知能力与自我意识,并最终实现从无知到成熟的成功转变。%Coming-of-age is the eternal theme in young adult literary works.American writer Louis Sachar’ s excellent adolescent novel Holes, the winner of the 1999 Newberry Medal Award, exhibits the protagonist Stanley’ s initiating process of stepping into manhood through adventures and ordeals.The unique experiences serve as the inner resources that allow Stanley to embark on a spiritual journey in pursuit of self-development and reach a higher level in both cogni-tion and self-awareness, thus finally accomplishing the transformation from innocence to maturity.

  7. Encapsulated Fluorescent Ag NPs as Novel Indicators for High-Energy Ionizing Radiation (United States)


    Brett D. Martin Collaborations Jake Fontana Zheng Wang James Louis-Jean Paper and Patients Generation of fluorescent silver nanoscale reverse micelles using gamma irradiation. Brett D. Martin, Jake Fontana , Zheng Wang, James Louis-Jean , Scott A. Trammell, Chem. Commun. 2012, 48...Brett D. Martin, Jake Fontana , Zheng Wang, and Scott A. Trammell 2013 Submitted to Nanoscale Scott A. Trammell, Brett D. Martin, “Encapsulated

  8. Source detection and high-resolution localization using microphone arrays for UGS: results of the NATO TG25 experiment measurements (Bourges, October 2002) (United States)

    Hengy, Sebastien; Naz, Pierre; Gounon, Patrick


    This paper presents different ways to process acoustic data in order to localize targets.Beamforming and the MUSIC high resolution method have been tested for different propagation conditions during a NATO experimental campaign. This campaign,organized by DG /DCE/ETBS,has involved 6 countries in October 2002 in Bourges, France). Different localization methods were used to get the position of moving sources on a 4 kilometres circuit.The I.S.L. (French-German research institute of Saint Louis)has deployed a network of arrays nearby the circuit to test those localization techniques in different propagation conditions (day/night,early morning,...).Variance and mean error of the localization are compared for the different techniques used.

  9. Correction of one mistake regarding the rabies vaccine developed by Louis Pasteur in the textbook of Medical Microbiology%更正医学微生物学教材中巴斯德制备狂犬病疫苗的一处描述错误

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国英; 杨淑凤; 张伟; 刘欣; 孙文长


    In the textbook of Medical Microbiology published by People's Medical Publishing House,there is a mistake regarding the rabies vaccine developed by Louis Pasteur.It was written in the textbook that " The pathogenicity of the fixed rabies virus in the rabbit brain was much weaker for humans and dogs than that of the street strain." According to the papers Pasteur published and other references,the mistake was corrected as follows:The pathogenicity of the fixed rabies virus in the rabbit brain was much stronger for dogs than that of the street strain.The mechanisms of rabies vaccine are elucidated based on modern immunology.The academic contributions of Pasteur are briefly introduced to make the students further understand what's behind the vaccine.%在目前供临床医学专业使用的人民卫生出版社出版的《医学微生物学》教材中,关于巴斯德研制狂犬病疫苗的过程有一处描述错误,即兔脑中的固定毒株对人或犬的致病性“明显减弱”,本文根据文献特此更正为“明显增强”,并利用现今的免疫学原理解释了当时疫苗发挥作用的机制.同时也对巴斯德的学术贡献略加叙述,让医学生对疫苗背后的人文知识有所了解.

  10. Successful Leadership in High Poverty, Urban Schools. Implications from UCEA (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen; Terry Orr, M.; Young, Michelle D.


    Research shows that leadership matters in improving student achievement. In fact, among school-related factors over which policy makers have some control, effective leadership practices rank second only to the quality of teaching in influencing student learning (Leithwood, Louis, Anderson & Wahlstrom, 2004). Quality leadership is particularly…

  11. Basemap Framework Submission for St. Louis County MO (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  12. Louis Althusser: Magtens apparater og magtens tænkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Andreas Beck


    Artiklen præsenterer og diskuterer udviklingen i Althussers magtforståelse fra teorien om ideologiske statsapparater til de posthumt udgivne værkers metafysikkritik.......Artiklen præsenterer og diskuterer udviklingen i Althussers magtforståelse fra teorien om ideologiske statsapparater til de posthumt udgivne værkers metafysikkritik....

  13. Geophysical Processes - MO 2013 Landslide Potential St. Louis Area (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Landslide potential is based on slope and lithology. Landslide is considered probable if the slope is 12 percent or greater and correlated with a formation known to...

  14. Nicolas-Louis De La Caille astronomer and geodesist

    CERN Document Server

    Glass, I S


    La Caille was one of the observational astronomers and geodesists who followed Newton in developing ideas about celestial mechanics and the shape of the earth. He provided data to the great 18th-century mathematicians involved in understanding the complex gravitational effects that the heavenly bodies have on one another. Observing from the Cape of Good Hope, he made the first ever telescopic sky survey and gave many of the southern constellations their present-day names. He measured the paths of the planets and determined their distances by trigonometry. In addition, he made a controversial measurement of the radius of the earth that seemed to prove it was pear-shaped. On a practical level, La Caille developed the method of `Lunars' for determining longitudes at sea. He mapped the Cape. As an influential teacher he propagated Newton's theory of universal gravitation at a time when it was only beginning to be accepted on the European continent. This book gives the most comprehensive overview so far avail...

  15. Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de (1698-1759) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Mathematician, born in Saint Malo, France, published on mathematics, geography, and astronomy, introduced NEWTON's theory of gravitation in France. He developed his theory of dynamics with the principle of least action, a way to determine the orbit of a body by a minimization technique. As a unifying principle, he though that it could be a proof of the existence of God. He went to Lapland in 1...

  16. Earthquake Risk - MO 2013 Liquefaction Potential St. Louis Area (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil liquefaction potential was determined using existing surficial materials and floodplain alluvium maps. Alluvium deposits and artificial deposits are generally...

  17. National Service Center, St. Louis County, Missouri - USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, -


    Full Text Available The new building housing the National Service Center stands in a 40 Ha property in the outskirts of the city and it resembles more a university campus than an administrative centre. The building has only two levels above grade in an attempt to blend into the eminently rural surroundings, avoiding any architectural aggression to the natural environment. With a similar intention, earth hues were used in the precast concrete façade panels finish, completed by the horizontal emphasis of the dark bronze fenestration. Interiorly, the building is outstanding by its flexible arrangement, creating open and integrated office spaces. The modular structure allows for future expansion that will eventually double its present size without affecting its architectural unity.

    La nueva sede del National Service Center, situada en una parcela de más de 40 Há en el extrarradio de la ciudad, parece un campus universitario más que un centro administrativo. El edificio, que consta de sólo dos plantas sobre rasante, procura su integración en un paisaje marcadamente rural evitando la posible imposición agresiva de la arquitectura en el entorno natural. Con este fin se emplearon colores terrosos, en el acat>ado de los paneles prefabricados de cemento, complementados por una carpintería de marcado trazado horizontal en tonos bronce oscuro. Interiormente el edificio destaca por su flexibilidad, constituyendo espacios de oficinas abiertos e integrados. Su estructura modular permite la ampliación futura de la construcción, hasta duplicar su dimensión actual, sin alterar la unidad arquitectónica.

  18. Ecosystem services in the St. Louis River AOC (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset indicates the presence or absence of each ecosystems service at each coordinate Location. Also included are depth, fetch, and aquatic vegetation data. See...

  19. 75 FR 68662 - Environmental Impact Statement: St. Louis County, MO (United States)


    ... preparation of the EIS and will provide definitive alternatives for evaluation in the EIS. The project is... to the west, Murdoch Avenue and Watson Road to the south, and Big Bend Boulevard and River Des Peres... management options; and (3) build alternatives. The evaluation of build alternatives will include a...

  20. Une interview de M. Louis Leprince-Ringuet

    CERN Multimedia

    Baguet, Georges


    Member of the Academy of Sciences, Professeur at the Collège de France, M. Leprince-Ringuet is one of those which contributed the most to the creation, then to the success of CERN. He chairs there the Scientifice Policy Committee

  1. XV "Jacques-Louis Lions" Spanish-French School

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, Carlos; Coquel, Frédéric


    This book, based on the lecture notes from the XVth Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering, covers a range of advances in numerical simulation in physics and engineering. The main subjects addressed are: biomechanics, stochastic calculus, geophysical flow simulation, and shock-capturing numerical methods for hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. The book is mainly aimed at young graduate students in mathematics, engineering, and natural sciences who are starting to confront numerical simulation, either at a research level or in the field of industrial applications. It will also be helpful for researchers or even technicians who are working in an industrial environment and are interested in the state-of-the-art numerical techniques in these fields. Finally, the book will be useful as a textbook for master's or PhD level courses in mathematics, physics, or engineering.

  2. The Development of Vaccination and the Discoveries of Louis Pasteur. (United States)

    Williams, James


    Describes the development of vaccination and provides a brief biographical sketch of the life and work of Pasteur. Describes historical practices related to vaccination before Pasteur did his work, including variolation as practiced by the ancient Chinese and Jenner's use of smallpox. (PR)

  3. [Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). A century later]. (United States)

    Janssens, P G


    An overview of the amazing series of successive and diverse items worked on by the chemist and physicist Pasteur starts with the asymmetry of paratartrates, switches over to the fermentations and ends in the fight against diseases of invertebrates and vertebrates, including man. It is the wonderful story of an exceptional contribution to the advancement of knowledge, which was made possible by his keen observation skill, his rigorous and innovative methods and his careful judgement. A retrospective analysis of the inner man may impair somewhat the fame of Pasteur. He was a lonely man, in need of solitude to be able to make full use of his thinking capacity, foreboding secretiveness and shrewdness , which are contradictory to his careful writing down day after day of all the details of his thinking and research in his notebooks by now available to the scientific community. He was furthermore selfish, domineering, inflexible, impulsive and inclined to engage in endless controversies. But on the contrary his motivation to accept new assignments was subordinate to their public welfare value and as a rule he endeavoured to work on the problems in the field and in association with those concerned. He was courageous when struck by a cerebral hemorrhage at middle age, so that its aftermath hardly hampered his research activities. The dimness cast on his personality is not up to his pioneer role within a general conservative climate among the medical and even scientific profession, antagonistic to innovation. Pasteur has been a founder of stereochemistry, microbiology and its applications, immunology, bacterial vaccines, pasteurisation and a promotor of prevention and hygiene. These overwhelming achievements justify to keep alive the recognition of the outstanding stature of Pasteur.

  4. [The formative years of a research scientist: Louis Pasteur]. (United States)

    Lambrichs, L L

    The article endeavors to bring back to life Pasteur's years as a teenage boy, based on his correspondence with his parents and on the philosophy homework he undertook during his school days. These materials reveal an authoritarian, moralizing young man who bore the strong mark of his education and his father's personality but who was also endowed with a spirit of curiosity, already imbued with the rational faith that would characterize the entirety of his scientific works.

  5. [Henry Toussaint and Louis Pasteur. Rivalry over a vaccine]. (United States)

    Chevallier-Jussiau, Nadine


    Henry Toussaint (1847-1890) is a veterinary who studied in Veterinary School of Lyon with his great master Auguste Chauveau the famous physiologist. This place is the First School founded in Europe at the end of the XVIIIth century and has opened a way of thinking. His carrer brilliant and rich begins first in Lyon and then when he is named Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at the Veterinary School of Toulouse. Doctor of Science and Doctor of Medecine Toussaint applies "the experimental method" to his research in his laboratory and makes a lot of publications. He starts with Anatomy, then Physiology and soon he prioritizes his research to infestious diseases which cause serious damage to cattle in this time. He developes his own methods about anthrax an its "bacteridie", its nature, its way of culture and especially he studies the physiopathology of this disease. Pasteur is a renowned scientist who does study Microbiology at the same time in his laboratory in Paris, and precisely anthrax. He has explained his theories about "microbes" and has predominant advice. Toussaint admires Pasteur; in the year 1879 he finds first and isolates the microbe of "cholera des poules" (now Pasteurella) and gives Pasteur this new germ which will be used by Pasteur for his particular works about reducing of virulence by successive subcultures. In 1880 with his publishing on July 12 at the Academy of Science, Toussaint presents his successful result with an attenuated vaccine against anthrax: he has got protection against anthrax for dogs and sheep by using a vaccine which he has reduced off virulence by chemical manner. Academy congratulates him. Pasteur jealous of one's reputation contests the demonstration of Toussaint because he does not believe in the chemical method too different from his tests but will make use of this method for an experience open to the public in Pouilly-le-Fort in 1881. After this promotional event Pasteur will product and sell vaccines maked in his laboratory in Paris with the first chemical method of Toussaint. Pasteur gets glory and money. In the following time Toussaint tries another research on tuberculosis but soon he feels the first attacks of a neurologic illness and inescapably his mind declines until the death in 1890.

  6. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the St. Louis Army Ammunition Plant, St. Louis County, Missouri. (United States)


    certified by the Society of Professional Archeologists in field, collections, and archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical...socio-political-religious unit and interactions with smaller villages and hamlets. Due to the presence of Cahokia, a large Mississippian town several...Officer, Jefferson City. Munson, Patrick J. 1971. An Archaeological Survey of the American Bottoms and Wood River Terrace. Illinois State Museum Report

  7. St. Louis Harbor Project Pedestrian Survey, Madison County, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Reports Number 24 (United States)


    studies shall be required, for example: a. Lithic analysis - the descriptive analysis shall include a discussion of morphological, functional, and...Moorehead SP=Sand Prairie 6 I U I I I I I I 68I I I I I I I I I APPENDiX D Lithic Analysis I U I I I I I I I I I I I I Appendix D LITHIC ANALYSIS by Ron

  8. Especially for High School Teachers (United States)

    Emory Howell, J.


    More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to

  9. Under-Ice Operations with AUVS in High Latitudes (United States)

    Ferguson, J.; Kaminski, C. D.


    In 2010 and 2011, ISE Explorer Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), built for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), were deployed to Canada's high Arctic. The mission was to undertake under-ice bathymetric surveys supporting Canada's submission under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). During these deployments several under-ice records were broken and several new technologies were demonstrated. The NRCan AUV is a 5000 meter depth rated vehicle, with several innovative additions to make it suitable for arctic survey work. Most notable are a depth rated variable ballast system, a 1300 Hz long-range homing system, and under-ice charging and data transfer capabilities. The Explorer's range was extended to approximately 450 km by adding a hull section to accommodate extra batteries. The scientific payload onboard included a Seabird SBE49 Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensor, Knudsen singlebeam echosounder, and a Kongsberg Simrad EM2000 multibeam echosounder. In 2010, operations were conducted from an ice camp near Borden Island (78°14'N, 112°39'W) operating through an ice hole. Following several test missions, the AUV spent 10 days surveying under ice before being successfully recovered. In total, close to 1100 km of under-ice survey was undertaken at depths to 3160 meters. A further set of operations was carried out in August and September 2011 from the Canadian Icebreaker CCGS Louis St. Laurent operating with the American Icebreaker USCGS Healy. Here the operations were much further north to latitudes of 88°30' N and to depths of 3500 meters. In this paper, the 2010 ice camp and the 2011 icebreaker missions are described, with an outline of technology developments that were undertaken, the preparations that were necessary for the success of the missions and finally, the outcome of the missions themselves.

  10. High arch (United States)

    Pes cavus; High foot arch ... High foot arches are much less common than flat feet. They are more likely to be caused ... difficult to fit into shoes. People who have high arches most often need foot support. A high ...

  11. Commemoration of the 130th Anniversary for Louis Pasteur Inventing Rabies Vaccine%巴斯德开启预防医学的大门——纪念路易斯·巴斯德发明狂犬病疫苗130周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正时; 房海


    路易斯·巴斯德(Louis Pasteur,1822-12-27 ~ 1895-09-28)是法国伟大的科学家,他发明了狂犬病疫苗,并于1885年7月6日,首次给被狂犬严重咬伤的9岁男童约瑟夫·迈斯特(Joseph Meister,1876-02-21~1940-06-24)治疗并获得成功.从此,人们普遍将巴斯德使用狂犬病疫苗首次对人进行接种的这一日期(7月6日),作为了人类历史上用人工制备疫苗来征服传染病的时代起点.到2015年7月6日,历史的车轮已经走过了漫长的130年.纵观巴斯德的科学生涯,可以大致划分为3个阶段:①1856年前的化学年代;②以1856年研究发酵开始接触到了微生物为起点,进入生命科学年代;③以1865年研究蚕病为起步标志,进入医学(包括兽医学)年代.巴斯德在化学、生命科学、医学乃至农业领域都有独到的发现与研究,然而使他留芳千古的是病原学说的创立和免疫预防接种的发明.在发明疫苗的探索中,巴斯德找到了开启疫苗大门的钥匙——控制病原体的毒力.他发现了使鸡霍乱病原细菌——多杀巴斯德氏菌(Pasteurella multocida)自然减毒的途径,更可贵的是使炭疽芽孢杆菌发生人为的毒力变异,并成功发明了鸡霍乱疫苗、炭疽减毒疫苗.在对狂犬病疫苗研究中通过采用兔脑传代的方法,建立了由街毒向固定毒演变的狂犬病病毒固定毒经典理论,并成功研制出了安全有效的狂犬病疫苗,同时建立了对狂犬病的巴斯德预防治疗法.狂犬病疫苗百年来虽不断地推陈出新,但巴斯德创造的原理仍为经典的指导原则.

  12. Planck's High Temperature Catastrophe in Observational Astronomy:- (NASA proves Planck wrong) (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.


    Planck's black body radiation law ( IP=c1 λ^51e^c2λT -1) predicts that a hotter body (higher T) should always emit more intensely than a colder body (lower T) throughout the entire EMR spectrum. However, space age infrared astronomy contradicts this prediction! It is now known that as observation moves from the visible to the near-, mid- and far infrared; increasingly cold celestial objects come into view while hotter ones fade and disappear ( al/irregions.html). Were Planck's law valid, the hottest stars would never disappear; and colder objects would not be detected. This can only be described as a high temperature catastrophe (BAPS, April Meeting 2008, H12.3, St Louis, MO) for Planck's law! On the other hand, Gall's black body radiation law ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb) ( predicts that as wavelength increases, there is a crossover point above which a colder object will emit more intensely than a hotter one. Hence colder objects will appear and hotter ones will eventually disappear from view. The crossover point for black bodies at 6000K and 100K is 12.066 microns. These calculations with Gall's law are in overall agreement with observational infrared astronomy.

  13. Optimal use of β-blockers in high-risk hypertension: A guide to dosing equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet B McGill


    Full Text Available Janet B McGillDepartment of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Hypertension is the number one diagnosis made by primary care physicians, placing them in a unique position to prescribe the antihypertensive agent best suited to the individual patient. In individuals with diabetes mellitus, blood pressure (BP levels > 130/80 mmHg confer an even higher risk for cardiovascular and renal disease, and these patients will benefit from aggressive antihypertensive treatment using a combination of agents. β‑blockers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of hypertension in high-risk patients. β‑blockers are a heterogeneous class of agents, and this review presents the differences between β‑blockers and provides evidence-based protocols to assist in understanding dose equivalence in the selection of an optimal regimen in patients with complex needs. The clinical benefits provided by β‑blockers are only effective if patients adhere to medication treatment long term. β‑blockers with proven efficacy, once-daily dosing, and lower side effect profiles may become instrumental in the treatment of hypertensive diabetic and nondiabetic patients.Keywords: antihypertensive, blood pressure, atenolol, carvedilol, labetalol, metoprolol, nebivolol

  14. High PRF high current switch (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth


    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.




  16. High Surplus Means High Profits?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ In recent years,China has been in the limelight worldwide due to its constant high trade surplus.Its trade surplus hit US$ 24.974 billion in August, a record high and an increase of US$ 624 million versus the previous month, according to the latest data from China Customs.

  17. High Tech


    Manterola, Javier; Fernández Casado, S.A., Carlos


    "High Tech" is an architectural movement that emphasizes the technological dimension of the building as expression means. Its research includes the diverse structures composing the building: resistance, closing, services, distribution and communications. Its results are unequal since not all the buildings rising from this movement are high technology and already are other buildings not enrolled in this movement. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Norman Foster are its main representatives.

  18. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard;


    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  19. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans


    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  20. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans


    in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...

  1. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration


    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  2. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia


    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  3. High efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, G.


    The surgeon wants to have phlebograms with good contrast, which should show only the deep venous system and leaks to the superficial system, that means, the insufficient communicating veins and the inflow of the big and small saphenous vein into the deep vein must be visible. The most frequent causes for X-ray-prints of bad quality are: a too high position of the stowing, too high puncture at the back of the foot, bad focussing without showing the ankle joint or the popliteal region and too narrow sections of the X-ray-films as well as too late exposures with fullfilling of the total superficial venous system and extreme superposition on the film.

  4. High Tech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manterola, Javier


    Full Text Available "High Tech" is an architectural movement that emphasizes the technological dimension of the building as expression means. Its research includes the diverse structures composing the building: resistance, closing, services, distribution and communications. Its results are unequal since not all the buildings rising from this movement are high technology and already are other buildings not enrolled in this movement. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Norman Foster are its main representatives.

    "High Tech" es un movimiento arquitectónico que enfatiza la dimensión tecnológica del edificio como medio de expresión. Su investigación se fija en las diversas estructuras que configuran el edificio, la resistente, la de cerramiento, la de servicios, la de distribución y comunicaciones. Sus resultados son desiguales pues no todos los edificios que surgen de este movimiento son alta tecnología y muchos otros no inscritos en dicho movimiento sí lo son. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers y Norman Foster son sus representantes más destacados.

  5. Urban School Formation: Identity Work and Constructing an Origin Story (United States)

    Silver, Lauren J.


    In this article, I analyze the formation of Shearwater High School in St. Louis, Missouri and I explore the identity work involved in building the school. Diverging from standardization trends in urban education, the school came to fruition through a creative process, which was in-flux and supported by diverse communities in St. Louis. This…

  6. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelbaum, Richard; Xia, Fei; Gopan, Akshay; Kumfer, Benjamin


    Washington University in St. Louis and its project partners are developing a unique pressurized oxy-combustion process that aims to improve efficiency and costs by reducing the recycling of flue gas to near zero. Normally, in the absence of recycled flue gas or another inert gas, combustion of fuel and oxygen results in a dramatic increase in temperature of the combustion products and radiant energy, as compared to combustion in air. High heat flux to the boiler tubes may result in a tube surface temperatures that exceed safe operating limits. In the Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, this problem is addressed by staging the delivery of fuel and by novel combustion design that allows control of heat flux. In addition, the main mode of heat transfer to the steam cycle is by radiation, as opposed to convection. Therefore, the requirement for recycling large amounts of flue gas, for temperature control or to improve convective heat transfer, is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in auxiliary loads. The following report contains a detailed summary of scientific findings and accomplishments for the period of Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept 30, 2014. Results of ASPEN process and CFD modelling activities aimed at improving the SPOC process and boiler design are presented. The effects of combustion pressure and fuel moisture on the plant efficiency are discussed. Combustor pressure is found to have only a minor impact beyond 16 bar. For fuels with moisture content greater than approx 30%, e.g. coal/water slurries, the amount of latent heat of condensation exceeds that which can be utilized in the steam cycle and plant efficiency is reduced significantly. An improved boiler design is presented that achieves a more uniform heat flux profile. In addition, a fundamental study of radiation in high-temperature, high-pressure, particle-laden flows is summarized which provides a more complete understanding of heat transfer in these unusual conditions and to allow for

  7. The Electrochemical Society, Inc. Meeting Program (181st), Held in St. Louis, Missouri on May 17-22, 1992. Including: State-of-the-Art Program on Compound Semiconductors XVI, Fullerenes: Chemistry, Physics, and New Directions, Quantum Confinement, Micromachining and Microstructures, Electronics/Dielectric Science and Technology Joint Recent News Papers (United States)


    A. Kilfoyle, Publications Manager Ellen Titano, Information Systms Manager * Carolya Pylypiak Financial Manager Barbara J. Baggott, Secretary to Roque...514 ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF HIGH TEMPERATURE Microdynemics In Chioroalluminate Melt - W. R. Carper . SUPERCONDUCTORS C. E. Keller. P. A. Shaw, M. Parrish...alumina Dept.. University of California, Santa Barbara , Santa BRarbara, CA specimens were heated conventionally or in a plasma over identi- 93106 cal

  8. National Dam Safety Program. General American Life Insurance Co. Lake Dam (MO 31390), Upper Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, St. Louis County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report. (United States)


    spillway, where a MIM ---- - -- timber footbridge about 4 feet wide and 40 feet long spans the outlet. A site plan of the General American Life Insurance...attractive if the normal waterline were 1 foot higher than originally planned. It appears that the footbridge that crosses the spillway structure was also...herein (curb, footbridge , and drawdown pipe screen) and the fact that the downstream slope of the dam was found to be somewhat steeper than specified

  9. Cultural Resource Survey and Assessment of Proposed Valley Park Levee Alignment and Borrow Areas, St. Louis County, Missouri. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 10. (United States)


    Park, John Smizer built a distillery , sawmill, flourmill, and mercantile center (ca. 1850) In an area now called Spring Hill. Spring Hill soon became...for the Proposed Lower Meramec River Basin Wastewater Treatment Faclitles. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Kansas City. Schroeder, Walter A. 1981

  10. Super-TIGER2: A Very-Large-Area, High-Resolution, Trans-Iron Cosmic Ray Investigation - Caltech Co-I (United States)

    Mewaldt, Richard

    This is a Co-I proposal from the California Institute of Technology for the proposal entitled “SuperTIGER-2: A Very-Large-Area, High-Resolution Trans-Iron Cosmic Ray Investigation” submitted by Principal Investigator W. R. Binns of Washington University in St. Louis. SuperTIGER is a very-large-area instrument for measuring the composition of galactic cosmic rays on high-altitude balloon flights over Antarctica. Super-TIGER-1 had a highly successful 55-day flight in 2012/2013. The excellent data quality enables us to clearly resolve all nuclei from Z=10 to Z=40. Additionally, although statistics are low, there appears to be clear resolution of elements with Z=50-60. The excellent data from this flight will enable us to achieve the initial goals of the program. The high performance of the instrument, both in charge resolution and collecting power, and the science that can be addressed by measurements of Z>40 nuclei, makes a compelling case to conduct additional flights to measure the abundances of individual nuclei up to Z=60. This is a 4- year proposal with the primary objective of measuring the abundances of individual nuclei with 41#Z#60 and to substantially increase the number of 30#Z#40 nuclei measured. This will be the first time that individual elemental abundances for 41#Z#60 will be obtained. These new measurements will provide sensitive tests and clarification of the OB-association model of galactic cosmic-ray origins and will test models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration to cosmic-ray energies. They will enable us to determine if the enrichment of refractory elements (those that exist primarily in dust grains in the interstellar medium) over volatile elements (those that exist primarily in the gas phase) extends into the Z=41-60 charge range. They will also enable us to unambiguously determine the extent of any r-process enrichment. SuperTIGER provides critical measurements to unravel the mystery of galactic cosmic ray

  11. High Combustion Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  12. SuperTIGER-2: A Very-Large-Area, High-Resolution Trans-Iron Cosmic Ray Investigation (United States)

    Binns, Walter

    This is the lead proposal of a multi-institution proposal for the investigation titled “SuperTIGER-2: A Very-Large-Area, High Resolution Trans-Iron Cosmic Ray Investigation”. SuperTIGER is a very-large-area instrument for measuring the composition of galactic cosmic rays on high-altitude balloon flights over Antarctica. SuperTIGER-1 had a highly successful 55-day flight in 2012/2013. The data quality is excellent, enabling us to clearly resolve all nuclei from Z=10 to Z=40. Additionally, although statistics are low, there appears to be clear resolution of elements in the Z=40- 60 range. The excellent data from this flight will enable us to achieve the initial goals of the program. The high performance of the instrument, both in charge resolution and collecting power, and the science that can be addressed by measurements of nuclei heavier than Z=40, makes a compelling case to conduct additional flights to measure the abundances of individual nuclei up to Z=60. This is a 4-year proposal with the primary objective of measuring the abundances of individual nuclei with 41#Z#60 and to substantially increase the number of 30#Z#40 nuclei measured. This will be the first time that individual elemental abundances for the 41#Z#60 range will be obtained. These new measurements will provide sensitive tests and clarification of the OB-association model of galactic cosmic-ray origins and will test models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration to cosmic-ray energies. They will enable us to determine if the enrichment of refractory elements (those that exist primarily in dust grains in the interstellar medium) over volatile elements (those that exist primarily in the gas phase) extends into the Z=41-60 charge range. They will also enable us to unambiguously determine the extent of any r-process enrichment. SuperTIGER provides critical measurements to unravel the mystery of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) origins and complements instruments with different

  13. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  14. SeaWiFS (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — SEAWiFS_US is a high resolution (1km) satellite dataset derived from the eight wavelength SEAWiFS sensor. The dataset also includes the aerosol reflectance over the...

  15. High-Altitude Illness (United States)

    ... also called HAPE), which affects the lungsHigh-altitude cerebral edema (also called HACE), which affects the brainThese illnesses ... HAPE, high altitude, high altitude sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, high-altitude pulmonary edema, hypobaropathy, mountain sickness, nifedipine, ...

  16. Modelling sea ice for climate studies: recent advances and future challenges (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Fichefet, Thierry


    Since the beginning of satellite measurements in 1979, the summer Arctic sea ice extent has shrunk at a mean rate of ~12% per decade, and there is evidence that the rate of decline has accelerated over the last decade. Current global climate models project further decrease in Arctic sea ice areal coverage through the 21st century if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase. However, rates of loss vary greatly between models, yielding a large uncertainty as to when a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean may be realized. Narrowing this uncertainty is of crucial importance since such changes in the Arctic sea ice cover might have profound ramifications, including the global ocean circulation and heat budget, regional ecosystems and wildlife, the indigenous human population, and commercial exploration and transportation. Regarding the Antarctic sea ice, its extent has been observed to slightly increase during the last 37 years, which appears puzzling in a global warming context. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this feature, but the issue is far from being settled. On the other hand, the majority of global climate models simulate a decreasing trend in Antarctic sea ice extent over this period, which questions the validity of their Antarctic sea ice projections for the coming decades. In this lecture, we show through simulations conducted with the state of the art Louvain-la-Neuve Sea Ice Model (LIM) coupled to the Nucleous European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) platform that a number of small-scale sea ice processes, which are omitted or crudely represented in global climate models (in particular, the subgrid-scale sea ice thickness distribution, the thermodynamics and dynamics of brine pockets trapped within sea ice, processes related to snow on top of sea ice, including surface melt ponds, the sea ice mechanical deformation, and the subgrid-scale heterogeneity of atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions), play a significant role in determining the mean state and variability of sea ice in both hemispheres. There is therefore an urgent need to account for these processes in the next generation of global climate models. We also demonstrate that sea ice data assimilation in models is a powerful tool to calibrate sea ice parameters and to improve seasonal sea ice predictions. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to understand to a certain extent differences between models and to reduce sea ice projection uncertainties by using appropriate sea ice process-oriented diagnostics and emergent constraints. Finally, we discuss possible future developments and challenges in sea ice modelling for climate studies.

  17. Reaalsust taltsutades / Jean-Louis Poitevin ; tõlk. Mailis Seero

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poitevin, Jean-Louis


    Läti, leedu ja eesti kunstnike ühisnäitus Pariisi Cite Internationale des Arts'is kuni 26. X. Kuraatorid: Aili Vahtrapuu, Liena Bondare, Birute Pankunaite. Miks Mitrevicsi, Inta Brunina, Laura Garbshtiene, Reiu Tüüri, Anu Kalmu, Peeter Alliku, Urmas Viigi, Anu Põdra, Jüri Ojaveri, Jaanus Samma, Ene-Liis Semperi, Mari-Liis Tammi, Angelika Schneideri ja Virge Jõekalda töödest

  18. Micromechanics of rock deformation and failure (Louis Néel Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Wong, Teng-Fong


    Naturally deformed rocks and their microstructures provide some of the most useful data for the reconstruction of tectonic evolution. A physically based inference of the operative deformation mechanism and failure mode from such data hinges upon a fundamental understanding of the microstructures induced in samples deformed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. As a field of mechanics that explicitly takes into account the microstructure of a material, micromechanics is linked dynamically to advances in imaging technology, that continues to refine the quantitative characterization of geometric attributes of microstructure and to elucidate the micromechanics of damage evolution. For a porous rock, such imaging techniques together with acoustic emission observations can now provide a fairly comprehensive description of the geometry of the pore space, as well as the density and connectivity of microcracks and equant pores. These microstructural data provide critical constraints on models that strive to capture the micromechanical processes and thus arrive at constitutive relations that describe the inelastic and failure behaviors as observed in the laboratory. Based on concepts of elasticity, plasticity and fracture mechanics, a number of micromechanical models (such as the sliding wing crack, Hertzian fracture, plastic and cataclastic pore collapse) help identify the key microstructural parameters involved and provide important insights into the deformation and failure mechanisms associated with a number of processes related to the development of brittle faulting, shear localization, cataclastic flow and compaction localization. These micromechanical processes typically involve damage evolution that is spatially heterogeneous, the complexity of which can potentially be probed in some details now by numerical simulation. Furthermore, these micromechanical models can provide useful constraints on the evolutions of porosity and permeability, which are often coupled with mechanical deformation and failure in crustal tectonics.

  19. Sediment processes and mercury transport in a frozen freshwater fluvial lake (Lake St. Louis, QC, Canada). (United States)

    Canário, João; Poissant, Laurier; O'Driscoll, Nelson; Vale, Carlos; Pilote, Martin; Lean, David


    An open-bottom and a closed-bottom mesocosm were developed to investigate the release of mercury from sediments to the water column in a frozen freshwater lake. The mesoscosms were deployed in a hole in the ice and particulate mercury (Hg(P)) and total dissolved mercury (TDHg) were measured in sediments and in water column vertical profiles. In addition, dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in water and mercury water/airflux were quantified. Concentrations of TDHg, DGM, and mercury flux were all higher in the open-bottom mesocosm than in the closed-bottom mesocosm. In this paper we focus on the molecular diffusion of mercury from the sediment in comparison with the TDHg accumulation in the water column. We conclude that the molecular diffusion and sediment resuspension play a minor role in mercury release from sediments suggesting that solute release during ebullition is an important transport process for mercury in the lake.

  20. Engineers Far from Ordinary: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in St. Louis (United States)


    Ken Klaus and Richard Hagan fl ood fi ghting at Bois Brule. After Klaus and Hagan returned to their hotel after a 14-hour shift, they received a call...2007): 1-9; Garrett Power, “The Fox in the Chicken Coop: The Regulatory Responsibili- ties of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,” Virginia Law


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Carlino


    Full Text Available The central theoretical problems and the practical problems in the history of labor movement, like the Stalinism, the Marxist crisis, the international crisis, and the possibility of revolution, are closely bound in the Althusser Thoughts. Those problems revolve around the relation between Politics, State and Party, and they fall upon the question of ideology effectiveness. We’ll try to see in which way these relations are articulated, based on the significant interventions belonging to the “transition’s writings”, between 1976 and 1978, with which Althusser has ruled about political questions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Carlino


    Full Text Available The central theoretical problems and the practical problems in the history of labor movement, like the Stalinism, the Marxist crisis, the international crisis, and the possibility of revolution, are closely bound in the Althusser Thoughts. Those problems revolve around the relation between Politics, State and Party, and they fall upon the question of ideology effectiveness. We’ll try to see in which way these relations are articulated, based on the significant interventions belonging to the “transition’s writings”, between 1976 and 1978, with which Althusser has ruled about political questions

  3. The Effects of NSTP on the Lives of Saint Louis University Students (United States)

    Balmeo, Marilyn L.; Falinchao, Jeffry P.; Biay, Kathleen Kaye L.; Ebes, Joyce Karen M.; Eclarino, Julienne G.; Lao-ang, Ivy Gail P.


    The National Service Training Program (NSTP) of the Philippines is a form of service learning which is defined as the integration of community services to instruction in order to strengthen the civic and community responsibilities of the students. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the NSTP for the students, its…

  4. Saint Louis Science Center Community STEM Outreach Program: A Local Model for National Impact (United States)


    Science Center. (2013). Elementary & Middle School Demo: Density Tower. Mystery of Matter Outreach: Chemistry Beyond the Classroom . Assessed on October 10...or public relations manager 4 Administrative support, clerical worker, secretary 3 Classroom teacher (K-12) 2 Engineer 2 Other creative profession...curriculum development, and data management . While managers still dropped in and out of classrooms after the staff reductions, managers ’ focus

  5. Report of Freshwater Mussels Workshop Held at St. Louis, Missouri on 26-27 October 1982. (United States)


    Mill ! .- a . -t... . Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dote Ernred) REPOR DOCMENTTIONPAGEREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION...small rivers OSUM 15863.8, East Fork Stones River at Brown’s Mill , 2.0 mi. SSE of Lascassus, Rutherford Co., Tennessee. *31 August 1965 David H...genres et soixante- nuit especes. Annales Generales des Sciences Physiques 5(13): 287-322, 3 pl. . ~ 59 Say, Thomas. 1817. Conchology in William Nicholson

  6. University of Missouri-St. Louis: Data-Driven Online Course Design and Effective Practices (United States)

    Grant, Mary Rose


    Analytics has a significant place in the future of higher education by guiding reform and system change. As this case study has shown, analytics can do more than evaluate what students have done and predict what they will do. Learning analytics can be transformative, altering existing pedagogical processes, research, data management, and…

  7. [Jean-Louis-Paul Denucé (1824-1889): A forgotten pioneer of plastic surgery]. (United States)

    Marck, K W; Martin, D


    The authors propose to define as main characterization of plastic reconstructive surgery the conceptual thinking that leads to a rational choice of an operative treatment. Conceptual thinking in plastic surgery started halfway the nineteenth century with the first schematic representations of the operative procedures available at that time, in which Von Ammon and Baumgarten, Szymanowski and Denucé played a prominent role. These four authors and their works are presented with special attention for the less known of them, Jean-Paul Denucé, surgeon in Bordeaux.

  8. Fate and Fortune in a Modern Fairy Tale: Louis Sachar's "Holes." (United States)

    Pinsent, Pat


    Shows how Sachar adapts some of the characteristics of fairy tale, such as magic objects and formulae, stereotypical roles and repeated motifs, within a story set in a desert penal establishment for young offenders. Notes that because of the blend between fantasy and realism, a number of otherwise unbelievable coincidences does not overtax the…

  9. East Saint Louis and Vicinity, Illinois. Blue Waters Ditch Improvements. Final Environmental Statement. (United States)


    swimmers . (1) Value does not interfere with boating. (2) Dissolved Oxygen, mg/i 6.0 > 5.0 8.0 Guideline value conducive to good, mixed fish fauna. Total...unknown. 22 IV 23 IV 24 IV 1/ In this table classifications Mississippian and WoodIand rt I Lo t imt settlement by aboriginal populations. lhe...childrei and unwary adult non- swimmers . Archaeological Sites DitchI g and other proposed improvements of the EQ Plan would not affect any4 of

  10. Saaremaal mäletati Louis Kahni ja August Komendanti / Laine Mets ; fotod: Laine Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Laine


    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu korraldusel toimunud kahepäevasest konverentsist Kuressaares oktoobrikuu alguses. Päevi läbivaks motoks oli: "Sa ei saa kunagi õppida midagi, mis pole osa sinust endast" Arhitekti ja inseneri viljakast koostööst. Kokkuvõtlik ülevaade toimunust

  11. The EMU after the Gauweiler Judgment and the Juncker Report / Jean-Victor Louis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Louis, Jean-Victor


    Majandus- ja rahaliidu (EMU) analüüsist peale Gauweiler'i kaasuse kohtuotsuse väljakuulutamist Euroopa Kohtus ja Juncker'i aruannet. Kohtuotsuse ja Juncker'i aruande järelduste tähtsusest Majandus- ja rahaliidule tulevikus

  12. "Open skies" talks to begin this autumn / Jean-Louis Doublet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Doublet, Jean-Louis


    Euroopa Liidu ja Ameerika Ühendriikide valmisolekust alustada 2003. aastal kõnelusi transatlantilise lennundusturu liberaliseerimiseks, mis võimaldaks Euroopa Liidu lennukompaniidel sooritada siselende USA-s ja vastupidi

  13. 76 FR 54801 - Healthlink, a Wellpoint, Inc. Company, Accounts Receivable and Collections Division, St. Louis... (United States)


    ... are engaged in activities related to the supply of health insurance services: Accounts payable and... Employment and Training Administration Healthlink, a Wellpoint, Inc. Company, Accounts Receivable and...) applicable to workers and former workers HealthLink, a Wellpoint, Inc. Company, Accounts Receivable...

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - MO 2012 St. Louis NAIP (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains polygons delineating the seamline boundaries of imagery acquired as part of the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), and used in the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas


    Full Text Available Research focuses on Lois Goulds complex position in feminism movements as displayed by the pessimistic tone in one of her works. The primary data for this research were taken from the short story X: A Fabulous Childs Story, published in 1972. The research used qualitative method that lies on library research, and to help analyze the topic, books, websites, and scientific journals were used. Kate Millets concept of an androgyny was also applied in order to study further about the character of X. The result of the discussion shows that even though considered progressive for its era for its effort to deconstruct rigid gender divisions, this short story also comes with an irony with its ending. The ending demonstrates that human beings cannot be free from sex and gender barriers. This result supports the idea that Gould is trapped between the feminist and the antifeminist movement.

  16. H09118: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Saint Louis Bay, Mississippi, 1970-06-15 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. Factors Influencing Luxury Fashion Retailers’ Entry Mode Selection: A Case Study of Louis Vuitton in China


    Liang, Keqin


    The luxury industry is one of the leading industries in the global financial markets and has surpassed other consumer categories with its remarkable performance. Meanwhile, China is predicted to become the largest luxury market in 2015. Therefore, in line with a buoyant market trend, the leading luxury retailers have shifted their focus to Chinese markets, to seize new market opportunities. This study aims to evaluate the applicability and generalizability of identified entry mode choice ...

  18. Michael Kwass, Contraband: Louis Mandrin and the Making of a Global Underground.


    Goldner, Erik


    C’est une plongée dans les « profondeurs de l’économie souterraine » destinée à éclairer « le côté obscur de la mondialisation » que propose Michael Kwass (p. 9). Dès l’introduction, l’auteur reproche à Daniel Roche et aux historiens français qui l’ont suivi de donner une vision trop optimiste de la « révolution de la consommation » du XVIIIe siècle considérée comme un moteur d’émancipation individuelle et de démocratisation sociale d’objets, de pratiques et d’idées. Selon lui, cette vision p...

  19. [Vaccines against anthrax in animals, from Louis Pasteur to our day]. (United States)

    Shlyakhov, E; Blancou, J; Rubinstein, E


    The authors outline the history of vaccination against anthrax in animals, from the end of the 19th century to the present time. The three main steps in the production of specific vaccines are described in detail: production of vaccines from live, encapsulated bacteria, followed by vaccines from live, unencapsulated bacteria and, finally, subunit vaccines. Advantages and disadvantages of these three types of vaccine, some of which are still in use today, are described and discussed.

  20. [Introduction to the commemorative session of the centennial of the death of Louis Pasteur]. (United States)

    Le Minor, L


    When elected a member of Académie de médecine in 1873, Pasteur was well known for his achievements in chemistry, fermentation and silk worm diseases. He denied spontaneity of diseases, their cause are living germs. Passionate disputations took place in Academy on subjects of septicaemia, childbirth fever, or fowl cholera. In 1881, his success was obtained by vaccination of sheep against epidemic anthrax: his method of virus action softening was available for many human infections diseases, in spite of many disputations. The same method applied to rabies gave him universal glory. When he died in 1895, his views on infections diseases were accepted by Academie de medecine and all over the world.

  1. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the St. Louis Area Support Center, Madison County, Illinois. (United States)


    archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical archeology. He has held administrative positions since 1951 with federal, state...investigations of Mississippian sites are critical in the understanding of a large socio-policito-religious unit and interactions with smaller...River Terrace. Illinois State Museum Reports of Investigations 21. Nassany, Michael S., Neal H. Lopinot, Brian M. Butler, and Richard W. Jeffries. 1983

  2. H09103A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Saint Louis Bay, Mississippi, 1970-05-27 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. H09103B: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Saint Louis Bay, Mississippi, 1970-05-27 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  6. High blood sugar (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  7. High potassium level (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  8. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  9. High Blood Cholesterol (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  10. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.


    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  11. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools (United States)

    American Educator, 2013


    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  12. High speed, high current pulsed driver circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Christopher R.


    Various technologies presented herein relate to driving a LED such that the LED emits short duration pulses of light. This is accomplished by driving the LED with short duration, high amplitude current pulses. When the LED is driven by short duration, high amplitude current pulses, the LED emits light at a greater amplitude compared to when the LED is driven by continuous wave current.

  13. High Throughput Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  14. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  15. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN


    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  16. High speed data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed MA


    This book covers high speed data converters from the perspective of a leading high speed ADC designer and architect, with a strong emphasis on high speed Nyquist A/D converters. For our purposes, the term 'high speed' is defined as sampling rates that are greater than 10 MS/s.

  17. High pressure technology 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, J.A.; Picqueuer, L.M. (eds.)


    This volume is divided into four sessions: fracture mechanics applications to high pressure vessels; high pressure code issues; high pressure design, analysis, and safety concerns; and military and other high pressure applications. Separate abstracts were prepared for eleven papers of this conference.

  18. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  19. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng


    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  20. High-current, high-frequency capacitors (United States)

    Renz, D. D.


    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  1. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers. (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart


    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  2. Final Progress Report on Robust and/or Adaptive Filtering by Neural Networks (United States)


    Conference on Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering , Nov. 4-7, 2001, St. Louis, Missouri. This paper shows that the risk-averting error criterion is...sensitive estimates, i.e., exhibiting an extremely high level of nonuniqueness . • Recurrent Multilayer Perceptrons for Discrete-Time Dynamic System...Proceedings of the 2001 Conference on Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering , St. Louis, Missouri, November 2001. 7. Avoiding Poor Local Minima in Training

  3. High blood pressure medications (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  4. High-Risk Pregnancy (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications High-Risk Pregnancy: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A high-risk pregnancy refers to anything that puts the ...

  5. High blood cholesterol levels (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  6. Treating High Blood Pressure (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  7. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.


    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  8. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar


    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  9. Highly Ionized Envelopes of High Velocity Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Zekis, Erin E


    We present recent results on highly ionized gas in Galactic High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs), originally surveyed in OVI (Sembach et al. 2003). In a new FUSE/HST survey of SiII/III/IV (Shull et al. 2009) toward 37 AGN, we detected SiIII (lambda 1206.500 A) absorption with a sky coverage fraction 81 +/- 5% (61 HVCs along 30 of 37 high-latitude sight lines). The SiIII (lambda 1206.500 A) line is typically 4-5 times stronger than OVI (lambda 1031.926 A). The mean HVC column density of perhaps 10^19 cm^-2 of low-metallicity (0.1 - 0.2 Z_sun) ionized gas in the low halo. Recent determinations of HVC distances allow us to estimate a total reservoir of ~10^8 M_sun. Estimates of infall velocities indicate an infall rate of around 1 M_sun yr^-1, comparable to the replenishment rate for star formation in the disk. HVCs appear to be sheathed by intermediate-temperature gas (10^4.0 - 10^4.5 K) detectable in SiIII and SiIV, as well as hotter gas seen in OVI and other high ions. To prepare for HST observations of 10 HVC-selecte...

  10. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.


    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  11. High Sensitivity, High Frequency and High Time Resolution Decimetric Spectroscope (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Rosa, R. R.


    RESUMEN. Se ha desarrollado el primer espectroscopio decimetrico latino americano operando en una banda de 100 MHz con alta resoluci6n de fre- cuencia (100 KHz) y tiempo (10 ms), alrededor de cualquier centro de frecuencia en el intervalo de 2000-200 MHz. El prop6sito de esta nota es describir investigaciones solares y no solares que se planean, progra ma de investigaci6n y la situaci6n actual de desarrollo de este espectroscopio. ABSTRACT. First Latin American Decimetric Spectroscope operating over a band of 100 MHz with high resolution in frequency (100 KHz) and time (10 ms), around any center frequency in the range of 2000-200 MHz is being developed. The purpose of this note is to describe planned solar, and non-solar, research programmes and present status of development of this spectroscope. Keq wo : INSTRUMENTS - SPECTROSCOPY

  12. High Precision Measurements Using High Frequency Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Aohan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Öwall, Viktor; Pullerits, Tonu; Karki, Khadga J


    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5X10^8. In this letter, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in-situ virtual metrology in material design.

  13. Photoproduction at High Energy and High Intensity

    CERN Multimedia


    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  14. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High) (United States)


    Aviation Blvd Bldg 271 Los Angeles Air Force Base (LAAFB) El Segundo, CA 90245-2808 Phone: 310-653-3018 Fax: 310-653-4414 DSN...mission areas: Missile Warning , Missile Defense, Technical Intelligence and Battlespace Awareness. The constellation architecture for SBIRS High...Integrated Tactical Warning /Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) mission in November 2008 and technical intelligence mission in August 2009. The SBIRS GEO 1

  15. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C


    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  16. High-Temperature Superconductivity (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji


    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  17. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez


    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  18. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan


    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  19. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM


    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  20. Proxmox high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Simon MC


    If you want to know the secrets of virtualization and how to implement high availability on your services, this is the book for you. For those of you who are already using Proxmox, this book offers you the chance to build a high availability cluster with a distributed filesystem to further protect your system from failure.

  1. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.


    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  2. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.


    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  3. Highly interactive distributed visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, M.; Belleman, R.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.


    We report on our iGrid2005 demonstration, called the "Dead Cat Demo"; an example of a highly interactive augmented reality application consisting of software services distributed over a wide-area, high-speed network. We describe our design decisions, analyse the implications of the design on applica

  4. High assurance services computing

    CERN Document Server


    Covers service-oriented technologies in different domains including high assurance systemsAssists software engineers from industry and government laboratories who develop mission-critical software, and simultaneously provides academia with a practitioner's outlook on the problems of high-assurance software development

  5. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel (United States)


    Kiev, 1993. 7. High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Inernational, Tokyo...the Corrosion of Iron and Steels,” High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

  6. High density photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)


    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  7. Utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaes AH


    Full Text Available Anne H Blaes,1 Aamer Rehman,2 David M Vock,3,4 Xianghua Luo,3,4 Mark Menge,5 Douglas Yee,3 Emil Missov,6 Daniel Duprez6 1Division of Hematology/Oncology/Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2Division of Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 3Masonic Cancer Center, 4Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 5Park Nicollet Frauenshuh Cancer Center, St Louis Park, 6Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Anthracycline chemotherapy remains an integral part of the care for curative intent chemotherapy in breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Better tools need to be identified to predict cardiac complications of anthracycline chemotherapy. Materials and methods: We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin T and I, and creatine kinase (CK-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether baseline levels or changes in these biomarkers may help predict the onset of congestive heart failure. Results: Eighteen consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of breast cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled. The median dose of doxorubicin exposure was 240 mg/m2 (range 240–400 mg/m2. After treatment with doxorubicin, the hscTnT increased to 19.1 pg/mL (P<0.001. CKMB and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels increased to 1.1 ng/mL and 88.3 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.02. When subjects who had a decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography were compared to those who did not have a change in LVEF, there was a suggestion that those subjects with an elevated baseline hscTnT were more likely to have a decline in LVEF (2.7 pg/mL and 0.1 pg/mL, respectively; P=0.07. Spearman

  8. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A


    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subsequently, the down-conversion of second harmonic phonons into first harmonic phonons and conversion of first and second harmonic phonons into third harmonic phonons occur. On the similar lines, an eventual conversion of third harmonic phonons to high orders is also observed to commence. This surprising physical pathway for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion may find general relevance to other physical systems.

  9. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang


    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  10. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Krishna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail:; Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Krishnamohan, Tejas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kim, Donghyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pethe, Abhijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO {sub x}N {sub y} ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin ({approx}2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices.

  11. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;


    with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received a high...... proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial risk...

  12. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter


    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  13. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone


    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  14. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  15. High-Tech Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eşsiz


    Full Text Available The technological development in building and construction area, bring with the new construction systems and the new products. The aim of this study is to define the High Tech concept, and set the common and basic characteristics of High Tech applications. During 1970’s High Tech was born and developed in Britain. Especially British Architects Richard Rogers, Michael Hopkins, Norman Foster, Nicholas Grimshaw and Ian Ritchie are the leaders of this style. Their architecture show the machine aesthetic and use of industrial revoluation materials such as glass and steel. The reasons for wide usage of this technology in building constructions are; the ease of renewing the structural and installation systems by the changing technology and giving monumentality to the prestige buildings. High Tech building which we have many examples of give their occupants a lot of opportunities and also they can adapt itself to the time.

  16. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.


    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  17. High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... may have tax advantages for you. Workplace giving Workplace giving Find a list of the most common ... pressure and cholesterol. Exercise can also help relieve stress, another common cause of high blood pressure. To ...

  18. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald


    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  19. High Plains Aquifer (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base, the extent, and the 1991 potentiometric surface (i.e. altitude of the water table) of the High...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  4. High Resolution Elevation Contours (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  5. Microwave Radiometer - high frequency (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira


    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  7. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun


    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  8. High energy astrophysical neutrinos


    Athar, H.


    High energy neutrinos with energy typically greater than tens of thousands of GeV may originate from several astrophysical sources. The sources may include, for instance, our galaxy, the active centers of nearby galaxies, as well as possibly the distant sites of gamma ray bursts. I briefly review some aspects of production and propagation as well as prospects for observations of these high energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  9. High Performance Concrete


    Traian Oneţ


    The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  10. High efficiency incandescent lighting (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin


    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  11. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P


    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  12. Adaptation to High Altitude



    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  13. High throughput drug profiling


    Entzeroth, Michael; Chapelain, Béatrice; Guilbert, Jacques; Hamon, Valérie


    High throughput screening has significantly contributed to advances in drug discovery. The great increase in the number of samples screened has been accompanied by increases in costs and in the data required for the investigated compounds. High throughput profiling addresses the issues of compound selectivity and specificity. It combines conventional screening with data mining technologies to give a full set of data, enabling development candidates to be more fully compared.

  14. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.


    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  15. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal


    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  16. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center


    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  17. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri


    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  18. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar


    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  19. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie


    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  20. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kosek


    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard


    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  2. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin


    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  3. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.


    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  4. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)


    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  5. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira


    to render traditional clustering algorithms ineffective. The curse of dimensionality, among other effects, means that with increasing number of dimensions, a loss of meaningful differentiation between similar and dissimilar objects is observed. As high-dimensional objects appear almost alike, new approaches...... for clustering are required. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing techniques and clustering algorithms specifically for high-dimensional data. Still, open research issues remain. Clustering is a data mining task devoted to the automatic grouping of data based on mutual similarity. Each cluster...... that provide different cluster models and different algorithmic approaches for cluster detection. Common to all approaches is the fact that they require some underlying assessment of similarity between data objects. In this article, we provide an overview of the effects of high-dimensional spaces...

  6. High-energy detector (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY


    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  7. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra


    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  8. High power microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl


    Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...

  9. High-tech entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, Michel; Harris, Simon; Mønsted, Mette

    ; entrepreneurial finance; marketing technological innovations; and high-tech incubation management. Including case studies to give practical insights into genuine business examples, this comprehensive book has a distinctly 'real-world' focus throughout.Edited by a multi-national team, this comprehensive book......High-tech businesses form a crucial part of entrepreneurial activity - in some ways representing very typical examples of entrepreneurship, yet in some ways representing quite different challenges. The uncertainty in innovation and advanced technology makes it difficult to use conventional economic...... planning models, and also means that the management skills used in this area must be more responsive to issues of risk, uncertainty and evaluation than in conventional business opportunities. Whilst entrepreneurial courses do reflect the importance of high-tech businesses, they often lack the resources...

  10. High-conflict divorce. (United States)

    Johnston, J R


    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  11. Citing for High Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiaolin; McFarland, Daniel A


    The question of citation behavior has always intrigued scientists from various disciplines. While general citation patterns have been widely studied in the literature we develop the notion of citation projection graphs by investigating the citations among the publications that a given paper cites. We investigate how patterns of citations vary between various scientific disciplines and how such patterns reflect the scientific impact of the paper. We find that idiosyncratic citation patterns are characteristic for low impact papers; while narrow, discipline-focused citation patterns are common for medium impact papers. Our results show that crossing-community, or bridging citation patters are high risk and high reward since such patterns are characteristic for both low and high impact papers. Last, we observe that recently citation networks are trending toward more bridging and interdisciplinary forms.

  12. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX


    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  13. JUNOS High Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Sonderegger, James; Milne, Kieran; Palislamovic, Senad


    Whether your network is a complex carrier or just a few machines supporting a small enterprise, JUNOS High Availability will help you build reliable and resilient networks that include Juniper Networks devices. With this book's valuable advice on software upgrades, scalability, remote network monitoring and management, high-availability protocols such as VRRP, and more, you'll have your network uptime at the five, six, or even seven nines -- or 99.99999% of the time. Rather than focus on "greenfield" designs, the authors explain how to intelligently modify multi-vendor networks. You'll learn

  14. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  15. High strength alloys (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub


    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  16. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta


    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  17. High Performance FORTRAN (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush


    High performance FORTRAN is a set of extensions for FORTRAN 90 designed to allow specification of data parallel algorithms. The programmer annotates the program with distribution directives to specify the desired layout of data. The underlying programming model provides a global name space and a single thread of control. Explicitly parallel constructs allow the expression of fairly controlled forms of parallelism in particular data parallelism. Thus the code is specified in a high level portable manner with no explicit tasking or communication statements. The goal is to allow architecture specific compilers to generate efficient code for a wide variety of architectures including SIMD, MIMD shared and distributed memory machines.

  18. High availability IT services

    CERN Document Server

    Critchley, Terry


    This book starts with the basic premise that a service is comprised of the 3Ps-products, processes, and people. Moreover, these entities and their sub-entities interlink to support the services that end users require to run and support a business. This widens the scope of any availability design far beyond hardware and software. It also increases the potential for service failure for reasons beyond just hardware and software; the concept of logical outages. High Availability IT Services details the considerations for designing and running highly available ""services"" and not just the systems

  19. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  20. Prevention of High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  1. High-Energy Physics. (United States)

    Creutz, Michael


    Experimentalists in particle physics have long regarded computers as essential components of their apparatus. Theorists are now finding that significant advances in some areas can be accomplished only in partnership with a machine. Needs of experimentalists, interests of theorists, and specialized computers for high-energy experiments are…

  2. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.


    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholde

  3. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A


    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  4. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.


    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  5. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  6. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.


    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  7. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith


    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  8. Carthage High School Baseball. (United States)

    Woodfin, Samantha, Ed.


    This is the third issue of the magazine to focus on baseball in Panola County (Texas). The issue salutes the Carthage High School baseball program during two periods of its history. The first period was the early 1940's under Coach E. B. Morrison, whose teams were State Finalists in 1941 and 1942. The second period covered is the era of Coach…

  9. High Blood Pressure Prevention (United States)

    ... or "no added salt." Look for the sodium content in milligrams and the Percent Daily Value. Aim for foods that are less than 5 percent of the Daily Value of sodium. Foods with 20 percent or more Daily Value of sodium are considered high. To learn more about reading nutrition labels, see ...

  10. Highly oxidized superconductors (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.


    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  11. High availability using virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Calzolari, Federico


    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtu...

  12. High temperature superconducting compounds (United States)

    Goldman, Allen M.


    The major accomplishment of this grant has been to develop techniques for the in situ preparation of high-Tc superconducting films involving the use of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The techniques are generalizable to the growth of trilayer and multilayer structures. Films of both the DyBa2Cu3O(7-x) and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compounds as well as the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 compound have been grown on the usual substrates, SrTiO3, YSZ, MgO, and LaAlO3, as well as on Si substrates without any buffer layer. A bolometer has been fabricated on a thermally isolated SiN substrate coated with YSZ, an effort carried out in collaboration with Honeywell Inc. The deposition process facilitates the fabrication of very thin and transparent films creating new opportunities for the study of superconductor-insulator transitions and the investigation of photo-doping with carriers of high temperature superconductors. In addition to a thin film technology, a patterning technology has been developed. Trilayer structures have been developed for FET devices and tunneling junctions. Other work includes the measurement of the magnetic properties of bulk single crystal high temperature superconductors, and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, measurement of electric transport properties of T1-based high-Tc films.

  13. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun


    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  14. Highly Expressive Hakka Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    SOUTHERN Jiangxi Province was the birthplace of the Hakka ethnic group and has since been the native home and main transfer hub for the spread of the nationality. The highly expressive art of the Hakkas, including folk songs in Xingguo, colored lantern performances in Shicheng, ancient

  15. High School Press Freedom. (United States)

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  16. High blood pressure - infants (United States)

    ... on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . 2004;114 (2 Suppl 4th Report):555-576. PMID: 15286277 . Review Date 5/6/2016 Updated by: Scott I ...

  17. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.


    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  18. Preventing High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Facts (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  20. High Performance Magnets (United States)


    Our efforts in this project were focused on three different materials, namely; interstitial Sm-Fe carbides and nitrides, high energy product Nd2Fe14B ...magnets with MgO addition, and nanocomposite Nd2Fe14B /alpha-Fe consisting of a fine mixture of hard and soft phases. In the Sm-Fe carbides and

  1. High-resolution headlamp (United States)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius


    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  2. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Harris, T. D.


    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  3. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas


    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  4. High Voltage Seismic Generator (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin


    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  5. High voltage pulse generator (United States)

    Fasching, George E.


    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  6. DEPSCoR FY 99: Use of Stochastic Modeling of Stratigraphic Relationships in High Resolution Seismic Reflection Data for Prediction of the Distribution of Acoustic and Geotechnical Property Variability in Near Surface Sediments on the East China Sea Continental Margin (United States)


    Distribution of Acoustic and Geotechnical Property Variability in Near Surface Sediments on the East China Sea Continental Margin Louis R. Bartek Department of...East China Sea Continental Margin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...collecting data. During survey 221099 in the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) we collected 191 km of 210 cubic inch Generator Injector Air

  7. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva


    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  8. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.


    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  9. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)


    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York


    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  11. High energy beam lines (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.


    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  12. High Resolution Acoustical Imaging (United States)


    1028 (September 1982). 26 G. Arfken , Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic Press, New York, 1971), 2nd printing, pp.662-666. 27 W. R. Hahn...difference in the approach used by the two methods , as noted in the previous paragraph, forming a direct mathematical com- parison may be impossible...examines high resolution methods which use a linear array to locate stationary objects which have scattered the fressure waves. Several;- new methods

  13. High resolution differential thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotra Z. Yu.


    Full Text Available Main schematic solutions of differential thermometers with measurement resolution about 0.001°C are considered. Differential temperature primary transducer realized on a transistor differential circuit in microampere mode. Analytic calculation and schematic mathematic simulation of primary transducer are fulfilled. Signal transducer is realized on a high precision Zero-Drift Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail operation amplifier AD8552 and 24-Bit S-D microconverter ADuC834.

  14. High Power Switching Transistor (United States)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.


    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  15. High Altitude Cerebral Edema (United States)


    Saussure offered a monetary prize for the first ascent up Mt. Blanc, the highest peak in Europe, in the hopes that this might encourage guides to... Saussure found himself on the summit where he wrote: "I was constantly forced to interrupt my work and devote myself entirely to breathing...the kind... Saussure HB: cited in Houston CS, Going High. The Story of Man and Altitude. Burlington, Vt., Charles S. Houston, M.D., 1980, p., 32. 9. Delamare JP

  16. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.


    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  17. Highly Concurrent Scalar Processing. (United States)


    rearrangement arise from data dependencies between instructions, hence it is critical that artificial - dependencies are eliminated whenever possible...An important class of artificial depen- *. dencies arise due to register reuse. In the following example, no parallelism can be • . exploited in the...specific procedure call site. The use of inteligent procedure expansion techniques is expected to be crucial to the achievement of high performance

  18. High Performance RAIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHughes; CharlesMilligan; 等


    The ability to move 10s of TeraBytes in reasonable amounts of time are critical to many of the High Energy Physics applications.This paper examines the issues of high performance,high reliability tape storage systems,and presents the results of a 2-year ASCI Path Forward program to be able to reliably move 1GB/s to an archive that can last 20 years.This paper will cover the requirements.approach,hardware,application software,interface descriptions,performance,measured reliability and predicted reliability.This paper will also touch on future directions for this research.The current research allows systems to sustain 80MB/s of uncompressable data per Fibre Channel interface which is striped out to 8 or more drives.This looks to the application as a single tape drive from both mout and data transfer perspectives .Striping 12 RAIT systems together will provide nearly 1GB/s to tape.The reliability is provided by a method of adding parity tapes to the data stripes.For example,adding 2 parity tapes to an 8-stripe group will allow any 2 of the 10 tapes to be lost or damaged without loss of information.The reliability of RAIT with 8 stripes and 2 parities exceeds that of mirrored tapes while RAIT uses 10 tapes instead of the 16 tapes that a mirror would require.The results of this paper is to be abloe to understand the applicability of RAIT and to be able to understand when it may be useful in High Energy Physics applications.

  19. High Performance Biocomputation (United States)


    ab initio calculation of a small protein has been reported (1PNH, a scorpion toxin with 31 residues and 500 atoms; [3]). Hybrid classical and first...challenge can be characterized as highly computationally-savvy and fully capable of effectively exploiting state-of-the-art capability. However, there...enilarrassingly parallel comlrltations, where little or no comnmiinication is required), capacity computing is an effective approac-h. A recent extension of

  20. High power beam analysis (United States)

    Aharon, Oren


    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.