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Sample records for chewing insect leptinotarsa

  1. Wounding, insect chewing and phloem sap feeding differentially alter the leaf proteome of potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Duceppe Marc-Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors shape the response of plants to herbivorous insects, including wounding patterns, specific chemical effectors and feeding habits of the attacking herbivore. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the plant's response to wounding and herbivory, using as a model potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. subjected to mechanical wounding, defoliation by the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, or phloem sap feeding by the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas. Results Out of ~500 leaf proteins monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, 31 were up- or downregulated by at least one stress treatment compared to healthy control plants. Of these proteins, 29 were regulated by beetle chewing, 8 by wounding and 8 by aphid feeding. Some proteins were up- or downregulated by two different treatments, while others showed diverging expression patterns in response to different treatments. A number of modulated proteins identified by mass spectrometry were typical defense proteins, including wound-inducible protease inhibitors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins involved in photosynthesis were also modulated, notably by potato beetle feeding inducing a strong decrease of some photosystem I proteins. Quantitative RT PCR assays were performed with nucleotide primers for photosynthesis-related proteins to assess the impact of wounding and herbivory at the gene level. Whereas different, sometimes divergent, responses were observed at the proteome level in response to wounding and potato beetle feeding, downregulating effects were systematically observed for both treatments at the transcriptional level. Conclusions These observations illustrate the differential impacts of wounding and insect herbivory on defense- and photosynthesis-related components of the potato leaf proteome, likely associated with the perception of distinct physical and chemical cues in planta.

  2. Expression of a male accessory gland peptide of Leptinotarsa decemlineata in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Schooneveld, H.; Deserno, M.L.L.G.; Put, B.; Vlak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata produce an 8kDa peptide, designated Led-MAGP, that is recognized by monoclonal antibody MAC-18. The site of synthesis, amino acid sequence and the gene encoding this peptide have been documented (). The primary structure is homologous to

  3. Insect leaf-chewing damage tracks herbivore richness in modern and ancient forests.

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    Mónica R Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fossil record demonstrates that past climate changes and extinctions significantly affected the diversity of insect leaf-feeding damage, implying that the richness of damage types reflects that of the unsampled damage makers, and that the two are correlated through time. However, this relationship has not been quantified for living leaf-chewing insects, whose richness and mouthpart convergence have obscured their value for understanding past and present herbivore diversity. We hypothesized that the correlation of leaf-chewing damage types (DTs and damage maker richness is directly observable in living forests. Using canopy access cranes at two lowland tropical rainforest sites in Panamá to survey 24 host-plant species, we found significant correlations between the numbers of leaf chewing insect species collected and the numbers of DTs observed to be made by the same species in feeding experiments, strongly supporting our hypothesis. Damage type richness was largely driven by insect species that make multiple DTs. Also, the rank-order abundances of DTs recorded at the Panamá sites and across a set of latest Cretaceous to middle Eocene fossil floras were highly correlated, indicating remarkable consistency of feeding-mode distributions through time. Most fossil and modern host-plant pairs displayed high similarity indices for their leaf-chewing DTs, but informative differences and trends in fossil damage composition became apparent when endophytic damage was included. Our results greatly expand the potential of insect-mediated leaf damage for interpreting insect herbivore richness and compositional heterogeneity from fossil floras and, equally promisingly, in living forests.

  4. Differences among five amaranth varieties (Amaranthus spp.) regarding secondary metabolites and foliar herbivory by chewing insects in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niveyro, Selene L.; Mortensen, Anne G.; Fomsgaard, Inge S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of secondary metabolites present in leaves of five varieties of Amaranthus, described the community of chewing insects observed in the foliage and also quantified damage by folivore insects in the field. Three flavonoid glucosides (rutin, nicotiflorin an...

  5. silencing COI1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense.

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    Mao Ye

    Full Text Available The jasmonic acid (JA pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1 is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference (RNAi to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder (LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a chewing insect, and brown planthopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens, a phloem-feeding insect. In wild-type rice plants (WT, the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, but not by BPH infestation. The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI, and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation, but the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX was only induced by LF. The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF, but no change against BPH. Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content, but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content, POD and PPO activity by 62.3%, 48.5% and 27.2%, respectively. In addition, MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57.2% and 48.2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants. These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component, controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect (LF in rice plants, and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI, POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation.

  6. Choice and no-choice assays for testing the resistance of A. thaliana to chewing insects.

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    De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2008-05-14

    Larvae of the small white cabbage butterfly are a pest in agricultural settings. This caterpillar species feeds from plants in the cabbage family, which include many crops such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussel sprouts etc. Rearing of the insects takes place on cabbage plants in the greenhouse. At least two cages are needed for the rearing of Pieris rapae. One for the larvae and the other to contain the adults, the butterflies. In order to investigate the role of plant hormones and toxic plant chemicals in resistance to this insect pest, we demonstrate two experiments. First, determination of the role of jasmonic acid (JA - a plant hormone often indicated in resistance to insects) in resistance to the chewing insect Pieris rapae. Caterpillar growth can be compared on wild-type and mutant plants impaired in production of JA. This experiment is considered "No Choice", because larvae are forced to subsist on a single plant which synthesizes or is deficient in JA. Second, we demonstrate an experiment that investigates the role of glucosinolates, which are used as oviposition (egg-laying) signals. Here, we use WT and mutant Arabidopsis impaired in glucosinolate production in a "Choice" experiment in which female butterflies are allowed to choose to lay their eggs on plants of either genotype. This video demonstrates the experimental setup for both assays as well as representative results.

  7. Generation of selectable marker-free transgenic rice resistant to chewing insects using two co-transformation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengxiu Yu; Quanhong Yao; Ling Wang; Zhipeng Zhao; Zhiyun Gong; Shuzhu Tang; Qiaoquan Liu; Minghong Gua

    2009-01-01

    To produce selectable marker-free (SMF) transgenic rice resistant to chewing insects, the Bacillus thuringiensis crylA (c) gene (Bt) was introduced into two efitejaponica rice varieties by using two Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation systems. One system is with a single mini-twin T-DNA binary vector in one Agrobacterium strain, which consists of two separate T-DNA regions, one carrying the Bt while the other contains the selectable marker gene, hygromycin resistant gene (HPT). The other system uses two separate binary vectors in two separate Agrobacterium cultures, containing the Bt or HPT gene on individual plasmids. A lot of independent transgenic rice lines harboring both Bt and selectable marker genes were obtained. The results showed that the co-transformation frequency of the Bt gene and HPTgene was much higher by using the mini-twin T-DNA vector system (29.87%) than that by the two separate binary vector sys-tems (4.52%). However, the frequency of the SMF transgenic rice plants obtained from the offspring of co-transgenic plants (21.74%) was lower for the mini-twin T-DNA vector system than that for the latter (50-60%). The data of ELISA implied that the expressed Bt pro-teins were quantitated as 0.025-0.103% of total leaf soluble proteins in the transgenic plant. Therefore, several elite transgenic rice lines, free of the selectable marker gene, were chosen. The results from both in vitro and in vivo insect bioassays indicated that the SMF trans-genic rice was shown to be highly resistant to the striped stem borer and rice leaf folder. Moreover, in a natural field condition without any insecticide applied, all the transgenic rice plants were found to be not injured by the rice leaf folder, whereas the wild types were impaired seriously.

  8. Inducibility of chemical defences by two chewing insect herbivores in pine trees is specific to targeted plant tissue, particular herbivore and defensive trait.

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    Moreira, Xoaquín; Lundborg, Lina; Zas, Rafael; Carrillo-Gavilán, Amparo; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Sampedro, Luis

    2013-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that plants can react to biotic aggressions with highly specific responses. However, few studies have attempted to jointly investigate whether the induction of plant defences is specific to a targeted plant tissue, plant species, herbivore identity, and defensive trait. Here we studied those factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in two economically important pine species against two chewing insect pest herbivores. Juvenile trees of Pinus pinaster and P. radiata were exposed to herbivory by two major pest threats, the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (a bark-feeder) and the pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (a folivore). We quantified in two tissues (stem and needles) the constitutive (control plants) and herbivore-induced concentrations of total polyphenolics, volatile and non-volatile resin, as well as the profile of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Stem chewing by the pine weevil increased concentrations of non-volatile resin, volatile monoterpenes, and (marginally) polyphenolics in stem tissues. Weevil feeding also increased the concentration of non-volatile resin and decreased polyphenolics in the needle tissues. Folivory by the caterpillar had no major effects on needle defensive chemistry, but a strong increase in the concentration of polyphenolics in the stem. Interestingly, we found similar patterns for all these above-reported effects in both pine species. These results offer convincing evidence that induced defences are highly specific and may vary depending on the targeted plant tissue, the insect herbivore causing the damage and the considered defensive compound.

  9. Resistance evaluation and management of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), using novel chemistries

    OpenAIRE

    Wimer, Adam Francis

    2013-01-01

    Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) is the most important defoliating pest of potato Solanum tuberosum L., in North America and Europe.  Management of this pest relies heavily on chemical control and insecticide resistance is a persistent problem.  This phenomenon has increased the need for developing novel insecticides, resistance evaluation, and the development of alternative control strategies regarding this insect pest.  From 2010 to 2013, field and lab experiments were conducted to evaluate ...

  10. Physical characteristics of calcium oxalate crystals as determinants in structural defense against chewing insects in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to the numerous chemical defenses that plants employ to fend off insect herbivores, simple structural components can also play important roles in effective protection. Our investigations have shown that plant crystals of calcium oxalate can function in insect defense. The isolation of ca...

  11. Medicago truncatula-derived calcium oxalate crystals have a negative impact on chewing insect performance via their physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant structural traits often act as defenses against herbivorous insects, causing them to avoid feeding on a given plant or tissue. Mineral crystals of calcium oxalate in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Fabaceae) leaves have previously been shown to be effective deterrents of lepidopteran insect feedi...

  12. Identification of candidate olfactory genes in Leptinotarsa decemlineata by antennal transcriptome analysis

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    Yang eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is critical for the survival of insects, by which insects detect the odor signals in the environment and make appropriate behavioral responses such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. The antenna is the main olfactory organ in insects. Multiple antennal proteins have been suggested to be involved in olfactory signal transduction pathway such as odorant receptors (ORs, ionotropic receptors (IRs, odorant binding proteins (OBPs, chemosensory proteins (CSPs and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs. In this study, we identified several olfactory gene subfamilies in the economically important Coleopteran agricultural pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, by assembling the adult male and female antennal transcriptomes. In the male and female antennal transcriptome, we identified a total of 37 OR genes, 10 IR genes, 26 OBP genes, 15 CSP genes and 3 SNMP genes. Further all candidate ORs were validated to be expressed in male or female antenna by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Most of the candidate OR genes have similar expression level in male and female. A few OR genes have been detected as male-specific (LdecOR6 or male-bias (LdecOR5, LdecOR12, LdecOR26 and LdecOR32 expression. As well as that, two OR genes (LdecOR3 and LdecOR29 were proved to be expressed higher in female. Our findings make it possible for future research of the olfactory system of L. decemlineata at the molecular level.

  13. To Chew, or Not to Chew? Patient Dies After Chewing Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OR NOT TO CHEW? PATIENT DIES AFTER CHEWING MEDICATION Some medications should never be chewed, cut, crushed, or diluted. ... instructions or do not question how to take medication. An 83-year-old patient was given Cardizem ...

  14. Spatial and Temporal Potato Intensification Drives Insecticide Resistance in the Specialist Herbivore, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

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    Huseth, Anders S; Petersen, Jessica D; Poveda, Katja; Szendrei, Zsofia; Nault, Brian A; Kennedy, George G; Groves, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Landscape-scale intensification of individual crops and pesticide use that is associated with this intensification is an emerging, environmental problem that is expected to have unequal effects on pests with different lifecycles, host ranges, and dispersal abilities. We investigate if intensification of a single crop in an agroecosystem has a direct effect on insecticide resistance in a specialist insect herbivore. Using a major potato pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, we measured imidacloprid (neonicotinoid) resistance in populations across a spatiotemporal crop production gradient where potato production has increased in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA. We found that concurrent estimates of area and temporal frequency of potato production better described patterns of imidacloprid resistance among L. decemlineata populations than general measures of agricultural production (% cropland, landscape diversity). This study defines the effects individual crop rotation patterns can have on specialist herbivore insecticide resistance in an agroecosystem context, and how impacts of intensive production can be estimated with general estimates of insecticide use. Our results provide empirical evidence that variation in the intensity of neonicotinoid-treated potato in an agricultural landscape can have unequal impacts on L. decemlineata insecticide insensitivity, a process that can lead to resistance and locally intensive insecticide use. Our study provides a novel approach applicable in other agricultural systems to estimate impacts of crop rotation, increased pesticide dependence, insecticide resistance, and external costs of pest management practices on ecosystem health.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Potato Intensification Drives Insecticide Resistance in the Specialist Herbivore, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

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    Anders S Huseth

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale intensification of individual crops and pesticide use that is associated with this intensification is an emerging, environmental problem that is expected to have unequal effects on pests with different lifecycles, host ranges, and dispersal abilities. We investigate if intensification of a single crop in an agroecosystem has a direct effect on insecticide resistance in a specialist insect herbivore. Using a major potato pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, we measured imidacloprid (neonicotinoid resistance in populations across a spatiotemporal crop production gradient where potato production has increased in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA. We found that concurrent estimates of area and temporal frequency of potato production better described patterns of imidacloprid resistance among L. decemlineata populations than general measures of agricultural production (% cropland, landscape diversity. This study defines the effects individual crop rotation patterns can have on specialist herbivore insecticide resistance in an agroecosystem context, and how impacts of intensive production can be estimated with general estimates of insecticide use. Our results provide empirical evidence that variation in the intensity of neonicotinoid-treated potato in an agricultural landscape can have unequal impacts on L. decemlineata insecticide insensitivity, a process that can lead to resistance and locally intensive insecticide use. Our study provides a novel approach applicable in other agricultural systems to estimate impacts of crop rotation, increased pesticide dependence, insecticide resistance, and external costs of pest management practices on ecosystem health.

  16. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaviao, MBD; Engelen, L

    2004-01-01

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing c

  17. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

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    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order.

  18. Sequencing, De Novo assembly and annotation of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Transcriptome.

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    Abhishek Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata is a major pest and a serious threat to potato cultivation throughout the northern hemisphere. Despite its high importance for invasion biology, phenology and pest management, little is known about L. decemlineata from a genomic perspective. We subjected European L. decemlineata adult and larval transcriptome samples to 454-FLX massively-parallel DNA sequencing to characterize a basal set of genes from this species. We created a combined assembly of the adult and larval datasets including the publicly available midgut larval Roche 454 reads and provided basic annotation. We were particularly interested in diapause-specific genes and genes involved in pesticide and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt resistance. RESULTS: Using 454-FLX pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 898,048 reads which, together with the publicly available 804,056 midgut larval reads, were assembled into 121,912 contigs. We established a repository of genes of interest, with 101 out of the 108 diapause-specific genes described in Drosophila montana; and 621 contigs involved in insecticide resistance, including 221 CYP450, 45 GSTs, 13 catalases, 15 superoxide dismutases, 22 glutathione peroxidases, 194 esterases, 3 ADAM metalloproteases, 10 cadherins and 98 calmodulins. We found 460 putative miRNAs and we predicted a significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (29,205 and microsatellite loci (17,284. CONCLUSIONS: This report of the assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of L. decemlineata offers new insights into diapause-associated and insecticide-resistance-associated genes in this species and provides a foundation for comparative studies with other species of insects. The data will also open new avenues for researchers using L. decemlineata as a model species, and for pest management research. Our results provide the basis for performing future gene expression and functional analysis in L

  19. EFFECTS OF SOME BIOINSECTICIDES AND ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA L.).

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    Öztürk, H E; Güven, Ö; Karaca, I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (4 strains) isolated from the Colorado potato beetle and the commercial biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi; Priority® (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), Nibortem® (Verticillium lecanii), Nostalgist® (Beauveria bassiana), Bio-Magic* (Metarhizium anisopliae), Bio-Nematon* (Paeciliomyces sp.) and plant extracts; Nimbedicine EC* (Azadiractin) were determined against Leptinotarsa decemlineata under laboratory conditions. An Imidacloprid active ingredient commercial insecticide was also used to compare the insecticidal activity and distilled water was used as control. The biological control agents were applied to 2nd-3rd larval instars, 4th larval instars and adults with spray and leaf dipping methods. Single concentration (10⁸ conidia/mL⁻¹) of entomopathogenic fungi and recommended dose of bioinsecticides were prepared for application. The number of dead insects were determined at 3, 5, and 7 days after applications. Experiments were conducted at 25 ±1° C and 60% ± 5 relative humidity with 16:8 h light: dark conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi and bioinsecticides were found to be more effective on larval stage than 4th larval instars and adults. In spray methods, Bio-Magic®, Nibortem®, and Nostalgist® caused 96.4%, 92.9% and 82.1% mortality on 2nd larval instars and 20%, 36.7% and 33.3% mortality on adults, respectively. All local fungal isolates (B. bassiana) applied on 2nd and 4th larval instars caused 100% mortality. Adults showed 58.6-86.2% mortality.

  20. Characterization of two unrelated satellite DNA families in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

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    Lorite, Pedro; Torres, M Isabel; Palomeque, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, family Chrysomelidae),a phytophagous insect, which feeds preferably on potatoes, constitutes a serious pest of this crop and causes extensive damage to tomatoes and egg plants. It has a remarkable ability to develop resistance quickly against insecticides and shows a diversified and flexible life history. Consequently, the control of this pest has become difficult, requiring the development of new alternative biotechnology-based strategies. Such strategies require a thorough knowledge of the beetle’s genome,including the repetitive DNA. Satellite DNA (stDNA), composed of long arrays of tandemly arranged repeat units, constitutes the major component of heterochromatin and is located mainly in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. We have studied two different unrelated satellite-DNA families of which the consensus sequences were 295 and 109bp in length, named LEDE-I and LEDE-II, respectively.Both were AT-rich (70.8% and 71.6%, respectively). Predictive models of sequence-dependent DNA bending and the study of electrophoretic mobility on non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels have shown that the DNA was curved in both satellite-DNA families. Among other features, the chromosome localization of both stDNAs has been studied. In situ hybridization performed on meiotic and mitoticnuclei showed chromosomes, including the X chromosome, with zero, one, or two stDNAs. In recent years, it has been proposed that the repetitive DNA may play a key role in biological diversification processes. This is the first molecular and cytogenetic study conducted on L. decemlineata repetitive DNA and specifically on stDNA, which is one of the important constituents of eukaryotic genomes.

  1. [Synergistic action of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes and the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni in the infection of Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukov, V Iu; Khodyrev, V P; Iaroslavtseva, O N; Kamenova, A S; Duĭsembekov, B A; Glupov, V V

    2009-01-01

    A synchronous coinfection of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) with the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni Bonnifoi & de Barjak var. tenebrionis Krieg et al. and hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin or Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill leads to the rapid death of 95-100% of larvae. The bacteria arrest the nutrition of insects, while the fungal spores kill the weakened larvae. The synergistic effect of two pathogens is recorded at a relatively low hyphomycete titer (1-5 x 10(6) conidia/ml) and is evident in the mortality dynamics at all larval ages. These bacterial and fungal pathogens display no antagonism on artificial nutrient media. This microbial complex is highly efficient under natural conditions (80-90% larval mortality rate and no plant defoliation).

  2. Chewing gums for optimal health

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    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the general aspects and health benefits of chewing gum. Chewing gums have been used since the time of prehistoric man as a source of entertainment and relaxation. It has also become a trendsetter with the teenagers. Currently, the health benefits of chewing gums are being studied and used in the treatment of various diseases. Certain medications have also been included in gums to act as an alternative drug delivery system. These gums have been found to be successful for the treatment of diseases, such as peptic ulcers, upper digestive tract cancer, oral candidiasis, and so on. It helps to relieve symptoms of xerostomia, Parkinsonism, tooth sensitivity after bleaching, and oral malodor. It helps in maintaining oral health, relieves stress, helps in weight loss, and improves alertness. Chewing gum may be distracting and irritating in numerous social environments, including schools, colleges, and the workplace. Research into the social effects of chewing gums is also necessary to further our knowledge into the psychosocial aspects of these gums.

  3. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

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    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  4. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  5. RNA interference of a putative S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase gene affects larval performance in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Tao; Jia, Shuang; Wan, Pin-Jun; Kong, Ye; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-10-01

    In Leptinotarsa decemlineata, juvenile hormones (JHs) play primary roles in the regulation of metamorphosis, reproduction and diapause. In JH biosynthetic pathway in insect corpora allata, methylation of farnesoic acid or JH acid using S-adenosyl-L-methionine generates a potent feedback inhibitor S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). Rapid removal of AdoHcy is hypothesized to be essential for JH synthesis. AdoHcy hydrolase (SAHase) is the only eukaryotic enzyme catalyzing the removal. In the present paper, we firstly cloned a putative LdSAHase gene from L. decemlineata. The cDNA consists of 1806 bp and encodes a 525 amino acid protein. LdSAHase was expressed in all developmental stages. The gene had the highest and the lowest level of transcription respectively in the 3rd- and 4th-instars' heads that contain corpora allata, which was positively correlated with JH titer in the haemolymph and the mRNA level of a JH early-inducible gene, the Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1). Secondly, dietary ingestion of bacterially-expressed LdSAHase-dsRNA significantly decreased LdSAHase and LdKr-h1 mRNA levels, reduced JH titer, and caused the death of the larvae, and the failure of pupation and adult emergence. After continuous exposure for 12 days, 42% of the larvae died, 65% of the prepupae failed to pupate and 100% of the pupae failed to emerge. Moreover, RNAi-mediated LdSAHase knockdown also reduced larval developing time, and decreased larval weight. Lastly, application of JH analogue pyriproxyfen to LdSAHase-dsRNA-exposed larvae did not greatly increase LdSAHase expression level and JH content, but up-regulated LdKr-h1 mRNA level. Expectedly, pyriproxyfen application could partially rescue the negative effects on the survival and the development. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that SAHase plays a critical role in JH biosynthesis in insects.

  6. Perception of insect feeding by plants.

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    Bonaventure, G

    2012-11-01

    The recognition of phytophagous insects by plants induces a set of very specific responses aimed at deterring tissue consumption and reprogramming metabolism and development of the plant to tolerate the herbivore. The recognition of insects by plants requires the plant's ability to perceive chemical cues generated by the insects and to distinguish a particular pattern of tissue disruption. Relatively little is known about the molecular basis of insect perception by plants and the signalling mechanisms directly associated with this perception. Importantly, the insect feeding behaviour (piercing-sucking versus chewing) is a decisive determinant of the plant's defence response, and the mechanisms used to perceive insects from different feeding guilds may be distinct. During insect feeding, components of the saliva of chewing or piercing-sucking insects come into contact with plant cells, and elicitors or effectors present in this insect-derived fluid are perceived by plant cells to initiate the activation of specific signalling cascades. Although receptor-ligand interactions controlling insect perception have yet not been molecularly described, a significant number of regulatory components acting downstream of receptors and involved in the activation of defence responses against insects has been reported. Some of these regulators mediate changes in the phytohormone network, while others directly control gene expression or the redox state of the cell. These processes are central in the orchestration of plant defence responses against insects.

  7. Olfaction in the Colorado potato beetle: Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla in Leptinotarsa sp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sen; B K Mitchell

    2001-06-01

    Sensillae on the antennae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata are described using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and compared with SEM observations of antennal sensilla in L. haldemani and L. texana. In all the three species, 13 distinct sensillar types were identified with a higher density of sensilla in the more polyphagous species, L. decemlineata than in the moderately host specific L. haldemani and the highly host specific L. texana. Cuticular specializations and the predominance of olfactory sensilla are discussed in relation to host specificity in the three species.

  8. Physics of chewing in terrestrial mammals

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    Virot, Emmanuel; Ma, Grace; Clanet, Christophe; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on chewing frequency across animal species have focused on finding a single universal scaling law. Controversy between the different models has been aroused without elucidating the variations in chewing frequency. In the present study we show that vigorous chewing is limited by the maximum force of muscle, so that the upper chewing frequency scales as the −1/3 power of body mass for large animals and as a constant frequency for small animals. On the other hand, gentle chewing to mix food uniformly without excess of saliva describes the lower limit of chewing frequency, scaling approximately as the −1/6 power of body mass. These physical constraints frame the −1/4 power law classically inferred from allometry of animal metabolic rates. All of our experimental data stay within these physical boundaries over six orders of magnitude of body mass regardless of food types. PMID:28266634

  9. Physics of chewing in terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Ma, Grace; Clanet, Christophe; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies on chewing frequency across animal species have focused on finding a single universal scaling law. Controversy between the different models has been aroused without elucidating the variations in chewing frequency. In the present study we show that vigorous chewing is limited by the maximum force of muscle, so that the upper chewing frequency scales as the ‑1/3 power of body mass for large animals and as a constant frequency for small animals. On the other hand, gentle chewing to mix food uniformly without excess of saliva describes the lower limit of chewing frequency, scaling approximately as the ‑1/6 power of body mass. These physical constraints frame the ‑1/4 power law classically inferred from allometry of animal metabolic rates. All of our experimental data stay within these physical boundaries over six orders of magnitude of body mass regardless of food types.

  10. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  11. Age- and diapause-related acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the intestine and malpighian tubules of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S X; Adams, T S

    2001-03-01

    Specific activities for soluble (s) and membrane (m)-bound acid (ACP) and alkaline phosphatases (ALP) were determined in the midgut, hindgut, and Malpighian tubules for developing, prediapausing, and diapausing adult Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). High ACP activities were found in the hindgut and Malpighian tubules while high ALP activities were found in the Malpighian tubules. Variation in both ACP and ALP activities in each tissue reflects fluctuation in protein synthesis and secretion involved with digestion, excretion, and other unknown functions. Phosphatase activities in the tissues examined show the dynamic nature of diapause in this insect. Diapausing beetles showed increases in phosphatase activity after hormone treatments. JHA treatments increased s-ACP and m-ACP activities in all tissues but 20-HE did not increase activity in any tissue. Allatotropin tended to mimic the effects of JHA treatment. The s-ALP activity was also increased in all tissues whereas m-ALP was increased in the midgut and hindgut by JHA treatment. Malpighian tubule m-ALP activity was only increased by 20-HE treatments. Allatotropin was not as effective in increasing ALP activities as it was with ACP activities.

  12. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  13. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorsky Meir

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83% compared to the non chewing individuals (16% (P Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  14. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  15. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Weber; Rowley, Daniel L.; Greenstone, Matthew H.; Athanas, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laborator...

  16. Chewing tobacco use: perceptions and knowledge in rural adolescent youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hudson, Diane Brage; Fleck, Margaret Ofe

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were to describe the incidence of chewing tobacco use among rural midwestern adolescents and to describe rural midwestern adolescents' perceptions and knowledge about chewing tobacco use. A Smokeless Tobacco Use Survey was administered to 34 adolescent subjects who attended 5th-8th grades in two rural towns. None of the subjects reported trying chewing tobacco products. However, a group of male subjects who stated they may chew tobacco sometime in the future, performed less well on the test about chewing tobacco facts and perceptions of use, indicating some education needs are warranted. Risk factors and deterrent factors to using chewing tobacco are reported.

  17. Observing Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Ilil

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

  18. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts from plants on Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. Note II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight products, obtained from plant extracts, were used to fight against Colorado bug, on theterms of ecological agriculture. It was noticed that: 1. Vegetal extract may serve as an alternative to fightingagainst Colorado bug in potato cultivars, especially at those which are designated to obtain an ecological crop;2. The best result in fighting against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. were obtained with extract fromChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Trev., Chrysanthemum balsamita var canfora and Ruta corsica, all in usedconcentration of 20%.The treatment efficiency against larvae of 99,01 %, 93,06 % and 96,83 %, efficiencywhich are comparable with those obtained with the help of synthesis insecticide; 3. The lowest result wereobtained with extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tagetes erecta L., efficiencyof 7,14 % and 72,22 %; 4. The extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tageteserecta have repulsive effect for adults, these avoiding for punting on plants treated with these extracts.

  19. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  20. Chewing-gum preservative induced toxidermic vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Faure, G; Bene, M C

    1986-09-01

    This paper reports the case of a young female patient who presented with a cutaneous urticarial disseminated eruption. Drug-induced side effects were eliminated, and the only recent dietary change was the regular use of chewing-gums containing chlorophylla (E140), menthol and BHT (butylhydroxytoluene). Immunohistological analysis of a cutaneous lesion revealed signs of vasculitis. Within 1 week after stopping chewing gum, the eruption subsided. Oral provocation tests at 4-day intervals confirmed the responsibility of BHT by the reinduction of the cutaneous signs after a few hours.

  1. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; David Morando; Slomp, Anje M.; Betsy van de Belt-Gritter; Amarnath Maitra; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-...

  2. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and r

  3. Help Teens Become "Through with Chew."

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Snuff consumption is the only tobacco consumption on the rise in the United States. Doctors are most concerned about adolescent use. They recommend educational efforts begin with boys 8-10 years old. The article discusses a nationwide campaign, "Through with Chew Week," which urges young people to avoid all smokeless tobacco. (SM)

  4. Chewing ability and dental functional status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Gerritsen, A.E.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to explore the relationship between chewing ability and dental functional status, perceived oral health-related quality of life, and a number of background variables in a Vietnamese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cluster stratified sample consisted of 2,

  5. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  6. Chewing efficiency and state of dentition. A methodologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helkimo, E; Carlsson, G E; Helkimo, M

    1978-01-01

    Chewing efficiency, defined as the ability to grind a certain portion of a test food during a given time, was tested in 139 Skolt Lapps, ages 14-65. 94 persons had natural teeth and the remaining 45 wore dentures (partial and/or complete). The test food was almonds. Number of chewing strokes, swallowings and chewing time was denoted. The chewing efficiency was classified after a scale from 1 to 5 where 1 meant very good and 5 very poor ability to reduce the particle size of the test food. Clear associations were found between chewing efficiency and dental state. Number of occluding pairs of teeth was closely correlated with chewing efficiency and individuals with less than 20 teeth had a higher index score than those with more than 20 teeth. The values noted for number of chewing strokes, swallowings and chewing time were smaller for those with a good chewing efficiency, but the variation was not linear and not always significant. Denture wearers had statistically significantly higher chewing efficiency score than those with natural teeth, without dentures, and needed more chewing time before swallowing.

  7. Resistance and cross-resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Dively, Galen; Patterson, Megan; Castaldo, Christopher; Rogers, David; Mahoney, Matthew; Wollam, John

    2007-01-01

    One of the major challenges in managing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) is its remarkable ability to develop resistance to virtually every insecticide that has ever been used against it. Resistance is particularly common throughout northeastern USA as far north as Maine. The first instances of resistance to imidacloprid have already been reported from several locations in New York, Delaware and southern Maine. Rotating insecticides with different modes of action may delay insecticide resistance, but successful implementation of this technique depends on a good understanding of resistance and cross-resistance patterns in populations of target pests. LC(50) values were measured for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in Colorado potato beetle populations from a variety of locations in the USA and Canada using diet incorporation bioassays. The field performance of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin against imidacloprid-resistant beetles on a commercial potato farm in southern Maine was also evaluated. Correlation between LC(50) values for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam was highly significant, even when populations previously exposed to thiamethoxam were excluded from the analysis. There was no statistically detectable difference in the LC(50) values between populations exposed to both insecticides and to imidacloprid alone. Applications of neonicotinoid insecticides at planting delayed build-up of imidacloprid-resistant beetle populations on field plots by 1-2 weeks but failed to provide adequate crop protection. Consistently with bioassay results, there was also substantial cross-resistance among the three tested neonicotinoid insecticides. Results of the present study support the recommendation to avoid rotating imidacloprid with thiamethoxam as a part of a resistance management plan.

  8. 马铃薯甲虫空间分布型及抽样技术研究%The spatial distribution pattern and sampling techniques of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decenlineata (Say)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利军; 郭文超; 徐建军; 肖利凤; 韩振忠; 张建萍

    2011-01-01

    马铃薯甲虫Leptinotarsa decemlineata(Say)是我国马铃薯恶性入侵害虫.本研究利用聚集度指标检验、Taylor幂法则和Iwao回归法对马铃薯甲虫成虫、幼虫和卵在田间的空间分布型进行了研究.聚集度指标检测各虫态均为聚集分布,且种群聚集主要是由马铃薯甲虫各虫态本身的聚集行为,或由其本身的聚集行为与环境异质性共同作用所致.建立了马铃薯甲虫成虫、幼虫和卵在田间调查的理论抽样数学模型.田间抽样方法,成虫应采用大五点、对角线法;幼虫最适应采用Z字型法;卵最适应采用对角线法.%Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) is an invasive alien insect pest of potato in China. Spatial distribution patterns amongst the eggs, larvae and adult stages of the potato beetle in potato fields were studied by using Gather index inspection, Taylor's Power Law and Iwao's regression method respectively.Gather indexes inspection indicated that each of the life stage was aggregated distribution, and the population aggregation was mainly caused by the aggregated behavior of the beetle itself at different development stage, or by a combination of this and environmental heterogeneity. The models of theoretical sampling of field investigation had been set up for the adults, the larvae and the eggs of L. decemlineata. The five points method and the diagonal method were the optimal sampling patterns for the adults; the method of font Z was the best pattern for the larvae; the diagonal method was the optimal pattern for the eggs.

  9. The subunit gene Ldα1 of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors plays important roles in the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam against Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Chenge; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wenchao; Han, Zhaojun; Jiang, Weihua

    2016-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ACh-gated ion channels. It is believed that nAChRs composed of different subunits may vary in their function and toxicological characteristics. Neonicotinoids are activators of nAChRs and important insecticides that are extensively used for crop protection and resistance has been developed by some pests. They are also major insecticides for the control of Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which is a destructive defoliator pest that invaded the Xinjiang region of China in the 1990s. However, little is known about the constitution or subunits of the target in this pest. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding four new nAChR subunits (named Ldα3, Ldα6, Ldα10, and Ldβ1) were cloned from L. decemlineata. These genes encode 822-, 753-, 672-, and 759-amino acid proteins, respectively, which share typical features of insect nAChRs subunits and closely resemble the corresponding subunits of the nAChRs from Tribolium castaneum. Temporal and spatial expression analyses showed that these genes, as well as the previously identified Ldα1, Ldα2, and Ldα8 genes, are widely expressed in all developmental stages, including eggs, larvae of various instars, pupae, and adults. All genes monitored were expressed at higher levels in the head than in the thorax and abdomen, except for Ldα10. Dietary ingestion of double-stranded RNA bacterially expressed for Ldα1 (dsLdα1) significantly reduced the mRNA level of Ldα1 in treated larvae and adults by 48.0% and 78.6%, respectively. Among the non-target genes, Ldα3, Ldα9, and Ldβ1 were significantly up-regulated in larvae. A toxicity bioassay showed that dsLdα1 treatment greatly decreased the sensitivity to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in adults. The larval susceptibility to thiamethoxam but not to imidacloprid was also reduced because of the lower down-regulation of Ldα1. Thus, our results suggest that Ldα1 encodes a subunit of a functional nAChR that mediates the

  10. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8) bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap

  11. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    Beside the efficient effect on masking cetirizine bitter taste, the cyclodextrins (CDs) as well could have influence on the release from the formulation. In vitro release profiles of cetirizine from compressed chewing gums containing α-, β- and γ-CD were investigated using a three cell chewing ap...... instead the complexes with respect to release yield. Thus unnecessary expenses for the complex preformulation may be avoided. Keywords: Cetirizine, chewing gum, cyclodextrin, complex, drug release...

  12. Phytase application in chewing gum - A technical assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase catalysis has been shown to improve iron absorption by dephosphorylation of the potent iron chelator, phytic acid, found in high amounts in cereals. Recently, the World Health Organization evaluated the phytase from Aspergillus niger as safe for use in human food. The phytase may work...... either prior to ingestion, i.e. in the food, or post ingestion, i.e. in the human gastrointestinal tract. We have assessed the technical aspects of formulation and release of phytase added to chewing gum as a delivery vehicle. Phytases from Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli incorporated into chewing...... gum were released quantitatively upon chewing and retained phytase activity (50-80% of the enzyme activity added was released within 10 minutes). Initial evaluations of phytase chewing gum shelf life showed good stability after 48 days of storage of the chewing gum at ambient conditions....

  13. Induced resistance in rice against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R; Chen, Y

    2007-08-01

    Vaccinations are the mainstay of western preventive medicine, and they have been used to protect some crops against disease and insect pests. We consider rice as a model for protection using induced resistance since it is one of the most important staple crops and there have been significant new developments in: cross-resistance among rice insects, chemical pathways involved in induced resistance, sequencing the rice genome and expression of genes conferring resistance against rice insect pests. Insect attack has been found to cause lesions that kill planthopper eggs and early stages of gall midges. Damaged plants released volatiles that made them less likely to be chosen by planthoppers and more attractive to parasitoids. Chemical elicitors have been developed for dicotyledonous plants and these can induce resistance in rice, although rice does not fit models developed to explain signalling in dicots. For example, salicylic acid did not increase in rice after infection by pathogens and did not appear to be the mobile signal for induced resistance against pathogens although it was involved in induced responses to phloem-feeding insects. Jasmonic acid acted as a signal in some induced responses to pathogens as well as chewing insects. Many of the genes associated with induced resistance in rice have recently been mapped, and techniques are being developed to incorporate them into the genome of cultivated varieties. Attempts to control insect pests of rice will affect interactions with pathogens, predators and parasites, and other organisms in this agroecosystem.

  14. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  15. Insect phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, S K

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenomics, the integration of phylogenetics with genome data, has emerged as a powerful approach to study the evolution and systematics of species. Recently, several studies employing phylogenomic tools have provided better insights into insect evolution. Next-generation sequencing methods are now increasingly used by entomologists to generate genomic and transcript sequences of various insect species and strains. These data provide opportunities for comparative genomics and large-scale multigene phylogenies of diverse lineages of insects. Phy-logenomic investigations help us to better understand systematic and evolutionary relationships of insect species that play important roles as herbivores, predators, detritivores, pollinators and disease vectors. It is important that we critically assess the prospects and limitations of phylogenomic methods. In this review, I describe the current status, outline the major challenges and remark on potential future applications of phylogenomic tools in studying insect systematics and evolution.

  16. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  17. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  18. An association between temporomandibular disorder and gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Diana; Real Dias, Maria Carlos; Castanho Moacho, Antonio; Crispim, Pedro; Luis, Henrique; Oliveira, Miguel; Carames, Joao

    2014-01-01

    This single center, randomized, small study sought to investigate the prevalence and frequency of chewing gum consumption, and whether there is a relationship between these factors and the presence of symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were divided into 7 groups based on their parafunctional oral habits. Of these, subjects who chewed gum were divided into 5 subgroups (A-E) based on their gum chewing habits. Group A chewed gum 3 hours at a time (n = 8); the frequency of gum chewing in Groups A-D was once a week. Group E subjects chewed gum 1-3 times/week for at least 1 hour each occurrence (n = 2). Sixty-three percent of the subjects in Group D reported TMD symptoms of arthralgia and myofascial pain. Thirty-three percent of the subjects in Group C showed symptoms of arthralgia. Eighty-three percent of the subjects in Group A and 27% in Group B reported myofascial pain. All subjects in Group E reported masseter hypertrophy. The remaining 2 groups were Group F, subjects that didn't chew gum but had other parafunctional oral habits (n = 2), and Group G, subjects who didn't have parafunctional oral habits (n = 12).

  19. Effector proteins that modulate plant--insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenhout, Saskia A; Bos, Jorunn I B

    2011-08-01

    Insect herbivores have highly diverse life cycles and feeding behaviors. They establish close interactions with their plant hosts and suppress plant defenses. Chewing herbivores evoke characteristic defense responses distinguishable from general mechanical damage. In addition, piercing-sucking hemipteran insects display typical feeding behavior that suggests active suppression of plant defense responses. Effectors that modulate plant defenses have been identified in the saliva of these insects. Tools for high-throughput effector identification and functional characterization have been developed. In addition, in some insect species it is possible to silence gene expression by RNAi. Together, this technological progress has enabled the identification of insect herbivore effectors and their targets that will lead to the development of novel strategies for pest resistances in plants.

  20. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  1. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  2. Craving and Chewing Ice: A Sign of Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... constantly craving and chewing ice a sign of anemia? Answers from Ruben A. Mesa, M.D. Possibly. Doctors use the term "pica" ... ice (pagophagia) is often associated with iron deficiency anemia, although the reason is unclear. At least one ...

  3. Stress-induced Cushing's syndrome in fur-chewing chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisljar, Marina; Janić, D; Grabarević, Z; Simpraga, Borka; Marinculić, A; Pinter, Ljiljana; Janicki, Z; Nemanic, Ankica

    2002-01-01

    One of the most serious problems in the chinchilla industry is 'fur-chewing', when the chinchilla bites off areas of its own or some other animal's fur. The condition generally develops in both genders at the age of 6-8 months. In chinchilla farms in Croatia an incidence of 15-20% has been observed. A pathomorphological, microbiological and parasitological investigation was conducted on eleven 6- to 11-month-old chinchillas of both sexes with clinical symptoms of 'fur-chewing' and three chinchillas without such signs. Histopathology of the adrenal glands and of the chewed skin revealed changes typical of Cushing's syndrome in 'fur-chewed' chinchillas, such as hyperkeratinisation of the epidermis, epidermal atrophy, pronounced follicular and sebaceous gland atrophy, hyperkeratinisation of the follicles with comedo formations and the presence of calcium salts in subcutis.

  4. Inhibition of lipoxygenase affects induction of both direct and indirect plant defences against herbivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Broekhoven, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, M.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant defences influence the behaviour of insects associated with the plant. For biting–chewing herbivores the octadecanoid signal-transduction pathway has been suggested to play a key role in induced plant defence. To test this hypothesis in our plant—herbivore—parasitoid tritroph

  5. [Inspection of undesignated food color in imported chewing gum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y; Ishiwata, H; Yamada, T

    1999-01-01

    An unknown color in chewing gum imported from Canada was determined. The color was identified by TLC and HPLC as the trisodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4[(4-sulfopheny)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (RS-SA), one of the subsidiary colors of sunset yellow FCF. The concentration of RS-SA in sunset yellow FCF used in the chewing gum was 4.3%

  6. Life-history parameters of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on seven commercial cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Seyed Ali Asghar; Fakhr-Taha, Zoha; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), crops in the Ardabil region of Iran. In this research, the life-history parameters of L. decemlineata were investigated on seven potato cultivars, namely Agria, Aozonia, Diamant, Cosmus, Kondor, Morene, and Savalan, in a greenhouse at 23 ± 1° C and 55 ± 5% RH under a natural photoperiod. The results indicated that the development time of larvae was longest on Savalan (18.3 days) among the tested potato cultivars. The survival rates (egg to adult) on Savalan and Morene were significantly lower than on the other studied cultivars. L. decemlineata reared on Savalan had the lowest fecundity (286.3 eggs/female) among the tested potato cultivars. The oviposition period of females was significantly shorter on Savalan and Diamant than on Kondor, Aozonia, Morene, Agria, and Cosmus. The values of intrinsic rate of natural increase and population growth rate were lowest on Savalan (0.055 and 1.056, respectively). The generation time and doubling time were significantly longest on Savalan (69.5 and 12.7 days, respectively). Based on these results, it can be concluded that Savalan is the least suitable cultivar for L. decemlineata among the ones tested. These results can be useful in integrated management of L. decemlineata in potato fields.

  7. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  8. Psychiatric correlates of snuff and chewing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G; Wu, Li-Tzy; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-01-01

    Compared to the association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders, relatively little is known about the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. To identify the psychiatric correlates of smokeless tobacco use, the analysis used a national representative sample from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 1. Smokeless tobacco use was classified as exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco at some time in the smokeless tobacco user's life. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were obtained via structured diagnostic interviews. The results show that the prevalence of lifetime exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco was 2.16%, 2.52%, and 2.79%, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and cigarette smoking, the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco in persons with panic disorder and specific phobia were 1.53 and 1.41 times the odds in persons without those disorders, respectively. The odds of exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both products for individuals with alcohol use disorder were 1.97, 2.01, and 2.99 times the odds for those without alcohol use disorder, respectively. Respondents with cannabis use disorder were 1.44 times more likely to use snuff exclusively than those without cannabis use disorder. Respondents with inhalant/solvent use disorder were associated with 3.33 times the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco. In conclusion, this study highlights the specific links of anxiety disorder, alcohol, cannabis, and inhalant/solvent use disorders with different types of smokeless tobacco use.

  9. Psychiatric correlates of snuff and chewing tobacco use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    Full Text Available Compared to the association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders, relatively little is known about the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. To identify the psychiatric correlates of smokeless tobacco use, the analysis used a national representative sample from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC wave 1. Smokeless tobacco use was classified as exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco at some time in the smokeless tobacco user's life. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were obtained via structured diagnostic interviews. The results show that the prevalence of lifetime exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco was 2.16%, 2.52%, and 2.79%, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and cigarette smoking, the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco in persons with panic disorder and specific phobia were 1.53 and 1.41 times the odds in persons without those disorders, respectively. The odds of exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both products for individuals with alcohol use disorder were 1.97, 2.01, and 2.99 times the odds for those without alcohol use disorder, respectively. Respondents with cannabis use disorder were 1.44 times more likely to use snuff exclusively than those without cannabis use disorder. Respondents with inhalant/solvent use disorder were associated with 3.33 times the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco. In conclusion, this study highlights the specific links of anxiety disorder, alcohol, cannabis, and inhalant/solvent use disorders with different types of smokeless tobacco use.

  10. Chewing ability, nutritional status and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-C; Yang, Y-H; Ho, P-S; Lee, I-C

    2014-02-01

    In the literature, most researchers evaluate individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability by types of foods chosen or blood test. However, most of previous researches enrolled small sample size and the results might be influenced by personal preference of foods as well as the individuals' response to invasive examination. In this study, researchers assessed individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability with non-invasive test and excluded the personal preference of foods. This study had two aims: first, to explore associations between chewing ability, edentulous or dentulous, self-perceived oral health and individuals' nutritional status and quality of life; second, to assess whether the association proposed by Locker's model is valid. This study used the database of Phase I 'Publicly-funded Denture Installation Plan for the Elderly' of Kaohsiung City Government. Nine hundred and fifty-four subjects aged 65 years and older completed the questionnaires for data analysis. The research results supported and verified the theoretical model proposed by Locker. Individual's chewing ability associated significantly with his/her nutritional status and quality of life. The results demonstrated that better chewing ability of the elderly leads to better nutritional status and quality of life. The appropriateness of the indicators and measurements of individual's chewing ability and nutritional status used in this study has been evaluated and presented. These indicators and measurements are suggested to be generally used for clinical or research application on future-related issues. Consequently, the maintenance or improvement in the chewing ability of the elderly is extremely beneficial to healthy ageing.

  11. Khat chewing and cirrhosis in Somaliland: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa D. Mahamoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Khat chewing is common especially among men in East Africa and Yemen. It is generally viewed by the populace as a benign social custom. Several studies of ethnic Somali immigrants to Western countries suggest an association between khat chewing and hepatotoxicity, but the risk of hepatotoxicity related to khat chewing within African settings is not documented.Aim: To identify and describe liver disease without evidence of alcohol exposure or infectious etiology in khat chewers.Settings: A university-affiliated teaching hospital in Somaliland.Methods: Cases of cirrhosis of unknown cause were identified from the clinical practice of Al Hayatt Hospital in Borama, Somaliland, during 14 months beginning December 2012.Results: Eight Somali men aged 27–70 years living in Somaliland were identified with cirrhosis of otherwise unknown cause. All chewed khat habitually for many years (15–128 bundles per day times years of use. A liver biopsy of one man was consistent with khat hepatotoxicity. Four of the eight men died during the study period.Conclusion: Khat chewing may be associated with health consequences including severe hepatotoxicity with cirrhosis.

  12. Impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on chewing efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bessadet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I. All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50, determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC, chewing time (CT and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT were video recorded. RESULTS: With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP, F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01. With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI determined as 4,000 µm. CONCLUSION: RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure.

  13. Evaluation of CDs and chewing gum in teaching dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth L; Galvis, Diana; Katz, Ralph V

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were: 1. to compare two methods of teaching dental anatomy-CD + lab vs. standard lecture + lab; and 2. to determine whether actively chewing gum during lecture, lab and studying would have an effect on learning. Only the written examination average scores for the gum vs. no gum chewing groups showed differences that appear to be educationally meaningful, though not statistically significant because of the limited number of subjects in this pilot study. This pilot study suggests that: 1. the cost-effective method of using a self-study CD is as educationally effective as a standard lecture; 2. gum chewing resulted in higher scores in the written examination; and 3. future, full-sized studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  14. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-01-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The result

  15. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  16. New technologies in electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitors of insect feeding and their applications for 21st century entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring of insect feeding is a rigorous means of observing and quantifying feeding behaviors of piercing-sucking arthropods, as well as fine details of chewing and oviposition behaviors not observable visually. While EPG was originally invented nearly 50 years ...

  17. Insect abatement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  18. Effect of experimental chewing on masticatory muscle pain onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.

  19. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Emily E; Baier, Melissa A; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  20. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Hammerl

    Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  1. Structural mouthpart interaction evolved already in the earliest lineages of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Alexander; Rühr, Peter T; Mokso, Rajmund; Villanueva, Pablo; Wilde, Fabian; Stampanoni, Marco; Uesugi, Kentaro; Machida, Ryuichiro; Misof, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    In butterflies, bees, flies and true bugs specific mouthparts are in close contact or even fused to enable piercing, sucking or sponging of particular food sources. The common phenomenon behind these mouthpart types is a complex composed of several consecutive mouthparts which structurally interact during food uptake. The single mouthparts are thus only functional in conjunction with other adjacent mouthparts, which is fundamentally different to biting-chewing. It is, however, unclear when structural mouthpart interaction (SMI) evolved since this principle obviously occurred multiple times independently in several extant and extinct winged insect groups. Here, we report a new type of SMI in two of the earliest wingless hexapod lineages--Diplura and Collembola. We found that the mandible and maxilla interact with each other via an articulatory stud at the dorsal side of the maxillary stipes, and they are furthermore supported by structures of the hypopharynx and head capsule. These interactions are crucial stabilizing elements during food uptake. The presence of SMI in these ancestrally wingless insects, and its absence in those crustacean groups probably ancestral to insects, indicates that SMI is a groundplan apomorphy of insects. Our results thus contradict the currently established view of insect mouthpart evolution that biting-chewing mouthparts without any form of SMI are the ancestral configuration. Furthermore, SMIs occur in the earliest insects in a high anatomical variety. SMIs in stemgroup representatives of insects may have triggered efficient exploitation and fast adaptation to new terrestrial food sources much earlier than previously supposed.

  2. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  3. Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYANZHU-SALZMAN; JIAN-LONGBI; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply.This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects.Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many humanimposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores.

  4. The Antibacterial Effect of CMCTS-Containing Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagang Miao; Dan Blom; Hongmei Zhao; Xuefei Luan; Tongzhi Chen; Xiaohui Wu; Ning Song

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This paper was designed to confirm the efficacy of chewing carboxymethyl chitosan(CMCTS)-containing gum in suppressing the growth of oral bacteria when compared to a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.Methods:Fourteen healthy subjects were recruited from among the staff and students of Qingdao University Dentistry Department.Before the experiments saliva was collected from all subjects and bacteria counts determined.For the gum study,the subjects chewed CMCTS-containing gum for 5 rain and then rested for 5 min.When testing the CMCTS mouth rinse,the subjects gargled with 10 mL of solution for 30 s,followed by resting for 9min 30 s.These protocols were repeated five times over a 50 rain period on the same day.Post-experiment saliva samples were then collected at the following times:0,30 and 60 min.Results:Chewing gum containing CMCTS or rinsing with a CMCTS-containing rinse significantly decreased oral bacteria counts.The total bacteria counts,total Streptococci counts,and mutans streptococci counts of saliva from subjects who chewed CMCTS-containing gum were significantly lower than saliva from subjects in the rinse group in all three sampling periods,except in the case of the total bacteria count in the 60 min samples.Conclusion:CMCTS-containing gum chewing has a greater antibac-terial effect than using a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.The present findings strongly indicate that the application of natural materials such as chitosan and its derivatives is useful for better oral health.

  5. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  6. Effects of chewing gum on the stress and work of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Woods, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Recent research has indicated that chewing gum can relieve perceptions of stress in an occupational sample (Smith, 2009). In the present study, 72 students completed 2 weeks of either chewing gum or refraining from chewing gum. They completed scales measuring perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and single item measures of work levels and tiredness. These were completed both pre- and post-treatment. Perceived stress decreased as a function of the amount of gum chewed. The chewing gum condition was also associated with a decrease in not getting enough academic work done. There were no significant effects of chewing gum on mental health outcomes. These results confirm some of findings from previous studies of chewing gum and stress in other samples.

  7. To chew or not to chew: fecal particle size in herbivorous reptiles and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Julia; Hummel, Jürgen; Kienzle, Ellen; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-11-01

    A major difference between reptile and mammalian herbivores is that the former do not masticate their food. Actually, food particle size reduction by chewing is usually considered one of the adaptations facilitating the higher metabolic rates of mammals. However, quantitative comparisons of ingesta particle size between the clades have, to our knowledge, not been performed so far. We measured mean fecal particle size (MPS) in 79 captive individuals of 14 reptile herbivore species (tortoises, lizards, and Corucia zebrata) by wet sieving and compared the results with a mammalian dataset. MPS increased with body mass in both clades, but at a significantly higher level in reptiles. Limited evidence in free-ranging and captive individuals of Testudo hermanni indicates that in reptiles, the ability to crop food and food particle size significantly influence fecal particle size. The opportunistic observation of a drastic particle size difference between stomach and intestinal contents corroborates findings that in reptiles, in contrast to terrestrial mammals, significant ingesta particle size reduction does occur in the gastrointestinal tract, most likely owing to microbial action during very long ingesta retention. Whether behavioral adaptations to controlling ingesta particle size, such as deliberate small bite sizes, are adaptive strategies in reptiles remains to be investigated.

  8. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergies To Insect Venom Facts About Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. If you have allergic tendencies and ... lives of those who are sensitive to it...insect venom! Although less common than pollen allergy, insect ...

  9. Reiterative and interruptive signaling in induced plant resistance to chewing insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwon; Quaghebeur, Hélène; Felton, Gary W

    2011-09-01

    Our understanding of induced resistance against herbivores has grown immeasurably during the last several decades. Based upon the emerging literature, we argue that induced resistance represents a continuum of phenotypes that is determined by the plant's ability to integrate multiple suites of signals of plant and herbivore origin. We present a model that illustrates the range of signals arising from early detection through herbivore feeding, and then through subsequent plant generations.

  10. Chewing insect predation on artificial caterpillars is related to activity density of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrante, M.; Lövei, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    , easy to use, and are informative about predator identity. In a field experiment in Denmark, performed between May and July 2014, we tested the relationship between predation rate measured using artificial caterpillars and the activity density of large (≥15mm) ground beetles collected using pitfall...... predation rate by ground beetles, and that the method is partially informative on the relationship between predators and predation.......In cultivated landscapes, predatory arthropods play an important role for pest control. Traditionally, monitoring their effect on pests was done using indirect measures (e.g. characterising predator activity by the numbers of predators caught). However, the contribution of predators to predation...

  11. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...... in vitro and in vivo and is therefore not a suitable dosage form. Only a lozenge formulation containing noscapine base fulfilled the requirements of taste acceptability and adequate release properties....

  12. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine.

  13. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  14. Book Review: Insect Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses that infect insects have long been of interest both as a means for controlling insect pest populations in an environmentally safe manner, and also as significant threats to beneficial insects of great value, such as honey bees and silkworms. Insect viruses also have been of intrinsic intere...

  15. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  16. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.

  17. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  18. Reduced stability and intracellular transport of dsRNA contribute to poor RNAi response in lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Kalsi, Megha; Sethi, Amit; Narva, Kenneth E; Fishilevich, Elane; Singh, Satnam; Mogilicherla, Kanakachari; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-07-02

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become a widely used reverse genetic tool to study gene function in eukaryotic organisms and is being developed as a technology for insect pest management. The efficiency of RNAi varies among organisms. Insects from different orders also display differential efficiency of RNAi, ranging from highly efficient (coleopterans) to very low efficient (lepidopterans). We investigated the reasons for varying RNAi efficiency between lepidopteran and coleopteran cell lines and also between the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens. The dsRNA either injected or fed was degraded faster in H. virescens than in L. decemlineata. Both lepidopteran and coleopteran cell lines and tissues efficiently took up the dsRNA. Interestingly, the dsRNA administered to coleopteran cell lines and tissues was taken up and processed to siRNA whereas the dsRNA was taken up by lepidopteran cell lines and tissues but no siRNA was detected in the total RNA isolated from these cell lines and tissues. The data included in this paper showed that the degradation and intracellular transport of dsRNA are the major factors responsible for reduced RNAi efficiency in lepidopteran insects.

  19. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  20. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH INSECTS AND SCORPIONS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Stinging or biting insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or ...

  1. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  2. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  3. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over, s

  4. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  5. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  6. Betel Nut Chewing Behavior among Adolescents in Eastern Taiwan: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Ying; Waigandt, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of betel nut chewing among junior high school students is highest in the eastern region of Taiwan (Lin, 1990). Although there is some research on the prevalence rate, little effort has been paid to developing a classification of betel nut chewing behavior applicable to adolescents. Eight-hundred and forty-three students, including…

  7. Predictors of betel quid chewing behavior and cessation patterns in Taiwan aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shun-Jen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid, chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Cessation factors in betel quid chewers are unknown. The present study explores prevalence and the quit rate of betel quid chewing in Taiwan aborigines. Our goal was to delineate potential predictors of chewing cessation. Methods A stratified random community-based survey was designed for the entire aborigines communities in Taiwan. A total of 7144 participants were included between June 2003 and May 2004 in this study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender, age, obesity, education years, marital status, ethnicity, and habits of betel quid chewing, smoking and drinking was collected by trained interviewers. Results The prevalence of betel quid chewers was 46.1%. Betel quid chewing was closely associated with obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.40–1.85. Betel quid chewers were most likely to use alcohol and cigarettes together. Quit rate of betel quid chewers was 7.6%. Betel quid chewers who did not drink alcohol were more likely to quit (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.43–2.50. Alcohol use is a significant factor related to cessation of betel quid chewing, but smoking is not. Conclusion Taiwan aborigines have a high prevalence of betel quid chewers and a low quit rate. Alcohol use is strongly association with betel quid chewing. Efforts to reduce habitual alcohol consumption might be of benefit in cessation of betel quid chewing.

  8. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  9. Insect glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterman, Albert J; Saisawang, Chonticha; Wongsantichon, Jantana

    2011-05-01

    This article is an overview of the current knowledge of insect glutathione transferases. Three major topics are discussed: the glutathione transferase contributions to insecticide resistance, the polymorphic nature of the insect glutathione transferase superfamily, and a summary of the current structure-function studies on insect glutathione transferases.

  10. Effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel-Kergoat, S; Azais-Braesco, V; Burton-Freeman, B; Hetherington, MM

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a systematic review of the effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and a meta-analysis of the effects of chewing on self-reported hunger. Objectives: To seek insights into the relationship between chewing, appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and to consider potentially useful recommendations to promote benefits of chewing for weight management. Materials and methods: Papers were obtained from two electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane), from searc...

  11. Impact of cell shape in hierarchically structured plant surfaces on the attachment of male Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Prüm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant surfaces showing hierarchical structuring are frequently found in plant organs such as leaves, petals, fruits and stems. In our study we focus on the level of cell shape and on the level of superimposed microstructuring, leading to hierarchical surfaces if both levels are present. While it has been shown that epicuticular wax crystals and cuticular folds strongly reduce insect attachment, and that smooth papillate epidermal cells in petals improve the grip of pollinators, the impact of hierarchical surface structuring of plant surfaces possessing convex or papillate cells on insect attachment remains unclear. We performed traction experiments with male Colorado potato beetles on nine different plant surfaces with different structures. The selected plant surfaces showed epidermal cells with either tabular, convex or papillate cell shape, covered either with flat films of wax, epicuticular wax crystals or with cuticular folds. On surfaces possessing either superimposed wax crystals or cuticular folds we found traction forces to be almost one order of magnitude lower than on surfaces covered only with flat films of wax. Independent of superimposed microstructures we found that convex and papillate epidermal cell shapes slightly enhance the attachment ability of the beetles. Thus, in plant surfaces, cell shape and superimposed microstructuring yield contrary effects on the attachment of the Colorado potato beetle, with convex or papillate cells enhancing attachment and both wax crystals or cuticular folds reducing attachment. However, the overall magnitude of traction force mainly depends on the presence or absence of superimposed microstructuring.

  12. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p<0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ) and significant differences between all groups for total areca- specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  13. Digital image processing versus visual assessment of chewed two-colour wax in mixing ability tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, A; Speksnijder, C M; de Liz Pocztaruk, R; Abbink, J H

    2012-01-01

    Two-colour chewing gum and wax have been widely used as test foods to evaluate the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. The mixing of the colours has been assessed by computer analysis or by visual inspection. Reports contradict each other about whether computer analysis and visual assessment could equally well discriminate between the masticatory performances of groups of participants with different dental status. This study compares the results of computer analysis of digital images of chewed two-colour wax with the results of visual assessment of these images. Sixty healthy subjects participated and chewed on red-blue wax for 5, 10, 15 and 20 chewing strokes. The subjects were divided into three groups of 20, matched for age and gender, according to their dental status: natural dentition, full dentures and maxillary denture plus implant-supported mandibular overdenture. Mixing of the chewed wax was determined by computer analysis of images of the wax and by visual assessment of the images by five examiners. Both the computer method and the observers were able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the dentate subjects from the two denture wearer groups. Computer analysis could also discriminate the mixing abilities of the two denture groups. However, observers were not able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the two denture groups after 5, 10 and 15 chewing strokes. Only after 20 chewing strokes, they could detect a significant difference in mixing ability.

  14. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  15. Tongue entrapment by chew toys in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A; Van Goethem, B; Verhaert, L

    2010-10-01

    Compression of a chew toy during regular play activity can create a vacuum effect eventually causing entrapment of oral tissues. Two cases of tongue entrapment are described, which resulted in severe tissue swelling, oedema and vascular obstruction. In the first dog, the toy was removed by the veterinary surgeon under general anaesthesia. Damage to the tongue proved to be reversible and the dog recovered uneventfully. In the second patient, the toy was forcefully removed by the owner. The resulting tongue necrosis required partial amputation. Treatment of this emergency condition consists of elimination of the negative pressure inside the toy by piercing it or even by insufflation of positive pressure inside the toy, and of an atraumatic manipulation to prevent further damage to the compromised tissues.

  16. Proteomics and insect immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Shi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.

  17. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.;

    2004-01-01

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like....... An increased volume of saliva in the mouth seemed to keep more flavour compounds in the aqueous phase, thereby diminishing the release via the retronasal route. In conclusion, flavour release to the retronasal compartment was dependent on MMA and CF and influenced by the volume of saliva present in the mouth....

  18. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  19. Insects and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual insects have two separate sexes, male and female. There are many mechanisms of sex determination. Most insects have male heterogamety (males XY, females XX). Female heterogamety and haplodiploidy ...

  20. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-04-26

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes.

  1. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Mishima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan. Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes.

  2. Chemical Ecology of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, and Potential for Alternative Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J. Verheggen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle (CPB has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications.

  3. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  4. Social Networking Media: A Newer Approach to Increase Awareness Against Tobacco Chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Gajera, Shivangi Malaviya, Umang Patel, Neha Bavarva, Manan Patel, Shreyash Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Facebook has been found highly effective in transmitting messages to health consumers, especially among the youngsters. So information regarding tobacco addiction and outcomes of tobacco chewing can be communicated effectively through Facebook through intense messages.

  5. Eye Expert Dr. Emily Chew: 3 Ways to Keep Your Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Eye Expert Dr. Emily Chew: 3 Ways to ... children in the United States. Most injuries are sports-related. Outfit your child with goggles or helmet ...

  6. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  7. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  8. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to cause itching than pain. Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... are harmless. If possible, bring the insect or spider that bit you with you when you go for medical treatment so it can be identified.

  9. Effect of Chewing Gum on the Acid-Base and Mineral Balance in the Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Vaido; Elena Raspolina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite chewing gum (CG) is widespread, discussion about its harm and benefits is still in progress. It is unknown whether the CG effect on the teeth depends on the type of sugar substitute. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of chewing gums containing aspartame and sucralose on the acidbase balance and content of mineral components in mixed saliva after carbohydrate-containing food. METHODS The oral fluid, or “mixed” saliva had been ...

  10. Comparing factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behavior in Taiwanese adults

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    Kuo Hsiao-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid is the fourth most common used substance in the world after tobacco, alcohol and caffeine. Although factors related to betel quid chewing or cessation of behaviors were reported previously, few studies simultaneously compared both behaviors in the same population. In addition, it is essential to consider time-to-event concept, since the chance of developing or stopping habit may vary over time. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk factors for commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviors in a time-to-event setting. Methods A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling with selection probabilities proportional to size (PPS was designed for Taiwanese adults with aged 18 years old and above. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to compare and calculate the hazard rate ratios for related factors to commencement or cessation of chewing habits. Results In Taiwan, men had a higher betel quid chewing rate (M: 20.9%, W: 1.2%, but woman chewers had a lower cessation rate (M: 27.5%, W: 12.7%. The hazard rate ratio (HRR of having chewing habit changed from 4.22 (men vs women univariately to 1.38 multivariablely, which indicated gender differences were confounded by other factors. In multivariable analysis, the risk factors of gender, education and ethnicity were significantly associated with both starting and cessation of betel quid chewing behavior. The factors of occupation, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were only associated with starting habit. Conclusion Commencement or cessation of chewing behavior involves a scenario of time, hence it is preferable to use a time-to-event approach for the comparison. The cessation rates of betel quid chewing were decreasingly associated with the daily consumption of betel quid. Hence, reducing of daily amount in betel quid cessation program may be associated with future stopping habit.

  11. POSSIBILITIES TO USE NATURAL EXTRACTS FROM MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS (MAP LIKE BOTANICAL REPELLENT OR INSECTICIDE COMPOUNDS AGAINST PEST INSECTS IN ECOLOGICAL CROPS (II

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    Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropods pests continues to expand i.e. repellents based on essential oils extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Rosmarinus officinalis to mosquitoes, or cinnamon oil, sandalwood oil and turmeric oil are previously reported as insect repellents evaluatede in the laboratory conditions. With the constantly increasing problems of insecticide resistance and increasing public concerns regarding pesticide safety, new, safer active ingredients are becoming necessary to replace existing compounds on the market. The present study carried out in the period 2010-2012 comprises a review of two insect repellents, followed by some new research conducted in our laboratory on plant-derived insect repellents. The two alkaloids tested against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in laboratory conditions was obtained by water and alchohol extraction from two vegetal species, Cichorium intybus L. (Asterales:Asteraceae and Delphinium consolida L. (Ranales:Ranunculaceae. The tests carried out in laboratory and field experimentally plots under cages permit to evaluate several other compounds for repellent activity of lacctucin alkaloids.

  12. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

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    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  13. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  14. Jasmonate is essential for insect defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConn, M; Creelman, R A; Bell, E; Mullet, J E; Browse, J

    1997-05-13

    The signaling pathways that allow plants to mount defenses against chewing insects are known to be complex. To investigate the role of jasmonate in wound signaling in Arabidopsis and to test whether parallel or redundant pathways exist for insect defense, we have studied a mutant (fad3-2 fad7-2 fad8) that is deficient in the jasmonate precursor linolenic acid. Mutant plants contained negligible levels of jasmonate and showed extremely high mortality ( approximately 80%) from attack by larvae of a common saprophagous fungal gnat, Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae), even though neighboring wild-type plants were largely unaffected. Application of exogenous methyl jasmonate substantially protected the mutant plants and reduced mortality to approximately 12%. These experiments precisely define the role of jasmonate as being essential for the induction of biologically effective defense in this plant-insect interaction. The transcripts of three wound-responsive genes were shown not to be induced by wounding of mutant plants but the same transcripts could be induced by application of methyl jasmonate. By contrast, measurements of transcript levels for a gene encoding glutathione S-transferase demonstrated that wound induction of this gene is independent of jasmonate synthesis. These results indicate that the mutant will be a good genetic model for testing the practical effectiveness of candidate defense genes.

  15. Role of sensory factors in chewing and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Y

    1975-01-01

    Since feeding behavior has a complex physiological background, in the physiology of feeding behavoir not only the mechanisms in the hypothalamus, but also input and output physiologic factors which stimulate and/or inhibit the central network for feeding and aversion behavior, must be considered. Normal feeding and aversion behavior are accomplished by a series of highly co-ordinated physiological functions involving various parts of the body, and humoral, hormonal, metabolic, and sensory and motor functions for feeding behavior must be well considered from a wider wiew point. For this purpose, morphological, biochemical, and neurophysiological extensive approaches to study the feeding behavior mechanisms are essentially important. In the present paper, neurophysiological network concerning feeding and aversion behavior was under discussion. Particularly, relations between input, central and output factors for these behaviors were considered. As an input factor, a role of the nerve impulses of the chorda tympani and lingual nerves was evaluated. As a central factor, involvement of the neurons in the cortical taste area was discussed, and response patterns of cortical taste neurons to negative and positive taste information was analyzed with regard to taste perception mechanisms. In addition, mechanisms in the posterior hypothalamus for the taste aversion behavior were explained through ablation and recording techniques in the rat; and the neuromuscular mechanisms of chewing, which complete the feeding behavior, were also discussed. Importance of such comprehensive systematic approach to proper understanding of feeding and aversion behaviors was emphasized.

  16. Vision in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  17. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  18. New fossil insect order Permopsocida elucidates major radiation and evolution of suction feeding in hemimetabolous insects (Hexapoda: Acercaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Bechly, Günter; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S.; Prokop, Jakub; Azar, Dany; Cai, Chen-Yang; van de Kamp, Thomas; Staniczek, Arnold H.; Garrouste, Romain; Krogmann, Lars; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Baumbach, Tilo; Ohlhoff, Rainer; Shmakov, Alexey S.; Bourgoin, Thierry; Nel, André

    2016-03-01

    With nearly 100,000 species, the Acercaria (lice, plant lices, thrips, bugs) including number of economically important species is one of the most successful insect lineages. However, its phylogeny and evolution of mouthparts among other issues remain debatable. Here new methods of preparation permitted the comprehensive anatomical description of insect inclusions from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber in astonishing detail. These “missing links” fossils, attributed to a new order Permopsocida, provide crucial evidence for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships in the Acercaria, supporting its monophyly, and questioning the position of Psocodea as sister group of holometabolans in the most recent phylogenomic study. Permopsocida resolves as sister group of Thripida + Hemiptera and represents an evolutionary link documenting the transition from chewing to piercing mouthparts in relation to suction feeding. Identification of gut contents as angiosperm pollen documents an ecological role of Permopsocida as early pollen feeders with relatively unspecialized mouthparts. This group existed for 185 million years, but has never been diverse and was superseded by new pollenivorous pollinators during the Cretaceous co-evolution of insects and flowers. The key innovation of suction feeding with piercing mouthparts is identified as main event that triggered the huge post-Carboniferous radiation of hemipterans, and facilitated the spreading of pathogenic vectors.

  19. New records and a new species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera found on Columbidae (Columbiformes in Pakistan

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    Saima Naz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chewing lice (Phthiraptera of Columbidae (Columbiformes from Pakistan are studied. Six species of chewing lice with new host records are recorded and one new species of the genus Colpocephalum is described from Columba livia in the Karachi region. All the columbid chewing lice from Pakistan are keyed out and the new species is illustrated and compared with the closest allied species.

  20. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children.

  1. Khat chewing habit among school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.

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    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. RESULT: The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79. The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08, than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31 ( P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P <0.001 for all. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students' smoking status (OR = 13.02, P <0.001, friends' use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P <0.001, gender (OR = 4.62, P <0.001, and friend's use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.

  2. Prevalence of abnormal spermatozoa in tobacco chewing sub-fertile males

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    Priyadarsini Sunanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the following study is to find out the prevalence of abnormal spermatozoa and associated functional parameters in clinical semen samples of sub-fertile males with the tobacco chewing habit. Settings and Design : Retrospective study was conducted at infertility unit of a tertiary health care center, in a period of 3 years. Materials and Method : Semen of 642 males were analyzed; of them 194 men (30.2% were tobacco chewers and they were grouped according to their intensity of chewing (<10 and ≥ 10 packets/day. Counts, motility, vitality, and morphology of sperms were analyzed. Results : In tobacco chewers, 66% of subjects were oligozoospermic, 85% asthenozoospermic and 28% teratozoospermic. Sperm counts (odds ratio [OR] =2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.09, motility (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 2.05-4.9, and normal morphology (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 4.9-14.6 were significantly affected (P = 0.001 in tobacco chewers than the non-chewing group. Further, in comparison to the intensity of tobacco chewing, patients with the intensive practice of using ≥10 packets/day had a significant effect on sperm morphology (P = 0.003, OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.41-5.08 only. Structural defects in head (P = 0.001 and cytoplasmic residues (P = 0.001 were found to be positively correlated with the intensive chewing, but no significant changes were found in anomalies in mid-piece and tail. Conclusion : The adverse impact of tobacco chewing on semen parameters was evident even with mild chewers, but with the intensive chewing practice, phenotypes of sperms, mainly defects in the head and cytoplasmic residue were severely affected.

  3. Energetics of insect diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel A; Denlinger, David L

    2011-01-01

    Managing metabolic resources is critical for insects during diapause when food sources are limited or unavailable. Insects accumulate reserves prior to diapause, and metabolic depression during diapause promotes reserve conservation. Sufficient reserves must be sequestered to both survive the diapause period and enable postdiapause development that may involve metabolically expensive functions such as metamorphosis or long-distance flight. Nutrient utilization during diapause is a dynamic process, and insects appear capable of sensing their energy reserves and using this information to regulate whether to enter diapause and how long to remain in diapause. Overwintering insects on a tight energy budget are likely to be especially vulnerable to increased temperatures associated with climate change. Molecular mechanisms involved in diapause nutrient regulation remain poorly known, but insulin signaling is likely a major player. We also discuss other possible candidates for diapause-associated nutrient regulation including adipokinetic hormone, neuropeptide F, the cGMP-kinase For, and AMPK.

  4. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

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    Yumie Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.

  5. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Levine

    Full Text Available In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s by providing multiple modes of action (MoA. The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1 and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi. The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50 of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action.

  6. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  7. Exploring Insect Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    A fly is buzzing around in the kitchen. You sneak up on it with a flyswatter, but just as you get close to it, it flies away. What makes flies and other insects so good at escaping from danger? The fact that insects have eyesight that can easily detect moving objects is one of the things that help them survive. In this month's Science Shorts,…

  8. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology.

  9. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

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    Astatkie A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use

  10. Formulation of Eco-friendly Medicated Chewing Gum to Prevent Motion Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Rahul B; Muniswamy, Vimalkumar J; Pandit, Ashlesha P; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R

    2015-10-01

    An attempt was made to formulate medicated chewing gum to prevent motion sickness using natural gum base for faster onset of action and easy administration, anywhere and anytime, without access to water. To avoid the discard issue of gum cud, natural gum base of Triticum aestivum (wheat grain) was explored because of its biodegradable and biocompatible nature and easy availability. Prolamin, extracted from wheat, showed good chewing capacity, elasticity, high water retention capacity, antifungal activity, and compatibility with the drug. Formulations were prepared based on a two-factor and three-level factorial design. Amount of calcium carbonate (texturizer) and gum base were selected as independent variables. Elasticity and drug release were considered as the dependent variables. All batches were evaluated for the content uniformity, elasticity study, texture study, in vitro drug release study, and chewiness study. Results revealed that medicated chewing gum containing 80 mg of calcium carbonate and 500 mg of gum base showed good elasticity and more than 90% drug release within 16 min. Thus, this study suggested that both good elasticity and chew ability and abundant availability of wheat grain can act as a potential gum base for medicated chewing gum.

  11. Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, María G; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta; Ponzio, Marina F

    2014-09-01

    In captive chinchillas, one of the most challenging behavioral problems is the development of a stress-related abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) known as "fur-chewing". We investigated whether there is a relationship between the severity of fur-chewing behavior and reproductive function in male and female chinchillas. Regardless of the severity of abnormal behavior, fur-chewing males did not show significant differences in seminal quality (sperm concentration, motility and viability; integrity of sperm membrane and acrosome) and the response to the process of semen collection (the number of stimuli needed to achieve ejaculation) when compared to those with normal behavior. Also, females showing normal or fur-chewing behavior presented similar reproductive performance in terms of number of litters per female per year and litter size. However, pup survival rate was lower (p=0.05) in fur-chewing females than in normal females. These results seem to be consistent with data suggesting non-significant effects of ARBs on reproductive performance.

  12. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  13. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  14. Migration strategies of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, H

    1972-03-24

    Physiological and ecological results from a variety of species are consistent with what seem to be valid general statements concerning insect migration. These are as follows: (i)During migration locomotory functions are enhanced and vegetative functions such as feeding and reproduction are suppressed. (ii) Migration usually occurs prereproductively in the life of the adult insect (the oogenesis-flight syndrome). (iii)Since migrant individuals are usually prereproductive, their reproductive values, and hence colonizing abilities, are at or near maximum. (iv) Migrants usually reside in temporary habitats. (v)Migrants have a high potential for population increase, r, which is also advantageous for colonizers. (vi)Both the physiological and ecological parameters of migration are modifiable by environmental factors (that is, phenotypically modifiable)to suit the prevailing conditions. Taken together, these criteria establish a comprehensive theory and adumbrate the basic strategy for migrant insects. This basic strategy is modified to suit the ecological requirements of individual species. Comparative studies of these modifications are of considerable theoretical and practical interest, the more so since most economically important insects are migrants. No satisfactory general statements can as yet be made with respect to the genotype and migration. Certainly we expect colonizing populiations to possess genotypes favoring a high r, but genotypic variation in r depends on the heritabilities of life table statistics, and such measurements are yet to be made (10, 53). The fact that flight duration can be increased by appropriate selection in Oncopeltus fasciatus, and the demonstration of additive genetic variance for this trait in Lygaeus kalmii, suggest that heritability studies of migratory behavior would also be worth pursuing. Most interesting of course, will be possible genetic correlations between migration and life history parameters. Also, migration often

  15. The effect of chewing gums on acidogenicity of plaque after a sucrose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, V K; Tandon, S; Shirwaikar, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of chewing sugared, sugar free or gum with therapeutic agents like urea or fluoride, on pH of dental plaque after a sucrose challenge using a microtouch method. The 20 subjects aged 8 to 10 years refrained from toothbrushing for 2 days. Resting plaque pH was recorded, followed by sucrose 10% (w/v) rinse for 3 min. After 5 min chewing gum was given and pH recorded at time points of 5, 10, 20, 30 min. Highest plaque pH was found with Endekay (urea) at all time points followed by fluoride chewing gum; Trident, and Wrigley's (p caries children.

  16. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... and a was estimated to have a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time...... was estimated as 1/(4 × k). The NEI0 values were parameterized as a linear function of metabolic body size, energy-corrected milk yield (kg/d), days in milk, and days in milk squared. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by mean square prediction error (MSPE) and its decomposition into central tendency, regression...

  17. Reduction of biting and chewing of horses using differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Bailey, Shana R; Hall, Ezra G; St Peter, Claire C

    2012-09-01

    Biting and chewing by horses on crossties can result in injury to the handler and damage to equipment. Operant-conditioning techniques have been used to train horses and could be used to reduce or eliminate undesirable biting and chewing. Presently, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule, in the context of a reversal design, was effective in reducing biting and chewing in two horses. In DRO schedules, a reinforcer is delivered contingent on the absence of a target behavior for a specified interval. Positive-reinforcement procedures offer an alternative to aversive-control techniques typically used in equine training and may provide for better equine welfare and horse-human interaction.

  18. Effectiveness of a vegetable dental chew on periodontal disease parameters in toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D E; Kelman, M; Perkins, N

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen toy breed dogs completed a parallel, 70-day two-period, cross-over design clinical study to determine the effect of a vegetable dental chew on gingivitis, halitosis, plaque, and calculus accumulations. The dogs were randomly assigned into two groups. During one study period the dogs were fed a non-dental dry diet only and during the second study period were fed the same dry diet supplemented by the daily addition of a vegetable dental chew. Daily administration of the dental chew was shown to reduce halitosis, as well as, significantly reduce gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation and therefore may play a significant role in the improvement of canine oral health over the long-term.

  19. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for EPR retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, A; Gustafsson, H; Lund, E

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD).

  20. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...... this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The design included run-in and wash-out periods interspersed by two intervention periods of 14 days each. The subjects were instructed to chew one gum in the morning and one in the evening containing either two strains of probiotic lactobacilli (L...... lower in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group (p probiotic chewing...

  1. Effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedayati-Hajikand, Trifa; Lundberg, Ulrika; Eldh, Catarina;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries development in preschool children living in a low socioeconomic multicultural area. METHODS: The investigation employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design. The study group consisted of 138...... healthy 2-3-year-old children that were consecutively recruited after informed parental consent. After enrollment, they were randomized to a test or a placebo group. The parents of the test group were instructed to give their child one chewing tablet per day containing three strains of live probiotic...... childhood caries development could be reduced through administration of these probiotic chewing tablets as adjunct to daily use of fluoride toothpaste in preschool children. Further studies on a possible dose-response relationship seem justified TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01720771...

  2. Effect of grass silage chop length on chewing activity and digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmo, T.H.; Randby, Å.T.; Eknæs, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Round bale grass silage harvested early (D-value 757 g kg-1 DM) or at a normal (D-value 696 g kg-1 DM) time was used to study the effect of harvesting time, chop length and their interaction on chewing activity and digestibility by dairy cows. Six early lactating Norwegian Red cows were used in a 6...... x 6 Latin square with 3-week periods. Chewing activity was measured using IGER Behaviour recorders, and digestibility was measured by total collection of faeces. The two silages were fed long (170 mm), coarsely chopped (55 mm), or finely chopped (24 mm median particle length). Cows were fed silage...... ad libitum and supplemented with 6 kg concentrate. Early harvested silage significantly decreased total ration eating (ET), rumination (RT) and chewing time (CT) per kg silage DM compared with normal harvested silage (CT = 38 vs. 46 min kg-1 DM). Chopping of silage reduced CT significantly, mainly...

  3. Leaf calcium oxalate crystal structure and its role in defense against a chewing insect in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate are common in plants and widely distributed among many plant families. These hard and largely insoluble crystals take on many shapes and sizes depending on the tissue and species. In Medicago truncatula, calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in leaves and accumulate in sh...

  4. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  5. A new concept in orthodontics: faster and healthier tooth movement by regularly consuming xyilitol chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was first discovered in the 19th century, it wasn’t until the 1960’s that commercial production was first implemented. Recent studies showed that xylitol chewing gum is beneficial for preventing caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, it is also advantageous for orthodontic treatment, especially the fixed orthodontics patients who have difficulties in acquiring optimal oral health, particularly periodontal health which important in remodeling. However, how consuming xylitol chewing gum may stimulate tooth movement and preventing root resorption is still unclear. It is suggested that chewing activities may stimulate tooth movement, since jaw hypofunction leads to lower mineral apposition and bone function; and narrow periodontal ligament (PDL. These conditions may lead to impaired remodeling process, and increases the susceptibility of root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, since stimulation of the PDL could be mechanoreceptive (i.e. chewing action or nociceptive (i.e. painful stimulation, periodontal nerve fibers are supposed to play an important role in bone remodeling. It is supported by a study which revealed that during tooth movement, the galanin-containing immunoreactive nerve fibers, a part of primary sensory neurons in the PDL is increasing. Galanin is able to induce osteoclast differentiation that needed for bone resorption in orthodontic treatment. The objective of this study is to elucidate a new concept in using xylitol chewing gum as an excellent media to have a faster and healthier orthodontic movement. Since continuous chewing stimulates the PDL which enhances tooth movement, improves oral health, and prevents root resorption; it is concluded that this concept is possible.

  6. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  7. Task-dependence of activity/ bite-force relations and its impact on estimation of chewing force from EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschel, P A; Morneburg, T

    2002-07-01

    Estimation of chewing force from electromyograms (EMGs) calibrated in isometric biting yielded strikingly high force values. We tested the hypothesis that EMG-based force predictions are excessive because of differing activity/bite-force relations in mastication and isometric biting. In nine patients, unilateral bite forces and EMGs of 4 elevator muscles were recorded during chewing and isometric clenching on a bite-fork. We estimated chewing force by substituting chewing EMGs of each muscle into isometric activity/bite-force regressions. The estimates were compared with actual chewing forces recorded by intra-oral transducers. In all muscles except the balancing-side masseter, the activity/bite-force ratio was significantly higher in chewing than in isometric biting. The actual mean chewing force amounted to 220 N, while EMG-based estimates ranged from 273 to 475 N, depending on the muscle used for estimation. The results indicate that different activity/force characteristics in dynamic and isometric biting can cause overestimation when chewing force is predicted from masticatory EMGs.

  8. Betel quid, chewing habits and difficult intubation: A case report and critical appraisal of evidence for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P L; Hegde, Harihar V; Vijaykumar, T K; Nallamilli, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is used by 10-20% of world of population. Oral submucus fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic premalignant disease common in South Asian countries where betel quid is chewed. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial fibrosis of oral cavity and limited mouth opening, which can cause difficult intubation. A recent study in Taiwan has revealed long-term betel nut chewing is not predictor of difficult intubation. We describe two cases of OSF and critically analyze this study and its implications for clinical practice. OSF is now seen in Saudi Arabia and western countries with use of commercial betel quid substitutes. Although betel quid without tobacco is used in Taiwan, available evidence suggests rapid and early development of OSF where commercial chewing products like Pan Masala are used in India. Effects of betel quid may vary depending on the composition of quid and chewing habits. Studies where personal habits are involved must be analyzed carefully for external validity. Even though, Taiwan study is controlled, its validity outside Taiwan is highly questionable. Since OSF can cause unanticipated difficult intubation, thus during preanesthetic assessment, history of betel quid chewing, more importantly use of commercial chewing products is more likely to give clues to severity of OSF and possible difficult intubation. Further controlled trails in populations where commercial chewing products are used is necessary to detect association of chewing habits and difficult intubation.

  9. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  10. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...... of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius...

  11. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.;

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...... of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius...

  12. Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Anthea Francesca Weijenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain.

  13. Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Roxane Anthea Francesca; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes) are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain.

  14. Mid-Holocene Hemlock Decline in Eastern North America Linked with Phytophagous Insect Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhiry, Najat; Filion, Louise

    1996-05-01

    Macrofossil evidence indicates that the mid-Holocene hemlock [ Tsuga canadensisL. (Carr.)] decline that occurred over a wide area in eastern North America was associated with phytophagous insect activity. In situhemlock macrofossils and insect remains found in a paludified dunefield at the northern limit of hemlock testify that two defoliation events occurred at 4910 ± 90 and 4200 ± 100 yr B.P., respectively. The sharp coincidence of remains from hemlock needles with chewing damage typical of hemlock looper feeding, head capsules from the hemlock looper ( Lambdina fiscellaria) and the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana), absence of hemlock fruiting remains, and tree-ring anomalies in fossil hemlocks that died prematurely (caused mass mortality. Our findings indicate that defoliation can affect ecosystems for centuries, especially when long-lived tree species are involved.

  15. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  16. Eicosanoid actions in insect immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects express three lines of protection from infections and invasions. Their cuticles and peritrophic membranes are physical barriers. Infections and invasions are quickly recognized within insect bodies; recognition launches two lines of innate immune reactions. Humoral reactions involve induc...

  17. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  18. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural...

  19. Recycled Insect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  20. Olfactory signaling in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The detection of volatile chemical information in insects is performed by three types of olfactory receptors, odorant receptors (ORs), specific gustatory receptor (GR) proteins for carbon dioxide perception, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) which are related to ionotropic glutamate receptors. All receptors form heteromeric assemblies; an OR complex is composed of an odor-specific OrX protein and a coreceptor (Orco). ORs and GRs have a 7-transmembrane topology as for G protein-coupled receptors, but they are inversely inserted into the membrane. Ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors) and ORs operate as IRs activated by volatile chemical cues. ORs are evolutionarily young receptors, and they first appear in winged insects and seem to be evolved to allow an insect to follow sparse odor tracks during flight. In contrast to IRs, the ORs can be sensitized by repeated subthreshold odor stimulation. This process involves metabotropic signaling. Pheromone receptors are especially sensitive and require an accessory protein to detect the lipid-derived pheromone molecules. Signaling cascades involved in pheromone detection depend on intensity and duration of stimuli and underlie a circadian control. Taken together, detection and processing of volatile information in insects involve ionotropic as well as metabotropic mechanisms. Here, I review the cellular signaling events associated with detection of cognate ligands by the different types of odorant receptors.

  1. Sterol metabolism of insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.; Wientjens, W.H.J.M.

    1967-01-01

    This article surveys the present knowledge of the sterol metabolism of insects. It is emphasized that a high degree of purity of the dietary sterols and the climination of the influence of symbionts are essential to present ambiguity in interpreting results. It is pointed out that a sharp distinctio

  2. Colour constancy in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  3. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  4. Resistance to Insecticides in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent usage of insecticides in struggle aganist insects, has caused development of resistance to those chemicals in insects. The increase in dosage of insecticide used due to development of resistance in insects, causes important problems in terms of environment and human health. This study includes topics such as insecticides which are used frequently in insect struggle, insecticide resistant types, genetic changes posing resistance, enzymes of resistance and resistan...

  5. Single substitutions to closely related amino acids contribute to the functional diversification of an insect-inducible, positively selected plant cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    A causal link has been reported between positively selected amino acids in plant cystatins and the inhibitory range of these proteins against insect digestive cysteine (Cys) proteases. Here we assessed the impact of single substitutions to closely related amino acids on the contribution of positive selection to cystatin diversification. Cystatin sequence alignments, while confirming hypervariability, indicated a preference for related amino acids at positively selected sites. For example, the non-polar residues leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) were shown to predominate at positively selected site 2 in the N-terminal region, unlike selected sites 6 and 10, where polar residues are preferred. The model cystatin SlCYS8 and single variants with Leu, Ile or Val at position 2 were compared with regard to their ability to bind digestive proteases of the coleopteran pest Leptinotarsa decemlineata and to induce compensatory responses in this insect. A functional proteomics procedure to capture target Cys proteases in midgut extracts allowed confirmation of distinct binding profiles for the cystatin variants. A shotgun proteomics procedure to monitor whole Cys protease complements revealed protease family specific compensatory responses in the insect, dependent on the variant ingested. Our data confirm the contribution of closely related amino acids to the functional diversity of positively selected plant cystatins in a broader structure/function context imposing physicochemical constraints to primary structure alterations. They also underline the complexity of protease/inhibitor interactions in plant-insect systems, and the challenges still to be met in order to harness the full potential of ectopically expressed protease inhibitors in crop protection.

  6. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts tha...

  7. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

  8. The effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Nørgaard, Peder; Eriksen, Lis;

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present experiment were to study the effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses. Three adult trotters (Exp.I) and 3 adult Icelandic horses (Exp.II) were fed 3 daily meals during 3 consecutive days in two 3 x 3 completely randomized block design experiments. ...

  9. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis : comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, CP; Brand, HS; Veerman, ECI; Valentijn-Benz, M; Van Amerongen, BM; Amerongen, AVN; Valentijn, RM; Vos, PI; Bijlsma, JA; ter Wee, PM

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White(TM)) and a xa

  10. The efficacy of two prototype chewing gums for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the potential efficacy of two prototype chewing gums in extrinsic stain removal on natural teeth. Setting: Dental school clinics. Design: Double-blind, two groups, parallel design. Participants: 76 adult volunteers (32m, 44f, mean age: 20.6 years old). Methods: Oral hard and soft tis

  11. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  12. Chew the pain away: oral habits to cope with pain and stress and to stimulate cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations f

  13. Harvesting and chewing as constraints to forage consumption by the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for understanding the diet of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana), adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (Pt), chewing (Ct) and handling times (Ht) differed across food types and harvesting methods (handling time is defined as the time to harvest, chew and swallow a trunkload of food). Bulls and cows were observed 105 and 26 times, respectively (94 and 26 individuals), with a total of 64 h of feeding recorded across 32 vegetation types. Some food types took longer to harvest and chew than others, which may influence intake rate and affect choice of diet. The method used to gather a trunkload of food had a significant effect on harvesting time, with simple foraging actions being comparatively rapid and more difficult tasks taking longer. Handling time was constrained by chewing for bulls, except for the processing of roots from woody plants, which was limited by harvesting. Time to gather a trunkload had a greater influence on handling time for cows compared to bulls. Harvesting and handling times were longer for bulls than cows, with the sexes adopting foraging behaviors that best suited their energy requirements. PMID:27688971

  14. Harvesting and chewing as constraints to forage consumption by the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Clegg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a foundation for understanding the diet of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana, adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (Pt, chewing (Ct and handling times (Ht differed across food types and harvesting methods (handling time is defined as the time to harvest, chew and swallow a trunkload of food. Bulls and cows were observed 105 and 26 times, respectively (94 and 26 individuals, with a total of 64 h of feeding recorded across 32 vegetation types. Some food types took longer to harvest and chew than others, which may influence intake rate and affect choice of diet. The method used to gather a trunkload of food had a significant effect on harvesting time, with simple foraging actions being comparatively rapid and more difficult tasks taking longer. Handling time was constrained by chewing for bulls, except for the processing of roots from woody plants, which was limited by harvesting. Time to gather a trunkload had a greater influence on handling time for cows compared to bulls. Harvesting and handling times were longer for bulls than cows, with the sexes adopting foraging behaviors that best suited their energy requirements.

  15. Continuous analysis of parotid saliva during resting and short-duration simulated chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyraud, E.; Bult, J.H.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parotid saliva flow is increased by mastication and its composition is also modified. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationships between flow rate, pH and protein concentration, during resting and short-duration simulated chewing, using continuous and fractional saliva collecti

  16. Evaluating insect-microbiomes at the plant-insect interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; Hansen, Allison K

    2014-07-01

    Plants recognize biotic challengers and respond with the appropriate defense by utilizing phytohormone signaling and crosstalk. Despite this, microbes and insects have evolved mechanisms that compromise the plant surveillance system and specific defenses, thus ensuring successful colonization. In nature, plants do not experience insect herbivores and microbes in isolation, but in combination. Over time, relationships have developed between insects and microbes, varying on a continuum from no-relationship to obligate relationships that are required for both organisms to survive. While many reviews have examined plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions and the mechanisms of plant defense, few have considered the interface where microbes and insects may overlap, and synergies may develop. In this review, we critically evaluate the requirements for insect-associated microbes to develop synergistic relationships with their hosts, and we mechanistically discuss how some of these insect-associated microbes can target or modify host plant defenses. Finally, by using bioinformatics and the recent literature, we review evidence for synergies in insect-microbe relationships at the interface of plant-insect defenses. Insect-associated microbes can influence host-plant detection and/or signaling through phytohormone synthesis, conserved microbial patterns, and effectors, however, microbes associated with insects must be maintained in the environment and located in opportunistic positions.

  17. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  18. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. METHOD: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation: evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing increases the risk of systemic diseases remains elusive. We hypothesize that systemic inflammation may be elevated among areca nut users, which is linked with many systemic diseases. Therefore, this present study was conducted to examine the systemic inflammation among areca nut chewers and healthy controls. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on areca nut chewers and healthy individuals in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants were selected from a region of the city by invitation request sent from door to door. Information was collected regarding the socio-demographic profile and the pattern of use, and a blood sample was obtained to measure the level of C-reactive protein (CRP. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between socio-demographic profile, areca nut chewing and CRP levels. Results We carried out final analysis on 1112 individuals of which 556 were areca nut chewers and 556 were the age, gender and area matched controls. Areca nut chewers had a significantly higher proportion of men (15.1%, n = 84 who had an elevated CRP (>10 mg/dl as compared to controls (5.2%, n = 29. Multivariate analyses showed that areca nut chewers had significantly higher odds of an elevated CRP (OR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.08-5.02, p value Conclusions Areca nut chewing has a significant association with systemic inflammation. Further work is required to confirm that systemic inflammation is the main pathway by which areca nut use increases the risk of systemic diseases.

  20. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  1. Oral secretions from Mythimna separata insects specifically induce defence responses in maize as revealed by high-dimensional biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinfeng; Sun, Guiling; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Chunxia; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Baldwin, Ian T; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Liu, Zhudong; Xu, Guowang; Lu, Xin; Wu, Jianqiang

    2016-08-01

    Attack from insect herbivores poses a major threat to plant survival, and accordingly, plants have evolved sophisticated defence systems. Maize is cultivated as a staple crop worldwide, and insect feeding causes large production losses. Despite its importance in agriculture, little is known about how maize reacts to insect herbivory. Taking advantage of advances in sequencing and mass spectrometry technology, we studied the response of maize to mechanical wounding and simulated Mythimna separata (a specialist insect) herbivory by applying its oral secretions (OS) to wounds. In comparison to the responses induced by mechanical wounding, OS elicited larger and longer-lasting changes in the maize transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and phytohormones. Specifically, many genes, proteins and metabolites were uniquely induced or repressed by OS. Nearly 290 transcription factor genes from 39 families were involved in OS-induced responses, and among these, more transcription factor genes were specifically regulated by OS than by wounding. This study provides a large-scale omics dataset for understanding maize response to chewing insects and highlights the essential role of OS in plant-insect interactions.

  2. RNAi: future in insect management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burand, John P; Hunter, Wayne B

    2013-03-01

    RNA interference is a post- transcriptional, gene regulation mechanism found in virtually all plants and animals including insects. The demonstration of RNAi in insects and its successful use as a tool in the study of functional genomics opened the door to the development of a variety of novel, environmentally sound approaches for insect pest management. Here the current understanding of the biogenesis of the two RNAi classes in insects is reviewed. These are microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Several other key approaches in RNAi -based for insect control, as well as for the prevention of diseases in insects are also reviewed. The problems and prospects for the future use of RNAi in insects are presented.

  3. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  4. Polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen J; Sword, Gregory A; Lo, Nathan

    2011-09-27

    Polyphenism is the phenomenon where two or more distinct phenotypes are produced by the same genotype. Examples of polyphenism provide some of the most compelling systems for the study of epigenetics. Polyphenisms are a major reason for the success of the insects, allowing them to partition life history stages (with larvae dedicated to feeding and growth, and adults dedicated to reproduction and dispersal), to adopt different phenotypes that best suit predictable environmental changes (seasonal morphs), to cope with temporally heterogeneous environments (dispersal morphs), and to partition labour within social groups (the castes of eusocial insects). We survey the status of research on some of the best known examples of insect polyphenism, in each case considering the environmental cues that trigger shifts in phenotype, the neurochemical and hormonal pathways that mediate the transformation, the molecular genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in initiating and maintaining the polyphenism, and the adaptive and life-history significance of the phenomenon. We conclude by highlighting some of the common features of these examples and consider future avenues for research on polyphenism.

  5. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Buntin, G David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Lee, R Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E; Scully, Brian T; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-07-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed.

  6. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Huffaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs, and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also

  7. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  8. Evaluation of trace elements in chewing tobacco and snuff using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, S. [Chemistry Div., Directorate of Science, Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Tech., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Nine samples of chewing tobacco, snuff, tobacco leaf and ash were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff studied in this work contain substantial amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, K. V. Sc, Rb and Fe. Furthermore, varying amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co and Zn were also detected in all tobacco samples. Of the toxic elements which were determined using INAA. As, Sb and Hg were quantified in only few tobacco samples. However, other toxic elements, which were determined using AAS, such as Cu, Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff. The concentration of majority of the detected elements is high in ash samples which imply that most elements in chewing tobacco and snuff may originate from the addition of ash. (orig.)

  9. Site-specific and synergistic stimulation of methylation on the bacterial chemotaxis receptor Tsr by serine and CheW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Robert M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific glutamates in the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs of Escherichia coli are modified during sensory adaptation. Attractants that bind to MCPs are known to increase the rate of receptor modification, as with serine and the serine receptor (Tsr, which contributes to an increase in the steady-state (adapted methylation level. However, MCPs form ternary complexes with two cytoplasmic signaling proteins, the kinase (CheA and an adaptor protein (CheW, but their influences on receptor methylation are unknown. Here, the influence of CheW on the rate of Tsr methylation has been studied to identify contributions to the process of adaptation. Results Methyl group incorporation was measured in a series of membrane samples in which the Tsr molecules were engineered to have one available methyl-accepting glutamate residue (297, 304, 311 or 493. The relative rates at these sites (0.14, 0.05, 0.05 and 1, respectively differed from those found previously for the aspartate receptor (Tar, which was in part due to sequence differences between Tar and Tsr near site four. The addition of CheW generated unexpectedly large and site-specific rate increases, equal to or larger than the increases produced by serine. The increases produced by serine and CheW (added separately were the largest at site one, ~3 and 6-fold, respectively, and the least at site four, no change and ~2-fold, respectively. The rate increases were even larger when serine and CheW were added together, larger than the sums of the increases produced by serine and CheW added separately (except site four. This resulted in substantially larger serine-stimulated increases when CheW was present. Also, CheW enhanced methylation rates when either two or all four sites were available. Conclusion The increase in the rate of receptor methylation upon CheW binding contributes significantly to the ligand specificity and kinetics of sensory adaptation. The synergistic effect of

  10. Betel quid, chewing habits and difficult intubation: A case report and critical appraisal of evidence for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Narendra, P. L.; Harihar V Hegde; Vijaykumar, T. K.; Nallamilli, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is used by 10–20% of world of population. Oral submucus fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic premalignant disease common in South Asian countries where betel quid is chewed. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial fibrosis of oral cavity and limited mouth opening, which can cause difficult intubation. A recent study in Taiwan has revealed long-term betel nut chewing is not predictor of difficult intubation. We describe two cases of OSF and critically analyze this study and its implications f...

  11. Difference in food and nutrient intakes in Korean elderly people according to chewing difficulty: using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 (6th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Song Hee; Park, Hae Ryun; Lee, Young Mi; Kwon, Soo Youn; Kim, Ok Sun; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Chewing difficulty is a factor contributing to a poor nutritional status in the elderly. The aim of this study was to examine disparities in food and nutrition intakes among Korean elderly people with and without chewing difficulty. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study utilized data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2013. The study subjects included males and females over 65 years of age who were not required to adhere to a special diet due to disease or sickness. They were divided into groups according to their chewing ability. Those who found chewing “very difficult” or “difficult”, were combined to form the chewing difficulty group. Similarly, those who found chewing “moderately difficult”, “easy”, and “very easy” were combined to form the normal chewing group. RESULTS Of the 999 subjects, 47.7% had chewing difficulties and the prevalence of chewing difficulty was higher in females than in males (P = 0.03) and higher in those 75 years of age and over than in younger individuals (P food and nutrient intake in the elderly and can result in vitamin and mineral intake deficiencies. It is evident that the care of elderly subjects with chewing difficulty is essential for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

  12. Molecular and insecticidal characterization of a Cry1I protein toxic to insects of the families Noctuidae, Tortricidae, Plutellidae, and Chrysomelidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Estela, Anna; Porcar, Manuel; Martínez, Clara; Oguiza, José A; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan; Caballero, Primitivo

    2006-07-01

    The most notable characteristic of Bacillus thuringiensis is its ability to produce insecticidal proteins. More than 300 different proteins have been described with specific activity against insect species. We report the molecular and insecticidal characterization of a novel cry gene encoding a protein of the Cry1I group with toxic activity towards insects of the families Noctuidae, Tortricidae, Plutellidae, and Chrysomelidae. PCR analysis detected a DNA sequence with an open reading frame of 2.2 kb which encodes a protein with a molecular mass of 80.9 kDa. Trypsin digestion of this protein resulted in a fragment of ca. 60 kDa, typical of activated Cry1 proteins. The deduced sequence of the protein has homologies of 96.1% with Cry1Ia1, 92.8% with Cry1Ib1, and 89.6% with Cry1Ic1. According to the Cry protein classification criteria, this protein was named Cry1Ia7. The expression of the gene in Escherichia coli resulted in a protein that was water soluble and toxic to several insect species. The 50% lethal concentrations for larvae of Earias insulana, Lobesia botrana, Plutella xylostella, and Leptinotarsa decemlineata were 21.1, 8.6, 12.3, and 10.0 microg/ml, respectively. Binding assays with biotinylated toxins to E. insulana and L. botrana midgut membrane vesicles revealed that Cry1Ia7 does not share binding sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac proteins, which are commonly present in B. thuringiensis-treated crops and commercial B. thuringiensis-based bioinsecticides. We discuss the potential of Cry1Ia7 as an active ingredient which can be used in combination with Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac in pest control and the management of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins.

  13. The chewing robot: a new biologically-inspired way to evaluate dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, D; Alemzadeh, K; Harrison, A L; Ireland, A J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel in vitro dental wear simulator based on 6-6 parallel kinematics to replicate mechanical wear formation on dental materials and components, such as individual teeth, crowns or bridges. The human mandible, guided by a range of passive structures moves with up to six degrees of freedom (DOF). Currently available wear simulators lack the ability to perform these complex chewing movements. In addition simulators are unable to replicate the normal range of chewing forces as they have no control system able to mimic the natural muscle function controlled by the human central nervous system. Such discrepancies between true in vivo and simulated in vitro movements will influence the outcome and reliability of wear studies using such approaches. This paper summarizes the development of a new dynamic jaw simulator based on the kinematics of the human jaw.

  14. Chewing Beedis: A Case of Cross-Tobacco use in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindappa Lakshmana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While tobacco use occurs in many forms all over the world, there is little information on cross-tobacco use. Authors report an unusual case of tobacco use in the form of chewing beedies which are normally smoked (cross-tobacco use. A 22-year-old single female, diagnosed with schizophrenia for the last 6 years, started chewing beedies from the age of 15 years and was using it in a dependent pattern since 7 years. After 3 years of treatment for her schizophrenia, patient′s family pressured her to seek tobacco cessation treatment. Initial treatment with nicotine gum replacement and behavioral counseling did not prove useful. Subsequently she was treated with bupropion 300 mg/day and able to successfully abstain. Cross-tobacco use is relatively rare, and merits further study, especially in the mentally ill population.

  15. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  16. Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Roxane Anthea Francesca Weijenberg; Frank Lobbezoo

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain stru...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding....

  18. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel....

  19. 1977 Kansas Field Crop Insect Control Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Leroy; Gates, Dell E.

    This publication is prepared to aid producers in selecting methods of insect population management that have proved effective under Kansas conditions. Topics covered include insect control on alfalfa, soil insects attacking corn, insects attacking above-ground parts of corn, and sorghum, wheat, and soybean insect control. The insecticides…

  20. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  1. Dental microwear reveals mammal-like chewing in the neoceratopsian dinosaur Leptoceratops gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Varriale

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions.

  2. Comparative effectiveness of chewing stick and toothbrush: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeeza S Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increasing rate of oral diseases, the global necessity of effective and economical products for its prevention and treatment has intensified. Aim: This study was to compare the effectiveness of two oral hygiene aids: Chewing stick and manual toothbrush, for plaque removal and gingival health after one month of a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Dental students (age 18-22 years of a public sector dental hospital were recruited. Sample size was determined using the American Dental Association guidelines. Participants were randomized into two interventional groups and provided with either chewing sticks or toothbrushes. Pre- and post-intervention examinations were executed by two blind and calibrated examiners using plaque and gingival dental indices. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and two sample independent t-tests. Results: Fifty subjects were recruited with mean age 20 ± 0.66 years (80% were females and 20% were males. Except for the mean plaque scores of toothbrush users (which increased at post-intervention examination, all other scores showed reduction. In contrast to the final mean gingival scores, a significant difference (P = < 0.0001 in the final mean plaque score was observed for the two respective interventional groups. Conclusion: Chewing stick has revealed parallel and at times greater mechanical and chemical cleansing of oral tissues as compared to a toothbrush.

  3. Influence of occlusal vertical dimension on the masticatory performance during chewing with maxillary splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, L W; van der Glas, H W; van der Bilt, A

    2007-08-01

    Changing the occlusal vertical dimension is a common procedure in restorative dentistry, during treatment of patients with cranio-mandibular disorders, and during orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. The treatment may alter the length of the main jaw elevator muscles and the position of the mandibular head in the fossa temporalis. These changes may influence the bite forces that are generated during chewing and thus may affect the masticatory function. We measured the objective masticatory function, defined as masticatory performance, by determining an individual's capacity to pulverize a test food. The immediate influence of the increase in the occlusal vertical dimension on the masticatory performance was determined using three anatomical maxillary splints in a group of seven dentate subjects. The splints gave an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension of 2, 4 and 6 mm, respectively. Before we started the experiments the subjects practiced chewing with the splints during about 5 min. No significant differences were observed in masticatory performance among the conditions without and with the three splints. Thus, an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension up to 6 mm did not have a significant effect on the masticatory performance. Maxillary splints may be used to study the effect of occlusal factors on the chewing process by manipulating tooth shape and occlusal area of the splint.

  4. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF SUBGINGIVAL MICROFLORA AFTER THE CHEWING OF BETEL LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Betel a branching vine, scientifically called as Piper betel, is used in a number of traditional remedies and known to have immune boosting as well as antibacterial properties. This study was conducted to assess the qualitative changes in the sub-gingival micro flora, after the chewing of betel leaves, in order to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of this medicinal plant on oral pathogens.Forty volunteers were made to chew betel leaves daily for 5-10 minutes for a period of two weeks and the sub gingival plaque samples were analyzed to identify the change in type organisms if any.We have identified a wide variation in the type of organisms in the sub gingival plaque samples after the study period. Many organisms had reduced while few increased and interestingly few organisms which were not observed in the plaque sample prior to the use of betel leaf have appeared after the use. Significant alteration observed was pertaining to Streptococcus viridans group of organisms which is the commonest oral pathogen.The analysis showed chewing of betel leaf can reduce the pathogenic organisms in the sub gingival microflora.

  5. Dental microwear reveals mammal-like chewing in the neoceratopsian dinosaur Leptoceratops gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal) jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions.

  6. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  7. Interactions of extracts from selected chewing stick sources with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamin Francis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin that activates a pro-inflammatory death of human monocytes/macrophages. A specific clone of this bacterium (JP2 has a 530-base pair deletion in the leukotoxin promoter gene and significantly enhanced expression of leukotoxin. This specific clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans is common in some African populations and has a strong association with periodontal attachment loss in adolescents in these populations. Chewing sticks of plant origin are commonly used as oral hygiene tool in Africa, but their role as a therapeutic agent in periodontal disease is poorly investigated. Results Ethanol extracts were made from 7 common plants used as chewing sticks in West-Africa. None of the tested extracts inhibited growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, extracts from Psidium guajava (Guava completely neutralized the cell death and pro-inflammatory response of human leukocytes induced by the leukotoxin. None of the six other tested chewing stick extracts showed this effect. Conclusions The discovery that extracts from Guava efficiently neutralizes A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxicity might lead to novel therapeutic agents and strategies for prevention and treatment of aggressive forms of periodontitis induced by infections with the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of this bacterium.

  8. Insect symbionts as hidden players in insect-plant interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frago, E.; Dicke, M.; Godfray, H.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the importance of microbial mutualistic symbioses in insect-plant interactions. Mutualists may affect host plant range and enable insects to manipulate plant physiology for their own benefit. The plant can also be a route for the horizontal transfer of mutualistic microo

  9. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism.

  10. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago [1] and [2] . The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage - the extant...

  11. Insect cells for human food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M.C.; Tramper, J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Martens, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for novel protein sources. Insects are a possible interesting source of protein. They are nutritious in terms of protein (40-75 g/100g dry weight) and minerals. Insect protein is of high quality and has a high digestibility (77-98%) and concentration of essential amino acids (46-96%

  12. Eicosanoids mediate insect hemocyte migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemocyte chemotaxis toward infection and wound sites is an essential component of insect defense reactions, although the biochemical signal mechanisms responsible for mediating chemotaxis in insect cells are not well understood. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test the hyp...

  13. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  14. The respiratory proteins of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten; Hankeln, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    For a long time, respiratory proteins have been considered unnecessary in most insects because the tracheal system was thought to be sufficient for oxygen supply. Only a few species that survive under hypoxic conditions were known exceptions. However, recently it has become evident that (1) intracellular hemoglobins belong to the standard repertoire of insects and (2) that hemocyanin is present in many "lower" insects. Intracellular hemoglobins have been identified in Drosophila, Anopheles, Apis and many other insects. In all investigated species, hemoglobin is mainly expressed in the fat body and the tracheal system. The major Drosophila hemoglobin binds oxygen with high affinity. This hemoglobin type possibly functions as a buffer system for oxygen supply at low partial pressures and/or for the protection from an excess of oxygen. Similar hemoglobins, present in much higher concentrations, store oxygen in specialized tracheal organs of the botfly and some backswimmers. The extracellular hemoglobins in the hemolymph of chironomid midges are evolutionary derivatives of the intracellular insect hemoglobins, which emerged in response to the hypoxic environment of the larvae. In addition, several hemoglobin variants of unknown functions have been discovered in insect genomes. Hemocyanins transport oxygen in the hemolymph of stoneflies, but also in the Entognatha and most hemimetabolan taxa. Apparently, hemocyanin has been lost in Holometabola. At present, no physiological or morphological character is known that could explain the presence or loss of hemocyanins in distinct taxa. Nevertheless, the occurrence of respiratory proteins in insects adds further complexity to our view on insect respiration.

  15. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  16. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution.

  17. Sorghum Insect Problems and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunshan Guo; Wei Cui; Xue Feng; Jianzhou Zhao; Guihua Lu

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has high levels of starch, sugar, and fiber and is one of the most important energy crops in the world. Insect damage is one of the challenges that impacts sorghum biomass production. There are at least 150 insect species that can infest sorghum varieties worldwide. These insects can complete several generations within a growing season, they target various parts of sorghum plants at devel- opmental stages, and they cause significant biomass losses. Genetic research has revealed the existence of resistant genetics in sorghum and insect tolerant sorghum varieties have been identified. Various control methods have been developed, yet more effective management is needed for increasing sorghum biomass production. Although there are no transgenic sorghum products on the market yet, biotechnology has been recognized as an important tool for controlling insect pests and increasing sorghum production.

  18. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing, sociodemographic description and its effect on academic performance, Jimma University students 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayana, Andualem Mossie; Mekonen, Zeleke

    2004-04-01

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing habit is being a hot issue of discussion nation wide. This habit is spreading at an alarming rate among the young generation, especially in high schools and higher institutions, where there are intensive academic activities. Students in colleges and universities commonly use khat, hoping that it improves their academic performance. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat chewing and its impact on academic performance. A cross sectional study was conducted, in January 2002, on a representative sample of 500 students selected by systematic random sampling technique from a total of 2073 students who stayed in the university at least two years. Out of these, 76.91% were males, 59.53% were Orthodox believers, 70.98% were between 16 and 25 years old, and 49.15% were Amhara in their ethnic background. The current prevalence of khat chewing was estimated to be 24.79%. In this study, 27% of male students, 46.74% of Muslim students and 31.30% of Oromo students were found to be khat chewers. Khat chewing has a significant association with high income (p < 0.001), with smoking habit (p < 0.05) and with coffee drinking habit (p < 0.001). The presence of khat chewers in the family and among friends have also a positive association with khat chewing habit. The mean cummulative grade point average (CGPA) of non-chewers was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of chewers. In conclusion, the present study depicts that gender, age, religion, ethnicity and income have a positive association with the habit of khat chewing. The t-test value showed a significant difference between the mean CGPA of Khat chewers and non chewers in favor of the later. This indicates that Khat chewing may not help to improve academic performance.

  19. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring.

  20. Comparative evaluation of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash, Xylitol Chewing Gum, and Combination of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash and Xylitol Chewing Gum on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Biofilm Levels in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Meena; Shrivastava, Vandana; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the effect of combining 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash with xylitol (XYL) chewing gum on Streptococcus mutans and biofilm levels among 8- to 12-year-old children. Materials and methods Sixty children aged 8 to 12 years were selected with moderate and high salivary S. mutans levels. They were divided into three groups of 20 children each: (1) XYL group where the subjects chewed XYL twice daily; (2) CHX where rinsing was done twice daily; and (3) combination of XYL and CHX group (XYL+CHX) where both the agents were used once daily. The S. mutans colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted by using the mitis salivarius agar plate at the beginning of the study and at 15 days, 1, 2, and 6 months from the start of the study. Results The XYL+CHX group showed the maximum reduction in both the biofilm and S. mutans scores throughout the study period. Conclusion The XYL+CHX combination reduced both the biofilm and S. mutans score significantly better than either XYL chewing gums or CHX mouthwash used alone. How to cite this article Syed M, Chopra R, Shrivastava V, Sachdev V. Comparative evaluation of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash, Xylitol Chewing Gum, and Combination of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash and Xylitol Chewing Gum on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Biofilm Levels in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):313-319. PMID:28127162

  1. Evolution of insect P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, R

    2006-12-01

    The first fully sequenced insect genomes were those of the fruitfly and the mosquito, both from the order Diptera. Now, with an increasing number and diversity of insect genomes becoming available, the diversity of insect P450 genes can be better appreciated and tentative ideas about the evolution of the CYP (cytochrome P450) superfamily in insects can be proposed. There are four large clades of insect P450 genes that existed before the divergence of the class Insecta and that are also represented by CYP families in vertebrates: the CYP2 clade, the CYP3 clade, the CYP4 clade and the mitochondrial P450 clade. P450s with known or suspected physiological functions are present in each of these clades and only a dozen genes appear to have orthologues or very close paralogues in each insect genome. P450 enzymes from each of these clades have been linked to insecticide resistance or to the metabolism of natural products and xenobiotics. In particular, insects appear to maintain a repertoire of mitochondrial P450 paralogues devoted to the response to environmental challenges.

  2. Differential effectiveness of microbially induced resistance against herbivorous insects in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, Vivian R; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Reymond, Philippe; Van Pelt, Johan A; Van Loon, L C; Dicke, Marcel; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2008-07-01

    Rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) have a broad, yet partly distinct, range of effectiveness against pathogenic microorganisms. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of ISR and SAR in Arabidopsis against the tissue-chewing insects Pieris rapae and Spodoptera exigua. Resistance against insects consists of direct defense, such as the production of toxins and feeding deterrents and indirect defense such as the production of plant volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. Wind-tunnel experiments revealed that ISR and SAR did not affect herbivore-induced attraction of the parasitic wasp Cotesia rubecula (indirect defense). By contrast, ISR and SAR significantly reduced growth and development of the generalist herbivore S. exigua, although not that of the specialist P. rapae. This enhanced direct defense against S. exigua was associated with potentiated expression of the defense-related genes PDF1.2 and HEL. Expression profiling using a dedicated cDNA microarray revealed four additional, differentially primed genes in microbially induced S. exigua-challenged plants, three of which encode a lipid-transfer protein. Together, these results indicate that microbially induced plants are differentially primed for enhanced insect-responsive gene expression that is associated with increased direct defense against the generalist S. exigua but not against the specialist P. rapae.

  3. Contrasting effects of sampling scale on insect herbivores distribution in response to canopy structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Frederico S; Sperber, Carlos F; Campos, Ricardo I; Soares, Janaína P; Ribeiro, Sérvio P

    2013-03-01

    Species diversity of insect herbivores associated to canopy may vary local and geographically responding to distinct factors at different spatial scales. The aim of this study was to investigate how forest canopy structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance depending on feeding guilds' specificities. We tested the hypothesis that habitat structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance differently to sap-sucking and chewing herbivore guilds. Two spatial scales were evaluated: inside tree crowns (fine spatial cale) and canopy regions (coarse spatial scale). In three sampling sites we measured 120 tree crowns, grouped n five points with four contiguous tree crowns. Insects were sampled by beating method from each crown and data were summed up for analyzing each canopy region. In crowns (fine spatial scale) we measured habitat tructure: trunk circumference, tree height, canopy depth, number of ramifications and maximum ramification level. In each point, defined as a canopy region (coarse spatial scale), we measured habitat structure using a vertical cylindrical transect: tree species richness, leaf area, sum of strata heights and maximum canopy height. A principal component analysis based on the measured variables for each spatial scale was run to estimate habitat structure parameters. To test the effects of habitat structure upon herbivores, different general linear models were adjusted using the first two principal components as explanatory variables. Sap-sucking insect species richness and all herbivore abundances increased with size of crown at fine spatial scale. On the other hand, chewer species richness and abundance increased with resource quantity at coarse scale. Feeding specialization, resources availability, and agility are discussed as ecological causes of the found pattern.

  4. The comparative effect of propolis in two different vehicles; mouthwash and chewing-gum on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Nuray; Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Ozkan, Serdar Yucel; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In general, chemical plaque agents have been used in mouthwashes, gels, and dentifrices. In some situations, application of mouthwashes and dentifrices can be difficult. Therefore, different approaches for oral health-care have been needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis chewing-gum compared to propolis-containing mouthwash on gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation on patients that refrained from daily oral hygiene procedures for 5 days. Materials and Methods: 10 college students with systemically healthy and very good oral hygiene and gingival health were included in this randomized, single-blind, crossover 5-day plaque regrowth with a 3-day washout period clinical study. After plaque scores were reduced to zero, participants were asked to refrain from oral hygiene procedures and allocated to either propolis mouthwash or chewing-gum group. Chewing-gum was performed after meals 3 times a day for 20 min mouthwash group was instructed to rinse mouthwash 2 times a day for 1 min. On day 5, the clinical periodontal measurements containing plaque and gingival indexes were taken from the participants. Results: The both plaque and gingival indexes of propolis mouthwash group were significantly lower than that of the propolis chewing-gum group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the propolis mouthwash was more effective than the propolis chewing gum on the plaque inhibition and the gingival inflammation. PMID:26038663

  5. Effect of Chewing Paneer and Cheese on Salivary Acidogenicity: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tayab, Tabassum; Rai, Kavitha; Kumari, Vasantha; Thomas, Eapen

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim was to evaluate the salivary pH reversal phenomenon by chewing paneer and processed cheese after a chocolate challenge. Materials and methods: Thirty caries-free children were randomly selected and divided into 2 groups: Control group was given processed cheese (Amul) and the experimental group was given paneer (Amul) after a chocolate challenge. After determining the resting salivary pH using GC pH strips, the subjects were asked to eat the test foods and salivary pH wa...

  6. A preliminary analysis of correlated evolution in Mammalian chewing motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Doherty, Alison H; Crompton, Alfred W; Hylander, William L

    2011-08-01

    Descriptive and quantitative analyses of electromyograms (EMG) from the jaw adductors during feeding in mammals have demonstrated both similarities and differences among species in chewing motor patterns. These observations have led to a number of hypotheses of the evolution of motor patterns, the most comprehensive of which was proposed by Weijs in 1994. Since then, new data have been collected and additional hypotheses for the evolution of motor patterns have been proposed. Here, we take advantage of these new data and a well-resolved species-level phylogeny for mammals to test for the correlated evolution of specific components of mammalian chewing motor patterns. We focus on the evolution of the coordination of working-side (WS) and balancing-side (BS) jaw adductors (i.e., Weijs' Triplets I and II), the evolution of WS and BS muscle recruitment levels, and the evolution of asynchrony between pairs of muscles. We converted existing chewing EMG data into binary traits to incorporate as much data as possible and facilitate robust phylogenetic analyses. We then tested hypotheses of correlated evolution of these traits across our phylogeny using a maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Both sets of analyses yielded similar results highlighting the evolutionary changes that have occurred across mammals in chewing motor patterns. We find support for the correlated evolution of (1) Triplets I and II, (2) BS deep masseter asynchrony and Triplets I and II, (3) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a decrease in the ratio of WS to BS muscle recruitment levels, and (4) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a delay in the activity of the BS posterior temporalis. In contrast, changes in relative WS and BS activity levels across mammals are not correlated with Triplets I and II. Results from this work can be integrated with dietary and morphological data to better understand how feeding and the

  7. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  8. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight......, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...

  9. Insect symbionts in food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481779

  10. Eicosanoid actions in insect immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter we review eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. Eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated polyunsaturated fatty acids. Groups of eicosanoids include prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. These ...

  11. Learning and cognition in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Insects possess small brains but exhibit sophisticated behavioral performances. Recent works have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species, which go beyond the traditional studied framework of simple associative learning. In this study, I focus on capabilities such as attention, social learning, individual recognition, concept learning, and metacognition, and discuss their presence and mechanistic bases in insects. I analyze whether these behaviors can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning or, on the contrary, require higher-order explanations. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering l architectures underlying cognitive processing.

  12. Clinical Application of Insect Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟洪; 赵洁

    2003-01-01

    @@ Chinese insect drugs are drastic in nature, capable ofclearing channels and collaterals to promote a freeflow of qi and blood, and effective in someintractable and obstinate diseases due to long-termstagnation of phlegm and blood, which are hard to betreated by ordinary Chinese drugs. In clinic, properuse of insect drugs can often help raise thetherapeutic effects. Some commonly used pairs ofinsect drugs are introduced in the following.

  13. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation...

  14. How Do Insects Help the Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Gary

    2005-01-01

    There are some 5 to 30 million insect species estimated in the world--and the majority of these have yet to be collected or named by science! Of course, the most well known insects are those that cause disease or compete for human agricultural products, but these insects represent only a small fraction of the world's insect population. In reality,…

  15. Fracture load and failure analysis of zirconia single crowns veneered with pressed and layered ceramics after chewing simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Ozcan, Mutlu; Roos, Malgorzata; Trottmann, Albert; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the fracture load of zirconia crowns veneered with four overpressed and four layered ceramics after chewing simulation. The veneered zirconia crowns were cemented and subjected to chewing cycling. Subsequently, the specimens were loaded at an angle of 45° in a Universal Testing Machine to determine the fracture load. One-way ANOVA, followed by a post-hoc Scheffé test, t-test and Weibull statistic were performed. Overpressed crowns showed significantly lower fracture load (543-577 N) compared to layered ones (805-1067 N). No statistical difference was found between the fracture loads within the overpressed group. Within the layered groups, LV (1067 N) presented significantly higher results compared to LC (805 N). The mean values of all other groups were not significantly different. Single zirconia crowns veneered with overpressed ceramics exhibited lower fracture load than those of the layered ones after chewing simulation.

  16. Oviposition pheromones in haematophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagan, T; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-01-01

    Pheromones influencing oviposition behavior in females of haematophagous insects have been the interest of recent past by many group of scientists working on oviposition pheromones. Finding and choosing a good site for oviposition is a challenging task for females of haematophagous insects, especially in those insects which does not have the parental care. Their decisions have far-reaching and profound consequences for the life history of the offspring. In such blood feeding insects, the choice of oviposition site is affected by pheromones, which may function either as deterrents or stimulants in short range, while they may also act as repellents or attractants in long range perception. During the location of a suitable oviposition site for egg laying or a potential host for blood feeding, haematophagous insects mainly use olfactory and visual cues. These pheromones are produced by the ovipositing female or by conspecific larvae co-occurring with gravid females. Adult females detect oviposition pheromones by odor receptors on the antennae, as well as by contact chemoreceptors on tarsi, mouthparts and antennae. Different cues exploited by gravid females from a diversified arena include egg, larva, habitat, microbes, infusions and plant produced volatiles influence the oviposition behavior. Traps baited with pheromones, infusions, and insecticides shall be promising tools for monitoring and control of target insect using integrated vector management strategies.

  17. Can insects develop resistance to insect pathogenic fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Whitten, Miranda M A; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Greig, Carolyn; Kryukov, Vadim Y; Grizanova, Ekaterina V; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Glupov, Viktor V; Butt, Tariq M

    2013-01-01

    Microevolutionary adaptations and mechanisms of fungal pathogen resistance were explored in a melanic population of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Under constant selective pressure from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, 25(th) generation larvae exhibited significantly enhanced resistance, which was specific to this pathogen and not to another insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Defense and stress management strategies of selected (resistant) and non-selected (susceptible) insect lines were compared to uncover mechanisms underpinning resistance, and the possible cost of those survival strategies. We hypothesize that the insects developed a transgenerationally primed resistance to the fungus B. bassiana, a costly trait that was achieved not by compromising life-history traits but rather by prioritizing and re-allocating pathogen-species-specific augmentations to integumental front-line defenses that are most likely to be encountered by invading fungi. Specifically during B. bassiana infection, systemic immune defenses are suppressed in favour of a more limited but targeted repertoire of enhanced responses in the cuticle and epidermis of the integument (e.g. expression of the fungal enzyme inhibitor IMPI, and cuticular phenoloxidase activity). A range of putative stress-management factors (e.g. antioxidants) is also activated during the specific response of selected insects to B. bassiana but not M. anisopliae. This too occurs primarily in the integument, and probably contributes to antifungal defense and/or helps ameliorate the damage inflicted by the fungus or the host's own immune responses.

  18. Can insects develop resistance to insect pathogenic fungi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan M Dubovskiy

    Full Text Available Microevolutionary adaptations and mechanisms of fungal pathogen resistance were explored in a melanic population of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Under constant selective pressure from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, 25(th generation larvae exhibited significantly enhanced resistance, which was specific to this pathogen and not to another insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Defense and stress management strategies of selected (resistant and non-selected (susceptible insect lines were compared to uncover mechanisms underpinning resistance, and the possible cost of those survival strategies. We hypothesize that the insects developed a transgenerationally primed resistance to the fungus B. bassiana, a costly trait that was achieved not by compromising life-history traits but rather by prioritizing and re-allocating pathogen-species-specific augmentations to integumental front-line defenses that are most likely to be encountered by invading fungi. Specifically during B. bassiana infection, systemic immune defenses are suppressed in favour of a more limited but targeted repertoire of enhanced responses in the cuticle and epidermis of the integument (e.g. expression of the fungal enzyme inhibitor IMPI, and cuticular phenoloxidase activity. A range of putative stress-management factors (e.g. antioxidants is also activated during the specific response of selected insects to B. bassiana but not M. anisopliae. This too occurs primarily in the integument, and probably contributes to antifungal defense and/or helps ameliorate the damage inflicted by the fungus or the host's own immune responses.

  19. Dystrophic changes in masticatory muscles related chewing problems and malocclusions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; de Groot, I J M; Sie, L T; van Bruggen, H W; de Groot, S A F; Erasmus, C E; van Alfen, N

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) worsens with age, with increasingly effortful mastication. The aims of this study were to describe mastication problems in consecutive stages in a group of patients with DMD and to determine related pathophysiological aspects of masticatory muscle structure, tongue thickness, bite force and dental characteristics. Data from 72 patients with DMD (4.3 to 28.0 years), divided into four clinical stages, were collected in a cross sectional study. Problems with mastication and the need for food adaptations, in combination with increased echogenicity of the masseter muscle, were already found in the early stages of the disease. A high percentage of open bites and cross bites were found, especially in the later stages. Tongue hypertrophy also increased over time. Increased dysfunction, reflected by increasingly abnormal echogenicity, of the masseter muscle and reduced occlusal contacts (anterior and posterior open bites) were mainly responsible for the hampered chewing. In all, this study shows the increasing involvement of various elements of the masticatory system in progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To prevent choking and also nutritional deficiency, early detection of chewing problems by asking about feeding and mastication problems, as well as asking about food adaptations made, is essential and can lead to timely intervention.

  20. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... tendency, error regression, and error disturbance were 4.2, 40.6, and 84.9% of MSPE, respectively. The described intake model implies a variable forage-to-concentrate substitution rate as a nonlinear function of NEI0, CINE of forage, and supplementation of concentrate.......Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... (CINE; min/MJ of NE). Furthermore, we studied the forage-to-concentrate substitution rate in this new NEI model. To calibrate the model on a diverse set of situations, we built a database of mean intake from 14 production experiments with a total of 986 primi- and multiparous lactating dairy cows...

  1. Effects of nicotine chewing gum on UPDRS score and P300 in early-onset parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuoka, Takako; Kaseda, Yumiko; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Kawakami, Hideshi; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2002-03-01

    It has been reported that nicotine shows some beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study is to assess the therapeutic effects of nicotine chewing gum in patients with early-onset parkinsonism (EOP). The subjects were 8 patients with early-onset parkinsonism (male/female = 4/4, mean age; 51.3 years). Four out of 8 patients had a history of smoking (smokers). To estimate the effects of nicotine gum, the scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were studied before and after taking nicotine gum in the EOP patients. In smokers, UPDRS scores improved by more than 10% and the P300 latency of auditory ERPs was shortened by more than 30 msec. In contrast, nicotine had no remarkable effects on UPDRS scores or auditory ERPs in non-smokers. We suggest that nicotine chewing gum may be a possible choice for the treatment of patients with EOP, especially when they are smokers.

  2. Tissue culture of Baiyu chewing cane%白玉蔗组织培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余坤兴; 杨柳; 刘俊仙; 李松; 方锋学; 杨丽涛; 李杨瑞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Using the Baiyu chewing cane collected from Guigang City, Guangxi as testing material, the main factors impacting Baiyu chewing cane in vitro culture was explored in order to establish the rapid regeneration propagation system. [Method]After using the tissues from Baiyu chewing cane's slightly-tailing leaves as explant callus for bud differentiation culture of callus, adventitious bud proliferation, and plantlet browning prevention and rooting induction were conducted using different culture medium and hormone combinations. [ Result ]Baiyu chewing cane leaf slicing for callus induction was a convenient and effective method. After the whorl sections were connected with the culture medium (MS+2,4-D 3 mg/L, agar 5 g/L, sugar 30 g/L) for 30 d, explants rapidly expanded, the edges became granular, light yellow or yellow, and the embryogenic callus or paste callus displayed uniformed quality. The optimum culture medium for buds differentiation induction in Baiyu chewing cane was MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+ NAA0.2 mg/L. For the proliferation of adventitious buds, the optimum effect resulted from the MS+6-BA 3.0 mg/L+KT 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.6 mg/L+ sugar 30.0 g/L treatment. To prevent browning effects, the PVP and activated carbon tissue culture seedlings had different effects; the 1% activated carbon could effectively inhibit the proliferation of adventitious shoots browning in Baiyu chewing cane culture medium. In the rooting culturing process, the optimal culturing medium was MS+ NAA 0.6 mg/L+ sugar 50.0 g/L + activated carbon 0.1%. [Conclusion]By the orthogonal design test, the regeneration system of Baiyu chewing cane breeding was established in order to speed up the breeding rate of Baiyu chewing cane, improve propagation coefficient, and provide an effective way for capital-saving.%[目的]以广西贵港市白玉蔗为材料,探讨影响白玉蔗离体培养的主要因素,建立其快速再生繁殖体系.[方法]以白玉蔗尾梢心叶为外植体,诱导愈伤组织

  3. A novel approach for chewing detection based on a wearable PPG sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Vasileios; Diou, Christos; Lingchuan Zhou; van den Boer, Janet; Mars, Monica; Delopoulos, Anastasios

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of human eating behaviour has been attracting interest over the last few years, as a means to a healthy lifestyle, but also due to its association with serious health conditions, such as eating disorders and obesity. Use of self-reports and other non-automated means of monitoring have been found to be unreliable, compared to the use of wearable sensors. Various modalities have been reported, such as acoustic signal from ear-worn microphones, or signal from wearable strain sensors. In this work, we introduce a new sensor for the task of chewing detection, based on a novel photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor placed on the outer earlobe to perform the task. We also present a processing pipeline that includes two chewing detection algorithms from literature and one new algorithm, to process the captured PPG signal, and present their effectiveness. Experiments are performed on an annotated dataset recorded from 21 individuals, including more than 10 hours of eating and non-eating activities. Results show that the PPG sensor can be successfully used to support dietary monitoring.

  4. Effect of urea in sugar-free chewing gums on pH recovery in human dental plaque evaluated with three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imfeld, T; Birkhed, D; Lingström, P

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing various amounts of urea on the pH recovery in dental plaque. Three plaque-measuring methods were used, i.e., the telemetric, the microtouch, and the sampling methods. The subjects who had refrained from toothbrushing for 3-7 days rinsed with either 10 or 50% (w/v) sucrose solutions and then chewed for 10 min: (1) one piece of chewing gum in a series of six tests in which the urea content increased from 10 to 80 mg per piece of gum: (2) one or two pieces of gum containing 20 mg urea, and (3) one, two, or three pieces of gum, one after the other, containing 20 mg urea. In some of the test series, a conventional sugarless gum was used as a control. A quick rise in plaque pH was found with all urea-containing chewing gums within the first minutes of chewing, and neutralization continued during the whole 10-min chewing periods. Higher concentrations of urea resulted in more pronounced pH recovery. Slightly higher plaque pH values were found when chewing on two pieces at a time of a 20-mg urea gum was compared with only one piece. Significantly higher pH values were recorded when using three pieces of chewing gum, one after the other (10 + 10 + 10 min), as compared with two pieces (10 + 10 min) or just one piece (10 min). In conclusion, all sugar-free chewing gums tested, particularly the urea-containing ones, initiated a pronounced pH recovery in dental plaque when chewed after a sucrose rinse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Difficulty Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruits or vegetables. For example, applesauce, pureed carrots, bananas, or peas. Or consider eating baby food. Moisten ... Information Dental and Oral Health ASCO Answers Fact Sheet: Dental and Oral Health (PDF) Español f t ...

  6. Drosophila's view on insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Alexander

    2009-01-13

    Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere 0.1 mm up to half a meter. Their eyes, together with the respective parts of the nervous system dedicated to the processing of visual information, have long been the subject of intense investigation but, with the exception of some very basic reflexes, it is still not possible to link an insect's visual input to its behavioral output. Fortunately for the field, the fruit fly Drosophila is an insect, too. This genetic workhorse holds great promise for the insect vision field, offering the possibility of recording, suppressing or stimulating any single neuron in its nervous system. Here, I shall give a brief synopsis of what we currently know about insect vision, describe the genetic toolset available in Drosophila and give some recent examples of how the application of these tools have furthered our understanding of color and motion vision in Drosophila.

  7. Insect Cell Culture and Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert R.Granados; Guoxun Li; G.W.Blissard

    2007-01-01

    The continued development of new cell culture technology is essential for the future growth and application of insect cell and baculovirus biotechnology. The use of cell lines for academic research and for commercial applications is currently dominated by two cell lines; the Spodoptera frugiperda line, SF21 (and its clonal isolate, SF9), and the Trichoplusia ni line, BTI 5B1-4, commercially known as High Five cells. The long perceived prediction that the immense potential application of the baculovirus-insect cell system, as a tool in cell and molecular biology, agriculture, and animal health, has been achieved. The versatility and recent applications of this popular expression system has been demonstrated by both academia and industry and it is clear that this cell-based system has been widely accepted for biotechnological applications. Numerous small to midsize startup biotechnology companies in North America and the Europe are currently using the baculovirus-insect cell technology to produce custom recombinant proteins for research and commercial applications. The recent breakthroughs using the baculovirus-insect cell-based system for the development of several commercial products that will impact animal and human health will further enhance interest in this technology by pharma. Clearly, future progress in novel cell and engineering advances will lead to fundamental scientific discoveries and serve to enhance the utility and applications of this baculovirus-insect cell system.

  8. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INSECT FLIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Mu-lin; MIAO Wen-bo; ZHONG Chang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    In the non-inertial coordinates attached to the model wing, the two-dimensional unsteady flow field triggered by the motion of the model wing, similar to the flapping of the insect wings, was numerically simulated. One of the advantages of our method is that it has avoided the difficulty related to the moving-boundary problem. Another advantage is that the model has three degrees of freedom and can be used to simulate arbitrary motions of a two-dimensional wing in plane only if the motion is known. Such flexibility allows us to study how insects control their flying. Our results show that there are two parameters that are possibly utilized by insects to control their flight: the phase difference between the wing translation and rotation, and the lateral amplitude of flapping along the direction perpendicular to the average flapping plane.

  10. Neurosecretion: peptidergic systems in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, R.; Eckert, Manfred

    Insect neuropeptides are produced in less than 1% of the cells of the central nervous system. Despite this, they are important messenger molecules which influence nearly all physiological processes, including behaviour. They can act as transmitters, modulators and classical hormones, and often exhibit pleiotropic functions when released into the haemolymph. The large number of neuropeptides that has been identified from some of the model organisms among insects underlines the complexity of the neurosecretory system; studies about the coordinated actions of these substances are in their preliminary stages. Recent advances in insect neuropeptide research will be reviewed here, concentrating on the distribution of multiple peptide forms in the central nervous system and adjacent neurohaemal organs, and the role of neuropeptides in eclosion behaviour.

  11. Calcitonin-like diuretic hormones in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandawala, Meet

    2012-10-01

    Insect neuropeptides control various biological processes including growth, development, homeostasis and reproduction. The calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH) is one such neuropeptide that has been shown to affect salt and water transport by Malpighian tubules of several insects. With an increase in the number of sequenced insect genomes, CT/DHs have been predicted in several insect species, making it easier to characterize the gene encoding this hormone and determine its function in the species in question. This mini review summarizes the current knowledge on insect CT/DHs, focusing on mRNA and peptide structures, distribution patterns, physiological roles, and receptors in insects.

  12. The effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Putt, M.S.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to systematically review the present literature to establish the clinical effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation. Materials and methods MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to

  13. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  14. EFFECT OF XYLITOL AND SORBITOL IN CHEWING-GUMS ON MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI, PLAQUE PH AND MINERAL LOSS OF ENAMEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WENNERHOLM, K; ARENDS, J; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; EMILSON, CG; DIJKMAN, AG

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen subjects with more than 3 x 10(5) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva completed this randomised, cross-over study. Four different chewing-gums, containing: (1) 70% xylitol, (2) 35% xylitol + 35% sorbitol, (3) 17.5% xylitol + 52.5% sorbitol, and (4) 70% sorbitol, were tested. The p

  15. Consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum to prevent dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2009-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using searches with Medline, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were screened independently and were included if they evaluated the effect of one or more chewing gums containing at least one polyol (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol o...... as part of normal oral hygiene to prevent dental caries....

  16. Systematic analysis of phloem-feeding insect-induced transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis highlights common features and reveals distinct responses to specialist and generalist insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Verrall, Susan R; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Phloem-feeding insects (PFIs), of which aphids are the largest group, are major agricultural pests causing extensive damage to crop plants. In contrast to chewing insects, the nature of the plant response to PFIs remains poorly characterized. Scrutiny of the literature concerning transcriptional responses of model and crop plant species to PFIs reveals surprisingly little consensus with respect to the transcripts showing altered abundance following infestation. Nevertheless, core features of the transcriptional response to PFIs can be defined in Arabidopsis thaliana. This comparison of the PFI-associated transcriptional response observed in A. thaliana infested by the generalists Myzus persicae and Bemisia tabaci with the specialist Brevicoryne brassicae highlights the importance of calcium-dependent and receptor kinase-associated signalling. We discuss these findings within the context of the complex cross-talk between the different hormones regulating basal immune response mechanisms in plants. We identify PFI-responsive genes, highlighting the importance of cell wall-associated kinases in plant-PFI interactions, as well as the significant role of kinases containing the domain of unknown function 26. A common feature of plant-PFI interaction is enhanced abundance of transcripts encoding WRKY transcription factors. However, significant divergence was observed with respect to secondary metabolism dependent upon the insect attacker. Transcripts encoding enzymes and proteins associated with glucosinolate metabolism were decreased following attack by the generalist M. persicae but not by the specialist B. brassicae. This analysis provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular patterns associated with the plant response to PFIs and suggests that plants recognize and respond to perturbations in the cell wall occurring during PFI infestation.

  17. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-07-31

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  18. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  19. Edible Insects in China: Utilization and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2017-02-22

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than two thousand years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last twenty years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species, and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are consumed regularly. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil, and chitin and the development of health care foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicades and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and

  20. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Fandos Esteruelas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia.

  1. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis.

  2. Relationship between energy intake and chewing index of diets fed to pregnant ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Vestergaard; Nadeau, E.; Markussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether a linear relationship exists between the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of pregnant ewes and a dietary chewing index (CI). The relationship was studied using five feeding trials with intake data from 108 pregnant ewes, 4 to 1 weeks before lambing, giving...... a total of 324 observations. All ewes were fed grass silage ad libitum, supplemented with concentrates either separately or in a total mixed ration (TMR). The ewes were of different breeds, were between 2 and 7 years old, had a mean body weight (BW) in the 4th week before lambing of 95.1 kg (SD = 9...... × ME02 × CIcor, where MEI is the daily metabolizable energy intake, ME0 is considered the theoretical maximum intake capacity of the animal in a theoretical situation with no physical constraint on intake, and parameter k represents the decline in MEI with the increasing CIcor of the ration. The model...

  3. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  4. Use of chewing gum containing 15% of xylitol and reduction in mutans streptococci salivary levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Perez Trindade Fraga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent use of Xylitol may decrease the S. mutans levels. However, very little is known about whether this effect on the levels of cariogenic bacteria is maintained after the interruption of short-term usage of xylitol. This study aimed at evaluating changes in mutans streptococci (MS salivary levels after using a chewing gum containing xylitol. Twelve volunteers harboring > 10(5 CFU MS/ml saliva levels were asked to chew Happydent-xylit® for 5 minutes, 5 X/day, for 30 days. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, at 30 days after xylitol usage began, and at 30 days beyond its interruption. MS salivary levels were estimated. The average salivary levels of MS in the ten subjects who completed the study were 13.17 (NL-CFU at baseline (A. After the 30 days experimental period (B, this average decreased to 9.45 (NL-CFU. Nine of ten subjects studied showed a reduction in MS salivary levels in relation to baseline, whereas salivary levels were maintained in the remaining subject. At thirty days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C, the average levels of MS were still reduced to 10.31 (NL-CFU. Multiple sample comparison using the Bonferroni test revealed that the decrease in MS levels observed from baseline (A to the time immediately after 30 days of xylitol usage (B was statistically significant (p < 0.05, and those levels were still decreased between baseline and 30 days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C. So, the use of xylitol induced a reduction in MS salivary levels after a short period of usage which persisted beyond its interruption.

  5. Use of chewing gum containing 15% of xylitol and reduction in mutans streptococci salivary levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cláudia Perez Trindade; Mayer, Márcia Pinto Alves; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado

    2010-01-01

    Frequent use of Xylitol may decrease the S. mutans levels. However, very little is known about whether this effect on the levels of cariogenic bacteria is maintained after the interruption of short-term usage of xylitol. This study aimed at evaluating changes in mutans streptococci (MS) salivary levels after using a chewing gum containing xylitol. Twelve volunteers harboring > or = 10(5) CFU MS/ml saliva levels were asked to chew Happydent-xylit for 5 minutes, 5 X/day, for 30 days. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, at 30 days after xylitol usage began, and at 30 days beyond its interruption. MS salivary levels were estimated. The average salivary levels of MS in the ten subjects who completed the study were 13.17 (NL-CFU) at baseline (A). After the 30 days experimental period (B), this average decreased to 9.45 (NL-CFU). Nine of ten subjects studied showed a reduction in MS salivary levels in relation to baseline, whereas salivary levels were maintained in the remaining subject. At thirty days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C), the average levels of MS were still reduced to 10.31 (NL-CFU). Multiple sample comparison using the Bonferroni test revealed that the decrease in MS levels observed from baseline (A) to the time immediately after 30 days of xylitol usage (B) was statistically significant (p beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C). So, the use of xylitol induced a reduction in MS salivary levels after a short period of usage which persisted beyond its interruption.

  6. Lip Forces and Chewing Efficiency in Children with Peripheral Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Cristea, Alexandru; Dudescu, Cristian M; Hurubeanu, Lucia; Vâjâean, Cosmin; Albu, Silviu; Câmpian, Radu S

    2015-08-01

    Peripheral facial paralysis is accompanied by facial motor disorders and also, by oral dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lip forces and chewing efficiency in a group of children with peripheral facial paralysis. The degree of peripheral facial paralysis in the study group (n 11) was assessed using the House-Brackmann scale. The control group consisted of 21 children without facial nerve impairment. To assess lip forces, acrylic vestibular plates of three sizes were used: large (LVP), medium (MVP) and small (SVP). The lip force was recorded with a force transducer coupled with the data acquisition system. Masticatory efficiency was evaluated by the ability to mix two differently colored chewing gums. The images were processed with Adobe Photoshop CS3 (Delaware Corporation, San Jose, California, United States) and the number of pixels was quantified with the Image J software (DHHS/NIH/NIMH/RSB, Maryland, United States). For statistical analysis, the following statistical analysis were used: Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis, and optimal cutoff values for muscular dysfunction. There were statistically significant differences between lip forces in the following three groups: p=0.01 (LVP), p=0.01 (MVP), and p=0.008 (SVP). The cutoff values of lip forces in the study group were as follows: 7.08 N (LVP), 4.89 N (MVP), and 4.24 N (SVP). There were no statistically significant differences between the masticatory efficiency in the two groups (p=0.25). Lip forces were dependent on the degree of peripheral facial paralysis and age, but not on gender. In peripheral facial paralysis in children, a significant decrease of lip forces, but not masticatory efficiency, occurs.

  7. Formulation development and evaluation of medicated chewing gum of anti-emetic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Paradkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicated chewing gum (MCG of Domperidone Maleate (DM was developed by direct compression method with the goal to achieve quick onset of action and to improve patient compliance. Objective: Formulation development of MCG of DM and optimization of the formulation by screening of different excipients. Material and methods: MCG containing DM was prepared by screening different concentrations of sweeteners, flavouring agents, softening agents, lubricants and anti-adherents by changing one variable at a time. Performance evaluation was carried out by evaluating size, shape, thickness, taste, scanning electron microscopy, texture analysis, in vivo drug release study, ex vivo buccal permeation study and by studying statistical analysis for quality. Results and discussion: The statistical analysis showed significant improvement in organoleptic properties such as chewable mass, product taste, product consistency, product softness, total flavour lasting time and pharmaceutical properties like micromeritic properties after incorporation of appropriate excipients in an optimum amount in final optimized MCG formulation. In vivo drug release study showed 97% DM release whereas ex vivo buccal permeation study through goat buccal mucosa exhibited 11.27% DM permeation within 15 min indicating its potential for increasing bioavailability by decreasing time of onset. The optimized formulation showed good surface properties and the peak load required for drug release was found to be acceptable for crumbling action. Conclusion: The developed formulation of medicated chewing gum can be a better alternative to mouth dissolving and conventional tablet formulation. It may be proved as a promising approach to improve the bioavailability as well as to improve patient compliance.

  8. Safrole-DNA adduct in hepatocellular carcinoma associated with betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chiu-Lan; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Chan, Shan-An; Chi, Chin-Wen; Liu, Tsung-Yun

    2008-12-15

    Betel quid chewing, which contributes high concentration of safrole in saliva, is a popular oral habit in Taiwan. Safrole is a documented rodent hepatocarcinogen, yet its hepatocarcinogenic potential in human is not known. Here, we used LC/ESI-ITMS(n) and LC/QTOF-MS confirmed safrole-dGMP as reference standard to detect the safrole-DNA adduct in hepatic tissues from HBsAg-/HCV-seronegative hepatocellular carcinoma patients by (32)P-postlabeling. We first synthesized and confirmed safrole-dGMP by LC/MS. Two isomeric safrole-dGMPs were characterized as N(2)-(trans-isosafrol-3'-yl) deoxyguanosine and N(2)-(safrol-1'-yl) deoxyguanosine. This technique was able to detect hepatic safrole-DNA adduct in mice that were treated with safrole but not sensitive enough to detect safrole-DNA adduct in human samples. Using the nuclease P1 version of the (32)P-postlabeling technique, we detected the presence of safrole-DNA adduct in two out of 28 hepatic tissues from hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and only these two patients had a history of betel quid chewing lasting more than 10 years. From co-chromatography with the mass confirmed safrole-dGMPs, this safrole-DNA adduct was identified as N(2)-(trans-isosafrol-3'-yl) deoxyguanosine. These results suggest that betel quid-containing safrole might be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in human beings and LC/MS has the potential to identify DNA adducts in clinical samples.

  9. Insect Evolution: The Origin of Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew

    2017-02-06

    The debate on the evolution of wings in insects has reached a new level. The study of primitive fossil insect nymphs has revealed that wings developed from a combination of the dorsal part of the thorax and the body wall.

  10. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  11. FAQ: Insect Repellent Use and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mosquito Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Insect Repellent Use & Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the repellent with you. Top of Page Can insect repellents be used on children? Yes. Most products ...

  12. Insect response to plant defensive protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-07

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are natural plant defense proteins that inhibit proteases of invading insect herbivores. However, their anti-insect efficacy is determined not only by their potency toward a vulnerable insect system but also by the response of the insect to such a challenge. Through the long history of coevolution with their host plants, insects have developed sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent antinutritional effects of dietary challenges. Their response takes the form of changes in gene expression and the protein repertoire in cells lining the alimentary tract, the first line of defense. Research in insect digestive proteases has revealed the crucial roles they play in insect adaptation to plant PIs and has brought about a new appreciation of how phytophagous insects employ this group of molecules in both protein digestion and counterdefense. This review provides researchers in related fields an up-to-date summary of recent advances.

  13. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  14. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pareja

    Full Text Available There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  15. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martin; Qvarfordt, Erika; Webster, Ben; Mayon, Patrick; Pickett, John; Birkett, Michael; Glinwood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  16. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products (shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known.

  17. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  18. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  19. Anaphylaxis to Insect Venom Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to Hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe consequences of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, diagnostic tests are still hampered......, and to contribute to the understanding of the immunological mechanisms elicited by insect venoms....

  20. 马铃薯甲虫自然种群生命表的组建及影响因子%Life table of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) natural population and related affecting factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗进仓; 周昭旭; 刘长仲

    2012-01-01

    应用作用因子生命表方法,组建了马铃薯2代马铃薯甲虫自然种群生命表,并采用排除分析法分析了作用因子对马铃薯甲虫种群数量的控制作用.结果表明:马铃薯甲虫卵期和1龄幼虫期的存活率分别为79.1%和69.3%,显著低于其他虫态的存活率,表明该阶段为马铃薯甲虫种群生存的脆弱阶段,是马铃薯甲虫防治的关键时期.“自然死亡”的排除作用控制指数最大(1.87);其次为“捕食及其他”,排除作用控制指数为1.51;寄生性天敌对马铃薯甲虫没有控制作用.如果排除所有天敢等因子的作用,马铃薯甲虫自然种群趋势指数将增长2.8倍.表明天敌等自然因子虽对马铃薯甲虫种群数量有一定的控制作用,但控制能力较弱.%In this study, the life table of the 2nd generation of Leptinotarsa decemlineata ( Say) natural population on potato plants was constructed based on functional factor life table method, and the control effects of different factors on the population were analyzed by exclusion analysis method. It was shown that the survival rate of eggs and first instar (79. 1% and 69.3% , respectively) was rather lower than that of the L. decemlineata at other growth stages, suggesting that the eggs and first instar larvae were the key stages to control L. decemlineata. Among the controlling factors, "natural death" was the most effective factor, its exclusive index of population control (EIPC) being 1. 87, "predators and others" was in the second place, with the EIPC being 1.51, while "parasitism" had no control effect. The index of population trend of L. decemlineata would be increased 2. 8 times if all natural factors were excluded. It was concluded that natural factors had a certain but weak action on the L. decemlineata population.

  1. Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David

    2016-02-01

    Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the

  2. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  3. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect def

  4. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control....

  5. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  6. Genetics of insect resistance to plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K.M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

      Plants are chemically defended against insect herbivory in various ways. They produce a broad range of secondary metabolites that may be toxic or deterrent to insects. Specialist insects, however, are often capable of overcoming these defences. The yellow striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta nem

  7. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed. The insect BFC is based on trehalase and glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction systems which oxidize β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, we confirmed by LC-MS that a sufficient amount of trehalose was present in the cockroach hemolymph (CHL). The maximum power density obtained using the insect BFC was 6.07 μW/cm(2). The power output was kept more than 10 % for 2.5 h by protecting the electrodes with a dialysis membrane. Furthermore, the maximum power density was increased to 10.5 μW/cm(2) by using an air diffusion cathode. Finally, we succeeded in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect BFCs in series. The results indicate that the insect BFC is a promising insect-mountable battery to power environmental monitoring micro-tools.

  8. Inoculation of tomato plants with rhizobacteria enhances the performance of the phloem-feeding insect Bemisia tabaci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roee eShavit

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their natural environment, plants experience multiple biotic interactions and respond to this complexity in an integrated manner. Therefore, plant responses to herbivory are flexible and depend on the context and complexity in which they occur. For example, plant growth promoting rizhobacteria (PGPR can enhance plant growth and induce resistance against microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects by a phenomenon termed induced systemic resistance (ISR. In the present study, we investigated the effect of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum pre-inoculation with the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r, on the performance of the generalist phloem-feeding insect Bemisia tabaci. Based on the ability of P. fluorescens WCS417r to prime for ISR against generalists chewing insects and necrotrophic pathogens, we hypothesized that pre-inoculated plants will strongly resist B. tabaci infestation. In contrast, we discovered that the pre-inoculation treatment increased the tomato plant suitability for B. tabaci which was emphasized both by faster developmental rate and higher survivability of nymph stages on pre-inoculated plants. Our molecular and chemical analyses suggested that the phenomenon is likely to be related to: (I the ability of the bacteria to reduce the activity of the plant induced defense systems; (II a possible manipulation by P. fluorescens of the plant quality (in terms of suitability for B. tabaci through an indirect effect on the rhizosphere bacterial community. The contribution of our study to the pattern proposed for other belowground rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi and aboveground generalist phloem-feeders is discussed.

  9. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Nityananda; Ghaith Tarawneh; Ronny Rosner; Judith Nicolas; Stuart Crichton; Jenny Read

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis - 3D vision – has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each ey...

  10. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  11. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  12. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies.

  13. Specific polyphenols and tannins are associated with defense against insect herbivores in the tropical oak Quercus oleoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Coral; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Heil, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Oyama, Ken

    2014-05-01

    The role of plant polyphenols as defenses against insect herbivores is controversial. We combined correlative field studies across three geographic regions (Northern Mexico, Southern Mexico, and Costa Rica) with induction experiments under controlled conditions to search for candidate compounds that might play a defensive role in the foliage of the tropical oak, Quercus oleoides. We quantified leaf damage caused by four herbivore guilds (chewers, skeletonizers, leaf miners, and gall forming insects) and analyzed the content of 18 polyphenols (including hydrolyzable tannins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides) in the same set of leaves using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Foliar damage ranged from two to eight percent per region, and nearly 90% of all the damage was caused by chewing herbivores. Damage due to chewing herbivores was positively correlated with acutissimin B, catechin, and catechin dimer, and damage by mining herbivores was positively correlated with mongolinin A. By contrast, gall presence was negatively correlated with vescalagin and acutissimin B. By using redundancy analysis, we searched for the combinations of polyphenols that were associated to natural herbivory: the combination of mongolinin A and acutissimin B had the highest association to herbivory. In a common garden experiment with oak saplings, artificial damage increased the content of acutissimin B, mongolinin A, and vescalagin, whereas the content of catechin decreased. Specific polyphenols, either individually or in combination, rather than total polyphenols, were associated with standing leaf damage in this tropical oak. Future studies aimed at understanding the ecological role of polyphenols can use similar correlative studies to identify candidate compounds that could be used individually and in biologically meaningful combinations in tests with herbivores and pathogens.

  14. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... AGENCY Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other... Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other Arthropods Test Guidelines... ``Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insects and Other Arthropods'' (OPPTS...

  15. Insect immune resistance to parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves Carton; Marylène Poirié; Anthony J. Nappi

    2008-01-01

    Insect host-parasitoid interactions involve complex physiological, biochemical and genetic interactions. Against endoparasitoids, immune-competent hosts initiate a blood cell-mediated response that quickly destroys the intruders and envelops them in a multilayered melanotic capsule. During the past decade, considerable progress has been made in identifying some of the critical components of the host response, mainly because of the use of efficient molecular tools. This review examines some of the components of the innate immune response of Drosophila, an insect that has served as an exceptionally good experimental model for studying non-self recognition processes and immune cell signaling mechanisms. Topics considered in this review include hematopoiesis, proliferation and adhesion of hemocytes, melanogenesis and associated cytotoxic molecules, and the genetic aspects of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  16. Immunity in a Social Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Traniello, James F. A.; Chen, Tammy; Brown, Julie J.; Karp, Richard D.

    Although pathogens appear to have exerted significant selective pressure on various aspects of sociality, mechanisms of disease resistance in the social insects are poorly understood. We report here on an immune response to infection by the dampwood termite, Zootermopsis angusticollis. Nymphs immunized with an injection of 7.6×107, 7.6×105, or 7.6×104 cells/ml glutaraldehyde-killed solution of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa had significantly higher survivorship than controls following a challenge with a lethal concentration of active bacteria. Similarly, nymphs exposed to a 9×10-1 spores/ml suspension of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae had higher survivorship than controls after a challenge with a lethal concentration of spores. Prior exposure to a pathogen thus conferred upon termites a degree of protection during a subsequent encounter with the same pathogen. This represents the first demonstration of immune function in vivo in a social insect.

  17. Benzoquinolinediones: activity as insect teratogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, B.T.; Ho, C.H.; Ma, C.Y.; O' Neill, E.G.; Kao, G.L.

    1983-10-28

    Morphological abnormalities including extra compound eyes, extra heads, and distally duplicated legs were generated in cricket embryos by treating eggs with single doses of either benz(g)isoquinoline-5,10-dione or benzo(h)quinoline-5,6-dione. Slight structural modifications of the molecules resulted in a loss of teratogenic activity, although embryotoxicity occurred. These potent insect teratogens can be used for analysis of developmental events during embryogenesis. 13 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  18. The Insect SNMP Gene Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    B 1 ( b o v ) Clade 3 - SNMPs Clade 2 Clade 1 CD36 Insect (Holometabola) CD36 Gene family Holometabola Phylogeny (11 Orders) Tribolium castaneum...melanogaster genes (see Nichols and Vogt, 2008). Bootstrap support (1000 replicates) is indicated for the major clades. B. Phylogeny of holometabolous...A. aegypti eggs were graciously provided by Mark Brown (University of Georgia, Department of Entomology) and raised on a larval diet (pond fish food

  19. Biophysique environnementale des insectes endophytes.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Physiology and life history traits of ectothermic organisms depend on microclimate temperature. In some insect - plant relationships, the herbivore manipulates physically and /or chemically its proximate environment, i.e. plant tissues. The effects of such modifications on the phytophage's microclimate are however still poorly understood. We investigated the physical modifications of apple leaf tissues made by the leaf mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), and...

  20. Efficacy and safety of gum chewing in adjunct to high-dose senna for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy: A single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ergül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inadequate bowel cleaning leads to a suboptimal colonoscopic examination. Gum chewing has been reported to have a favorable effect on postoperative bowel functions. We conducted this study to establish if gum chewing added to high-dose senna before colonoscopy promotes bowel cleaning. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, consecutive outpatients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 65 used senna solution 150 mL (300 mg senna the night before colonoscopy. The patients also used sennoside tablet 80 mg daily for 3 days before the colonoscopy. Patients in group 2 (n = 64 were additionally advised to chew sugarless gum half an hour three-times daily after meals for these 3 days. The overall quality of colonoscopy cleaning was evaluated using the Aronchick scale by a single endoscopist who was blinded to the intervention. Difficulty of procedure, patients′ tolerance, and adverse events were also evaluated. Results: A total 129 patients were enrolled in the study. Superior cleaning was found in gum chewing group when compared with other group particularly in the cecum and ascending colon. Cecal intubation time was significantly shorter in the gum-chewing group (8.6 ± 5.1 and 7.1 ± 2.8 min, P = 0.03. Adverse events were more common in group 1 compared to the gum-chewing group. Conclusions: Gum chewing enhances colonoscopy bowel preparation quality. Moreover, it is a physiologically sound, safe, and an inexpensive part of the colonoscopy bowel preparation. Gum chewing could be advised in addition to high-dose senna containing bowel preparation.

  1. The insect cellular immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Strand

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects is divided into humoral defenses that include the production of soluble effector molecules and cellular defenses like phagocytosis and encapsulation that are mediated by hemocytes. This review summarizes current understanding of the cellular immune response. Insects produce several terminally differentiated types of hemocytes that are distinguished by morphology, molecular and antigenic markers, and function. The differentiated hemocytes that circulate in larval or nymphal stage insects arise from two sources: progenitor cells produced during embryogenesis and mesodermally derived hematopoietic organs. Regulation of hematopoiesis and hemocyte differentiation also involves several different signaling pathways. Phagocytosis and encapsulation require that hemocytes first recognize a given target as foreign followed by activation of downstream signaling and effector responses. A number of humoral and cellular receptors have been identified that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites. In turn, activation of these receptors stimulates a number of signaling pathways that regulate different hemocyte functions. Recent studies also identify hemocytes as important sources of a number of humoral effector molecules required for killing different foreign invaders.

  2. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  3. Process development for spray drying of sticky pharmaceuticals; case study of bioadhesive nicotine microparticles for compressed medicated chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Henrik Stillhof; Søgaard, Susanne Roslev;

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying of pharmaceutical compounds with sticky properties is a challenging task and may require substantial time and resources. By including small-scale studies of single droplet drying kinetics a relatively high number of experiments with less material is allowed. This means one can...... construct a more robust design space according to Quality by Design (QbD) formulation development principles. In the current study we present a case study on the development of spray dried microparticles comprising nicotine bitartrate and hypromellose or alginate polymer, for incorporation into medicated...... chewing gum. By illustration of initial studies on single droplet drying kinetics, subsequent characterization of microparticles, and final characterization of compressed chewing gum this paper summarizes the entire development process....

  4. Learning deficits and suppression of the cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of offspring are attenuated by maternal chewing during prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Mika; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2014-02-07

    Prenatal stress in dams induces learning deficits and suppresses neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of offspring via increasing corticosterone levels in the dam. Chewing under stressful conditions prevents stress-induced behavioral impairments and morphologic changes. Here, we examined whether chewing during prenatal stress prevents the stress-induced learning deficits and the suppression of cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress beginning on day 12 of pregnancy and continuing until delivery. Half of the dams were given a wooden stick to chew on during restraint. The pups were raised to adulthood, and learning ability and cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG were assessed. In dams, chewing during prenatal stress attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. In the adult offspring, prenatal stress impaired learning and decreased cell proliferation in the DG, whereas maternal chewing during prenatal stress significantly attenuated the prenatal stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in the DG in their offspring. These findings suggest that maternal chewing during prenatal stress is an effective stress-coping method for the dam to prevent learning deficits and suppression of cell proliferation in offspring.

  5. Molecular Interaction and Cellular Location of RecA and CheW Proteins in Salmonella enterica during SOS Response and Their Implication in Swarming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoki, Oihane; Aranda, Jesús; Zimmermann, Timo; Campoy, Susana; Barbé, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role in DNA damage repair and recombination, the RecA protein, through its interaction with CheW, is involved in swarming motility, a form of flagella-dependent movement across surfaces. In order to better understand how SOS response modulates swarming, in this work the location of RecA and CheW proteins within the swarming cells has been studied by using super-resolution microscopy. Further, and after in silico docking studies, the specific RecA and CheW regions associated with the RecA-CheW interaction have also been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation techniques. Our results point out that the CheW distribution changes, from the cell poles to foci distributed in a helical pattern along the cell axis when SOS response is activated or RecA protein is overexpressed. In this situation, the CheW presents the same subcellular location as that of RecA, pointing out that the previously described RecA storage structures may be modulators of swarming motility. Data reported herein not only confirmed that the RecA-CheW pair is essential for swarming motility but it is directly involved in the CheW distribution change associated to SOS response activation. A model explaining not only the mechanism by which DNA damage modulates swarming but also how both the lack and the excess of RecA protein impair this motility is proposed. PMID:27766091

  6. Improved Prefrontal Activity and Chewing Performance as Function of Wearing Denture in Partially Edentulous Elderly Individuals: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Narita, Noriyuki; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of wearing a denture on prefrontal activity during chewing performance. We specifically examined that activity in 12 elderly edentulous subjects [63.1±6.1 years old (mean ± SD)] and 12 young healthy controls (22.1±2.3 years old) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in order to evaluate the quality of prefrontal functionality during chewing performance under the conditions of wearing a denture and tooth loss, and then compared the findings with those of young healthy controls. fNIRS and electromyography were used simultaneously to detect prefrontal and masticatory muscle activities during chewing, while occlusal force and masticatory score were also examined by use of a food intake questionnaire. A significant increase in prefrontal activity was observed during chewing while wearing a denture, which was accompanied by increased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the tooth loss condition. Prefrontal activation during chewing while wearing a denture in the elderly subjects was not much different from that in the young controls. In contrast, tooth loss in the elderly group resulted in marked prefrontal deactivation, accompanied by decreased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the young controls. We concluded that intrinsic prefrontal activation during chewing with a denture may prevent prefrontal depression induced by tooth loss in elderly edentulous patients. PMID:27362255

  7. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among Aden university medical students and their relationship to BP and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laswar Al Khader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the smoking and khat chewing habits in male Aden University medical students and correlate them with blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, and year of training, we randomly selected 100 students of different levels of training and measured their BP, height, and weight, and evaluated their cigarette smoking and khat chewing habits. The mean age of the whole group was 31.8 years. The mean BMI was 23.24 with a range from 22.6 in the in first year medical students to 24.7 (4.4 in 5 th year medical students (P= 0.127. The mean SBP, DBP, and MBP were 120.35, 70.47 and 87.1 mmHg, respectively, and did not change over the years of training. Preva-lence of smoking increased from 20% to 40% and khat chewing from 35% to 90% over the 5 years of training (P= 0.0003. There was a tendency for positive correlation between age and weight, BMI and frequency of khat chewing, and BMI and MBP. We found high prevalence of smoking and khat chewing among the medical students at Aden University and their prevalence increases with student seniority with no significant changes in BMI, SBP, DBP or MBP. There was a weak positive correlation between BMI with SBP, MBP and frequency of Khat chewing.

  8. 新疆北疆马铃薯甲虫成虫对新烟碱类杀虫剂的敏感性变化%Susceptibility of Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata adults from northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region to 4 neonicotinoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 姜卫华; 卢伟平; 李国清

    2011-01-01

    采用点滴法于2009和2010年监测了新疆维吾尔自治区北疆马铃薯甲虫Leptinotarsa decemlineata 9个田间种群成虫对新烟碱类杀虫剂吡虫啉、啶虫脒、噻虫嗪和噻虫啉的敏感性变化,发现其对吡虫啉和噻虫嗪的敏感性逐年降低.2009年监测的6个种群中有3个对啶虫脒和噻虫嗪低抗(抗性倍数5.0~10.0);2010年监测的6个种群全部对噻虫嗪产生了抗性,其中中抗(抗性倍数10.1~40.0)和低抗种群各3个.噻虫嗪与高效氯氟氰菊酯可能存在交互抗性.%Susceptibility of nine field populations of Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata adults from northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region to 4 neonicotinoid insecticides, including imidacloprid,acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and thiacloprid, was evaluated by a topical bioassay in 2009 and 2010. The sensitivity of the pest to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam was reduced yearly. Half of the 6 tested field populations developed low levels of resistance to acetamiprid and thiamethoxam in 2009.All the 6 tested field populations exhibited resistance to thiamethoxam in 2010, among them 3 populations showed low level and the other 3 populations showed moderate level of resistance to thiamethoxam. There may be cross-resistance between thiamethoxam and lambda-cyhalothrin in the pest.

  9. Design and Experiment on Bionic Chewing Equipment%仿生咀嚼装置设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙钟雷; 孙永海; 万鹏; 李君兴

    2011-01-01

    模仿人类咀嚼系统,利用仿生技术设计了一种用于粉碎食物的仿生咀嚼装置.采用逆向工程方法设计制作了仿生牙齿、仿生颞下颌关节等零部件,并组装成咀嚼装置,实现了三维咀嚼运动,确定了运动参数.咀嚼功能测试结果表明,本装置的咬合力可达到咀嚼食物的力量,并且可根据食物的不同而改变;本装置的咀嚼效率和受试者无显著差异,最大值可达92.3%;重复试验无显著差异,本装置稳定可靠.%A bionic chewing equipment was developed for food breakdown by simulating the masticatory system and using the bionic technology. Some parts were designed and assembled by reverse engineering method, like bionic teeth and temporomandibular joints. The equipment could realize 3-D chewing motion, the movement parameters were determined. Test of occlusive force showed that chewing force of equipment could break food and change with food. Masticatory experiment showed that masticatory efficiency of the equipment had no significant difference with subjects and its maximum value was 92. 3% . The bionic chewing equipment was stable and reliable.

  10. Association between Hardness (Difficulty of Chewing of the Habitual Diet and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Murakami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that voluntary rhythmic movements such as chewing may increase blood serotonin and subsequently brain serotonin, which in turn acts to alleviate premenstrual symptoms. In this observational cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that hardness (difficulty of chewing of the habitual diet (i.e. dietary hardness is associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms. Subjects were 640 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–22 years. Dietary hardness was assessed as an estimate of masticatory muscle activity for the habitual diet (i.e. the difficulty of chewing the food. The consumption of a total of 107 foods was estimated by means of a self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, and masticatory muscle activity during the ingestion of these foods was estimated according to published equations. Menstrual cycle symptoms were assessed using the retrospective version of the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, from which total score and subscale scores (i.e. pain, concentration, behavioral change, autonomic reactions, water retention, and negative affect in the premenstrual phase were calculated and expressed as percentages relative to those in the intermenstrual phase. Dietary hardness was not associated with total score in the premenstrual phase (P for trend = 0.48. Further, no association was seen for any subscale score in the premenstrual phase (P for trend = 0.18–0.91. In conclusion, this preliminary study failed to substantiate a hypothesized inverse relationship between hardness of the habitual diet and premenstrual symptoms. Considering the plausibility of the putative mechanism, however, further investigation using more relevant measures of chewing and premenstrual symptoms is warranted.

  11. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

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    Charles S. Brennan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  12. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in chronic areca nut chewing Indian women: Case series and review of literature

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    Sidramesh Shivanand Muttagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. Results: All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut′s deleterious effects. Conclusion: Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India.

  13. Qat Chewing and Periodontal Pathogens in Health and Disease: Further Evidence for a Prebiotic-Like Effect

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    Abdulrahman Al-Alimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Qat chewing has been reported to induce subgingival microbial shifts suggestive of prebiotic-like properties. The objective here was to assess the effect of qat chewing on a panel of classical and new putative periopathogens in health and periodontitis. Materials and Methods. 40 qat chewers and 40 nonchewers, equally stratified by periodontal health status, were recruited. Taqman, real-time PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Synergistetes, and TM7s in pooled subgingival biofilm samples. Differences in microbial parameters between the study groups were analysed using ordinal regression. Results. In health, the qat chewers harboured significantly lower relative counts of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, Synergistetes, and TM7s after adjustment for multiple comparisons (P≤0.007. At nominal significance level, they also carried lower counts of TM7s and P. micra (P≤0.05. In periodontitis, the chewers had lower counts of all taxa; however, only T. denticola withstood correction for multiple comparisons (P≤0.0063. Conclusions. Qat chewing is associated with lower proportions of periopathogens, particularly in subjects with healthy periodontium, which supports previous reports of its prebiotic-like properties. This potentially beneficial biological effect can be exploited by attempting to isolate the active fraction.

  14. Chewing on the trees: Constraints and adaptation in the evolution of the primate mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloro, Carlo; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Carotenuto, Francesco; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza Leal; Passaro, Federico; Raia, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Chewing on different food types is a demanding biological function. The classic assumption in studying the shape of feeding apparatuses is that animals are what they eat, meaning that adaptation to different food items accounts for most of their interspecific variation. Yet, a growing body of evidence points against this concept. We use the primate mandible as a model structure to investigate the complex interplay among shape, size, diet, and phylogeny. We find a weak but significant impact of diet on mandible shape variation in primates as a whole but not in anthropoids and catarrhines as tested in isolation. These clades mainly exhibit allometric shape changes, which are unrelated to diet. Diet is an important factor in the diversification of strepsirrhines and platyrrhines and a phylogenetic signal is detected in all primate clades. Peaks in morphological disparity occur during the Oligocene (between 37 and 25 Ma) supporting the notion that an adaptive radiation characterized the evolution of South American monkeys. In all primate clades, the evolution of mandible size is faster than its shape pointing to a strong effect of allometry on ecomorphological diversification in this group.

  15. Realistic kinetic loading of the jaw system during single chewing cycles: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Choy, S E; Lenz, J; Schweizerhof, K; Schmitter, M; Schindler, H J

    2017-03-04

    Although knowledge of short-range kinetic interactions between antagonistic teeth during mastication is of essential importance for ensuring interference-free fixed dental reconstructions, little information is available. In this study, the forces on and displacements of the teeth during kinetic molar biting simulating the power stroke of a chewing cycle were investigated by use of a finite-element model that included all the essential components of the human masticatory system, including an elastic food bolus. We hypothesised that the model can approximate the loading characteristics of the dentition found in previous experimental studies. The simulation was a transient analysis, that is, it considered the dynamic behaviour of the jaw. In particular, the reaction forces on the teeth and joints arose from contact, rather than nodal forces or constraints. To compute displacements of the teeth, the periodontal ligament (PDL) was modelled by use of an Ogden material model calibrated on the basis of results obtained in previous experiments. During the initial holding phase of the power stroke, bite forces were aligned with the roots of the molars until substantial deformation of the bolus occurred. The forces tilted the molars in the bucco-lingual and mesio-distal directions, but as the intrusive force increased the teeth returned to their initial configuration. The Ogden material model used for the PDL enabled accurate prediction of the displacements observed in experimental tests. In conclusion, the comprehensive kinetic finite element model reproduced the kinematic and loading characteristics of previous experimental investigations.

  16. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

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    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  17. Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.

  18. Detection of chewing from piezoelectric film sensor signals using ensemble classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Selection and use of pattern recognition algorithms is application dependent. In this work, we explored the use of several ensembles of weak classifiers to classify signals captured from a wearable sensor system to detect food intake based on chewing. Three sensor signals (Piezoelectric sensor, accelerometer, and hand to mouth gesture) were collected from 12 subjects in free-living conditions for 24 hrs. Sensor signals were divided into 10 seconds epochs and for each epoch combination of time and frequency domain features were computed. In this work, we present a comparison of three different ensemble techniques: boosting (AdaBoost), bootstrap aggregation (bagging) and stacking, each trained with 3 different weak classifiers (Decision Trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Logistic Regression). Type of feature normalization used can also impact the classification results. For each ensemble method, three feature normalization techniques: (no-normalization, z-score normalization, and minmax normalization) were tested. A 12 fold cross-validation scheme was used to evaluate the performance of each model where the performance was evaluated in terms of precision, recall, and accuracy. Best results achieved here show an improvement of about 4% over our previous algorithms.

  19. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-02

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing.

  20. Effect of habitual arecanut chewing on resting whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH

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    Rooban T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resting whole mouth salivary flow rate (SFR and pH play a significant role in pathogenesis of various oral diseases and conditions. AIM: To observe the effect of habitual use of arecanut and various arecanut containing products (AN on SFR and pH. DESIGN: Cross sectional. SETTING: Outpatient Department of Dental College. PARTICIPANTS: AN chewers and non-chewers attending Dental college. MEASUREMENTS: SFR and pH. VARIABLES: Type, frequency, duration and exposure time of AN, Smoking and Alcohol habit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects study was divided into chewers (n=110 and non- chewers (n=50. The SFR (expressed in mL/10min and pH measured. RESULTS: The difference between the mean SFR for chewers and non-chewers was not statistically significant. The difference between mean pH of chewers and non-chewers was statistically significant. (P=0.02. Difference in pH was statistically significant among the different types of AN chewers (P=0.024. With chewing raw AN, an increase in frequency and exposure time increased SFR and pH respectively. In processed AN chewers, increase in duration and frequency of consumption increased SFR and decreased pH respectively. For chewers with betel quid with tobacco, increase in duration was significantly associated with decrease in salivary pH. CONCLUSION: SFR and pH are altered in AN chewers, rendering the oral mucosa vulnerable to the toxic effects of AN.

  1. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

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    Yamaguchi David K

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically

  2. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  3. Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Brewster, Carlyle C.; Miller, Dini M.; Polanco, Andrea M.

    2011-01-01

    Four bed bug strains (Cimex lectularius) with different levels of pyrethroid resistance were evaluated to determine their ability to survive extended periods of starvation. First instar bed bugs of all strains were the most vulnerable to starvation (13.8–36.3 days mean survival time). Fifth instars and adults survived the longest during starvation (41.5–142.6 days). Significant differences in survivorship during starvation were observed between resistant and susceptible strains of bed bugs. O...

  4. Insect Repellent Properties of Melaleuca alternifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Adib Bin Edris; Awang Soh Yusuff Mamat; Muhammad Shahzad Aslam; Muhammad Syarhabil Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the use of plant-based insect repellents that are environment friendly with the use of insect repellents based on chemical substances which can be harmful to the environment and human health. The plant studied here is "tea tree"; its scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia. Essential oil from this plant is extracted by steam distillation method. Based on the previous research, tea tree oil has antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and insect repel...

  5. Evolutionary genetics of insect innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Viljakainen, Lumi

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of evolution in immune defense genes help to understand the evolutionary dynamics between hosts and pathogens. Multiple insect genomes have been sequenced, with many of them having annotated immune genes, which paves the way for a comparative genomic analysis of insect immunity. In this review, I summarize the current state of comparative and evolutionary genomics of insect innate immune defense. The focus is on the conserved and divergent components of immunity with an emphasis on g...

  6. Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Shuisong Ye; Yan Fang; Kai Li

    2013-01-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural–city center gradient (RCG), ...

  7. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  8. Delayed insect access alters carrion decomposition and necrophagous insect community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebrate carrion in terrestrial ecosystems is an unpredictable, ephemeral resource pulse that contributes to local biodiversity and nutrient transformation dynamics. We hypothesized that delayed insect access to carrion would demonstrate marked shifts in necrophagous insect community structure, t...

  9. Review on Nutritive Value of Edible Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As an importam bio-resource, insect resources have not been put into full play as healthy food. Based on study and analysis, the nutritive value of edible insects was reviewed. The results showed that insects have rich protein (20%-70%), amino acid (30%-60%),fat (10%-50%),fatty acid, carbonhydrate (2%-10%), mineral elements, vitamins and other activated elements which are good for human 's health. As protein resources, the nutritive value of edible insects is as good as animal and plant resources. Insec...

  10. Density and composition of an insect population in a field trial of chitinase transgenic and wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula) clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihervuori, Liisa; Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi

    2008-12-01

    Fifteen silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines carrying a sugar beet chitinase IV gene and eight wild-type birch clones were grown in a field trial. The composition and density of the insect population and the leaf damage caused by insects were monitored and compared between transgenic and wild-type trees. The most abundant insect group in all trees was aphids, and the variation in total insect densities was mainly explained by the variation in aphid densities. Insect densities were generally higher in the transgenic than in the control trees, indicating that the expression of the sugar beet chitinase IV gene had an influence on the suitability of birch leaves to aphids. The level of leaf damage was higher among transgenic than among control trees. Chewing damage was the most common type of leaf damage in all trees. The number of different damage types was higher among the wild-type clones than among the transgenic lines or their controls. The results indicate that the chitinase transgenic trees are more susceptible to aphids and suffer higher levels of leaf damage than the control trees. In the composition of the damage types, the control trees were more similar to the transgenic than to other wild-type trees, indicating that the composition was mostly linked to the genotype of the tree and not to the expression of the transgene. This study provides important information on the ecological interactions of chitinase transgenic trees in the field trial. No clear harmful effects of transgenic chitinase on the biodiversity of insect population were detected.

  11. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  12. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  13. Modeling resistance to genetic control of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2011-02-07

    The sterile insect technique is an area-wide pest control method that reduces pest populations by releasing mass-reared sterile insects which compete for mates with wild insects. Modern molecular tools have created possibilities for improving and extending the sterile insect technique. As with any new insect control method, questions arise about potential resistance. Genetic RIDL(®)(1) (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) technology is a proposed modification of the technique, releasing insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct rather than being sterilized by irradiation. Hypothetical resistance to the lethal mechanism is a potential threat to RIDL strategies' effectiveness. Using population genetic and population dynamic models, we assess the circumstances under which monogenic biochemically based resistance could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of releases for population control. We assume that released insects would be homozygous susceptible to the lethal genetic construct and therefore releases would have a built-in element of resistance dilution. We find that this effect could prevent or limit the spread of resistance to RIDL constructs; the outcomes are subject to competing selective forces deriving from the fitness properties of resistance and the release ratio. Resistance that is spreading and capable of having a significant detrimental impact on population reduction is identifiable, signaling in advance a need for mitigating action.

  14. Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey G; Michel, Kristin; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Siegfried, Blair D; Hunter, Wayne B; Smagghe, Guy; Zhu, Kun Yan; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, offers great opportunities for insect science, especially to analyze gene function, manage pest populations, and reduce disease pathogens. The accumulating body of literature on insect RNAi has revealed that the efficiency of RNAi varies between different species, the mode of RNAi delivery, and the genes being targeted. There is also variation in the duration of transcript suppression. At present, we have a limited capacity to predict the ideal experimental strategy for RNAi of a particular gene/insect because of our incomplete understanding of whether and how the RNAi signal is amplified and spread among insect cells. Consequently, development of the optimal RNAi protocols is a highly empirical process. This limitation can be relieved by systematic analysis of the molecular physiological basis of RNAi mechanisms in insects. An enhanced conceptual understanding of RNAi function in insects will facilitate the application of RNAi for dissection of gene function, and to fast-track the application of RNAi to both control pests and develop effective methods to protect beneficial insects and non-insect arthropods, particularly the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and cultured Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from viral and parasitic diseases.

  15. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular

  16. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it offer

  17. Applications of genome editing in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in inse...

  18. Eicosanoids: Progress Toward Manipulating Insect Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect immunity is exclusively innate, lacking the antibody-based adaptive immunity of vertebrates. Innate immunity is a naturally occurring, non-specific system that does not require previous infectious experience. In this essay I describe insect immunity and review the roles of prostaglandins an...

  19. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, James L; Kearney, Michael R

    2015-11-22

    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg(-1)) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes.

  20. What Do Elementary Students Know about Insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview-based study of (n=56) elementary school students. Determines students' understanding about insect characteristics, life cycles, environmental conditions, and impact on humans. Suggests building units of instruction based on students' personal questions about insects. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. The Evolution of Agriculture in Insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Ulrich G.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture has evolved independently in three insect orders: once in ants, once in termites, and seven times in ambrosia beetles. Although these insect farmers are in some ways quite different from each other, in many more ways they are remarkably similar, suggesting convergent evolution. All...

  2. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  3. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  4. Diversity in protein glycosylation among insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vandenborre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, the silkworm (Bombyx mori, the honeybee (Apis mellifera, the fruit fly (D. melanogaster and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum. To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed.

  5. Insect vision: controlling actions through optic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas S

    2002-09-17

    Insects depend upon optic flow to supply much of their information about the three-dimensional structure of the world. Many insects use translational flow to measure the distance of objects from themselves. A recent study has provided new insights into the way Drosophila use optic flow to pick out a close target to approach.

  6. Measuring tongue volumes and visualizing the chewing and swallowing process using real-time TrueFISP imaging - initial clinical experience in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, W.; Goyen, M.; Herrmann, B.; Massing, S.; Goehde, S.; Lauenstein, T.; Ruehm, S.G. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    This study assessed both two-dimensional (2D) TrueFISP imaging for quantifying tongue volume and real-time TrueFISP imaging for evaluating chewing and swallowing in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly. In 50 healthy volunteers, tongue volumes were measured using a 2D TrueFISP sequence. Chewing and swallowing were visualized using a real-time TrueFISP sequence. Ten patients with acromegaly were examined twice with the same magnetic resonance imaging protocol: once prior to therapy and a second time 6 months after therapy. Prior to therapy, healthy volunteers had an average tongue volume of 140 ml for men and 90 ml for women, and patients with acromegaly had an average tongue volume of 180 ml for men and 145 ml for women. However, 6 months after therapy the mean tongue volumes in patients with acromegaly had decreased to 154 ml in the men and to 125 ml in the women. The chewing and swallowing process was normal in all volunteers. Prior to therapy, just two patients showed a chewing and swallowing pathology, which disappeared after therapy. Patients with acromegaly had larger tongue volumes than healthy volunteers, and TrueFISP imaging proved feasible for visualizing chewing and swallowing in real time and is capable of detecting possible pathologies. Furthermore, TrueFISP imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic approaches in patients with acromegaly. (orig.)

  7. Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Koudamiloro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is the major viral constraint to rice production in Africa. RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya and then later in most African countries where rice is grown. Several studies have been conducted so far on its evolution, pathogenicity, resistance genes, and especially its dissemination by insects. Many of these studies showed that, among RYMV vectors, insects especially leaf-feeders found in rice fields are the major source of virus transmission. Many studies have shown that the virus is vectored by several insect species in a process of a first ingestion of leaf material and subsequent transmission in following feedings. About forty insect species were identified as vectors of RYMV since 1970 up to now. They were essentially the beetles, grasshoppers, and the leafhoppers. For this review, we presented the chronology of their identification. Also, the biology, ecology, host range, distribution, and caused damage of these insects were briefly summarized.

  8. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  9. A call to insect scientists: Challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J.; Grundel, Ralph; Hoving, Chris; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas. Insect biology has a strong history of engagement in applied problems, and as the impacts of climate change increase, a reimagined ethic of entomology in service of broader society may emerge. We hope to motivate insect biologists to contribute time and effort toward solving the challenges of climate change.

  10. Tin compounds and insect fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovskiy, R.O.

    1985-03-01

    A review of the literature of tin compounds serving as pesticides has resulted in the identification of 11 widely used compounds, both organic and inorganic, with largely fungicidal activity. Organotin compounds seem to be limited in use to the control of insect pests, with the majority of the compounds consisting of Sn(IV) and falling into the following four categories: R/sub 4/Sn, R/sub 3/SNX, R/sub 2/SnX/sub 2/, and RSnX/sub 3/, where R = aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon radicals, and X = organic or inorganic substituent. The insecticidal activity of these compounds appears to rest on inhibition of ATPase and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, these compounds act as larvicides, ovicides and imagocides. 77 references.

  11. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation affects plant-insect interactions in a natural ecosystem of Tierra del Fuego (southern Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M Cecilia; Ballaré, Carlos L; Scopel, Ana L; Searles, Peter S; Caldwell, Martyn M

    1998-10-01

    We examined the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) on plant-herbivore interactions in native ecosystems of the Tierra del Fuego National Park (southern Argentina), an area of the globe that is frequently under the Antarctic "ozone hole" in early spring. We found that filtering out solar UVB from the sunlight received by naturally-occurring plants of Gunnera magellanica, a creeping perennial herb, significantly increased the number of leaf lesions caused by chewing insects. Field surveys suggested that early-season herbivory was principally due to the activity of moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Manipulative field experiments showed that exposure to solar UVB changes the attractiveness of G. magellanica leaf tissue to natural grazers. In a laboratory experiment, locally caught moth caterpillars tended to eat more tissue from leaves grown without UVB than from leaves exposed to natural UVB during development; however, the difference between treatments was not significant. Leaves grown under solar UVB had slightly higher N levels than leaves not exposed to UVB; no differences between UVB treatments in specific leaf mass, relative water content, and total methanol-soluble phenolics were detected. Our results show that insect herbivory in a natural ecosystem is influenced by solar UVB, and that this influence could not be predicted from crude measurements of leaf physical and chemical characteristics and a common laboratory bioassay.

  12. Hygrine and cuscohygrine as possible markers to distinguish coca chewing from cocaine abuse in workplace drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Strano-Rossi, S; Tabernero, M J; Anzillotti, L; Chiarotti, M; Bermejo, A M

    2013-04-10

    Cocaine abuse is widespread all over the world, and is performed generally by sniffing, injecting or smoking cocaine or crack. The distinction between the recreational use of cocaine from the practice of the so called "coqueo" is still an issue in those countries where this habit is diffused and where it is not considered an addiction, by this reason is necessary to develop a method for to distinguish the coca chewers and cocaine abusers. The use of an unique marker to distinguish between cocaine abuse and chewing of coca leaves is of fundamental importance in those countries where this habit is diffused. Certain alkaloids of the leaves of Erythroxylum coca are lost during the process of extraction/purification of cocaine and it is not possible to find them neither in seizures of chlorhidrate of cocaine nor urine samples of cocaine abusers. These markers are the hygrine and cuscohygrine that are present in the leaves of E. coca. A fast GC/MS method involving a liquid:liquid extraction procedure with tertbutylmethylether (TBME) is proposed for the determination of some alkaloids in cocaine leaves, cocaine seizures and biological samples. All specimens were alkalinized to pH 9 with a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer and then extracted with TBME. The analysis was carry out by GC/MS with electron impact at 70 eV and in full scan mode. The results demonstrate that hygrine and cuscohygrine are not found neither in the urine of cocaine abusers nor in cocaine seizures. For this reason this compounds could be considered as markers of coca chewing. This developed method permits to distinguish coca chewing from cocaine abuse in workplace drug testing through the analysis of urine samples.

  13. Investigation of the time-dependent wear behavior of veneering ceramic in porcelain fused to metal crowns during chewing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiawen; Tian, Beimin; Wei, Ran; Wang, Weiguo; Zhang, Hongyun; Wu, Xiaohong; He, Lin; Zhang, Shaofeng

    2014-12-01

    The excessive abrasion of occlusal surfaces in ceramic crowns limits the service life of restorations and their clinical results. However, little is known about the time-dependent wear behavior of ceramic restorations during the chewing process. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the dynamic evolution of the wear behavior of veneering porcelain in PFM crowns as wear progressed, as tested in a chewing simulator. Twenty anatomical metal-ceramic crowns were prepared using Ceramco III as the veneering porcelain. Stainless steel balls served as antagonists. The specimens were dynamically loaded in a chewing simulator with 350N up to 2.4×10(6) loading cycles, with additional thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C. During the testing, several checkpoints were applied to measure the substance loss of the crowns' occlusal surfaces and to evaluate the microstructure of the worn areas. After 2.4×10(6) cycles, the entire wear process of the veneering porcelain in the PFM crowns revealed three wear stages (running-in, steady and severe wear stages). The occlusal surfaces showed traces of intensive wear on the worn areas during the running-in wear stage, and they exhibited the propagation of cracks in the subsurface during steady wear stage. When the severe wear stage was reached, the cracks penetrated the ceramic layer, causing the separation of porcelain pieces. It also exhibited a good correlation among the microstructure, the wear loss and the wear rate of worn ceramic restorations. The results suggest that under the conditions of simulated masticatory movement, the wear performance of the veneering porcelain in PFM crowns indicates the apparent similarity of the tribological characteristics of the traditional mechanical system. Additionally, the evaluation of the wear behavior of ceramic restorations should be based on these three wear stages.

  14. [Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Peng; Lai, Ren

    2010-02-01

    Insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important group of insect innate immunity effectors. Insect AMPs are cationic and contain less than 100 amino acid residues. According to structure, insect AMPs can be divided into a limited number of families. The diverse antimicrobial spectrum of insect AMPs may indicate different modes of action. Research on the model organism Drosophila indicate that insect AMPs gene regulation involves multiple signaling pathways and a large number of signaling molecules.

  15. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  16. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Raksha K; Bhat, Sham S; Ramdas, Shenoy Shailesh; Ballal, Shrinidhi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20-22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38.

  17. Insecticidal heterolignans--tubuline polymerization inhibitors with activity against chewing pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackenpohl, Jens; Adelt, Isabelle; Antonicek, Horst; Arnold, Christian; Behrmann, Patricia; Blaha, Nicole; Böhmer, Jutta; Gutbrod, Oliver; Hanke, Roman; Hohmann, Sabine; van Houtdreve, Marc; Lösel, Peter; Malsam, Olga; Melchers, Martin; Neufert, Valentina; Peschel, Elisabeth; Reckmann, Udo; Schenke, Thomas; Thiesen, Hans-Peter; Velten, Robert; Vogelsang, Kathrin; Weiss, Hans-Christoph

    2009-06-15

    Starting from natural product podophyllotoxin 1 substituted heterolignans were identified with promising insecticidal in vivo activity. The impact of substitution in each segment of the core structure was investigated in a detailed SAR study, and variation of substituents in both aromatic moieties afforded derivatives 5 and 43 with broad insecticidal activity against lepidopteran and coleopteran species. In vitro measurements supported by modeling studies indicate that heterolignans 3-134 act as tubuline polymerization inhibitors interacting with the colchicine-binding site. Insect specific structure-activity effects were observed showing that the insecticidal SAR described herein differs from reported cytotoxicity studies.

  18. Comparison of efficacy of simo decoction and acupuncture or chewing gum alone on postoperative ileus in colorectal cancer resection: a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zuo, Hong-Qun; Li, Zhao; Qin, Yu-Zhou; Mo, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ming-Wei; Lai, Hao; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Chen, Jian-Si

    2017-01-01

    To compared the ability of chewing gum or simo decoction (SMD) and acupuncture to reduce incidence of postoperative ileus (POI) after colorectal cancer resection, patients with colorectal cancer undergoing open or laparoscopic resection were randomized to receive SMD and acupuncture (n = 196), chewing gum alone (n = 197) or no intervention (n = 197) starting on postoperative day 1 and continuing for 5 consecutive days. Patients treated with SMD and acupuncture experienced significantly shorter hospital stay, shorter time to first flatus and shorter time to defecation than patients in the other groups (all P  0.05). The combination of SMD and acupuncture may reduce the incidence of POI and shorten hospital stay for patients with colorectal cancer after resection. In contrast, chewing gum does not appear to affect recovery of bowel function or hospital stay, though it may benefit patients who undergo open resection. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02813278). PMID:28102199

  19. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion: Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  20. Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anrui eLu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, βGRP and C-type lectins, serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins. Due to their complexity, PPO activation mechanisms vary among insect species. Activated phenoloxidase (PO oxidizes phenolic molecules to produce melanin around invading pathogens and wounds. The crystal structure of Manduca sexta PPO shows that a conserved amino acid, phenylalanine (F, can block the active site pocket. During activation, this blocker must be dislodged or even cleaved at the N-terminal sequence to expose the active site pockets and allow substrates to enter. Thanks to the crystal structure of M. sexta PPO, some domains and specific amino acids that affect PPO activities have been identified. Further studies of the relationship between PPO structure and enzyme activities will provide an opportunity to examine other type-3 copper proteins, and trace when and why their various physiological functions evolved. Recent researches show that insect PPO has a relationship with neuron activity, longevity, feces melanization (phytophagous insects and development, which suggests that it is time for us to look back on insect PPO beyond the view of immunity in this review.

  1. Modern Stored-Product Insect Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrum David William

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored-product entomologists have a variety of new monitoring, decision-making, biological, chemical, and physical pest management tools available to them. Two types of stored-product insect populations are of interest: insects of immediate economic importance infesting commodities, and insects that live in food residues in equipment and facilities. The sampling and control methods change as grain and grain products move from field to consumer. There are also some changes in the major insect pest species to take into consideration. In this review, we list the primary insect pests at each point of the marketing system, and indicate which sampling methods and control strategies are most appropriate. Economic thresholds for insect infestation levels developed for raw commodity storage, processing plants, and retail business allow sampling-based pest management to be done before insect infestations cause economic injury. Taking enough samples to have a representative sample (20-30 samples will generally provide enough information to classify a population as above or below an economic threshold.

  2. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Efficacy of Simo Decoction and Acupuncture or Chewing Gum Alone on Postoperative Ileus in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xue-Mei; Mo, Xin-Shao; Ma, Liang; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Qin, Hong-Gui; Lu, Zhan; Xiang, Bang-De; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Zhao, Xin-Hua; Tang, Juan; Pang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Jie; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of simo decoction (SMD) combined with acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint or chewing gum alone for treating postoperative ileus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy.In postoperative ileus, a frequent complication following hepatectomy, bowel function recovery is delayed, which increases length of hospital stay. Studies suggest that chewing gum may reduce postoperative ileus; SMD and acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint have long been used in China to promote bowel movement.Patients with primary HCC undergoing hepatectomy between January 2015 and August 2015 were randomized to receive SMD and acupuncture (n = 55) or chewing gum (n = 53) or no intervention (n = 54) starting on postoperative day 1 and continuing for 6 consecutive days or until flatus. Primary endpoints were occurrence of postoperative ileus and length of hospital stay; secondary endpoints were surgical complications.Groups treated with SMD and acupuncture or with chewing gum experienced significantly shorter time to first peristalsis, flatus, and defecation than the no-intervention group (all P < 0.05). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the combined SMD and acupuncture group (mean 14.0 d, SD 4.9) than in the no-intervention group (mean 16.5 d, SD 6.8; P = 0.014), while length of stay was similar between the chewing gum group (mean 14.7, SD 6.2) and the no-intervention group (P = 0.147). Incidence of grades I and II complications was slightly lower in both intervention groups than in the no-intervention group.The combination of SMD and acupuncture may reduce incidence of postoperative ileus and shorten hospital stay in HCC patients after hepatectomy. Chewing gum may also reduce incidence of ileus but does not appear to affect hospital stay. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02438436.).

  3. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  4. Review of the Oriental lantern-fly genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, with a new species from Sumatra (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Datua brevirostris Lallemand, 1959 is transferred to the genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011 in the Aphaeninae and the new combination Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959 comb. nov. is proposed. Egregia marpessa Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, the type-species of the genus Egregia, is synonymized with Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959. A second species, Egregia laprincesse sp. nov. is described from Sumatra, extending the distribution of the genus hitherto recorded only from Borneo. Distribution maps and an identification key are provided. The male genitalia of E. brevirostris are illustrated and described. The genus Datua Schmidt, 1911 now contains a single species, D. bisinuata Schmidt, 1911.

  5. 大豆膳食纤维咀嚼片的研制%Study on Soybean Dietary Fiber Chewing Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志勤

    2014-01-01

    以大豆膳食纤维为主要原料,添加麦芽糖醇、山梨糖醇和低聚异麦芽糖等原料,通过比较咀嚼片的外观、口感、碎脆度、稳定性,得到大豆膳食纤维咀嚼片最佳配方为:大豆膳食纤维38%,甜味剂(1乳糖:1甘露醇:1木糖醇)30%,麦芽糊精30%、柠檬酸2%,食用香精适量,并设置不同的光照、温度、湿度实验检验了咀嚼片的稳定性。%Soybean dietary fiber was the main raw materiales, meanwhile maltitol, sorbitol and isomaltooligosaccharide were added to it. By comparing the chewable tablet appearance, taste, brittleness, stability, the best formula of the soybean dietary fiber chewing tablets was soybean dietary fiber 38%, sweeteners (1:1:1 lactose mannitol xylitol) 30%, maltodextrin 30%, citric acid 2%, edible essence appropriate amount. The stability of chewing tablets was tested in different conditions (light, temperature, humidity).

  6. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (PGA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection.

  7. Technical note: An in vitro study of dental microwear formation using the BITE Master II chewing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Li-Cheng; Brandt, Elizabeth T; Meullenet, Jean-Francois; Zhou, Zhong-Rong; Ungar, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    Dental microwear has been used for decades to reconstruct the diets of fossil hominins and bioarchaeological populations. The basic theory has been that hard-brittle foods (e.g., nuts, bone) require crushing and leave pits as they are pressed between opposing cheek-tooth surfaces, whereas soft-tough foods (e.g., grass blades, meat) require shearing and leave scratches as they are dragged along opposing surfaces that slide past one another. However, recent studies have called into question the efficacy of microwear as an indicator of diet. One issue has been the limited number of in vitro studies providing empirical evidence for associations between microwear pattern and chewing behavior. We here describe a new study using a chewing simulator, the BITE Master II, to examine the effects of angle of approach between opposing teeth and food consistency on microwear surface texture. Results indicate that opposing teeth that approach one another: 1) perpendicular to the occlusal plane (crushing) result in pits; 2) parallel to the occlusal plane (shearing) result in striations in the direction of movement; and 3) oblique to the occlusal plane (45°) result in both striations and pits. Results further suggest that different food types and abrasive loads affect the propensity to accumulate microwear features independent of feature shapes.

  8. The ICDP-Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): new data from the Chew Bahir site in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Melanie; Dean, Jonathan; Asrat, Asfawossen; Cohen, Andrew; Foerster, Verena; Just, Janna; Klasen, Nicole; Lamb, Henry; Schäbitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin; Viehberg, Finn; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    There are currently few long, continuous, Pleistocene records from East Africa, meaning it has been difficult to establish the relative influence of low- versus high-latitude forcing on East African climate and climatic conditions at the time of anatomically modern human origin and subsequent dispersal. We have been attempting to address these gaps in our knowledge by analysing lake sediments taken from Chew Bahir, an area of playa mudflats in southern Ethiopia close to the site of the oldest-known anatomically modern human fossils at Omo-Kibish. In March 2014, Chew Bahir was cored to a depth of ~40 metres, and the resulting sediment sequence is estimated to cover the last ~115ka. In December 2014, a nearby site was drilled to a depth of ~280 metres as part of the International Continental scientific Drilling Programme - Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of endogenic calcite and other data from these cores will be presented. The data show some significant changes in water balance variability, the period prior to 70ka appears very unstable with some significant periods of drought and flood. Between 70-20ka the lake was stable and evaporative. The last 20ka years was wetter.

  9. Physically effective fiber: method of determination and effects on chewing, ruminal acidosis, and digestion by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content of dairy cow diets containing corn silage as the sole forage on intake, chewing, ruminal pH, microbial protein synthesis, digestibility, and milk production. A second objective was to compare current methods of measuring peNDF to determine the most suitable approach for use in ration formulation. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square using 6 lactating dairy cows with ruminal cannulas. Diets varied in peNDF content (high, medium, and low) by altering the particle length of corn silage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) and peNDF contents of the corn silage and diets were determined based on the original (19- and 8-mm sieves) and new Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS; 19-, 8-, and 1.18-mm sieves). A dry-sieving technique that measures the proportion of particles retained on a 1.18-mm sieve was also used. The new PSPS and the 1.18-mm sieve produced similar estimates of pef and peNDF of diets but gave higher values than the original PSPS. There was a much smaller range in pef of corn silage when 3 sieves, rather than 2, were used with the PSPS (range of 0.93 to 0.96 vs. 0.41 to 0.72, respectively). Consequently, increased forage particle length in the diets increased dietary peNDF content and its intake when using the original PSPS; however, the new PSPS and the 1.18-mm sieve failed to detect changes in dietary peNDF and peNDF intake. The peNDF values estimated based on fractional NDF rather than the total NDF content were higher, but the ranking of diets was not changed. Increased intake of peNDF linearly increased digestibility of CP and tended to linearly increase digestibility of fiber in the total tract. As a result, milk yield tended to linearly increase with no effect on milk composition. Ruminal microbial protein synthesis and microbial efficiency were higher with the medium peNDF than with the high or low pe

  10. Masseter muscle tension, chewing ability, and selected parameters of physical fitness in elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaszynska E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Gaszynska,1 Malgorzata Godala,2 Franciszek Szatko,1 Tomasz Gaszynski3 1Department of Hygiene and Health Promotion, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 2Department of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 3Department of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland Background: Maintaining good physical fitness and oral function in old age is an important element of good quality of life. Disability-related impairment of oral function contributes to a deterioration of the diet of older people and to the reduction of their social activity.Objectives: Investigate the association between masseter muscle tension, dental status, and physical fitness parameters.Materials and methods: Two hundred fifty-nine elderly care home residents (97 men, 162 women; mean age, 75.3±8.9 years were involved in this cross-sectional study. Their chewing ability was evaluated by masseter muscle tension palpation, differences of masseter muscle thickness, self-reported chewing ability, number of present and functional teeth, and number of posterior tooth pairs. Masseter muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. To assess physical fitness, hand grip strength and the timed up-and-go test were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index and body cell mass index (BCMI, calculated on the basis of electrical bioimpedance measurements. Medical records were used to collect information on systemic diseases and the number of prescribed medications. Subjects were also evaluated for their ability to perform ten activities of daily living.Results: Ninety-seven percent of the subjects suffered from systemic diseases. The three most prevalent illnesses were cardiac/circulatory 64.5%, musculoskeletal 37.3%, and endocrine/metabolic/nutritional 29.3%. Of the participants, 1.5% were underweight and more than one third (34.4% were overweight. Malnutrition (BCMI below normal was found in almost

  11. TRANSGENIC PLANTS RESISTANT TO INSECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kereša

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors are secondary metabolites present in all plants and it seems that their major role is protection of plants against attacks of animals, insects and microorganisms. One of the family of proteinase inhibitors are squash inhibitors of serine proteinases purified from seeds belonging to genera Cucurbita, Cucumis and Momordica. Squash inhibitors consist of 29-32 amino acid residues and are considered to be the smallest inhibitors of the serine proteinases known. Because of shortness, genes for these inhibitors could be synthesised and modified at different ways. Modifications could lead to changes in inhibitor activity. Tobacco as a model plant was transformed with 12 different genes of squash inhibitors. Stable integration of transgenes in putative transgenic plants was determined by PCR analysis using genomic DNA and primers that anneal to promoter and terminator region. The first step of proteinase inhibitor gene expression in transgenic plants was revealed by RT-PCR analysis. In entomological tests where larvae were fed with leaves, influence of transgenic T0 plants, as well as non-transgenic control plants on retardation of larval growth of S. littoralis was examined. Results of entomological tests showed that it is possible to express squash proteinase inhibitors in plants at level that significantly reduces S. littoralis larval growth.

  12. Association mapping of plant resistance to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Karen J; Thoen, Manus P M; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Jongsma, Maarten A; Dicke, Marcel

    2012-05-01

    Association mapping is rapidly becoming an important method to explore the genetic architecture of complex traits in plants and offers unique opportunities for studying resistance to insect herbivores. Recent studies indicate that there is a trade-off between resistance against generalist and specialist insects. Most studies, however, use a targeted approach that will easily miss important components of insect resistance. Genome-wide association mapping provides a comprehensive approach to explore the whole array of plant defense mechanisms in the context of the generalist-specialist paradigm. As association mapping involves the screening of large numbers of plant lines, specific and accurate high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) methods are needed. Here, we discuss the prospects of association mapping for insect resistance and HTP requirements.

  13. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  14. Cathepsins of lepidopteran insects: Aspects and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikhedkar, Nidhi; Summanwar, Aarohi; Joshi, Rakesh; Giri, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    Molecular understanding of lepidopteran physiology has revealed that proteases consist of one of the central regulatory/reacting system for insect growth and survival. Among the various proteases, cathepsins are the most crucial cellular proteases, which play vital roles during insect development. In the present review, we have discussed various aspects of the lepidopteran insect cathepsins, emphasizing their roles in processes like development, growth, metamorphosis, apoptosis and immunity. Cathepsins are categorized into different types on the basis of their sequence diversification, leading to variation in structure and catalytic function. Cathepsins exhibit tissue and stage specific expression pattern which is fine-tuned by a delicate balance of expression, compartmentalization, zymogen activation, inhibition by protein inhibitors and degradation. The indispensability of cathepsins as cellular proteases in the above mentioned processes proposes them as novel targets for designing effective and specific insect controlling strategies.

  15. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Facey, Paul D; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Evans, Meirwyn C; Mitchell, Jacob J; Bodger, Owen G; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-24

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects.

  16. RNAi-mediated crop protection against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel R G; Gatehouse, John A

    2008-07-01

    Downregulation of the expression of specific genes through RNA interference (RNAi), has been widely used for genetic research in insects. The method has relied on the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is not possible for practical applications in crop protection. By contrast, specific suppression of gene expression in nematodes is possible through feeding with dsRNA. This approach was thought to be unfeasible in insects, but recent results have shown that dsRNA fed as a diet component can be effective in downregulating targeted genes. More significantly, expression of dsRNA directed against suitable insect target genes in transgenic plants has been shown to give protection against pests, opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops.

  17. Middle-scale navigation: the insect case

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, R

    1996-01-01

    What is the large-scale spatial representation that insect foragers such as bees and ants form of their wider nest environs? This is the principal question which the following contributions aim to answer.

  18. Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

  19. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wasp, a hornet, a fire ant or a scorpion, can result in severe reactions. Some insects also ... Rapid heartbeat Hives Nausea, cramps or vomiting A scorpion sting and is a child Take these actions ...

  20. Principles of Insect Identification. MP-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Fred A.; Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document provides information for the complete classification of members of the phylum Arthropoda. Both major and minor insect orders are discussed relative to their anatomical characteristics and importance. (CS)

  1. Biology of the CAPA peptides in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, R; Wegener, C

    2006-11-01

    CAPA peptides have been isolated from a broad range of insect species as well as an arachnid, and can be grouped into the periviscerokinin and pyrokinin peptide families. In insects, CAPA peptides are the characteristic and most abundant neuropeptides in the abdominal neurohemal system. In many species, CAPA peptides exert potent myotropic effects on different muscles such as the heart. In others, including blood-sucking insects able to transmit serious diseases, CAPA peptides have strong diuretic or anti-diuretic effects and thus are potentially of medical importance. CAPA peptides undergo cell-type-specific sorting and packaging, and are the first insect neuropeptides shown to be differentially processed. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the structure, distribution, receptors and physiological actions of the CAPA peptides.

  2. Comparative psychoneuroimmunology: evidence from the insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2006-09-01

    Interactions between immune systems, nervous systems, and behavior are well established in vertebrates. A comparative examination of these interactions in other animals will help us understand their evolution and present adaptive functions. Insects show immune-behavioral interactions similar to those seen in vertebrates, suggesting that many of them may have a highly conserved function. Activation of an immune response in insects results in illness-induced anorexia, behavioral fever, changes in reproductive behavior, and decreased learning ability in a broad range of species. Flight-or-fight behaviors result in a decline in disease resistance. In insects, illness-induced anorexia may enhance immunity. Stress-induced immunosuppression is probably due to physiological conflicts between the immune response and those of other physiological processes. Because insects occupy a wide range of ecological niches, they will be useful in examining how some immune-behavioral interactions are sculpted by an animal's behavioral ecology.

  3. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G K

    2001-11-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

  4. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    repellents do not elicit evolutionary adaptive behaviors in mosquitoes , but rather disrupt the final stages of host attraction (Figure 1B). It is...Dickens, J. C. (2010). Insect repellents : mod- ulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity. PLoS ONE 5, e12138. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0012138...Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes . Med. Vet. Entomol. 25, 436–444. Bohbot, J. D., Jones, P. L., Wang, G

  5. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  6. Laboratory and Modeling Studies of Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    along three broad themes : studies of the interactions between individual insects in a swarm; studies of the swarm as a whole; and swarm modeling. At the...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 Insect swarms; Collective Behavior; Self-Organization REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Yale University Office of Sponsored Projects 25 Science Park - 3rd Floor New Haven

  7. Insect Repellent Properties of Melaleuca alternifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Adib Bin Edris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the use of plant-based insect repellents that are environment friendly with the use of insect repellents based on chemical substances which can be harmful to the environment and human health. The plant studied here is "tea tree"; its scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia. Essential oil from this plant is extracted by steam distillation method. Based on the previous research, tea tree oil has antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and insect repellent properties. Some experiments were done on tea tree oil to determine its insect repellent properties and the suitable concentration that can be used to make sure its repelling effect is optimum. The purpose of this determination is to avoid its harmful effect on humans because it can be toxic if it is used at high concentration. The results showed that tea tree oil repelled Tribolium castaneum. Furthermore, the toxicity assays also gave positive result where the tea tree oil has toxic properties against Solenopsis invicta. The lethal dose (LD of tea tree oil to kill 50% of a group of S. invicta is 23.52 µL/mL. This LD50 is determined by using the arithmetic method of Karber. Broadly, the results showed that M. alternifolia has insect repellent properties and shows toxicity against certain insects.

  8. Transgenic Tobacco Plants With Efficient Insect Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太元; 田颖川; 秦晓峰; 莽克强; 李文谷; 何永刚; 沈蕾

    1994-01-01

    Insecticidal protein gene CryIA(c)from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1(B.t.toxin gene)with 5’-end modified and 3’-end deleted to 4 different lengths were inserted downstream of 35S promoterwith double enhancer and"Ω’"fragment of TMV-RNA cDNA in the binary vector pBin438 to constructthe chimeric expression vector of B.t.toxin gene.Leave stripes of tobacco plant var.NC89 widelygrown in China were transformed with A.tumefaciens LBA4404 harbouring the above expression vectorsrespectively,and kanamycin resistant tobacco plants were regenerated.Insect test with tobacco budwormH.assulta showed that insect-resistant transform.ants could be obtained from the regenerated plantstransformed with B.t.genes of different lengths though highest percentage(~50%)of plants with ahigh morality(90%-100%)to the testing insects is among those transformed with 1.8-kb toxin gene.Genetic,molecular and biological analyses of T1 and T2 progenies of plants with high efficient insect re-sistance showed that B.t.toxin gene and the character of insect resistance have been inherited in the pro-genies.Insect-resistant homozygotes D8-14 and D19-8 have been selected for small-scale field tests.

  9. Wetting Characteristics of Insect Wing Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doyoung Byun; Jongin Hong; Saputra; Jin Hwan Ko; Young Jong Lee; Hoon Cheol Park; Bong-Kyu Byun; Jennifer R. Lukes

    2009-01-01

    Biological tiny structures have been observed on many kinds of surfaces such as lotus leaves, which have an effect on the coloration of Morpho butterflies and enhance the hydrophobicity of natural surfaces. We investigated the micro-scale and nano-scale structures on the wing surfaces of insects and found that the hierarchical multiple roughness structures help in enhancing the hydrophobicity. After examining 10 orders and 24 species of flying Pterygotan insects, we found that micro-scale and nano-scale structures typically exist on both the upper and lower wing surfaces of flying insects. The tiny structures such as denticle or setae on the insect wings enhance the hydrophobicity, thereby enabling the wings to be cleaned more easily. And the hydrophobic insect wings undergo a transition from Cassie to Wenzel states at pitch/size ratio of about 20. In order to examine the wetting characteristics on a rough surface, a biomimetic surface with micro-scale pillars is fabricated on a silicon wafer,which exhibits the same behavior as the insect wing, with the Cassie-Wenzel transition occurring consistently around a pitch/width value of 20.

  10. Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering insects cannot feed, and energy they take into winter must therefore fuel energy demands during autumn, overwintering, warm periods prior to resumption of development in spring, and subsequent activity. Insects primarily consume lipids during winter, but may also use carbohydrate and proteins as fuel. Because they are ectotherms, the metabolic rate of insects is temperature-dependent, and the curvilinear nature of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship means that warm temperatures are disproportionately important to overwinter energy use. This energy use may be reduced physiologically, by reducing the slope or elevation of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship, or because of threshold changes, such as metabolic suppression upon freezing. Insects may also choose microhabitats or life history stages that reduce the impact of overwinter energy drain. There is considerable capacity for overwinter energy drain to affect insect survival and performance both directly (via starvation) or indirectly (for example, through a trade-off with cryoprotection), but this has not been well-explored. Likewise, the impact of overwinter energy drain on growing-season performance is not well understood. I conclude that overwinter energetics provides a useful lens through which to link physiology and ecology and winter and summer in studies of insect responses to their environment.

  11. Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, T C

    2014-01-01

    At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.

  12. International Symposium on Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are building on the success of the Sixth Chinese Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Symposium, Beijing, held in 2005. The 2005 symposium saw many Chinese and international authorities share their expertise in a broad range of insect science, including analyses of insect genomes and proteomes, functional gene expression and regulation during development, insect immunity, insect neurobiology, insect-host interactions and insect chemical communication. The coming symposium, which will be held in Shandong University,Jinan, Shandong province, September 19-22, 2007, will offer material along similar lines.

  13. Effects of Varying Dietary Forage Particle Size in Two Concentrate Levels on Chewing Activity, Ruminal Mat Characteristics, and Passage in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebeli, Q.; Tafaj, M.; Weber, I.; Dijkstra, J.; Steingass, H.; Drochner, W.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying dietary forage particle size on chewing activity, ruminal mat characteristics, passage, and in situ ruminal and total tract digestion in dairy cows at a low- and high-concentrate inclusion. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 4 L

  14. Role of gum chewing on the duration of postoperative ileus following ileostomy closure done for typhoid ileal perforation: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Marwah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim : There is ample evidence in the recent literature that gum chewing after elective colonic anastomosis decreases postoperative ileus (POI. But there are very few studies on small bowel anastomosis done in relaparotomy cases. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gum chewing on the duration of POI following small bowel anastomosis performed for the closure of intestinal stoma, made as temporary diversion in the selected cases of typhoid perforation peritonitis. Patients and Methods : Hundred patients undergoing elective small bowel anastomosis for the closure of stoma were randomly assigned to the study group (n=50 and the control group (n=50. The study group patients chewed gum thrice a day for 1 h each time starting 6 h after the surgery until the passage of first flatus. The control group patients had standard postoperative treatment. Results : Study and control group patients were comparable at inclusion. The mean time for the appearance of bowel sounds as well as the passage of first flatus was significantly shorter in the study group (P=0.040, P=0.006. The feeling of hunger was also experienced earlier in study group cases (P=0.004. The postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the study group, but the difference was not significant (P=0.059. Conclusions: The cases of relaparotomy requiring additional adhesiolysis and small bowel anastomosis for stoma closure are benefited by postoperative gum chewing.

  15. Deposition of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Davis, S.S.; Melia, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The deposition and clearance of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity/upper oesophagus and in the stomach after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets has been followed by gamma scintigraphy in a group of healthy male volunteers. Following administration...

  16. Assessment of Aspartame Exposure Due to Consumption of Some Imported Chewing Gums by Microwave Digestion and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rasouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener, the long-term safety of which has been controversial ever since it was accepted for human consumption. The main aim of this research is assessment of aspartame exposure due to consumption of some imported chewing gums during summer 2015 to Iran by microwave digestion and HPLC analysis. Thirty chewing gums from highly consumed imported ones were collected from retail market in Tehran. Closed vessel microwave digestion was employed for sample preparation using a three phase temperature program. An aliquot of 20 μL of prepared samples was injected into the HPLC column and the aspartame was detected at 254 nm with an on-line detector. Concentration of aspartame in chewing gum samples was between 1.9 and 30.5 μg/g with an average of 11.1 μg/g. In conclusion, despite of existing aspartame in 76.6 percent of samples, however the effective amount of this artificial sweetener is not as high as the levels that international legislations recommended for exposing due to chewing gum consumption.

  17. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults with moderate levels of gingival inflammation entered...

  18. Effects of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol on the development of gingivitis and plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Keukenmeester; D.E. Slot; N.A.M. Rosema; C. van Loveren; G.A. van der Weijden

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. Methods The design of the study was a four-group,

  19. Processing of Functional Coconut Dietary Fiber Chewing Tablet%功能性椰子膳食纤维咀嚼片制备工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张木炎; 郑亚军

    2011-01-01

    The coconut dietary fiber(CDF) was prepared from coconut cake by the method of chemistry-processing and ultra-fine pulverizing. And the processing of coconut dietary fiber chewing tablet was studied. Coconut dietary fiber chewing tablet was made from CDF, maltol, denatured starch and so on. The effect of the addition of CDF, sweeteners, filler and prilling process on chewing tablet was studied too. The results showed that the quality of the chewing tablet was good when the additive concentration of CDF, maltol and denatured starch was 35%, 18% and 8%, respectively.%采用化学处理法、超微粉碎等技术从椰麸中制备椰子膳食纤维(Coconut dietary fiber,CDF),继之以CDF为基料,探讨CDF、甜味剂、填充剂的添加量及造粒工序对咀嚼片风味口感和感官质量的影响.结果表明,当CDF添加量为35%,麦芽糖醇为18%、变性淀粉为8%时,咀嚼片的综合质量较为理想.

  20. Nutrient demand interacts with grass particle length to affect digestion responses and chewing activity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-02-01

    Effects of grass particle length on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 15 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.6 to 29.8 kg/d (mean=25.8 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 29.2 to 56.9 kg/d (mean=41.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage chopped to either (a) 19-mm (long) or (b) 10-mm (short) theoretical length of cut as the sole forage. Grass silages contained approximately 46% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diets contained 50% forage, 23% forage NDF, and 28% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass particle length and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Grass particle length and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield, milk composition, or rumen pH. Long particle length tended to decrease DMI compared with short particle length, which might have been limited by rumen fill or chewing time, or both. Passage rates of feed fractions did not differ between long and short particle lengths and were not related to level of intake. As pDMI increased, long particles decreased ruminal digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF at a faster rate than short particles. As a result, long particles decreased or tended to decrease rates of ruminal turnover for NDF, organic matter, and dry matter and increased their rumen pools compared with short particles for cows with high pDMI. Long particles increased eating time, which affected cows with high intake to the greatest extent, and total chewing time

  1. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  2. Beneficial Effect of a Cellulose-Containing Chew Treat on Canine Periodontal Disease in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are indications that appropriate chew treats can contribute to the control of canine periodontal disease. It was reasoned that the incorporation of a cellulose fiber network into the treat may improve the efficacy, but for proof experimental data were required. Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to assess the efficacy of a cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40® in the treatment of periodontal disease. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. There were 10 clinical signs: extent and severity of dental plaque and calculus, extent of gingivitis, redness, swelling, bleeding and firmness of gingivae and halitosis. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily received a chew treat to which 4% of the cellulose preparation was added. The control dogs were given a chew treat with identical formula, but without added cellulose. During the trial, all dogs were fed the same, complete dry food. There were 16 test dogs and 15 control dogs. Results: When compared with the baseline values, the administration of the test chew significantly improved 8 out of the 10 clinical signs. In the placebo group there was a significant improvement for 6 clinical signs. When the improvements over time for the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences. When the score changes for all 10 clinical signs were added up as an overall index of improvement of periodontal disease, the test group showed a 17% greater amelioration than did the control group. Conclusion: The addition of the cellulose preparation had further enhanced the efficacy of the treat, possibly through an increase in mechanical cleansing and chewing time. This study indicates that a cellulose-containing treat is beneficial for dogs with periodontal disease and it is suggested that it may also impair its development.

  3. Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are involved in numerous processes within aquatic ecosystems. They often have important effects on ecosystem processes such as primary production (via grazing), detritus breakdown, and nutrient mineralization and downstream spiraling. The functional feeding groups (FFG) classification was developed as a tool to facilitate the incorporation of macroinvertebrates in studies of aquatic ecosystems. This classification has the advantage of combining morphological characteristics (e.g., mouth part specialization) and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., way of feeding) used by macroinvertebrates when consuming resources. Although recent efforts have greatly advanced our ability to identify aquatic macroinvertebrates, there is limited information on FFG assignment. Furthermore, there has been some variation in the use of the FFG classification, in part due to an emphasis on using gut content analysis to assign FFG, which is more appropriate for assigning trophic guilds. Thus, the main goals of this study are to (1) provide an overview of the value of using the FFG classification, (2) make an initial attempt to summarize available information on FFG for aquatic insects in Latin America, and (3) provide general guidelines on how to assign organisms to their FFGs. FFGs are intended to reflect the potential effects of organisms in their ecosystems and the way they consume resources. Groups include scrapers that consume resources that grow attached to the substrate by removing them with their mouth parts; shredders that cut or chew pieces of living or dead plant material, including all plant parts like leaves and wood; collectors-gatherers that use modified mouth parts to sieve or collect small particles (< 1 mm) accumulated on the stream bottom; filterers that have special adaptations to remove particles directly from the water column; and predators that consume other organisms using different strategies to capture them. In addition, we provide details on

  4. Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzen, Mathias; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2008-03-28

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the world's most widely used topical insect repellent, with broad effectiveness against most insects. Its mechanism of action and molecular target remain unknown. Here, we show that DEET blocks electrophysiological responses of olfactory sensory neurons to attractive odors in Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. DEET inhibits behavioral attraction to food odors in Drosophila, and this inhibition requires the highly conserved olfactory co-receptor OR83b. DEET inhibits odor-evoked currents mediated by the insect odorant receptor complex, comprising a ligand-binding subunit and OR83b. We conclude that DEET masks host odor by inhibiting subsets of heteromeric insect odorant receptors that require the OR83b co-receptor. The identification of candidate molecular targets for the action of DEET may aid in the design of safer and more effective insect repellents.

  5. Role of a dentist in comprehensive management of a comatose patient with post traumatic head injury and neuropathological chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury of the head and neck region can result in substantial morbidity. Comprehensive management of such patients requires team work of several specialties, including dentists. A young female patient with extensive loss of cranium and associated pathological chewing was referred to the dental department. The lost cranium was replaced by a custom-made, hand-fabricated cranioplast. Trauma due to pathological mastication was reduced by usage of a custom-made mouthguard. Favorable results were seen in the appearance of the patient and after insertion of the mouthguard as evidenced in good healing response.The intricate role of a dental specialist in the team to manage a patient with post traumatic head injury has been highlighted. The take away message is to make the surgical fraternity aware of the scope of dentistry in the comprehensive management of patients requiring special care.

  6. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......-up. The overall drop-out rate was about 15%. Data on dental caries and gingival bleeding were collected by clinical examination. The results showed that the mean increment of DMFS in Group G was 42% lower than in groups E and C (P ... (P gingival bleeding scores were statistically significant among the three groups. Compared to Group C, the mean increment in bleeding scores of Group G was 71% lower (P

  7. Physical, chemical, and histologic changes in dentin caries lesions of primary teeth induced by regular use of polyol chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, K K; Chiego, D J; Allen, P; Bennett, C; Isotupa, K P; Tiekso, J; Mäkinen, P L

    1998-06-01

    A previous clinical trial showed that long-term use of saliva-stimulating polyol (xylitol and sorbitol) chewing gums was associated with arrest of dental caries in young subjects. After a 20-22-month intervention (when the subjects were 8 years old), a total of 23 primary teeth with extensive dentin caries lesions whose surface in clinical examination was found to be totally rehardened (remineralized) could be removed because the teeth were near their physiologic exfoliation time. These teeth were subjected to histologic, microhardness, and electron microscopic tests. The majority of the specimens had been remineralized from the surface by a non-cellular-mediated process within the remaining collapsed, organic extracellular matrix associated with the remaining dentinal surface. Many of the underlying dentinal tubules were filled with a matrix that had been subsequently mineralized. Dental microanalyses showed that the topmost (outer) 20-microm-thick rehardened layer of the lesions exhibited the highest Ca:P ratio, which leveled off at a depth of approximately 150 microm. The rehardened surface layer (normally <0.1 mm in thickness) was significantly (P < 0.001) harder than sound dentin and nearly as hard as sound enamel. Although the main source of the mineral present in the rehardened layer was most likely of salivary origin, some extracellular remineralization was probably mediated by odontoblasts. The results complete the dinical diagnoses of the original trial and suggest that regular use of polyol chewing gums may induce changes in dentin caries lesions, which in histologic and physiochemical studies show typical characteristics of rehardening and mineralization.

  8. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  9. Magnetoreception in eusocial insects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnberg, Eliane; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel; Alves, Odivaldo Cambraia; de Oliveira, Jandira Ferreira; Srygley, Robert B; Esquivel, Darci M S

    2010-04-06

    Behavioural experiments for magnetoreception in eusocial insects in the last decade are reviewed. Ants and bees use the geomagnetic field to orient and navigate in areas around their nests and along migratory paths. Bees show sensitivity to small changes in magnetic fields in conditioning experiments and when exiting the hive. For the first time, the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles found in eusocial insects, obtained by magnetic techniques and electron microscopy, are reviewed. Different magnetic oxide nanoparticles, ranging from superparamagnetic to multi-domain particles, were observed in all body parts, but greater relative concentrations in the abdomens and antennae of honeybees and ants have focused attention on these segments. Theoretical models for how these specific magnetosensory apparatuses function have been proposed. Neuron-rich ant antennae may be the most amenable to discovering a magnetosensor that will greatly assist research into higher order processing of magnetic information. The ferromagnetic hypothesis is believed to apply to eusocial insects, but interest in a light-sensitive mechanism is growing. The diversity of compass mechanisms in animals suggests that multiple compasses may function in insect orientation and navigation. The search for magnetic compasses will continue even after a magnetosensor is discovered in eusocial insects.

  10. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  11. Neuropeptidergic regulation of reproduction in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Badisco, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-07-01

    Successful animal reproduction depends on multiple physiological and behavioral processes that take place in a timely and orderly manner in both mating partners. It is not only necessary that all relevant processes are well coordinated, they also need to be adjusted to external factors of abiotic and biotic nature (e.g. population density, mating partner availability). Therefore, it is not surprising that several hormonal factors play a crucial role in the regulation of animal reproductive physiology. In insects (the largest class of animals on planet Earth), lipophilic hormones, such as ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, as well as several neuropeptides take part in this complex regulation. While some peptides can affect reproduction via an indirect action (e.g. by influencing secretion of juvenile hormone), others exert their regulatory activity by directly targeting the reproductive system. In addition to insect peptides with proven activities, several others were suggested to also play a role in the regulation of reproductive physiology. Because of the long evolutionary history of many insect orders, it is not always clear to what extent functional data obtained in a given species can be extrapolated to other insect taxa. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge concerning the neuropeptidergic regulation of insect reproduction and situate it in a more general physiological context.

  12. Uncontrolled Stability in Freely Flying Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, James, Jr.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    One of the key flight modes of a flying insect is longitudinal flight, traveling along a localized two-dimensional plane from one location to another. Past work on this topic has shown that flying insects, unless stabilized by some external stimulus, are typically unstable to a well studied pitching instability. In our work, we examine this instability in a computational study to understand whether it is possible for either evolution or an aero-vehicle designer to stabilize longitudinal flight through changes to insect morphology, kinematics, or aerodynamic quantities. A quasi-steady wingbeat averaged flapping flight model is used to describe the insect. From this model, a number of non-dimensional parameters are identified. The effect of these parameters was then quantified using linear stability analysis, applied to various translational states of the insect. Based on our understanding of these parameters, we demonstrate how to find an intrinsically stable flapping flight sequence for a dragonfly-like flapping flier in an instantaneous flapping flight model.

  13. Shifting behaviour: epigenetic reprogramming in eusocial insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, Solenn; Hore, Timothy A; Reik, Wolf; Sumner, Seirian

    2012-06-01

    Epigenetic modifications are ancient and widely utilised mechanisms that have been recruited across fungi, plants and animals for diverse but fundamental biological functions, such as cell differentiation. Recently, a functional DNA methylation system was identified in the honeybee, where it appears to underlie queen and worker caste differentiation. This discovery, along with other insights into the epigenetics of social insects, allows provocative analogies to be drawn between insect caste differentiation and cellular differentiation, particularly in mammals. Developing larvae in social insect colonies are totipotent: they retain the ability to specialise as queens or workers, in a similar way to the totipotent cells of early embryos before they differentiate into specific cell lineages. Further, both differentiating cells and insect castes lose phenotypic plasticity by committing to their lineage, losing the ability to be readily reprogrammed. Hence, a comparison of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying lineage differentiation (and reprogramming) between cells and social insects is worthwhile. Here we develop a conceptual model of how loss and regain of phenotypic plasticity might be conserved for individual specialisation in both cells and societies. This framework forges a novel link between two fields of biological research, providing predictions for a unified approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying biological complexity.

  14. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  15. Insect cell culture in reagent bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, S; Roest, S; Klopp, J; Carnal, S; Marti, S; Gerhartz, B; Shrestha, B

    2014-01-01

    Growing insect cells with high air space in culture vessel is common from the early development of suspension cell culture. We believed and followed it with the hope that it allows sufficient air for optimal cell growth. However, we missed to identify how much air exactly cells need for its growth and multiplication. Here we present the innovative method that changed the way we run insect cell culture. The method is easy to adapt, cost-effective and useful for both academic and industrial research labs. We believe this method will revolutionize the way we run insect cell culture by increasing throughput in a cost-effective way. In our study we identified:•Insect cells need to be in suspension; air space in culture vessel and type of culture vessel is of less importance. Shaking condition that introduces small air bubbles and maintains it in suspension for longer time provides better oxygen transfer in liquid. For this, high-fill volume in combination with speed and shaking diameter are important.•Commercially available insect cells are not fragile as original isolates. These cells can easily withstand higher shaking speed.•Growth condition in particular lab set-up needs to be optimized. The condition used in one lab may not be optimum for another lab due to different incubators from different vendors.

  16. The rapidly changing landscape of insect phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R

    2016-12-01

    Insect phylogenetics is being profoundly changed by many innovations. Although rapid developments in genomics have center stage, key progress has been made in phenomics, field and museum science, digital databases and pipelines, analytical tools, and the culture of science. The importance of these methodological and cultural changes to the pace of inference of the hexapod Tree of Life is discussed. The innovations have the potential, when synthesized and mobilized in ways as yet unforeseen, to shine light on the million or more clades in insects, and infer their composition with confidence. There are many challenges to overcome before insects can enter the 'phylocognisant age', but because of the promise of genomics, phenomics, and informatics, that is now an imaginable future.

  17. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management.

  18. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...... of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  19. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  20. Social insect symbionts: evolution in homeostatic fortresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Pierce, Naomi E; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    The massive environmentally buffered nests of some social insects can contain millions of individuals and a wide variety of parasites, commensals and mutualists. We suggest that the ways in which these homeostatic fortress environments affect the evolution of social insect symbionts are relevant...... for epidemiology, evolutionary biology and macroecology. We contend that specialized parasites will tend to become less virulent and mutualists less cooperative, compared to those associated with solitary or small-colony hosts. These processes are expected to contribute to the very high symbiont diversity observed...

  1. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  2. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  3. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity in social insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenism in insects, whereby a single genome expresses different phenotypes in response to environmental cues, is a fascinating biological phenomenon. Social insects are especially intriguing examples of phenotypic plasticity because division of labor results in the development of extreme morphol...

  5. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...

  6. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  7. Biomimetic visual detection based on insect neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, David C.

    2001-11-01

    With a visual system that accounts for as much as 30% of the lifted mass, flying insects such as dragonflies and hoverflies invest more in vision than any other animal. Impressive visual performance is subserved by a surprisingly simple visual system. In a typical insect eye, between 2,000 and 30,000 pixels in the image are analyzed by fewer than 200,000 neurons in underlying neural circuits. The combination of sophisticated visual processing with an approachable level of complexity has made the insect visual system a leading model for biomimetic approaches to computer vision. Much neurobiological research has focused on neural circuits used for detection of moving patterns (e.g. optical flow during flight) and moving targets (e.g. prey). Research from several labs has led to great advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved, and has spawned neuromorphic hardware based on key processes identified in neurobiological experiments. Despite its attractions, the highly non-linear nature of several key stages in insect visual processing presents a challenge to understanding. I will describe examples of adaptive elements of neural circuits in the fly visual system which analyze the direction and velocity of wide-field optical flow patterns and the result of experiments that suggest that these non-linearities may contribute to robust responses to natural image motion.

  8. Novel proteinase inhibitor promotes resistance to insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) and its protein are identified in response to insect feeding on B. vulgaris seedlings. BvSTI is cloned into an expression vector with constitutive promoter and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess BvSTI’s ability to ...

  9. Asexuality: the insects that stick with it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderspacher, Florian

    2011-07-12

    One hope of trying to understand why sex is so powerful and prevalent a mode of reproduction relies on the rare examples of animals that persist long-term without having sex. Now, several species of stick insects join that illustrious circle.

  10. Wolbachia symbiosis and insect immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanos Siozios; Panagiotis Sapountzis; Panagiotis Ioannidis; Kostas Bourtzis

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial intracellular symbiosis is very common in insects, having significant consequences in promoting the evolution of life and biodiversity. The bacterial group that has recently attracted particular attention is Wolbachia pipientis which probably represents the most ubiquitous endosymbiont on the planet. W. pipientis is a Gram-negative obligatory intracellular and maternally transmitted α-proteobacterium, that is able to establish symbiotic associations with arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, Wolbachia pipientis infections have been described in Arachnida, in Isopoda and mainly in Insecta. They have been reported in almost all major insect orders including Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera,Hymenoptera, Orthoptera and Lepidoptera. To enhance its transmission, W. pipientis can manipulate host reproduction by inducing parthenogenesis, feminization, male killing and cytoplasmic incompatibility. Several polymerase chain reaction surveys have indicated that up to 70% of all insect species may be infected with W. pipientis. How does W. pipientis manage to get established in diverse insect host species? How is this intracellular bacterial symbiont species so successful in escaping the host immune response? The present review presents recent advances and ongoing scientific efforts in the field. The current body of knowledge in the field is summarized, revelations from the available genomic information are presented and as yet unanswered questions are discussed in an attempt to present a comprehensive picture of the unique ability of W. pipientis to establish symbiosis and to manipulate reproduction while evading the host's immune system.

  11. Pathogenesis induced by (recombinant) baculoviruses in insects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, J.Th.M.

    1995-01-01

    Infection of insect larvae by a baculovirus leads to cessation of feeding and finally to the death of the larva. Under optimal conditions this process may take as little as five days during which the virus multiplies approximately a billion times and transforms 30% of the larval weight into viral pr

  12. Pheromones in the life of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Ingolf; Schmolz, Erik; Schricker, Burkhard

    2008-09-01

    Life in insect societies asks for a permanent flow of information, often carried by rather simple organic molecules. Some originate from plants as odours of blossoms or exudates from trees. Especially important are the intra- and interspecific combinations of compounds produced by the insects themselves. These are called pheromones or ecto-hormones and serve a variety of tasks. The paper deals mainly with honeybee pheromones, but takes also into consideration those of wasps and hornets. Effects of pheromones are monitored ethologically by direct observation and filming as well as in a more quantitative manner with using direct and indirect calorimetry. In all experimental set-ups alarm pheromones were used as controls. They show an up to fourfold increase of activity after a few seconds, determined for small groups of insects as well as for a whole hornet nest placed in a 25-l calorimeter. A variety of cosmetics like soaps, shampoos, lotions and perfumes are included in the investigations because of repeated reports about unwarranted insect attacks which are said to be provoked by such products. None of the applied substances provoked a significant reaction of the bees (p > 0.05). A short appendix discusses the still questionable existence of pheromones in man, which were confirmed under laboratory conditions, but not yet for daily life.

  13. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  14. The microRNA toolkit of insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylla, Guillem; Fromm, Bastian; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Is there a correlation between miRNA diversity and levels of organismic complexity? Exhibiting extraordinary levels of morphological and developmental complexity, insects are the most diverse animal class on earth. Their evolutionary success was in particular shaped by the innovation of holometabolan metamorphosis in endopterygotes. Previously, miRNA evolution had been linked to morphological complexity, but astonishing variation in the currently available miRNA complements of insects made this link unclear. To address this issue, we sequenced the miRNA complement of the hemimetabolan Blattella germanica and reannotated that of two other hemimetabolan species, Locusta migratoria and Acyrthosiphon pisum, and of four holometabolan species, Apis mellifera, Tribolium castaneum, Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our analyses show that the variation of insect miRNAs is an artefact mainly resulting from poor sampling and inaccurate miRNA annotation, and that insects share a conserved microRNA toolkit of 65 families exhibiting very low variation. For example, the evolutionary shift toward a complete metamorphosis was accompanied only by the acquisition of three and the loss of one miRNA families. PMID:27883064

  15. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  16. Alpha particle radiography of small insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chingshen Su [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan) Inst. of Nuclear Science

    1993-12-31

    Radiographies of ants, mosquitoes, cockroaches and small bugs have been done with a radioisotope {sup 244}Cm alpha source. Energy of alpha particles was varied by attenuating the 5.81 MeV alpha particles with adjustable air spacings from the source to the sample. The LR-115 was used to register radiographs. The image of the insect registered on the LR-115 was etched out in a 2.5 N NaOH solution at 52{sup o}C for certain minutes, depending on various irradiation conditions for the insects. For larger insects, a scanning device for the alpha particle irradiation has been fabricated to take the radiograph of whole body of the insect, and the scanning period can be selected to give desired irradiation dosage. A CCDTV camera system connected to a microscope interfaced to an IBM/AT computer is used to register the microscopic image of the radiograph and to print it out with a video copy processor. (Author).

  17. Insects: Little Things That Run the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Insects are easily the most abundant and diverse group of animals, with over 24,000 species in the UK alone. They can be found in almost every habitat on Earth and are fundamentally important to ecology, conservation, food production, animal and human health, and biodiversity. They are a prominent feature of almost every food web in the UK and…

  18. Asymmetric radar echo patterns from insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radar echoes from insects, birds, and bats in the atmosphere exhibit both symmetry and asymmetry in polarimetric patterns. Symmetry refers to similar magnitudes of polarimetric variables at opposite azimuths, and asymmetry relegates to differences in these magnitudes. Asymmetry can be due to diffe...

  19. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja;

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  20. Democratizing evolutionary biology, lessons from insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert Roberdeau; Beasley, DeAnna E.

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales...

  1. Effects of carbon monoxide on insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, G.M.; Wright, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Coccinella septempunctata (the seven-spot ladybird) and Carausis morosus (the stick insect) were exposed to low levels of CO which would not be expected to affect insects in the short term, but which might be detrimental when administered for several weeks. O/sub 2/ tension was maintained at the normal level of 20 percent. All survived when exposure was less than 10 days. 10 days or more in CO hastened death, killing 75 percent in 18 days. Only 7.7 percent of the controls died during the same period. It was observed that the ladybirds in CO were less active and consumed less food than controls. The results indicate that insects are more affected by the presence of CO in their environment than has previously been shown. Because the insects used in the experiments lacked myoglobin as well as Hb, the effects must surely have been due to the combination of CO with the respiratory enzymes. They were not due to deficiency in the supply of O/sub 2/ to the tissues. Thus availability of CO and O/sub 2/ in equal amounts has sufficient effect on the cytochrome chain to prevent growth and depress the activity of an animal. (MU)

  2. Mode of action of insect repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of action of DEET and other insect repellents has been a topic of interest since the discovery of DEET in the mid twentieth century. Nearly 60 years have passed since DEET applied topically to the skin was shown to be effective in preventing mosquito bites. With the discovery and characte...

  3. Protease inhibitor mediated resistance to insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outchkourov, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are among the defensive molecules that plants produce in order to defend themselves against herbivores. A major aim of this thesis is to develop novel insect resistance traits usingheterologous, non-plant PIs. Prerequisite for the success of the th

  4. Insects of war, terror and torture

    Science.gov (United States)

    From plagues to malaria transmission, insects and other arthropods have been natural or intentional health and agricultural threats to military and civilian populations throughout human history. The success or failure of military operations frequently has been determined by correctly anticipating in...

  5. Insect photoreceptor adaptations to night vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Anna; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Salmela, Iikka; Heimonen, Kyösti; Weckström, Matti

    2017-04-05

    Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision. Retinal photoreceptors form the first bottleneck for the transfer of visual information. In this review, we cover the basics of what is known about physiological adaptations of insect photoreceptors for low-light vision. We will also discuss major enigmas of some of the functional properties of nocturnal photoreceptors, and describe recent advances in methodologies that may help to solve them and broaden the field of insect vision research to new model animals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  6. Colour in the eyes of insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Many insect species have darkly coloured eyes, but distinct colours or patterns are frequently featured. A number of exemplary cases of flies and butterflies are discussed to illustrate our present knowledge of the physical basis of eye colours, their functional background, and the implications for

  7. Insect overwintering in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J S; Hayward, S A L

    2010-03-15

    Insects are highly successful animals inhabiting marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats from the equator to the poles. As a group, insects have limited ability to regulate their body temperature and have thus required a range of strategies to support life in thermally stressful environments, including behavioural avoidance through migration and seasonal changes in cold tolerance. With respect to overwintering strategies, insects have traditionally been divided into two main groups: freeze tolerant and freeze avoiding, although this simple classification is underpinned by a complex of interacting processes, i.e. synthesis of ice nucleating agents, cryoprotectants, antifreeze proteins and changes in membrane lipid composition. Also, in temperate and colder climates, the overwintering ability of many species is closely linked to the diapause state, which often increases cold tolerance ahead of temperature-induced seasonal acclimatisation. Importantly, even though most species can invoke one or both of these responses, the majority of insects die from the effects of cold rather than freezing. Most studies on the effects of a changing climate on insects have focused on processes that occur predominantly in summer (development, reproduction) and on changes in distributions rather than winter survival per se. For species that routinely experience cold stress, a general hypothesis would be that predicted temperature increases of 1 degree C to 5 degrees C over the next 50-100 years would increase winter survival in some climatic zones. However, this is unlikely to be a universal effect. Negative impacts may occur if climate warming leads to a reduction or loss of winter snow cover in polar and sub-polar areas, resulting in exposure to more severe air temperatures, increasing frequency of freeze-thaw cycles and risks of ice encasement. Likewise, whilst the dominant diapause-inducing cue (photoperiod) will be unaffected by global climate change, higher temperatures may

  8. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  9. Entomopathogenic Nematodes for the Biological Control of Pest Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Ljerka Oštrec

    2001-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are part of 9 families, but only some species of these families: Heterorhabditidae, Mermithidae and Steinernematidae kill insects. Infective juveniles enter the insect host through the cuticle, or through the mouth, anus, etc., to reach the haemocel. The infective juveniles also enter the insect by the foot. After that the nematodes leave the insect who usually dies. The infective juveniles are associated with symbiotic bacterium (Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus) which h...

  10. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  11. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Veenstra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone, a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for

  12. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  13. Quantifying the Movement of Multiple Insects Using an Optical Insect Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    insects crossed, with respect to the tunnel width. To test the OIC imaging system, 20 mosquitoes (5–15 day-old female Aedes aegypti L.) contained in a 20...Douglas LW. 1986. Female sex pheromone of the melonworm, Diaphania hylinata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and analysis of male responses to pheromone in a...moving upwind in the tunnel. The time differential between the 2 triggering events can also be used to calculate velocity if individual insects passing

  14. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products.

  15. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in in

  16. Social insects: from selfish genes to self organisation and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Franks, Nigel R.

    2006-01-01

    Selfish gene and self-organisation approaches have revolutionised the study of social insects and have provided unparalleled insights into the highly sophisticated nature of insect social evolution. Here, we briefly review the core programs and interfaces with communication and recognition studies...... that characterise these fields today, and offer an interdisciplinary future perspective for the study of social insect evolutionary biology....

  17. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilenberg, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-LeRoux, C.; Capellozza, S.; Jensen, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each

  18. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  19. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  20. Metabolomics reveals insect metabolic responses associated with fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Luo, Feifei; Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between insects and pathogenic fungi are complex. We employed metabolomic techniques to profile insect metabolic dynamics upon infection by the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silkworm larvae were infected with fungal spores and microscopic observations demonstrated that the exhaustion of insect hemocytes was coupled with fungal propagation in the insect body cavity. Metabolomic analyses revealed that fungal infection could significantly alter insect energy and nutrient metabolisms as well as the immune defense responses, including the upregulation of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and lipids, but the downregulation of eicosanoids and amines. The insect antifeedant effect of the fungal infection was evident with the reduced level of maclurin (a component of mulberry leaves) in infected insects but elevated accumulations in control insects. Insecticidal and cytotoxic mycotoxins like oosporein and beauveriolides were also detected in insects at the later stages of infection. Taken together, the metabolomics data suggest that insect immune responses are energy-cost reactions and the strategies of nutrient deprivation, inhibition of host immune responses, and toxin production would be jointly employed by the fungus to kill insects. The data obtained in this study will facilitate future functional studies of genes and pathways associated with insect-fungus interactions.

  1. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  2. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  3. Evolution of holometabola insect digestive systems: physiological and biochemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Terra

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This review takes into account primarily the work done in our laboratory with insects from the major Holometabola orders. Only the most significant data for each insect will be presented and a proposal on the evolution of Holometabola insect digstive systems will be advanced.

  4. The insect cookbook : food for a sustainable planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Gurp, van H.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    In The Insect Cookbook, two entomologists and a chef make the case for insects as a sustainable source of protein for humans and a necessary part of our future diet. They provide consumers and chefs with the essential facts about insects for culinary use, with recipes simple enough to make at home y

  5. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  6. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  7. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  8. An extreme case of plant-insect codiversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruaud, Astrid; Rønsted, Nina; Chanterasuwan, Bhanumas;

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and speciali...

  9. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenopter...

  10. Physical principles of fluid-mediated insect attachment - Shouldn't insects slip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jan-Henning

    2014-01-01

    Insects use either hairy or smooth adhesive pads to safely adhere to various kinds of surfaces. Although the two types of adhesive pads are morphologically different, they both form contact with the substrate via a thin layer of adhesive fluid. To model adhesion and friction forces generated by insect footpads often a simple "wet adhesion" model is used, in which two flat undeformable substrates are separated by a continuous layer of fluid. This review summarizes the key physical and tribological principles that determine the adhesion and friction in such a model. Interestingly, such a simple wet-adhesion model falls short in explaining several features of insect adhesion. For example, it cannot predict the observed high static friction forces of the insects, which enable them to cling to vertical smooth substrates without sliding. When taking a closer look at the "classic" attachment model, one can see that it is based on several simplifications, such as rigid surfaces or continuous layers of Newtonian fluids. Recent experiments show that these assumptions are not valid in many cases of insect adhesion. Future tribological models for insect adhesion thus need to incorporate deformable adhesive pads, non-Newtonian properties of the adhesive fluid and/or partially "dry" or solid-like contact between the pad and the substrate.

  11. Occlusion of artificial teeth in partial dentures in the "chewing center"--first exploratory population-based evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordass, B; Ruge, S; Quooss, A; Hugger, A; Mundt, T

    2014-01-01

    Occlusal performance is a substantial determinant of the quality of dental prosthetic restorations. In the follow-up (SHIP 1) to the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a representative population of 3300 subjects was studied in the first exploratory evaluation of the occlusion of artificial teeth in the chewing center (first molar region) of partial dentures. A digital analysis of interocclusal records of habitual intercuspation position (ICP) was performed using the Greifswald Digital Analyzing System (GEDAS), a software package that identifies contact points as transparent areas. 562 subjects (280 men aged 61.7 ± 11.9 years and 282 women aged 60.7 ± 10.7 years) had maxillary removable partial dentures (RPDs), and 619 (271 men aged 65.0 ± 11.5 years and 348 women aged 62.4 ± 10.6 years) had mandibular RPDs. Most RPDs were retained with either attachment retainers (11.7% maxilla, 11.7% mandible), cast clasps (38.4% maxilla, 40.7% mandible), telescopes with double crowns (15.7% maxilla, 19.1% mandible), or wrought wire clasps (16.4% maxilla, 8.2% mandible). Some had a combination of different retention elements. The mean number of artificial teeth was 7.8 ± 2.9 in the maxilla and 7.5 ± 3.0 in the mandible. Only the artificial teeth (first molars) in mandibular partial dentures showed differences in the frequency of occlusal contacts between groups (chi-square test). Of these, telescopic crown-retained RPDs had the highest frequency of occlusal contacts (74.4% at tooth 36 and 77.1% at tooth 46), and wrought wire-retained RPDs had the lowest (48.4% at tooth 36 and 45.2% at tooth 46). The results for RPDs with a free-end saddle were comparable and analogous; contact frequencies for those with an interdental saddle did not differ significantly. Notably, the overall frequency of occlusal contacts was greater for tooth 46 (62.9%) than for tooth 36. In conclusion, when replacing teeth in the chewing center, particularly in the mandible, telescopic crown

  12. Habit reversal vs negative practice treatment of self-destructive oral habits (biting, chewing or licking of the lips, cheeks, tongue or palate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, N H; Nunn, R G; Frantz-Renshaw, S E

    1982-03-01

    Ten patients with oral habits such as biting, chewing licking, or pushing of the cheeks, lips, teeth, or palate were randomly assigned to either habit reversal treatment or to negative practice treatment. Treatment was given in a single 2-hr session. The patients receiving negative practice treatment showed a mean reduction of about 65%, those receiving the habit reversal treatment showed a mean reduction of about 99% during the 22-months of follow-up.

  13. Photorhabdus luminescens genes induced upon insect infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kirsten

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus luminescens is a Gram-negative luminescent enterobacterium and a symbiote to soil nematodes belonging to the species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. P.luminescens is simultaneously highly pathogenic to insects. This bacterium exhibits a complex life cycle, including one symbiotic stage characterized by colonization of the upper nematode gut, and a pathogenic stage, characterized by release from the nematode into the hemocoel of insect larvae, resulting in rapid insect death caused by bacterial toxins. P. luminescens appears to sense and adapt to the novel host environment upon changing hosts, which facilitates the production of factors involved in survival within the host, host-killing, and -exploitation. Results A differential fluorescence induction (DFI approach was applied to identify genes that are up-regulated in the bacterium after infection of the insect host Galleria mellonella. For this purpose, a P. luminescens promoter-trap library utilizing the mCherry fluorophore as a reporter was constructed, and approximately 13,000 clones were screened for fluorescence induction in the presence of a G. mellonella larvae homogenate. Since P. luminescens has a variety of regulators that potentially sense chemical molecules, like hormones, the screen for up-regulated genes or operons was performed in vitro, excluding physicochemical signals like oxygen, temperature or osmolarity as variables. Clones (18 were obtained exhibiting at least 2.5-fold induced fluorescence and regarded as specific responders to insect homogenate. In combination with a bioinformatics approach, sequence motifs were identified in these DNA-fragments that are similar to 29 different promoters within the P. luminescens genome. By cloning each of the predicted promoters upstream of the reporter gene, induction was verified for 27 promoters in vitro, and for 24 promoters in viable G. mellonella larvae. Among the validated promoters are some known

  14. Research of New-typed Anti-halitosis Chewing Gum%新型除口臭口香糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金威; 李胡俊; 周鸿媛; 侯大军

    2011-01-01

    本文对新型除口臭口香糖的配方和加工工艺进行了研究;在传统口香糖配方和加工工艺的基础上,对新型除口臭口香糖的工艺进行了研究.通过试验确定出新型除口臭口香糖的最佳配方为:金银花用量为3.00mL/10g,锌含量2.00mg/10g,茶多酚用量为0.06g/10g;辅料吸收的最适温度为60℃.%In this paper, the formulation and processing technology of anti-halitosis functional chewing gum were studied.Based on the traditional chewing gum formulation and processing technology, the removing bad breath technics of antihalitosis functional chewing gum was researched as well. According the tests, the best compound is: 3.00mL/10g honeysuckle, 2.00mg/10g zinc, 0.06g/10g tea polyphenols and 60 ℃ for materials absorbing.

  15. External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

  16. Spectral composition of light sources and insect phototaxis, with an evaluation of existing spectral response models. Journal of Insect Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Donners, M.; Boekee, K.; Tichelaar, I.; Geffen, van K.G.; Groenendijk, D.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Artificial illumination attracts insects, but to what extent light attracts insects, depends on the spectral composition of the light. Response models have been developed to predict the attractiveness of artificial light sources. In this study we compared attraction of insects by existing light sour

  17. [Synergism of plant volatiles to insect pheromones and related mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-hua; Zhao, Hui; Li, Jin-fu; Zeng, Xian-dong; Chen, Jian-jun; Feng, Han-li; Xu, Jia-wen

    2008-11-01

    Host plant volatiles and insect pheromones are the most important semiochemicals for insects, and their synergism can modulate insect behaviors. The attraction to sex- and aggregation pheromones of insects can be greatly enhanced by specific plant volatiles through the increased electroantennogram, pheromone incepting neuron action potential, and pulse-frequency. When the specific plant volatiles are bound with octopamine receptors, the threshold of sex pheromone incepting neuron to sex pheromones is decreased, while the sensibility of sex pheromone incepting neuron is increased, which may be the main mechanism for the synergism of plant volatiles to insect pheromones.

  18. Multi-factor climate change effects on insect herbivore performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J; Stevnbak, Karen;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the combined effects of multiple climate change drivers on herbivorous insects are scarce. We independently manipulated three climate change drivers (CO......, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect herbivores may decline under future climate. The complexity of insect herbivore responses increases with the number of combined climate change drivers....

  19. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  20. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Road Hung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM).METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested.RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcerogenic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats.CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats.