WorldWideScience

Sample records for cherries

  1. Cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sour chgahtvy (Prunus cerasus L.) "Montmorency" and sweet cherry rootstocks "Gisela 6" and "Gisela 7" (P. cerasus × P. canescens) is described. Briefly, leaf explants from in vitro shoots are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens either directly (for "Gisela 6" and "Gisela 7") or after pretreatment (for "Montmorency") on cocultivation medium; selection and regeneration of transformed shoots are carried out on selection medium containing 50 mg/L kanamycin (Km) and 250 mg/L timentin (or cefotaxime) for 3-5 months. In this protocol, the optimal media for shoot proliferation and shoot regeneration from leaf explants are genotype dependent. PMID:25416255

  2. Cherry Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    When I am homesick, the cherry trees dotting here and there in my hometown always visit me in my dreams. The cherry tree is a common and special plant. Full of vigor, it grows by itself and needs little care. In early spring, people use simple tools to cut seedlings from the mother root and plant them in soil, then the seedlings start to grow. Three years later, the young plant becomes a big tree and it

  3. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria BOROVINOVA; Vilina PETROVA

    2015-01-01

    The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazo...

  4. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  5. Cherries and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Letitia M; Kubota, Chieri; Stendell-Hollis, Nicole R; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2011-01-01

    Cherries, and in particular sweet cherries, are a nutritionally dense food rich in anthocyanins, quercetin, hydroxycinnamates, potassium, fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, and melatonin. UV concentration, degree of ripeness, postharvest storage conditions, and processing, each can significantly alter the amounts of nutrients and bioactive components. These constituent nutrients and bioactive food components support the potential preventive health benefits of cherry intake in relation to cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease. Mechanistically, cherries exhibit relatively high antioxidant activity, low glycemic response, COX 1 and 2 enzyme inhibition, and other anti-carcinogenic effects in vitro and in animal experiments. Well-designed cherry feeding studies are needed to further substantiate any health benefits in humans. PMID:21229414

  6. Maraschino Cherry: A Laboratory-Lecture Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State Univ. has offered FST 102 "Maraschino Cherry" as a 1-credit orientation course since 1994. The maraschino cherry serves as a vehicle from which faculty give their disciplinary perspective, for example, the chemistry of the maraschino cherry, processing unit operations, microbiology and food safety, food law, sensory analysis, product…

  7. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  8. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  9. Cherry Tree Restaurant: Dessert Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry Tree Restaurant

    2012-01-01

    The Cherry Tree restaurant was opened by chef/proprietor Harry McKeogh in Ballina, Co. Mayo in 2000. It is a contemporary style restaurant with waterside views. Produce is sourced from the local area where possible and a range of menus are offered from early bird to à la carte. The restaurant has won a number of awards and recommendations Restaurant website available here http://arrow.dit.ie/menus21c/1065/thumbnail.jpg

  10. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  11. Storage of surinam cherry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofsky Vieira Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type of drying and packaging are two essential factors in the study of dehydration and preservation of fruits, respectively. The objective was study the storage of surinam cherry powder produced by foam mat drying and packaged in flexible packing (PET/PP. The powder samples were obtained by pulp dehydration in an oven with circulating air (0.5 m s-1 in the temperature of 70 °C. The surinam cherry powder was wrapped in flexible packing and stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 60 days. During the storage was evaluated the stability of powder through the monitoring every 10 days the moisture content, ascorbic acid, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars, total sugars and color parameters (brightness, redness and yellowness. Only the non-reducing sugars did not differ significantly with the storage time. The results indicated that the powder has changed in most of the properties, but the ascorbic acid content, moisture content, total acidity and total sugars varied little over the 60 days.

  12. Cherry Antioxidants: From Farm to Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Belleggia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds found in vegetable products. Sweet and sour cherries contain several antioxidants and polyphenols that possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation properties. The review describes the effect of environment and other factors (such as production, handling and storage on the nutritional properties of cherries, with particular attention to polyphenol compounds. Moreover the health benefits of cherries and their polyphenols against human diseases such as heart disease, cancers, diabetes are reviewed.

  13. Invariant Measures for Cherry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghin, Radu; Vargas, Edson

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the invariant probability measures for Cherry flows, i.e. flows on the two-torus which have a saddle, a source, and no other fixed points, closed orbits or homoclinic orbits. In the case when the saddle is dissipative or conservative we show that the only invariant probability measures are the Dirac measures at the two fixed points, and the Dirac measure at the saddle is the physical measure. In the other case we prove that there exists also an invariant probability measure supported on the quasi-minimal set, we discuss some situations when this other invariant measure is the physical measure, and conjecture that this is always the case. The main techniques used are the study of the integrability of the return time with respect to the invariant measure of the return map to a closed transversal to the flow, and the study of the close returns near the saddle.

  14. Invariant measures for Cherry flows

    CERN Document Server

    Saghin, Radu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the invariant probability measures for Cherry flows, i.e. flows on the two-torus which have a saddle, a source, and no other fixed points, closed orbits or homoclinic orbits. In the case when the saddle is dissipative or conservative we show that the only invariant probability measures are the Dirac measures at the two fixed points, and the Dirac measure at the saddle is the physical measure. In the other case we discuss some situations when there exists another invariant measure supported on the quasi-minimal set, which is the physical measure, and conjecture that this is always the case. The main techniques used are the study of the integrability of the return time with respect to the invariant measure of the return map to a closed transversal to the flow, and the study of the close returns near the saddle.

  15. Identification of incompatibility alleles in the tetraploid species sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobutt, K R; Bosković, R; Cerović, R; Sonneveld, T; Ruzić, D

    2004-03-01

    The incompatibility genetics of sour cherry ( Prunus cerasus), an allotetraploid species thought to be derived from sweet cherry (diploid) and ground cherry (tetraploid), were investigated by test crossing and by analysis of stylar ribonucleases which are known to be the products of incompatibility alleles in sweet cherry. Stylar extracts of 36 accessions of sour cherry were separated electrophoretically and stained for ribonuclease activity. The zymograms of most accessions showed three bands, some two or four. Of the ten bands seen, six co-migrated with bands that in sweet cherry are attributed to the incompatibility alleles S(1), S(3), S(4), S(6, ) S(9) and S(13). 'Cacanski Rubin', 'Erdi Botermo B', 'Koros' and 'Ujfehertoi Furtos', which showed bands apparently corresponding to S(1) and S(4), were test pollinated with the sweet cherry 'Merton Late' ( S(1) S(4)). Monitoring pollen tube growth, and, in one case, fruit set, showed that these crosses were incompatible and that the four sour cherries indeed have the alleles S(1) and S(4). Likewise, test pollination of 'Marasca Piemonte', 'Marasca Savena' and 'Morello, Dutch' with 'Noble' ( S(6) S(13)) showed that these three sour cherries have the alleles S(6) and S(13). S(13) was very frequent in sour cherry cultivars, but is rare in sweet cherry cultivars, whereas with S(3) the situation is reversed. It was suggested that the other four bands are derived from ground cherry and one of these, provisionally attributed to S(B), occurred frequently in a small set of ground cherry accessions surveyed. Analysing some progenies from sour by sweet crosses by S allele-specific PCR and monitoring the success of some sweet by sour crosses were informative. They indicated mostly disomic inheritance, with sweet cherry S alleles belonging to one locus and, presumably, the ground cherry alleles to the other, and helped clarify the genomic arrangement of the alleles and the interactions in heteroallelic pollen. PMID:14689184

  16. Generalized Cherry oscillators and negative energy waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1925 Cherry discussed two oscillators of positive and negative energy that are nonlinearly coupled in a special way, and presented exact solutions of the nonlinear equations showing explosive instabilities independent of the strength of the nonlinearity and the initial amplitudes. In this paper Cherry's Hamiltonian is transformed into a form which allows a simple physical interpretation. The new Hamiltonian is generalized to three nonlinearly coupled oscillators; it corresponds to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory, like the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, if there exist linear negative energy waves. (orig.)

  17. The effects of the cherry variety on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINOSLAV NIKIĆEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy produced from five cherry varieties (Oblacinska, Celery’s 16, Rexle, Heiman’s Ruby and Heiman’s Conserve grown in Serbia were studied. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of these distillates led to the identification of 32 components, including 20 esters, benzaldehyde, 6 terpenes and 5 acids. The ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. The benzaldehyde content was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The average benzaldehyde concentration in the samples ranged between 2.1 and 24.1 mg L-1. The total sensory scores of the cherry brandies ranged between 17.30 to 18.05, with the cherry brandy produced from the Celery’s 16 variety receiving the highest score (18.05.

  18. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  19. Lynne Cherry's "A River Ran Wild."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Carolyn; Brent, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Paraphrases the book "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry, contrasts how Native American and European settlers use a river, and discusses the pollution and cleanup of the river. Provides classroom discussion questions, and individual or group activities in language arts, art, role-playing, geography, and interviewing. Includes an annotated…

  20. 21 CFR 145.125 - Canned cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.125 Canned cherries. (a... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, as defined in § 145.3 are: (a) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water....

  1. Tart Cherry Yield and Economic Response to Alternative Planting Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Me-Nsope, Nathalie Mongue

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates the economic response of tart cherry yields to planting density using an unbalanced longitudinal yield data from tart cherry orchards in Northwest Michigan. The relationship between tart cherry yield and tree age is specified as a linear spline function and planting density interacts with tree age. A random effect method, treating block as random, is used to estimate the spline function. Stochastic simulation was used to estimate the mean and variance of the product of ...

  2. Cherry Antioxidants: From Farm to Table

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Belleggia; Davide Neri; Gianna Ferretti; Tiziana Bacchetti

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds found in vegetable products. Sweet and sour cherries contain several antioxidants and polyphenols that possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation properties. The review describes the effect of environment and ...

  3. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Testa; Anna Maria di Trapani; Filippo Sgroi; Salvatore Tudisca

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harves...

  4. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  5. Sweet and sour cherry decorative forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of natural populations, biodiversity located on farm and the introduced cultivars and selections are a rich source of genetic variability in sour and sweet cherries, but they have never been bread with the aim of creating decorative varieties. Low vigour − dwarfing and upright − sour cherry genotypes, NS 1/16 KK and NS 1/24 KK, were selected from natural population of Fruška Gora and private arboretum, respectively. Sweet cherry selections NS 6/15 K and RŠ 8/27 were part of on farm conservation of genetic resources. Furthermore, reduction in vigour was achieved by defining specific combining abilities as a result of rootstock/scion interaction. The outcome of this study is unique columnar and dwarf forms that integrate specific genetic potential of varieties and selections, their interaction with rootstocks and traditional horticultural skills. Collected biodiversity is another confirmation that the Balkan peninsula is one of the most valuable secondary centres of genetic diversity and inexhaustible gene pool for breeding both, varieties and vegetative rootstocks.

  6. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Cameron; Bassil, Nahla; Main, Dorrie; Ficklin, Stephen; Rosyara, Umesh R; Stegmeir, Travis; Sebolt, Audrey; Gilmore, Barbara; Lawley, Cindy; Mockler, Todd C; Bryant, Douglas W; Wilhelm, Larry; Iezzoni, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb) of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome) and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome). Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n = 269) and sour (n = 330) cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery, genome

  7. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Peace

    Full Text Available High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus. This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome. Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n = 269 and sour (n = 330 cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery

  8. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry... of quality for frozen cherry pie is as follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie is such that...

  9. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  10. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  11. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a commun...

  12. The Cherry Trees in Our School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕迪; 吕铁雄

    2004-01-01

    “The cherry Trees in Our School”是吕迪同学描述自己校园的一篇文章,通过对樱花的描述,使得整篇文章内容生动、语言流畅,充分体现了他对事物细腻的观察力,对生活的热爱,对提供他学习环境的肯定。在此刊登全文,以飨读者。

  13. Pseudomonas syringae – Pathogen of Sweet Cherry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of pathogenic Pseudomonas bacterial strains isolated from cherry inSerbia are presented in the article. Two types of symptoms were observed on cherry treesat few localities with intensive production in Serbia (Belgrade, Čačak, Topola, Šabac, NoviSad. The first symptom is bud necrosis and the second bacterial canker of cherry branch.Gram negative, fluorescent, oxidative bacterial strains were isolated from the margin ofnecrotic tissue. All investigated strains were levan and HR positive, while negative resultswere recorded for oxidase, pectinase and arginin dihydrolase tests (LOPAT+- - - +.Based on pathogenicity tests and differential GATT tests, investigated strains weredivided in two distinct groups: the first group consisted of strains isolated from necroticcherry branch which caused necrosis on artificially inoculated cherry, pear and lemon fruits,syringae leaves and bean pods, were gelatin and aesculin positive, and tyrosinase and tartratenegative (typical characteristics of P.s. pv. syringae. Contrary, second group strainswere isolated from necrotic cherry buds, showed negative results in mentioned pathogenicitytests, gelatin and aesculin tests were negative, while tyrosinase and tartrate werepositive (typical characteristics of P.s. pv. morsprunorum.REP PCR analyses showed that strains isolated from necrotic cherry buds belong to P. spv. morsprunorum compared to referent strain. In contrast, isolates obtained from necroticcherry branches had unique fingerprint profiles but different from all reference strains.According to the obtained results it was concluded that both pathovars of P. syringae(syringae and morsprunorum cause necrosis of cherry trees in Serbia.

  14. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this coul...

  15. Effects of cherry leaf spot on photosynthesis in tart cherry 'Montmorency' foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, B R; Kruger, E L; McManus, P S

    2012-07-01

    Results described here span a total of three field seasons and quantitatively depict the effects of an economically important fungal pathogen (Blumeriella jaapii) on tart cherry (Prunus cerasus 'Montmorency') leaf physiology. For the first time, leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation rate (V(cmax)), and maximum electron transport (J(max)) were measured as functions of visible cherry leaf spot disease (CLS) severity. Defined as the proportion of chlorotic and necrotic tissue per leaf, CLS severity was estimated from leaves of mature 'Montmorency' trees in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Briefly, as visible disease severity increased, all of the leaf-level physiological parameters decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and disproportionately. Thus, the effects of visible symptoms on leaf photosynthetic metabolic function encroached upon asymptomatic tissue as well. Impairment of photosynthetic metabolism in 'Montmorency' tart cherry leaves due to CLS appears to be mediated through disproportionately large perturbations in g(s), V(cmax), and J(max). These findings offer a new perspective on the amount of damage that this serious disease can inflict. PMID:22667445

  16. Complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates ofCherry virus A from sweet cherry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Rui; LI Shi-fang; LU Mei-guang

    2016-01-01

    Cherry virus A(CVA) is a member of the genusCapilovirus, in the familyBetalfexiviridae. The infection rate of CVA was high in sweet cherry in China. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of CVA from Tai’an, Shan-dong Province, China using high ifdelity PCR enzymes and speciifc primer pairs for amplifying long fragments in RT-PCR and RACE. The ful-length sequences from isolates ChTA11 and ChTA12 are both 7382 nucleotide (nt) long, excluding the poly(A) tail, encode two open reading frames (ORFs) and have similar genome organization to the two isolates in Gen-Bank. The complete nucleotide sequence of ChTA11 is 98.2 and 81.2% nt identity to the isolates from Germany and India in GenBank, respectively, and the ChTA12 isolate is 98.2 and 81.0% similar. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed that the domain of unknown function (DUF1717) is more variable compared with other domains. This is the ifrst report of the complete nucleotide sequences of CVA isolates infecting sweet cherry in China.

  17. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  18. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  19. Effect of Different Photoperiods on Cold Hardiness in Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Makaraci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have investigated the effects of different photoperiods on cold hardiness of cherry trees (Prunus avium cv. Ulster. One year old, cherry trees were exposed 8 hours of day length and 16 hours of dark period for short day conditions and 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark period for long day conditions. We also compared the acclimatization pattern of cherry trees with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula ×Populus tremuloides trees. LT50 values indicated that short day and long day conditions did not alter the cold hardiness of cherry trees. Under the same experimental conditions hybrid aspen trees were affected from different photoperiods. Aspen trees exposed to short day conditions were hardier than the trees exposed to long day conditions. We also investigated the acclimatization the patterns of basal and apical parts of the branches both in cherry and aspen trees. There were no significant differences in cold hardiness of the basal and apical parts of the branches in aspen and cherry trees.

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Chu, Hyosub; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Lian, Sen; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-12-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170). De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing. PMID:26697395

  1. Anti diabetic effect of cherries in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, Tahsini; Reza, Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both of them. Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Cherry as a traditionally used plant for treatment of diabetes, is packed with powerful plant pigments called anthocyanins. They give cherries their dark red color and are one of the richest antioxidant sources which lower the blood sugar and bear other beneficial health effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of cherry fruit on alloxan induced diabetic rats. In this study 36 Male Wistar rats, body weight of 150-200gr were divided into 6 groups. Diabetes was induced by intra peritoneal injection of 120 mg/kg Alloxan. The duration of the cherries treatment was 30 days in which single dose of extracts (200mg/kg) were oral administered to diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were estimated with glucometer before treatment, 2h and 1- 4 weeks after administration of extracts. Treatment with extracts of the cherries resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and urinary microalbumin and an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urea. Extract of this plant is useful in controlling the blood glucose level. Cherries appear to aid in diabetes control and diminution of the complications of the disease. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article. PMID:22280223

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  3. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto .; Dwi Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sac...

  4. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, N P; Momin, R A; Nair, M G; Bourquin, L D

    2001-09-01

    Anthocyanins from tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton and Montmorency; sweet cherries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae); bilberries, Vaccinum myrtillus L. (Ericaceae); blackberries, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae); blueberries var. Jersey, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae); cranberries var. Early Black, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae); elderberries, Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceae); raspberries, Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae); and strawberries var. Honeoye, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (Rosaceae), were investigated for cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The presence and levels of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside 1 and cyanidin-3-rutinoside 2 were determined in the fruits using HPLC. The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was comparable to the commercial antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, and superior to vitamin E, at a test concentration of 125 microg/ml. Anthocyanins from raspberries and sweet cherries demonstrated 45% and 47% cyclooxygenase-I and cyclooxygenase-II inhibitory activities, respectively, when assayed at 125 microg/ml. The cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from these fruits were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 microM concentrations. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberry. The yields of pure anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries, sweet cherries and raspberries were 21, 16.5; 11, 5; 4.95, 21; and 4.65, 13.5 mg, respectively. Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only anthocyanin 2 in yields of 24 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries. PMID:11695879

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease. PMID:23525699

  6. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.], and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this could affect various life history traits of flies. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) if body size and egg loads of flies infesting sweet, tart, and bitter cherries differ from one another; and 2) if any observed body size differences are genetically based or caused by the host fruit environment. Pupae and adults of both sexes reared from larval-infested sweet and tart cherries collected in Washington and Montana were larger than those reared from bitter cherries. In addition, flies of both sexes caught on traps in sweet and tart cherry trees were larger than those caught in bitter cherry trees and females trapped from sweet and tart cherry trees had 54.0-98.8% more eggs. The progeny of flies from naturally-infested sweet and bitter cherries reared for one generation in the laboratory on sweet cherry did not differ in size. The same also was true for progeny of sweet and bitter cherry flies reared in the field on bitter cherry. The results suggest that the larger body sizes of flies from sweet and tart cherries than bitter cherries in the field are caused by host fruit and not genetic factors. PMID:22217749

  7. Influence of freezing and storing cherry fruit on its nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Vasylyshyna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cherries are a valuable dietary raw material and possess medicinal properties. Considering the nutritional, medical and vitamin value of cherry fruits, the purpose of this research was to produce a scientific justification for preserving the quality of cherry fruits using different freezing methods. Material and methods. To do this, cherry fruits from the Lotovka (Cerasus vulgaris) variety were frozen in various ways: packed in polyethylene bags (control); pr...

  8. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of sour cherries from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: the total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in three sour cherry cultivars (Prunus cerasus L. introduced to the southeast Serbia climate conditions. Among the researched sour cherries, ‘Oblacinska’ cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by ‘Cigancica’ > ‘Marela’. A significant difference were observed in the phenolic content among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and the phenolic compounds were significantly higher in the growing season 2009. The examined cultivars possess a high antioxidant capacity, and all phenolics of highy correlation with TAC. The following compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD: 4 anthocyanins, the most abundant of which was cyaniding-3-glucoside in ‘Marela’ and ‘Oblacinska’, and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside in ‘Cigancica’, and 4 hydroxycinnamic acids, the most abundant of which was neochlorogenic acid in all sour cherry cultivars. The growing and ripening process on the tree of sour cherry cv. Oblacinska was evaluated, also. The results showed significant increases in total phenols during the ripening, the total anthocyanins and total antioxidant capacity and 4 quantified anthocyanins, however the neochlorogenic acid decreased during the ripening. The study indicated that the growing and climate conditions in southeast Serbia are convenient for introducing sour cherry cultivars.

  9. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  10. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Larsen, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars 'Birgitte × Böttermö', 'Fanal' and 'Tiki' were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133 µmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74%, 79% and 73%, respectively). 'Stevnsbaer Birgitte' (22%) and 'Stevnsbaer Viki' (22%) inhibited PGE2 production with a similar potency as the positive controls indomethacin and NS-398. Significant differences between cultivars in all bioactivity experiments indicated that selection of cultivars is important to obtain sour cherries with better potential health promoting effects. PMID:22294298

  11. Effects of Different Sweet Cherry Rootstocks and Drought Stress on

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇÜKYUMUK, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Relation between drought stress, genotypic differences and nutrients are important in plant growth. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different sweet cherry rootstocks grown in 50-liter pots and drought stress on nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, and Cu) concentrations of leaves. In this study 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry variety grafted on five different rootstocks (P. mahaleb, Mazzard, Gisela-6, MaxMa 14, CAB 6) were used. Four irrigation treatments (control or 100%, 75%, 50...

  12. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted;

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell...... proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74...

  13. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  14. First Complete Genome Sequence of Cherry virus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinuma, Hiroaki; Nijo, Takamichi; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Keima, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2016-01-01

    The 5'-terminal genomic sequence of Cherry virus A (CVA) has long been unknown. We determined the first complete genome sequence of an apricot isolate of CVA (7,434 nucleotides [nt]). The 5'-untranslated region was 107 nt in length, which was 53 nt longer than those of known CVA sequences. PMID:27284130

  15. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries. PMID:23017392

  16. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic... used, as prescribed for canned cherries by § 145.125(a). If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or...

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity within sour cherry clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Andersen, Sven Bode; Henriksen, K.;

    2013-01-01

    Harvested yields of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ clones grown in Denmark have been highly variable over the years, yet some propagated derived trees selected from within the two widely grown clones of ‘Stevnsbaer’ clone ‘Birgitte’ and clone ‘Viki’ have consistently produced...

  18. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  19. Development of ochratoxin A during robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee cherry drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, P; Kanchanomai, C; Meyer, I; Pittet, A

    2000-04-01

    The occurrence and formation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Robusta coffee was studied for three consecutive seasons under tropical conditions in Thailand. Sun drying of coffee cherries consistently led to OTA formation in the pulp and parchment (husks) of the cherries. In replicated trials, dried coffee beans (green coffee) were shown to contain on average OTA concentrations that were approximately 1% of those found in husks. OTA contamination of green coffee depended on cherry maturity, with green cherries being the least, and overripe cherries the most susceptible. Defects, and in particular the inclusion of husks, are the most important source of OTA contamination. OTA contamination occurred independently of whether cherries were placed on concrete, on bamboo tables, or on the ground. The study suggests that better raw material quality, an appropriate drying and dehulling procedure combined with a reduction of green coffee defects can effectively contribute to the reduction of OTA in green coffee.

  20. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Blando; Carmela Gerardi; Isabella Nicoletti

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evalu...

  1. The main quality attributes of non-sprayed cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz Hilal; Ercisli Sezai; Narmanlioglu Haluk Kemal; Guclu Saban; Akbulut Mustafa; Turkoglu Zumrut

    2014-01-01

    Cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis) is naturally growing in black sea region in Turkey and the trees has not been spraying with pesticides. In natural growing conditions, all cherry laurel genotypes particularly fruits are seems resistant against pests. Astringent nature of fruits forms a barrier for pests. A total twelve cherry laurel accessions were harvested at full maturation time from various sites in Of district located in eastern black sea regio...

  2. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dušica DORIĆ; Vladislav OGNJANOV; Mirjana LJUBOJEVIĆ; Barać, Goran; Jovana DULIĆ; Pranjić, Ankica; Dugalić, Krunoslav

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant ...

  3. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  4. Improvement of new types by mutation breeding in cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey, which is a major cultivation area for cherry, is ranked either as first or second in worldwide cherry production with an annual production amount of 200.000 tonnes. Out of this amount, 7% is exported which holds a c. 20% share of the global export. Due to the plantations of different altitudes resulted by the rich geographical structure, our country has a diverse harvest calendar. Hence, it is possible to export cherries in similar quality for almost five-six weeks with different maturation periods. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar.In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co60 as a source of mutagen in 2000. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock. According to measurement and calculation on young trees in the field, efficient mutation dose and mutation frequency were found 33,75 Gy and %4.1 respectively.Trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). According to the data 8 mutant variety candidate (dwarf, semi dwarf, high yield and crackles) were selected in 371 living mutant trees for advance observations.

  5. Analysis of pomological traits in new promising sweet cherry genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry breeding programs are interested in developing new cultivars that are very early or very late in ripening, high yielding, with excellent fruit size and quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate new, promising, sweet cherry genotypes (G-1 and G-2 for ripening time, fruit morphology and fruit chemical content, and compare it with the standard sweet cherry cultivars (Bigarreau Jaboulay, B. H. Burlat, Seneca, Hedelfiger Riesenkirsche, Germersdorfer Grosse Kirsche, Emperor Francis and Bing. Experiment was done during four consecutive years (2006-2009 in Grocka, near Belgrade. The earliest fruit ripening was recorded in G-2 (22nd April while the latest in `Bing` (2nd June. Fruit weight varied from 5.83 g (G-2 up to 8.93 g (G-1. Soluble solid content and total sugar content were the lowest in genotype G-2 (10.48%; 8.45%, respectively but the highest in Emperor Francis (18.28%; 15.98%, respectively. No matter the fact that some standard cultivars showed better results for some traits, genotypes G-1 and G-2 are considered very promising. So, genotype G-1 could be intended for table consumption since it ripens 2-3 days after cv. B. H. Burlat, but have much higher fruit weight. Also, genotype G-2, the earliest in this trial, showed satisfactory fruit weight for this ripening time, which makes it very interesting for fresh market production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31063 i br. 31038

  6. Genomic analyses of cherry rusty mottle group and cherry twisted leaf-associated viruses reveal a possible new genus within the family betaflexiviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D E V; Susaimuthu, J; Eastwell, K C

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that closely related viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae are associated with a number of diseases that affect sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and other Prunus spp. Cherry rusty mottle-associated virus (CRMaV) is correlated with the appearance of cherry rusty mottle disease (CRMD), and Cherry twisted leaf-associated virus (CTLaV) is linked to cherry twisted leaf disease (CTLD) and apricot ringpox disease (ARPD). Comprehensive analysis of previously reported full genomic sequences plus those determined in this study representing isolates of CTLaV, CRMaV, Cherry green ring mottle virus, and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus revealed segregation of sequences into four clades corresponding to distinct virus species. High-throughput sequencing of RNA from representative source trees for CRMD, CTLD, and ARPD did not reveal additional unique virus sequences that might be associated with these diseases, thereby further substantiating the association of CRMaV and CTLaV with CRMD and CTLD or ARPD, respectively. Based on comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values, phylogenetic relationships with other triple-gene block-coding viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae, genome organization, and natural host range, a new genus (Robigovirus) is suggested. PMID:25496302

  7. 76 FR 10471 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... (75 FR 77564). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via facsimile to all Board members and... filling; frozen cherries are sold as an ingredient to manufacturers of pies and cherry desserts. Juice...

  8. 75 FR 29647 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... FR 12702). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via facsimile to all Board members and alternates... to manufacturers of pies and cherry desserts. Juice and dried cherries are expanding market...

  9. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars.

  10. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars. PMID:24301792

  11. Oral immunization of animals with transgenic cherry tomatillo expressing HBsAg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Yina Ma; Mei Li; Tonq Chenq; Shao-Wei Li; Jun Zhang; Ning-Shao Xia

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) in transgenic cherry tomatillo in order to explore the feasibility of producing HBV oral vaccine with cherry tomatillo by animal immune tests.METHODS: The recombinant plant expression vector containing HBsAg gene was constructed. Mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, HBsAg gene was transferred into cotyledons of cherry tomatillo. Transformed cherry tomatillos were obtained through hygromycin delay-selection. Integrated DNA in transgenic cherry tomatillo was confirmed by hygromycin resistance selection, Gus detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blotting analysis. Antigenicity of rHBsAg was examined by ELISA and the immunogenicity of rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo tissues was confirmed by oral feed of transformed tissues to BALB/c mice primed with commercial HBV vaccines. Specific antibody titers in mice's serum were examined by ELISA every week.RESULTS: By far, 10 positive lines of transgenic cherry tomatillos containing HBsAg gene were obtained. Among different organs of the same transgenic cherry tomatillo,level of rHBsAg expressed in leaves was the highest with the yield up to 300ng/g fresh weight. And the rHBsAg expression level in fruits was about 10 ng/g fresh weight.In animal immune tests, oral delivery with transgenic tissues to mice primed with commercial vaccine instead of naive mice resulted in significant immune response.CONCLUSION: The result of this animal immune test indicated the rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo possessed normal immunogenicity. This work demonstrated the feasibility to generate oral immunogenic rHBsAg in transgenic cherry tomatillo, and would provide some experimental approach for the production of low-cost oral vaccines using transgenic cherry tomatillo in large scale.

  12. Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria V. Vavoura; Anastasia V. Badeka; Stavros Kontakos; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena) grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars i...

  13. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Boxin; Bosak, Kristen N; Brickner, Paula R; Iezzoni, Dominic G; Seymour, E Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Processing of fruits and vegetables affects their phytochemical and nutrient content. Tart cherries are commercially promoted to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, processing affects their phytochemical content and may affect their related health benefits. The current study compares the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase activity of processed tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) products-cherry juice concentrate, individually quick-frozen cherries, canned cherries, and dried cherries. Cherry products were analyzed for total anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content and profile. On a per serving basis, total anthocyanins were highest in frozen cherries and total proanthocyanidins were highest in juice concentrate. Total phenolics were highest in juice concentrate. Juice concentrate had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and peroxynitrite radical averting capacity (NORAC). Dried cherries had the highest hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) and superoxide radical averting capacity (SORAC). Processed tart cherry products compared very favorably to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-reported ORAC of other fresh and processed fruits. Inhibition of in vitro inflammatory COX-1 activity was greatest in juice concentrate. In summary, all processed tart cherry products possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but processing differentially affected phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. On a per serving basis, juice concentrate was superior to other tart cherry products. PMID:23163942

  14. 75 FR 77564 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... inelastic which indicates that price reductions do not result in large increases in the quantity demanded... the demand at retail or food service outlets minus per-unit processing and distribution costs incurred.... Demand for tart cherries at the farm level is derived from the demand for tart cherry products at...

  15. Sensing the Moisture Content of Dry Cherries - A Rapid and Nondestructive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a parallel-plate capacitor with a single cherry fruit between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance C, was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture cont...

  16. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  17. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale proce

  18. Acute kidney injury from cherry concentrate in a patient with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Randy L

    2014-03-01

    Nutraceuticals are supplements and medical foods that offer numerous health benefits. However, these substances may have adverse effects on multiple organ systems, leading to significant morbidity. I present a patient with chronic kidney disease who experienced hemodynamically mediated acute kidney injury and hyperkalemia after daily consumption of cherry concentrate. The method of injury was most likely cyclooxygenase inhibition by the compounds in cherries that mimic the mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Ceasing cherry concentrate consumption led to improvements in both the patient's hyperkalemia and kidney injury. Physicians should be aware of the potentially harmful side effects of cherry concentrate and approach the use of cherry extract or concentrate with caution in patients with underlying kidney disease. PMID:24290246

  19. Fruit size QTL analysis of an F1 population derived from a cross between a domesticated sweet cherry cultivar and a wild forest sweet cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, G.; Sebolt, A.M.; Sooriyapathirana, S.S.; Wang, D; Bink, M. C. A. M.; Olmstead, J.W.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maximizing fruit size is critical for profitable sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) production. Yet, despite its importance, little is known about the genetic control of fruit size. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit size and two essential components of fruit size, mesocarp cell number and size. This study utilized a double pseudo-testcross population derived from reciprocal crosses between a sweet cherry cultivar with ~8 g fruit, ¿Emperor Francis...

  20. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Results Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Conclusions Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.

  1. Clonal stability and epigenetic variation in sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin

    selections compared to cl. 'Birgitte'. However, such epigenetic differences may be enough to change gene expression and result in phenotypic variability. This study demonstrates that morphological differences exist both between and within the 'Stevnsbaer' clones 'Birgitte' and 'Viki'. However, the genetic...... and epigenetic studies strongly suggest that little further genetic variation exists within the narrow base spanning the two clones. Consequently, there would appear to be little value in continuing to pursue an improvement strategy for sour cherry based on non-mutant selection within the ommercial clones...

  2. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2013-07-01

    We study C 2 weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  3. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  4. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2012-01-01

    We study $C^{2}$ weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  5. Tart Cherry Juice as a Treatment for Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cindy Alberts

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tart cherries have a long history as a treatment for gout and joint pain. While the exact mechanism of action is unknown, it is believed that acanthocyanin pigments and related bioflavonoids found in tart cherries and other red fruits scavenge free radicals, modulate cytokines, reduce DNA degradation, decrease capillary permeability, inhibit cyclooxygenase, and strengthen biological membranes. Many of these biochemical reactions would be expected to reduce inflammation, pain, and edema. Significance of Study Peripheral polyneuropathies are common and are believed to affect up to 9% of the US population older than 50 y. These neuropathies may develop from direct compression of peripheral nerves, toxic or metabolic injury to nerve tissue, autoimmune attack, or nutritional deficiency. No cause is identified in approximately 30% of patients. The pathophysiology of polyneuropathies is complex and not fully understood, but 3 common patterns of damage occur: (1) distal axonopathy, where the cell bodies remain intact, but axons degenerate from distal to proximal, usually as the result of toxic or metabolic injury; (2) demyelination neuropathy, where damage to the myelin sheath from autoimmune, infectious, or other causes disrupts electrical signaling; and (3) ganglionopathies, where damage occurs at the cell body or neuron, a relatively rare occurrence. While weakness and loss of sensation are common in many peripheral polyneuropathies, “gain of function” symptoms, such as paresthesias and allodynia, are the most distressing and are very difficult to treat. It is believed that these symptoms are caused by alterations in ion channels, alterations in neurotransmitters and their receptors, and altered gene expression. Common conventional treatments include antiepileptics, antidepressants, NSAIDs, and narcotics. These medications alter ion channels and neurotransmitters, decrease the sensitivity of nociceptive receptors, and desensitize C fibers. Most patients

  6. The performance of Adara as a cherry rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Sánchez, María Ángeles; Montañés Millán, Luis; Tabuenca Abadía, María de la Concepción; Cambra Ruiz de Velasco, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The field performance of Adara (Prunus cerasifera L.), SL 64 (Prunus mahaleb) and Colt (Prunus avium X Prunus pseudocerasus) rootstocks grafted with two sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L. cvs. ‘Van’ and ‘Tardif de Vignola’), were tested for 12 years on a calcareous clay-loam soil which was flood irrigated. No tree grafted on Adara died during the experiment. The percentage of dead trees of ‘Tardif de Vignola’ on SL 64 and Colt reached 63% and 19%, respectively. The percentage of dead tre...

  7. Genetic characterization of pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from necrotic cherry and plum buds in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Veljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During past few years a symptoms of plum and cherry bud necrosis were observed in some regions with significant cherry production in Serbia. Gram negative, fluorescent, oxidative bacterial strains were isolated from the margin of necrotic tissue. All investigated strains are levan and HR positive, while negative results are recorded in oxidase, pectinase and arginin dihydrolase tests (LOPAT+---+. Symptoms similar to those observed in natural infection were obtained after artificial inoculation of cherry leaf scares and dormant one year old cherry shoots. Investigated strains as well as reference strain of P. syringae pv. morsprunorum cause the superficial necrosis on artificially inoculated immature cherry fruits, but negative results were recorded in immature pear and lemon fruit tests as well as syringae leaves and bean pods. Gelatin and aesculin tests were negative and tyrosinase and tartrate were positive. Investigated strains isolated from necrotic cherry buds had identical REP-PCR pattern with reference strain of P. syringae pv. morsprunorum. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that this bacterium is causal agent of cherry trees bud necrosis in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31018 i br. 173026

  8. Report: investigation of anti-cancer effects of cherry in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai; Istanbulluoglu, Hakan; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Barla, Asli; Tekbas, Omer Faruk; Oztas, Emin

    2014-05-01

    Cherry (Prunus Cerasus) is still one of the most popular preserve in Turkish cuisine. Cherry has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms. Recent researches have proved that cherry is a valuable natural source of some important bioactive compounds in human health preservation. Evidence suggests that, cherry consumption may decrease the risk of chronic diseases and cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cherry on breast cancer cells lines, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) level and certain multidrug-resistant bacteria. The cancer cell proliferation activity and analysis of apoptotic-necrotic cells was evaluated by using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and scoring of apoptotic cell nuclei. Measurement of ADMA and the minimum inhibitory concentration was accomplished by HPLC and the micro dilution broth method. The results showed that, extracts of cherry exhibit anti-proliferative activity in mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) & mouse mammary tumor cell (4T1) breast cancer cells lines as well as induction of apoptosis, lower ADMA concentrations in cell cultures treated with cherry extract and antibacterial effects against certain multidrug-resistant bacteria in vitro. These findings may open new horizons for traditional anti-inflammatory product as prophylactic-therapeutic agent from cancer, cardiovascular diseases and multidrug-resistant infections. PMID:24811821

  9. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect. PMID:26449220

  10. Melatonin and its potential biological functions in the fruits of sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Tan, Dun-Xian; Lei, Qiong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-tian; Gao, Yinan; Kong, Jin

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin is a well-known molecule which possesses many beneficial effects on human health. Many agriculture products provide natural melatonin in the diet. Cherry is one such fruit as they are rich in melatonin. In order to understand the biological roles of melatonin in cherry fruit, melatonin synthesis and its changes over 24 hr period were systematically monitored both during their development and in the ripe cherries in two cultivars, 'Hongdeng' (Prunus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) and 'Rainier' (Prunus avium L. cv. Rainier). It was found that both darkness and oxidative stress induced melatonin synthesis, which led to dual melatonin synthetic peaks during a 24 hr period. The high levels of malondialdehyde induced by high temperature and high intensity light exposure were directly related to up-regulated melatonin production. A primary function of melatonin in cherry fruits is speculated to be as an antioxidant to protect the cherry from the oxidative stress. Importantly, plant tryptophan decaboxylase gene (PaTDC) was identified in cherry fruits. Our data shows that PaTDC expression is positively related to the melatonin production in the cherry. This provides additional information to suggest that tryptophan decaboxylase is a rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis in plants. PMID:23480341

  11. Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kelly, Megan E; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries-which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats-would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0-1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1-4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals. PMID:27669317

  12. Genetic Engineering of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) for Reproductive Sterility and Insect Pest Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China)

    2013-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is one of the most valuable hardwoods for high- end cabinetry, furniture, architectural millwork, paneling, and veneer. However, the damage caused by cambial-mining insect pests triggers gummosis in black cherry, a non-specific defense response in which resinous gum is deposited at the site of injury. The gum defects dramatically decrease the yield of high-quality black cherry lumber, and the value can be reduced by as much as 90%. The goal of this project...

  13. Quality Changes of Different Sweet Cherry Cultivars at Various Stages of the Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih SEN; Rustu Efe OKSAR; Mina GOLKARIAN; Sevde YALDIZ

    2014-01-01

    Transportation of sweet cherry fruits to distant markets and further marketing processes often takes approximately 2-3 weeks. The present study investigates the quality changes during this time period at three stages for three sweet cherry cultivars: ‘Early Burlat’, ‘Napoleon’, and ‘0900 Ziraat’. Following pre-cooling, the sweet cherries were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following stages for the indicated durations: transportation (T) [8 days at 2 °C and 85% relat...

  14. Frequency, Damage and Comparative Phonology of Annual Ground Cherry (Physalis divaricata L. Weed in Sugar Beet Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari NAZARI ALAM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground cherry (Physalis divaricata L. is one of the most important summer weeds in sugar beet crop in the west of Iran. In order to estimate the damage rate of this weed, field studies were conducted to quantify the effect of ground cherry density on sugar beet yield and to determine relationships among different weed densities (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m-2 and sugar beet yield in 2008. The experiment design was randomized complete blocks with three replications. In addition, the neighborhood effect of ground cherry was assessed in a completely randomized design. Neighborhood effect was surveyed from zero to 125 cm apart from each beet plant to ground cherry. Density of ground cherry was estimated as the systematic method in 30 sugar beet fields that were chosen randomly.Phonology of ground cherry was recorded based on the GDD (Growth Degree Day and date. Results showed that two weed plants m2 of this weed resulted in 34% damage to sugar beet. Ground cherry significantly reduced yield of sugar beet when sown 50 cm apart from crop plant. Crop damage of sugar beet was 41% when ground cherry seeds were sown at zero cm apart from each sugar beet plant. Flowering of ground cherry occurred in the middle of June when it received 61.45-75 GDD and it was distinguished that ground cherry is a neutralized weed to the long day.

  15. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  16. EFFECTS OF DWARFING GISELA 5 ROOTSTOCK ON REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL, VEGETATIVE GROWTH, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SOME SWEET CHERRY CULTIVARS IN HIGH-DENSITY SWEET CHERRY ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisela 5 rootstock is most important in terms of reducing the vigor of growth. The varieties grafted on Gisela 5 had good horticultural results in terms of yield, adaptability and dwarf growth. This study was aimed to evaluate the growth and physiological behavior of the most popular sweet cherry cultivars in Europe grafted of Gisela 5 rootstock in one of the most important fruit growing area from Romania. The rootstock – scion combinations namely Skeena, Kordia and Ferrovia were grafted on Gisela 5 dwarf rootstocks. Gisela 5 influenced significantly the trunk cross section area among all the tested cultivars (p<0.05. Ferrovia cultivar was the most vigorous in terms of trunk cross sectional area and total annual growth length. Total annual growth was lower for Kordia (1225.61 cm. The ratio between Chl a and Chl b seems to be constant in all grafted plants. The photosynthesis rate [µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1] varied from 24.12 µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 in the Kordia grafted sweet cherry variety to 25.80 µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 in the Ferrovia sweet cherry cultivar. Data obtained from field measurements and laboratory observations demonstrated that the Gisela 5 rootstock is compatible with foreign sweet cherry varieties under the selected growing area and can be used to achieve high-density sweet cherry orchards.

  17. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  18. Cherry Valley National Wildlife Refuge Final Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as amended, the Service has developed a Final EA in response to the Cherry Valley National Wildlife...

  19. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents. PMID:20821824

  20. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  1. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  2. Increased root and shoot production during micropropagation of cherry and apple rootstalks: effect of subculture frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant; Hammatt

    1999-11-01

    Shoot cultures of apple rootstock cv. M9 and cherry rootstock cv. F12/1 were established and then divided into several sub-lines that were subcultured at 28-42-day intervals. Consequently, similarly aged cultures received various numbers of subcultures. Cultures kept at 24 degrees C showed an increase in shoot and root production over time. There were differences in shoot and root production between apple lines, but there were no differences among sub-lines. In cherry, altering the subculture interval affected rooting competence, which increased with time. Cherry cultures maintained at 4 degrees C gave rise to cultures that were as easy to root as cultures kept at 24 degrees C with more frequent subculturing. We conclude that total time in culture is the most important factor bringing about physiological changes in these genotypes of micropropagated apple and cherry.

  3. CHERRY BIODIVERSITY OF CAMPANIA REGION (ITALY: CONTENTS OF ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of some nutrients [Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Iron(Fe, Calcium(Ca, Selenium(Se, Zinc(Zn and Sodium(Na]  and trace metals [Vanadium (V, Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr, Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Aluminum (Al and Cadmium (Cd] were determined in 30 cherry accessions from a farm for collections of Campania Region. Data have highlighted a high nutrient contents in the local accessions and often higher than commercial ones. In particular, it was observed that the Bologna accession showed higher contents of P, Mg, K and Se, and also high concentrations of Ca, Na, Zn, Fe. Moreover, they are of a good quality because the concentrations of trace metals, commonly found as pollutants in the environments, did not exceed, where provided, the law limits imposed.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  5. Structure and Genome Organization of Cherry Virus A (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) from China Using Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Dhingra, Amit; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Cherry virus A (CVA) (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) is widely present in cherry-growing areas. We obtained the complete genome of a CVA isolate (CVA-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing, followed by overlapping reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The newly identified 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from CVA-TA may form additional hairpin and loop structures to stabilize the CVA genome. PMID:27174277

  6. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed. PMID:18617504

  7. Tay-Sach disease with "cherry-red spot"--first reported case in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Balasubramaniam, S; Sunder, R; Jamalia, R; Karunakar, T V N; Alagaratnam, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of Tay-Sachs disease with retinal 'cherry-red spots' in a 19-month-old Malay child. Molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The case highlights that 'cherry-red spot' is a useful clinical clue in Tay-Sachs disease and several other lysosomal storage disorders. It serves as an ideal illustration of the eye as a window to inborn error of metabolism. PMID:22390110

  8. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Pantelić; Dragana Dabić; Saša Matijašević; Sonja Davidović; Biljana Dojčinović; Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica; Živoslav Tešić; Maja Natić

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identifi...

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  10. Physicochemical Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Sour Cherry cv. Marasca During Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Pedisić; Branka Levaj; Verica Dragović-uzelac; Kristina Kos

    2007-01-01

    Sour cherry cv. Marasca is Dalmatian cultivar from XVI century. Cultivation is limited on the north and central part of Dalmatia and on the part of the islands, where it achieves the best quality of fruit, high content of dry matter and sugar respectively, agreeable aroma and intense color. Sour cherry cv. Marasca is source of biologically active ingredients, organic and inorganic compounds, dietary fibers, aromatic compounds and high content of phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins a...

  11. Influence of freezing and storing cherry fruit on its nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasylyshyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cherries are a valuable dietary raw material and possess medicinal properties. Considering the nutritional, medical and vitamin value of cherry fruits, the purpose of this research was to produce a scientific justification for preserving the quality of cherry fruits using different freezing methods. Material and methods. To do this, cherry fruits from the Lotovka (Cerasus vulgaris variety were frozen in various ways: packed in polyethylene bags (control; previously suspended in a 20% sugar solution and pack- ing frozen cherry in polyethylene bags; suspended in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin and frozen followed by pre-packaging in polyethylene bags; cherry fruits were frozen in a 20% sugar solution in plastic cups of 0.25 cm3; they were also frozen in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin in plastic cups. The frozen products were stored at a temperature not higher than –18°C for up to 6 months. Result. Studies have shown the appropriateness of freezing cherry fruits, particularly in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin. The advantages of these fruits are in ascorbic acid preservation in 1.5 times and reduction of tanning and coloring substances only by 27%, soluble solids to 7%, sugars – 4%, acids – 12%, in tasting evaluation of 5 points. Conclusions. Frozen cherry fruits in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin can be used in dietary nutrition for patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Sweet cherry pomological and biochemical characteristics influenced by rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Fajt, Nikita; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2010-04-28

    Fruits of Lapins sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) from 12-year-old trees on different rootstocks (F 12/1, Maxma 14, Piku 1, Edabriz, Gisela 5, Gisela 195/20, Weiroot 13, Weiroot 158, and Weiroot 72) were analyzed for pomological (fruit weight, % flesh of fruit weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, and firmness) and biochemical parameters (individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds) considering yield. For the first time, two procyanidins have been identified in sweet cherries using HPLC/MS: procyanidin B2 and procyanidin dimer (gamma(max) = 275 nm; [M - H](-) at m/z 577 and MS(2) fragments at m/z 425, 407, and 289). There were no significant differences between rootstocks in average yield per tree, except for Piku 1 (19.7 kg) with significantly the highest and Gisela 5 with significantly the lowest average yields per tree (7.7 kg). Significant differences in the measured parameters were ascertained among fruits of Lapins derived from different rootstock. Growing Lapins on Weiroot 72 and Edabriz resulted in high soluble solids content and fruit firmness. The lowest fruit firmness was measured on fruits from Weiroot 13, F 12/1, Gisela 195/20, and Maxma 14 trees. Fruits from Gisela 5 contained the lowest concentrations of glucose, fructose, sorbitol, sucrose, and citric acid, while fruits from F 12/1 contained the highest values of glucose, fructose, and shikimic acid. The content of phenolic compounds was the highest in fruits from Weiroot 72 tree, but the highest concentrations of procyanidin B2 and procyanidin dimer were ascertained in fruits from the Edabriz tree. Fruits from Weiroot 72 contained significantly higher concentration of phenols, bioactive compounds, compared to that in fruits from F 12/1. The content of individual and total anthocyanins did not differ significantly among rootstocks. PMID:20337477

  13. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica DORIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant buds were the favored source, due to enabling rosette initiation in more than 58% cases. In P. cerasus L. selections, 100% contamination was noted when shoot tips were used as an explant source. Significant influence of the double-phase medium on the number and height of multiplied shoots was observed in the standard cherry rootstock, ‘Gisela 6’. For P. fruticosa Pall., selection ‘SV1’ and ‘SV2’, and P. cerasus ‘D6’ selection, the double-phase medium also had a significant effect on the height of multiplied shoots, when compared to solid DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut medium. Genetic variability of selections within the investigated species resulted in variable plant rooting success. Adding Fe-EDDHA (Ethylenediamine di-2-hydroxy-phenyl acetate ferric in the 200 mg l-1 concentration to the rooting medium significantly enhanced the percentage of rooted plants. The highest rooting percentage was noted for ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘D6’ genotype at 1 mg l-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, while 0.8 mg l-1 was the optimum concentration for P. mahaleb L. ‘M1’ selection. P. fruticosa genotypes required significantly higher IBA concentration for rooting (2.5 and 3.5 mg l-1.

  14. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  15. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in different species of cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Xinyan; Zhong, Fei; Tian, Rongrong; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Tianhong

    2011-05-01

    A new spectrometric method ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with high precision and rapid analysis was developed to separate 17 phenolic compounds. Different species of cherries, including 10 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, a tart cherry (P. cerasus L.) rootstock (CAB), and a hybrid rootstock 'Colt' (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus), were analyzed for phenolics contents by this method. The results showed that significant differences were observed among the phenolic compound contents in different cherry species. In 10 sweet cherry cultivars, the contents of neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3O-rutinoside were much higher in red-colored fruits (for example, 64.60 and 44.50 mg/100 g fresh weight in Burlat, respectively) than those in bicolored ones. Principal component analysis revealed that cyanidin-3O-rutinoside was an effective index for grouping the cultivars with similar species and fruit colors. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between phenolics content and antioxidant activity, which was higher in red-colored cherries. PMID:22417346

  16. Synergistic inhibition of interleukin-6 production in adipose stem cells by tart cherry anthocyanins and atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Claycombe, Kate J

    2012-07-15

    Studies have shown positive correlations between inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the development of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease by activating C-reactive protein (CRP). Both atorvastatin calcium (lipitor) as well as flavonoid rich fruit such as tart cherry demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory effects on IL-6 secretion. In this study, we investigated whether tart cherry extract or specific anthocyanins contained in the tart cherry show synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with lipitor. Results showed that LPS-induced adipose stem cell secretion of IL-6 reduced with the addition of tart cherry extract, a mixture of tart cherry anthocyanins, and pure tart cherry cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, lipitor and C3G exhibited synergistic effects in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion from adipose stem cells. In conclusion, these results support potential benefits of using dietary phytochemicals in conjunction with pharmacological therapies to decrease adipose inflammation, drug doses, and ultimately, drug-induced adverse effects. PMID:22703874

  17. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24287993

  18. Chemical characterization of fruit wine made from Oblačinska sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić, Dragana; Matijašević, Saša; Davidović, Sonja; Dojčinović, Biljana; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Tešić, Zivoslav; Natić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L(-1), 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L(-1), and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine. PMID:25101316

  19. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pantelić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine.

  1. Storage affects the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of cherries (Prunus avium L) on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Let, Mette Bruni;

    2004-01-01

    levels in the cvs Burlat and Saco. Phenolic cherry extracts inhibited low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts of freshly harvested cherries exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activities than extracts of stored samples. The cv Summit samples had the highest...... antioxidant activity. Differences in the antioxidant effects of the cherry samples were positively correlated with their levels of p-coumaroylquinic acid (p

  2. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L.) and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties with five isozyme systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Corts, Remedios; Rodrigues, Luciano MR; Ortiz, Jesús María; Pérez Sánches, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal), were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the syst...

  3. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández i Martí, Ángel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the ...

  4. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin)Rehd.) and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin) Rehd.) y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L.) y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Pérez; Florentino Navarro; María Ángeles Sánchez; Jesús María Ortíz; Remedios Morales

    2010-01-01

    The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) were carried out. For qualitative descr...

  5. The effect of the time and the budding method on the growth of young cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the effect of the time and the methods of budding on the growth of young cherry trees were conducted in the years at Felin Experimental Farm of Lublin Agricultural University. The objects of investigations were the young cherry trees obtained as a result of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. seedlings in the way by the chip budding-15th July and T-graft-15th July and 1st September. The used methods and the times of budding insignificantly affected the growth of young cherry trees cv. «Łutówka» in a nursery. There was showed that quality features of the trees were dependet on stock used type. Cherry trees obtained on mahaleb cherry were thicker, higher and better branched than on sweet cherry.

  6. The protective effect of the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry) on hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis through PPARα activation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozański, T; Kucharska, A Z; Szumny, A; Magdalan, J; Bielska, K; Merwid-Ląd, A; Woźniak, A; Dzimira, S; Piórecki, N; Trocha, M

    2014-11-15

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits have been used in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine in various countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the constituents and impact of cornelian cherry (C. mas L.) fruits lyophilisate on lipid levels, PPARα protein expression, atheromatous changes in the aorta, oxido-redox state, and proinflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The HPLC-MS method was used for determining active constituents in cornelian cherry. In a subsequent in vivo study the protective effect of the cornelian cherry on diet-induced hyperlipidemia was studied using a rabbit model fed 1% cholesterol. Cornelian cherry (100mg/kg b.w.) or simvastatin (5mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days. Two iridoids - loganic acid and cornuside - and five anthocyanins were identified as the main constituents of the cornelian cherry. The administering of the cornelian cherry led to a 44% significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels, as well as prevented development of atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Cornelian cherry significantly increased PPARα protein expression in the liver, indicating that its hypolipidemic effect may stem from enhanced fatty acid catabolism. Simvastatin treatment did not affect PPAR-α expression. Moreover, the cornelian cherry had a significant protective effect on diet-induced oxidative stress in the liver, as well as restored upregulated proinflammatory cytokines serum levels. In conclusion, we have shown loganic acid to be the main iridoid constituent in the European cultivar of the cornelian cherry, and proven that the cornelian cherry could have protective effects on diet-induced hypertriglicerydemia and atherosclerosis through enhanced PPARα protein expression and via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25444446

  7. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  8. Color Parameters and Total Anthocyanins of Sour Cherries (Prunus cerasus L. During Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is very important indicator of quality of fresh fruit. It also serves for estimating the stage of maturity of fruit. Plant pigments responsible for the color of some kind of fruits are anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are the flavonoids which are present in high amounts in sour cherries. The aim of this study was to determine total anthocyanins and color parameters of sour cherries ‘Cigančica’ and ‘Keleris’ collected in Osijek and Zadar (Croatia in 2005 during ripening. Color parameters of skin and fl esh of sour cherries were determined with colorimetric CIE LAB method and total anthocyanins were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using UV/VIS PDA detector. Total anthocyanin was higher in sour cherries cv. Keleris grown in Zadar than in cv. Cigančica grown in Osijek during ripening although cv. Keleris is light colored genotype. Obtained results suggested that warm Mediterranean climate could have influence on high anthocyanin synthesis during ripening. Analysis of variance showed that stage of ripening did not influence total anthocyanin concentrations, but influenced almost all color parameters. Parameter H° was good indicator of color variation during ripening in both sour cherry cultivars.

  9. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  10. A quantum Cherry theorem for perturbations of the plane rotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Fiorella; Graffi, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    We consider on L^2({T}^2) the Schrödinger operator family L_\\varepsilon : \\varepsilon in {R} with domain and action defined as D(L_\\varepsilon )=H^2({T}^2), L_\\varepsilon u=-1/2hbar ^2(α _1partial _{φ _1}^2+α _2partial _{φ _2}^2)u-ihbar (γ _1partial _{φ _1}+γ _2partial _{φ _2})u+\\varepsilon Vu. Here \\varepsilon in {R}, α = (α1, α2), γ = (γ1, γ2) are vectors of complex non-real frequencies, and V a pseudodifferential operator of order zero. Lɛ represents the Weyl quantization of the Hamiltonian family {L}_\\varepsilon (ξ,x)=1/2(α _1ξ _1^2+α _2ξ _2^2)+γ _1ξ _1+γ _2ξ _2+\\varepsilon {V}(ξ,x) defined on the phase space {R}^2× {T}^2, where {V}(ξ,x)in C^2({R}^2× {T}^2;{R}). We prove the uniform convergence with respect to ℏ ∈ [0, 1] of the quantum normal form, which reduces to the classical one for ℏ = 0. This result simultaneously entails an exact quantization formula for the quantum spectrum as well as a convergence criterion for the classical Birkhoff normal form generalizing a well known theorem of Cherry.

  11. Genistein isoflavone glycoconjugates in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrankó, László; Nagy, Ádám; Szilvássy, Blanka; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Hegedűs, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The isoflavone genistein on the contrary to its well-established health-beneficial effects is not a major component of the Western diet, since soy consumption, considered as the main dietary source of genistein, in these populations is low. Genistein compounds in twelve commercial sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary were studied. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS) was used for screening and confirmatory analyses. Genistin and genistein were found in 'Pipacs1', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Debreceni bőtermő' and 'Éva', which are native cultivars to Hungary. Genistein content of the latter three were in the range of 0.4-0.6, while in 'Pipacs1' in total 4.4 mg genistein compounds were measured expressed as aglycone equivalents per 100g of fresh fruit flesh. These cultivars may play important role as complementary genistein sources in the Western diet. Especially 'Pipacs 1', may be best utilised in functional food products. PMID:25053048

  12. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones. PMID:23179694

  13. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  14. The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Chandler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. This diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of Drosophila. Since the bacterial microbiota of Drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with D. suzukii are distinct from that of other Drosophila. Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. We find that the bacterial communities associated with these samples of D. suzukii contain a high frequency of Tatumella. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter, two taxa with known associations with Drosophila, were also found, although at lower frequency than Tatumella in four of the five samples examined. Sampling D. suzukii from different locations and/or while feeding on different fruits is needed to determine the generality of the results determined by these samples. Nevertheless this is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the bacterial communities of this ecologically unique and economically important species of Drosophila.

  15. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  16. First Report of a New Phytoplasma Subgroup, 16SrIII-S, Associated with Decline Disease Affecting Sweet and Sour Cherry Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    During July 2007, we observed sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees exhibiting disease symptoms suggestive of possible phytoplasma infection in a large orchard in the Kaunas region of Lithuania. Samples of leaf tissue were collected from sweet cherry trees that were aff...

  17. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  18. First report of sweet cherry virescence disease in China and its association with infection by a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi’-related strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a deciduous tree originating in the Black Sea/Caspian Sea region where Asia and Europe converge. Being highly valued for its timber and fruit, sweet cherry has been cultivated and naturalized on all continents. Over the past decade, the area of sweet cherry culti...

  19. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 31577-31578, Docket No. APHIS- 2011-0039), in which we announced the availability, for... Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United States AGENCY... cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based ] on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which...

  20. Comparative changes in color features and pigment composition of red wines aged in oak and cherry wood casks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Fabio; Natali, Nadia; Sonni, Francesca; Bellachioma, Attilio; Riponi, Claudio

    2011-06-22

    The color features and the evolution of both the monomeric and the derived pigments of red wines aged in oak and cherry 225 L barriques have been investigated during a four months period. For cherry wood, the utilization of 1000 L casks was tested as well. The use of cherry casks resulted in a faster evolution of pigments with a rapid decline of monomeric anthocyanins and a quick augmentation formation of derived and polymeric compounds. At the end of the aging, wines stored in oak and cherry barriques lost, respectively, about 20% and 80% of the initial pigment amount, while in the 1000 L cherry casks, the same compounds diminished by about 60%. Ethyl-bridged adducts and vitisins were the main class of derivatives formed, representing up to 25% of the total pigment amount in the cherry aged samples. Color density augmented in both the oak and cherry wood aged samples, but the latter had the highest values of this parameter. Because of the highly oxidative behavior of the cherry barriques, the use of larger casks (e.g., 1000 L) is proposed in the case of prolonged aging times. PMID:21548629

  1. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  2. Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain acceptance of a systems approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for U.S. fresh sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortri...

  3. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  4. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  5. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  6. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  7. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  8. Molecular typing of Dutch isolates of Xanthomonas arboricola pathovar pruni isolated from ornamental cherry laurel.Journal of Plant Pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma-Vlami, M.; Martin, W.; Koenraadt, H.; Teunissen, H.; Pothier, J.F.; Duffy, B.; Doorn, van J.

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) has been found in several cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) nurseries in the Netherlands, causing leaf spot. As no information is available yet about the epidemiology of this quarantine bacterium in cherry laurel, molecular typing of Xap isolates can consider

  9. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS identification of antioxidant and antihypertensive peptides recovered from cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) subproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Concepción; Endermann, Jochan; González-García, Estefanía; Marina, María Luisa

    2015-02-11

    The processing of fruits, such as cherries, is characterized by generating a lot of waste material such as fruit stones, skins, etc. To contribute to environmental sustainability, it is necessary to recover these residues. Cherry stones contain seeds with a significant amount of proteins that are underused and undervalued. The aim of this work was to extract cherry seed proteins, to evaluate the presence of bioactive peptides, and to identify them by mass spectrometry. The digestion of cherry seed proteins was optimized, and three different enzymes were employed: Alcalase, Thermolysin, and Flavourzyme. Peptide extracts obtained by the digestion of the cherry seed protein isolate with Alcalase and Thermolysin yielded the highest antioxidant and antihypertensive capacities. Ultrafiltration of hydrolysates allowed obtaining fractions with high antioxidant and antihypertensive capabilities. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS together with bioinformatics tools enabled one to identify peptides in these fractions. PMID:25599260

  10. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS identification of antioxidant and antihypertensive peptides recovered from cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) subproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Concepción; Endermann, Jochan; González-García, Estefanía; Marina, María Luisa

    2015-02-11

    The processing of fruits, such as cherries, is characterized by generating a lot of waste material such as fruit stones, skins, etc. To contribute to environmental sustainability, it is necessary to recover these residues. Cherry stones contain seeds with a significant amount of proteins that are underused and undervalued. The aim of this work was to extract cherry seed proteins, to evaluate the presence of bioactive peptides, and to identify them by mass spectrometry. The digestion of cherry seed proteins was optimized, and three different enzymes were employed: Alcalase, Thermolysin, and Flavourzyme. Peptide extracts obtained by the digestion of the cherry seed protein isolate with Alcalase and Thermolysin yielded the highest antioxidant and antihypertensive capacities. Ultrafiltration of hydrolysates allowed obtaining fractions with high antioxidant and antihypertensive capabilities. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS together with bioinformatics tools enabled one to identify peptides in these fractions.

  11. In-package atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Nrusimha Nath; Keener, Kevin M; Bourke, Paula; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Cullen, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Cold plasma is increasingly under research for decontamination of foods, especially fresh fruits and vegetables. The effect of cold plasma on food quality, however, remains under researched. This study investigates the effects of cold plasma generated within a sealed package from a dielectric barrier discharge on the physical quality parameters and respiration rates of cherry tomatoes. Respiration rates and weight loss were monitored continuously, while other parameters are reported at the end of storage period. Differences among weight loss, pH and firmness for control and treated cherry tomatoes were insignificant towards the end of storage life. Changes in respiration rates and colour of tomatoes were recorded as a function of treatment, which were not drastic. The results implicate that cold plasma could be employed as a means for decontamination of cherry tomatoes while retaining product quality.

  12. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  13. Direct photothermal techniques for rapid quantification of total anthocyanin content in sour cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, Ottó; Ficzek, Gitta; Bicanic, Dane; Spruijt, Ruud; Luterotti, Svjetlana; Tóth, Magdolna; Buijnsters, Josephus Gerardus; Végvári, György

    2011-04-15

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify specific anthocyanins. Both, PAS and OW are direct methods that unlike SP and HPLC obviate the need for the extraction of analyte. The outcome of the study leads to the conclusion that PAS and OW are both suitable for quick screening of TAC in sour cherries. The correlation between the two methods and SP is linear with R(2)=0.9887 for PAS and R(2)=0.9918 for OW, respectively. Both methods are capable of the rapid determination of TAC in sour cherries without a need for a laborious sample pretreatment. PMID:21376955

  14. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. PMID:25976793

  15. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mratinić Evica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed adequate grouping of wild sweet cherry genotypes according to pomological characterization and distinguished them into two distinct groups. The first group had two subgroups and consisted of seven genotypes, while the second one included only three accessions. Despite of the significant differences among genotypes, the total concentration of phenols made a clear separation between the clusters. The level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees are useful sources of variability for attributes studied and can be employed in further breeding programs or conservation.

  16. Cracking in sweet cherries: A comprehensive review from a physiological, molecular, and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Balbontín

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rain-induced cracking in fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is a problem in most producing areas of the world and causes significant economic losses. Different orchard management practices have been employed to reduce the severity of this problem, although a complete solution is not yet available. Fruit cracking is a complex phenomenon and there are many factors that seem to be involved in its development. During the last decade, genomic and biochemical approaches have provided new insights on the different mechanisms that could be involved in the differential susceptibility shown by commercial cultivars. For instance, sweet cherry genome and transcriptome sequencing information have provided new opportunities to study the expression and structure of genes involved in cracking, which may help in the development of new tolerant cultivars. The present review summarizes, discuss, and integrate most of the recently generated information in cultural practices, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics in relation to cracking in sweet cherries.

  17. Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: A case study from Isparta province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demircan, Vecdi [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey); Ekinci, Kamil [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey)]. E-mail: kekinci@ziraat.sdu.edu.tr; Keener, Harold M. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio Agricultural Research Centre, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691 (United States); Akbolat, Davut [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey); Ekinci, Caglar [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Infrastructure and Environment Department, Bauhaus University (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    A survey was conducted using a face to face questionnaire with 92 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) producers from 10 villages in five districts of the Isparta province where there is intensive sweet cherry production. The data collected was analyzed for the energy and economics of sweet cherry production. The results showed that the most energy consuming input for the different operations investigated was chemical fertilisers (45.35%), especially nitrogen (38.05%). The energy consumption for Diesel fuel was 21.53% of the total energy input. Although chemicals for plant protection had a small portion (1.45%) of the total energy input, the use of pesticide in sweet cherry production per hectare in the Isparta province was 5.36 times higher than that of Turkey's average, increasing the environmental risk problem. The energy use efficiency, defined as energy produced per unit of energy used, was 1.23. The specific energy of sweet cherry production was determined to be 3163.43 MJ tonnes{sup -1}. It was found that the direct and indirect energy inputs were 34.48% and 54.91% of the total energy input, respectively. Among the inputs, renewable energy sources constituted 16.34% of the total energy input, which was lower than that of the non-renewable resources (chemical fertilisers and Diesel fuel). The results showed that the net return from sweet cherry production in the surveyed farms was satisfactory, as demonstrated by the benefit-cost ratio of 2.53 calculated by dividing the gross value of production by the total cost of production per hectare.

  18. Changes of Aroma Components in Hongdeng Sweet Cherry During Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the changes of aroma components in sweet cherry during fruit development, the aroma components in sweet cherry fruit from the green stage, the color stage, the commercial stage, and the ripe stage were collected using head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). A total of 37 compounds were identified from the sample extracts. Aldehydes, alcohols, and esters were the major constituents. The aroma components behaved differently during the fruit developmental period. C6 aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes were the main aldehydes in the sweet cherry fruit. The contents of C6 aldehydes increased quickly to 84.16% in the color stage, then decreased as ripening proceeded, and then, the contents decreased to 59.20 and 55.58% at the commercial stage and the ripe stage, respectively. The aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde) increased as ripening proceeded, and the maximum was found at the ripe stage. Alcohols of sweet cherry fruit included C6 alcohols and aromatic alcohols. The content of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol increased as ripening proceeded. The maximum was found at the commercial stage; alcohol was only found at the ripe stage. Ester components included ethyl acetate, butanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid ethyl ester, which increased as the fruit ripened. Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol,ethyl acetate, and hexanoic acid ethyl ester were the characteristic aroma components of sweet cherry fruit. These aroma components started to form drastically at the color stage, and the main aroma was formed at the commercial stage, which then turned bad at the ripe stage because of the presence of alcohol. So the optimal harvest time of sweet cherry was at the commercial stage.

  19. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  20. Tetraquark resonances, flip-flop and cherry in a broken glass model

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, P; Cardoso, N

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formalism to study tetraquarks using the generalized flip-flop potential, which include the tetraquark potential component. Technically this is a difficult problem, needing the solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation in a multidimensional space. Since the tetraquark may at any time escape to a pair of mesons, here we study a simplified two-variable toy model and explore the analogy with a cherry in a glass, but a broken one where the cherry may escape from. We also compute the decay width in this two-variable picture, solving the Schr\\"odinger equation for the outgoing spherical wave.

  1. Molecular characterization of three non-functional S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2006-10-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) exhibits a genotype-dependent loss of gametophytic self-incompatibility that is caused by the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes with disrupted pistil component (stylar-S) and/or pollen component (pollen-S) function. Genetic studies using diverse sour cherry germplasm identified non-functional S-haplotypes for which an equivalent wild-type S-haplotype was present in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), a diploid progenitor of sour cherry. In all cases, the non-functional S-haplotype resulted from mutations affecting the stylar component S-RNase or Prunus pollen component S-haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB). This study determines the molecular bases of three of these S-haplotypes that confer unilateral incompatibility, two stylar-part mutants (S(6m2) and S(13m)) and one pollen-part mutant (S(13)'). Compared to their wild-type alleles, S(6m2)-RNase has a 1 bp deletion, S(13m) -RNase has a 23 bp deletion and SFB(13)' has a 1 bp substitution that lead to premature stop codons. Transcripts were identified for these three alleles, S(6m2)-RNase, S(13m)-RNase, and SFB(13)', however, these transcripts presumably result in altered proteins with a resulting loss of activity. Our characterization of natural pollen-part and stylar-part mutants in sour cherry along with other natural S-haplotype mutants identified in Prunus supports the view that loss of pollen specificity and stylar rejection evolve independently and are caused by structural alterations affecting the S-haplotype. The prevalence of non-functional S-haplotypes in sour cherry but not in sweet cherry (a diploid) suggests that polyploidization and gene duplication were indirectly responsible for the dysfunction of some S-haplotypes and the emergence of self-compatibility in sour cherry. This resembles the specific mode of evolution in yeast where accelerated evolution occurred to one member of the duplicated gene pair. PMID:16915517

  2. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1) are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05) by the panelist...

  3. The effect of rootstock on growth and fruitage of sweet cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaszewska, Zofia; Nychnerewicz, Bartosz

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 2003-2005 aimed at examining the effect of rootstocks Prunus avium, Colt, PHL A and Gisela 5 on growth and fruitage of the following cultivars of cherry trees: ‘Burlat’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Van’. Dwarf rootstocks PHL A and Gisela 5 reduced tree growth by about 40–45% as compared with rootstocks Colt and Prunus avium. The yielding of sweet cherry trees on these rootstocks was much better. The best yielding was observed in case of cultivar ‘Van’. During the ex...

  4. Cherry Featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists Video Series | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Cherry, Ph.D., learned at an early age that education is crucial to success. He credits his mentors, some of whom include his grandmother, Shepherd University professor Burton Lidgerding, Ph.D., David Munroe, Ph.D., Frederick National Lab, and Robert J. Hohman, Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for guiding him to the career he has today. Cherry, scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations (OSO), NCI at Frederick, is one of the scientists featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists video series.

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  6. The effect of rootstocks on the growth and yielding of sour cherry cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength of growth of 'Łutówka' trees was related to the soil quality and the rootstock. Measurements of the tree trunks and the crown size showed that on fertile soil the trees grafted on Mahaleb cherry grew worse, forming by 12% thinner trunks and by over 20% (significantly smaller crowns as compared to Mazzard cherry trees. On poor sandy-loamy soil the crowns of trees grafted on Mahaleb were significantly, more than 40% bigger than those on Mazzard cherry. No significant differences in the yielding and productivity of trees grafted on Mahaleb and Mazzard cherry trees were found on grey brown podzolic soil. The experiment conducted on sandy-loamy soil pointed to significant differences in the yielding and productivity between 'Łutówka' trees grafted on the studied rootstocks. The trees grafted on Mahaleb cherry in both studied years were characterized by significantly greater productivity than on the other rootstocks. Significantly higher yields were gathered from the trees on Mahaleb cherry than on vegetative rootstocks, and by 70% higher than on Mazzard cherry. P-HL A rootstock is of little use in the planting of 'Łutówka', which grown poorly on light soils. Besides poor growth and yielding, in longer dry periods the studies found the appearance of chlorosis of magnesium on older leaves, and even wilting of the leaves.

  7. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  10. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  11. 75 FR 46901 - Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... sweet cherries imported from Australia into the United States. We are also adding to the treatment... for certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the United States.\\3\\ We also... continue to prevent the introduction or interstate movement of quarantine pests in the United States....

  12. Cherry Picking Robot Vision Recognition System Based on OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through OpenCV function, the cherry in a natural environment image after image preprocessing, color recognition, threshold segmentation, morphological filtering, edge detection, circle Hough transform, you can draw the cherry’s center and circular contour, to carry out the purpose of the machine picking. The system is simple and effective.

  13. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  14. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  15. 77 FR 13015 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...: Section 930.10, the definition of ``Handle''; Section 930.50, ``Marketing Policy'' and Section 930.58... from definition of handle. 2. Amendment 2 would revise the ``marketing policy'' provisions in section... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania,...

  16. 76 FR 69673 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... grower diversion certificates from the definition of handle. 2. Amendment 2 would revise the ``marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New... File Written Exceptions to Proposed Amendment of Marketing Order No. 930 AGENCY: Agricultural...

  17. Induced proteolysis within the bird cherry leaves evoked by Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, H; Czerniewicz, P; Sprawka, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Chrzanowski, G; Leszczyński, B

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) feeding on functioning of the proteolytic machinery in bird cherry leaves. Biochemical analyses proved that R. padi feeding in tissues of primary host stimulated activity of the two major fractions of proteinases (extracted at the optimal pH values: 5.0 and 7.0). Additionally, it has been demonstrated that aphids' feeding on bird cherry led to a decline in levels of albumins and globulins (main protein fractions in P. padus leaves). The opposite tendency, regarding the amounts of these protein fractions was ascertained at the phase of disappearance of R. padi population on tested shoots. Furthermore, it is reported that an increase in activity of the analysed enzymes and a decline in the content of tested protein fractions, were proportional to density of aphid individuals developing on P. padus side shoots. It is hypothesized that long-term R. padi feeding may lead to intensifying the catabolic processing of proteins by the activated proteolytic machinery in bird cherry leaves. The multi-level biological functions of endogenous plant proteinases and their significance in triggering the defense reactions in aphid-infested plant tissues are discussed. PMID:21840833

  18. Tart cherry extracts reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in microglial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglia...

  19. Cherry Picking Robot Vision Recognition System Based on OpenCV

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Qi Rong; Peng Pei; Jin Yan Mei

    2016-01-01

    Through OpenCV function, the cherry in a natural environment image after image preprocessing, color recognition, threshold segmentation, morphological filtering, edge detection, circle Hough transform, you can draw the cherry’s center and circular contour, to carry out the purpose of the machine picking. The system is simple and effective.

  20. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES AND RESPONSE OF BLACK CHERRY FOLIAGE TO OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants of 12 species were exposed to 0.20 ppm of ozone for 5 hr periodically throughout the growing season of 1976. Species exhibiting symptoms, in approximate descending order of susceptibility, were Hinodegiri azalea, black cherry, American sycamore, hybrid poplar, yellow popla...

  1. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  2. Utilization of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Cherry Hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldahan, Adam S; Mlacker, Stephanie; Shah, Vidhi V; Chen, Lucy L; Nouri, Keyvan; Grichnik, James M

    2016-06-01

    Cherry hemangiomas are common vascular proliferative lesions that can be concerning from a cosmetic perspective. Laser therapy is often used to eradicate cherry hemangiomas, but some lesions require multiple treatments or do not resolve at all. The suboptimal response to laser treatment may be due to limitations in penetration depth by vascular lasers such as the pulsed dye laser. Optical coherence tomography is a low-energy, light-based imaging device that can evaluate the depth and extent of vascular lesions such as cherry hemangiomas by allowing visualization of tissue structure and blood vessel architecture, which cannot be appreciated by clinical or dermatoscopic examination alone. We present optical coherence tomography images of a cherry hemangioma to demonstrate the precision and resolution of this imaging modality. Optical coherence tomography provides valuable information that has the potential to predict response to laser therapy without unnecessary attempts. Future prospective studies will determine its value for this purpose. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):713-714. PMID:27272077

  3. OZONE UPTAKE OF DIFFERENT-SIZED BLACK CHERRY TREES IN HIGH- AND LOW-LIGHT ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry trees located in both high and low light environments were calculated from measurements of ambient ozone concentration and stomatal conductance. he objective of the study was to determine how tree size and light conditions may di...

  4. Transition of phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-07-15

    Popular liqueurs made from apricot/cherry pits were evaluated in terms of their phenolic composition and occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). Analyses consisted of detailed phenolic and cyanogenic profiles of cherry and apricot seeds as well as beverages prepared from crushed kernels. Phenolic groups and cyanogenic glycosides were analyzed with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). Lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics have been quantified in liqueurs compared to fruit kernels. During fruit pits steeping in the alcohol, the phenolics/cyanogenic glycosides ratio increased and at the end of beverage manufacturing process higher levels of total analyzed phenolics were detected compared to cyanogenic glycosides (apricot liqueur: 38.79 μg CGG per ml and 50.57 μg phenolics per ml; cherry liqueur 16.08 μg CGG per ml and 27.73 μg phenolics per ml). Although higher levels of phenolics are characteristic for liqueurs made from apricot and cherry pits these beverages nevertheless contain considerable amounts of cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26948641

  5. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, Federica; Gerardi, Carmela; Nicoletti, Isabella

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  6. Cultivar effect on the sweet cherry antioxidant and some chemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzyński Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities, sugars and organic acids content of sweet cherry cultivars (Bianca, Burlat, Johanna 1, Johanna 2, Kordia, Kunzes Kirsche, Merton Premier, Napoleon, Orleans, Regina, Rivan, Schneiders Spate Knorpelkirsche, Summit, Trebnitzer Lotkirsche grown in Poland. Significant differences were observed between tested cultivars for all studied parameters.

  7. The main quality attributes of non-sprayed cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Hilal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis is naturally growing in black sea region in Turkey and the trees has not been spraying with pesticides. In natural growing conditions, all cherry laurel genotypes particularly fruits are seems resistant against pests. Astringent nature of fruits forms a barrier for pests. A total twelve cherry laurel accessions were harvested at full maturation time from various sites in Of district located in eastern black sea region in Turkey. Fruits were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP, total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA, total carotenoid (TC, Vitamin C and for their antioxidant capacity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in fruit flesh extract. Variability among accessions was greatest for total phenol (TP and total anthocyanins content ranged from 154 to 213 mg GAE per 100 g and 397 to 519 mg per 100 g. The results indicated that cherry laurel fruits are superior and unique in terms of bioactive content in particular compared to bioactive rich fruit species.

  8. Characterization of R genes involved in resistance to Cherry leaf roll virus in paradox hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single dominant ‘R’ gene (clrvR), in black walnuts (Juglans hindsii) or ‘paradox’ hybrids (J. hindsii x J. regia) confers resistance to Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV), the causal agent of blackline disease. The identification and cloning of the ‘R’ gene is expected to aid the walnut breeding progra...

  9. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  10. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Mratinić Evica; Fotirić-Akšić Milica; Jovković Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed ade...

  11. Metabolic profiling of ethephon-treated sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing costs and decreasing labor availability for sweet cherry harvest in Washington State, USA, has reinvigorated commercial and research interest of mechanized harvest. Ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) can be used to improve fruit abscission for mechanical harvest. Our previous work s...

  12. Responses of ‘0900 Ziraat’ Sweet Cherry Variety Grafted on Different Rootstocks to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk KÜÇÜKYUMUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the responses of ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar grafted on mazzard (Prunus avium L. and mahaleb (P. mahaleb L. rootstocks, to different irrigation water salinity levels. One year old sweet cherry trees were planted in 50-liter pots at Eğirdir Fruit Research Station (Isparta, Turkey. Four different irrigation water salinity levels (S1=0.3 dS m-1, S2=2.0 dS m-1, S3=4.0 dS m-1 and S4=6 dS m-1 were used for both variety/rootstock combinations. The results showed that sweet cherry trees grafted on mahaleb rootstocks extracted more water under saline conditions than the ones grafted on mazzard. Water salinity levels caused more damage on 0900/mazzard than on 0900/mahaleb. Towards the end of the growing period, plant deaths were detected in S3 and S4 treatments. While leaf water potential (LWP ranged from -1.54 to -3.33 MPa, stomatal conductance ranged from 26.8 to 199.5 mmol m-2 s-1. It was determined that both parameters decreased towards the end of the growing period for all treatments. Sodium (Na uptake was excluded by 0900/mahaleb rootstocks, but chloride (Cl− uptake was excluded only for higher saline conditions. As a result, mahaleb (P. mahaleb L. rootstock could be recommended to be used as rootstock for sweet cherry culture under saline conditions.

  13. Scion Grafting Techniques for Higan Cherry%樱花枝接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敬; 张波; 宋玮

    2011-01-01

    Grafting techniques of higan cherry were introduced in terms of stock selection,scion collection,time of grafting,techniques needed and nursery preparation.%介绍了樱花嫁接技术,包括砧木选择、接穗采集、嫁接时期、嫁接方法、苗圃地管理等。

  14. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid chr

  15. Relation between polyphenols content and skin colour in sour cherry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljevac Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit skin colour plays a major role in quality assessment of food, significantly determining consumer`s choice. Colour of sour cherries depends on anthocyanins which are phenolic compounds (flavonoids present in high amounts in fruits. The aim of this study was to determine a possible relation between polyphenols (total phenolics and anthocyanins and colour parameters of fruit skin of sour cherries. The plant material used in this study was twenty two sour cherry genotypes from an orchard of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents as well as colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, h and C of fruit skin were determined. Variability between sour cherry genotypes in total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as in colour parameters was revealed. Total polyphenols content varied from 462.7 to 1049.0 mg GAE/100 g of fresh weight, while total anthocyanins ranged from 160.1 to 495.6 mg CGE/100 g of fresh weight. A significant positive correlation was found between polyphenols and anthocyanins content. Total phenolics content had a significant negative correlation with colour parameters b* and h, while anthocyanins content negatively correlated with colour parameters L*, b* and h. According to the obtained results, genotypes Maraska, Heimanns Konservenweichsel and Rexelle are the richest genotypes in polyphenols and anthocyanins content.

  16. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  17. Preliminary results on seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangping; Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Lillie

    2012-01-01

    Irregular yields of Prunus cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’, which is the preferred sour cherry cultivar in Denmark, have been proposed to be a result of freeze injury to floral tissues. This study determined floral mortality of P. cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ and the supposedly more cold hardy P...

  18. Hemangioma rubi no couro cabeludo Cherry hemangioma in the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma rubi (HR é dermatose de origem vascular extremamente freqüente, acometendo mais de 75% da população acima de 70 anos de idade. Em geral compõe-se de lesões múltiplas,localizadas predominantemente no alto do tronco e braços. Clinicamente é caracterizado por lesões que variam desde máculas puntiformes até lesões papulosas com cinco milímetros de diâmetro. As mais novas são vermelhas, em tons vivos, e as mais antigas podem ser azuladas. O HR é de etiologia desconhecida. Histologicamente chama atenção uma neoformação de vasos capilares, que se tornam dilatados e com fenestrações em suas paredes. A membrana basal está muito espessada e existe abundante estroma de colágeno entre os vasos. O presente trabalho demonstra a alta incidência do HR no couro cabeludo Em amostra de 171 pacientes, sendo 85 homens e 86 mulheres, o autor observou que 123 deles (72% tinham HR no couro cabeludo, localização em que o HR nunca foi descrito na literatura.Cherry hemangioma (CH is an extremely frequent dermatosis with vascular origin involving more than 75% of the population over 70 years of age. Normally they are multiplex spots and focus predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. Clinically they are characterized by pinpoint maculae and papules with up to 5 millimeters in diameter. The most recent lesions can be a strong red color while the older ones are bluish. The etiology of CH is still unknown. From the histologic standpoint, the neoformation of the capillary tube draws attention: they are very dilated and with fenestration along the wall. The basement membranes are thickened and there is abundant collagen stroma between the veins. This work demonstrates the high frequency of CH in the scalp. In a sample of 171 patients (85 men and 86 women the author noted that 123 (72% had CH in the scalp. However, according to the literature, CH in the scalp has never been described.

  19. Early-screening for resistance to Phytophthora sp.p. in wild cherry clones (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerri S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for early selection of wild cherry clones for resistance to Phytophthora sp. is presented. Four Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. megasperma, P. alni were tested in vitro on four micropropagated cherry (Prunus avium clones, obtaining reliable and reproducible results. Variability in clones susceptibilities and in parasite virulence has been evidenced. Phytophthora citrophthora is confirmed to be a dangerous parasite, due to its capability to produce symptoms rapidly and its fitness to Mediterranean environments. On the contrary P. alni does not seem a dangerous parasite for wild cherry.

  20. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  1. Quality Changes of Different Sweet Cherry Cultivars at Various Stages of the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih SEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of sweet cherry fruits to distant markets and further marketing processes often takes approximately 2-3 weeks. The present study investigates the quality changes during this time period at three stages for three sweet cherry cultivars: ‘Early Burlat’, ‘Napoleon’, and ‘0900 Ziraat’. Following pre-cooling, the sweet cherries were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following stages for the indicated durations: transportation (T [8 days at 2 °C and 85% relative humidity (RH]; distribution center (DC (4 days at 6.5 °C and 80% RH, and shelf-life (SL (2 days at 19 °C and 70% RH. Weight losses at the end of the SL stage were 3.11, 3.18, and 2.74%, respectively in ‘Early Burlat’, ‘Napoleon’ and ‘0900 Ziraat’.Fruit firmness decreased after SL as compared to that at other stages and was more remarkable in ‘0900 Ziraat’. Decreased Chroma values which indicates, the intensity or color saturation were observed in all cultivars, whereas decreased hue angle values colours expressed in degrees were observed in the ‘Early Burlat’ and ‘0900 Ziraat’. In addition, a decrease was noted in the titratable acidity of all cultivars at the end of SL. The total soluble solids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities were similar for all cultivars at all stages. The visual appearance scores of ‘Early Burlat’ cherries decreased at the end of SL, because of development of pitting on the fruit surface. The fruit quality changes were limited at T and DC stages; however, these changes became more distinctive during the SL period. It was thus concluded that the SL duration and conditions were of the highest significance with regard to maintenance of the sweet cherry fruit quality.

  2. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Castède

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  3. Inheritance and interactions of incompatibility alleles in the tetraploid sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, R I; Wolfram, B; Tobutt, K R; Cerović, R; Sonneveld, T

    2006-01-01

    Three progenies of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) were analysed to correlate self-(in)compatibility status with S-RNase phenotype in this allotetraploid hybrid of sweet and ground cherry. Self-(in)compatibility was assessed in the field and by monitoring pollen tube growth after selfing. The S-RNase phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing of stylar proteins and staining for RNase activity and, for the parents, confirmed by PCR. Seedling phenotypes were generally consistent with disomic segregation of S-RNase alleles. The genetic arrangements of the parents were deduced to be 'Köröser' (self-incompatible) S1S4.S(B) S(D), 'Schattenmorelle' (self-compatible) S6S13.S(B)S(B), and clone 43.87 (self-compatible) S4S13.S(B)S(B), where "." separates the two homologous genomes. The presence of S4 and S6 alleles at the same locus led to self-incompatibility, whereas S13 and S(B) at homologous loci led to self-compatibility. The failure of certain heteroallelic genotypes in the three crosses or in the self-incompatible seedlings indicates that S4 and S6 are dominant to S(B). However, the success of S13S(B) pollen on styles expressing corresponding S-RNases indicates competitive interaction or lack of pollen-S components. In general, the universal compatibility of S13S(B) pollen may explain the frequent occurrence of S13 and S(B) together in sour cherry cultivars. Alleles S(B) and S(D), that are presumed to derive from ground cherry, and S13, presumably from sweet cherry, were sequenced. Our findings contribute to an understanding of inheritance of self-(in)compatibility, facilitate screening of progenies for self-compatibility and provide a basis for studying molecular interactions in heteroallelic pollen. PMID:16307228

  4. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions. PMID:26587668

  5. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  7. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... combinations. Gelatin-silica sol consistently had the best effect on juice clarity. Centrifugation of cherry juice (10000g for 15 min) prior to clarification treatment significantly improved juice clarity and diminished the rate of haze formation during cold storage of juice. Both treatment of precentrifuged...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  8. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  9. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; M. Hashemi; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  10. Effects of a Tart Cherry Juice Beverage on the Sleep of Older Adults with Insomnia: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Carr, Michelle; Gorman, Colin; Perlis, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study ascertained whether a proprietary tart cherry juice blend (CherryPharm, Inc., Geneva, NY, USA) associated with anecdotal reports of sleep enhancement improves subjective reports of insomnia compared to a placebo beverage. The pilot study used a randomized, double-blind, crossover design where each participant received both treatment and placebo for 2 weeks with an intervening 2-week washout period. Sleep continuity (sleep onset, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, and sleep e...

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Juice on Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity and its Hypouricemic and Antioxidant Effects on Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, F; Mohammad Shahi, M; Keshavarz, S A; Rashidi, M R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tart cherry juice on serum uric acid levels, hepatic xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration), in normal and hyperuricemic rats. Tart cherry juice (5 ml/kg) was given by oral gavage to rats for 2 weeks. Allopurinol (5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control and was also given by oral gavage. Data showed that tart cherry juice treatment did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced (P<0.05) the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. Tart cherry juice treatment also inhibited hepatic xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant capacity was observed in tart cherry juice treated-rats in both normal and hyperuricemic groups. The oral administration of tart cherry juice also led to a significant reduction (P<0.05) in MDA concentration in the hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol, as a putative inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase, was much higher than that of tart cherry, it could not significantly change anti-oxidative parameters. These features of tart cherry make it an attractive candidate for the prophylactic treatment of hyperuricaemia, particularly if it is to be taken on a long-term basis. Further investigations to define its clinical efficacy would be highly desirable. PMID:22691805

  12. Optimization of extraction parameters on the isolation of phenolic compounds from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Karaaslan, Mehmet; Vardin, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to bio-components obtained from fruit & vegetable wastes. Anthocyanin is one of the components regained from fruits especially from red ones. Sour cherry is considered as industrial fruit since most of the grown fruit is processed into juice and hence considerable amount of pomace is removed from process. The influences of process parameters on the extraction of phenolic compounds from sour cherry pomace were investigated. Fifty-one percent ethanol concentratio...

  13. Effect of Water Stress on The Some Evegatif Growth Parameters of Cultivar Grafted on Different Rootstocks 0900 Ziraat Sweet Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk KÜÇÜKYUMUK; Sarısu, Hasan Cumhur; Halit YILDIZ; KAÇAL, Emel; KOÇAL, Hakkı

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry production areas have been increasing in last years and rootstocks which have different growing characteristic are being used. Therefore, responses of new and present rootstocks to water stress must be determined. For this purpose, one year old 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry variety grafted on Mahaleb (Prunus mahalep L.), Mazzard (Prunus avium L.), Ma x Ma 14 (Prunus mahalep L. x Prunus avium L.), CAB 6 (Prunus cerasus L.) ve Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x P. canescens L.) rootstocks were ...

  14. Determination of optimal excitation and emission wavebands for detection of defect cherry tomato by using fluorescence emission and excitation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, In-Suck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging technique has been widely used for quality and safety measurements of agro-food materials. Fluorescence emission intensities of target materials are influenced by wavelengths of excitation sources. Hence, selection of a proper excitation wavelength is an important factor in differentiating target materials effectively. In this study, optimal fluorescence excitation wavelength was determined on the basis of fluorescence emission intensity of defect and sound areas of cherry tomatoes. The result showed that fluorescence responses of defect and sound surfaces of cherry tomatoes were most significantly separated with the excitation light wavelength range between 400 and 410 nm. Fluorescence images of defect cherry tomatoes were acquired with the LEDs with the central wavelength of 410 nm as the excitation source to verify the detection efficiency of cherry tomato defects. The resultant fluorescence images showed that the defects were discriminated from sound areas on cherry tomatoes with above 98% accuracy. This study shows that high power LEDs as the excitation source for fluorescence imaging are suitable for defect detection of cherry tomatoes.

  15. Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusić, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosić, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832

  16. Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Vavoura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars in order of increasing amounts of volatiles were: Lapins < Canada giant < Ferrovia < Skeena. Physicochemical parameters determined included: titratable acidity (TA, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, maturity index (MI and total phenolic content (TPC. TA ranged between 0.21 and 0.28 g malic acid/100 g fresh weight (FW. The pH ranged between 3.81 and 3.96. TSS ranged between 13.00 and 16.00 °Brix. MI ranged between 51.8 and 75.0. TPC ranged between 95.14 and 170.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. Sensory evaluation showed that cherry colour, in order of increasing intensity, was: Canada giant < Ferrovia < Lapins < Skeena. Respective order for cherry firmness was: Canada giant < Lapins ≤ Ferrovia < Skeena and for flavour: Lapins < Canada giant < Skeena ≤ Ferrovia. Correlation of volatiles to physicochemical and sensory attributes showed varying trends.

  17. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of SNP markers generated from 3’UTRs for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with 7 SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3’UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, ‘Stella’ was separated from ‘Compact Stella’. This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3’ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  18. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A S; Köser, C; Adler-Nissen, J

    2001-08-01

    Several alternative strategies were examined for improving conventional juice fining procedures for cherry juice clarification and fining in laboratory-scale experiments: Centrifugation of freshly pressed juice from 1000g to 35,000g induced decreased turbidity according to a steep, negative power function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter combinations. Gelatin-silica sol consistently had the best effect on juice clarity. Centrifugation of cherry juice (10,000g for 15 min) prior to clarification treatment significantly improved juice clarity and diminished the rate of haze formation during cold storage of juice. Both treatment of precentrifuged cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co-addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin-silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative clarification strategies deserve further consideration in large-scale cherry juice processing. Precentrifugation of juice before clarification and fining is immediately recommended. PMID:11513641

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Red and Yellow Fruits of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Wei; Xin Chen; Xiaojuan Zong; Huairui Shu; Dongsheng Gao; Qingzhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of...

  20. Effects of Different Atmospheres on the Postharvest Physiology and Quality of the Sweet Cherry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ai-li; TIAN Shi-ping; XU Yong; WANG Yi; FAN Qing

    2002-01-01

    The changes in physiological characteristics, quality and storability of the sweet cherry (Prumus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) stored in controlled atmospheres (CA), in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) and in air (CK) were investigated in this paper. The results showed that CA and MAP treatments significantly inhibited fruit rot and flesh browning, kept firmness and fruit color, reduced ethylene and ethanol content in pulp, slowed down the increase of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in comparison with CK. Meanwhile, CA treatments showed a better benefit of reducing ethylene and ethanol contents, inhibiting PPO and POD activities, declining rot rate and browning index compared to MAP. The fruit could be stored in CA conditions for 60 days without any off-flavor. The sweet cherries kept in CA with 5% O2 + 10% CO2 showed a better storability than that in CA with 5% O2 +5% CO2.

  1. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage.

  2. Features of adult neurogenesis and neurochemical signaling in the Cherry salmon Oncorhynchus masou brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evgeniya V. Pushchina; Dmitry K. Оbukhov; Anatoly A. Varaksin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of gamma aminobutyric acid, tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide-producing elements in a cherry salmon Oncorhynchus masou brain at various stages of postnatal ontogenesis by immunohistochemical staining and histochemical staining. The periventricular region cells exhibited the morphology of neurons and glia including radial glia-like cells and contained several neurochemical substances. Heterogeneous populations of tyrosine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase-positive cells were observed in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunoreactive proliferative zones in periventricular area of diencephalon, central grey layer of dorsomedial tegmentum, medulla and spinal cord. Immunolocalization of Pax6 in the cherry salmon brain revealed a neuromeric construction of the brain at various stages of postnatal ontogenesis, and this was confirmed by tyrosine hydroxylase and gamma aminobutyric acid labeling.

  3. Benzaldehyde in cherry flavour as a precursor of benzene formation in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Christine; Reusch, Helmut; Ruge, Ingrid; Godelmann, Rolf; Pflaum, Tabea; Kuballa, Thomas; Schumacher, Sandra; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-09-01

    During sampling and analysis of alcohol-free beverages for food control purposes, a comparably high contamination of benzene (up to 4.6μg/L) has been detected in cherry-flavoured products, even when they were not preserved using benzoic acid (which is a known precursor of benzene formation). There has been some speculation in the literature that formation may occur from benzaldehyde, which is contained in natural and artificial cherry flavours. In this study, model experiments were able to confirm that benzaldehyde does indeed degrade to benzene under heating conditions, and especially in the presence of ascorbic acid. Analysis of a large collective of authentic beverages from the market (n=170) further confirmed that benzene content is significantly correlated to the presence of benzaldehyde (r=0.61, pcherry flavoured beverages, industrial best practices should include monitoring for benzene. Formulations containing either benzoic acid or benzaldehyde in combination with ascorbic acid should be avoided. PMID:27041300

  4. Effect of oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica-incorporated pullulan coatings on preservation of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Shujun

    2016-05-15

    Laminaria japonica-derived oligosaccharides (LJOs) exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and pullulan is a food thickener that can form impermeable films. The ability of pullulan coatings with various LJO concentrations (1% pullulan+0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% LJOs) to preserve cherry tomatoes during storage at room temperature was investigated. The LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings were found to effectively reduce respiratory intensity, vitamin C loss, weight loss and softening, as well as to increase the amount of titratable acid and the overall likeness of fruit compared with the control. These effects were observed to be dose-dependent. Therefore, using LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings can extend the shelf life of cherry tomatoes. PMID:26775974

  5. Clone identification in Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) cultivars using nuclear SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shuri; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ishio, Shogo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Numerous cultivars of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) are recognized, but in many cases they are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Therefore, we evaluated the clonal status of 215 designated cultivars using 17 SSR markers. More than half the cultivars were morphologically distinct and had unique genotypes. However, 22 cultivars were found to consist of multiple clones, which probably originate from the chance seedlings, suggesting that their unique characteristics have not been maintained through propagation by grafting alone. We also identified 23 groups consisting of two or more cultivars with identical genotypes. Most members of these groups were putatively synonymously related and morphologically identical. However, some of them were probably derived from bud sport mutants and had distinct morphologies. SSR marker analysis provided useful insights into the clonal status of the examined Japanese flowering cherry cultivars and proved to be a useful tool for cultivar characterization. PMID:23226085

  6. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. PMID:25466099

  7. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  8. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage. PMID:25089645

  9. Japanese flowering cherry tree as a woody plant candidate grown in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Nyunoya, H.; Funada, R.; Katayama, T.; Suzuki, T.; Honma, T.; Nagatomo, M.; Nakamura, T.

    We are proposing to raise woody plant in space for several applications Japanese flowering cherry tree is a candidate to do wood science in space Mechanism of sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively Cherry mutants associated with gravity are telling responsible plant hormones and molecular machinery for plant adaptation against action of gravity Space experiment using our wood model contribute to understand molecular and cellular process of gravitropism in plant Tree is considered to be an important member in space agriculture to produce excess oxygen wooden materials for constructing living environment and provide biomass for cultivating mushrooms and insects Furthermore trees and their flowers improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space

  10. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  11. Benzaldehyde in cherry flavour as a precursor of benzene formation in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Christine; Reusch, Helmut; Ruge, Ingrid; Godelmann, Rolf; Pflaum, Tabea; Kuballa, Thomas; Schumacher, Sandra; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-09-01

    During sampling and analysis of alcohol-free beverages for food control purposes, a comparably high contamination of benzene (up to 4.6μg/L) has been detected in cherry-flavoured products, even when they were not preserved using benzoic acid (which is a known precursor of benzene formation). There has been some speculation in the literature that formation may occur from benzaldehyde, which is contained in natural and artificial cherry flavours. In this study, model experiments were able to confirm that benzaldehyde does indeed degrade to benzene under heating conditions, and especially in the presence of ascorbic acid. Analysis of a large collective of authentic beverages from the market (n=170) further confirmed that benzene content is significantly correlated to the presence of benzaldehyde (r=0.61, pbenzaldehyde in combination with ascorbic acid should be avoided.

  12. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Regina’

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Baryła; Magdalena Kapłan; Marcela Krawiec

    2014-01-01

    Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L.), on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vege...

  13. Use of in vitro propagation of `Obla?inska? sour cherry in rootstock breeding

    OpenAIRE

    DORIC, DUSICA; Vladislav OGNJANOV; Barac, Goran; LJUBOJEVIC, MIRJANA; PRANJIC, ANKICA; DUGALIC, KRUNOSLAV; ERCİŞLİ, SEZAİ

    2015-01-01

    Prunus cerasus L. `Obla?inska? sour cherry germplasm was established in vitrodirectly from in situ plants on different explant collection dates, enabling quick clonal multiplication and introduction to a rootstock breeding program. Rosette initiation of four investigated genotypes was possible from November to April on the medium containing Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) macroelements, Murashige and Skoog (MS) microelements, and vitamins supplemented with (in mg L?1) 6-benzyladenine (BA), 0.5; i...

  14. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    In-Suck Baek; Kim, Moon S.; Hoosoo Lee; Wang-Hee Lee; Byoung-Kwan Cho

    2014-01-01

    A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 4...

  15. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh; Kazem Arzani; Naser Bouzari; Ali Saei

    2014-01-01

    Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars) was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially IS...

  16. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers. PMID:25026662

  17. Flowering time and incompatibility groups: Cultivar combination in commercial sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Radičević Sanja; Cerović Radosav; Marić Slađana; Đorđević Milena

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of eight-year study (1999-2006) of flowering phenophase in 21 introduced sweet cherry cultivars grown under the agro-environmental conditions of West Serbia. Flowering time, as well as progress and abundance of flowering were studied, and classification of the studied cultivars according to flowering time was derived. On the basis of mean several-year overlap in phenophase of full flowering and on the grounds of so far known data ...

  18. De novo assembly of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) transcriptome from 454 sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Le Dantec, Loick; Quero-Garcia, José; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Very few genomic resources are actually available for sweet cherry. Emergence and generalization of next‐generation DNA sequencing technologies that reduce cost, labor, and time, provide the opportunity to conduct large‐scale genomic projects at lower cost even for non‐model organisms like prunus avium. In order to obtain a panel of prunus avium expressed genes for functional studies and candidate gene strategy, a normalized complementary DNA library has been sequenced using high throughput 4...

  19. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  20. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Cesar; Rezica Sudar; Zorica Jurković; Ines Mihaljević; Hrvoje Lepeduš; Krunoslav Dugalić; Marija Viljevac; Domagoj Šimić

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L.) during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days) and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivar...

  1. Modeling seed dispersal of black cherry, an invasive forest tree: how microsatellites may help?

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jonard, Mathieu; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    We used empirical models and three dispersal functions (Weibull, lognormal and 2Dt) to model seed distributions derived from the black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) understorey of a pine-dominated stand. Two different approaches were used to disentangle the overlapping seed shadows: the traditional inverse modeling approach and the genetic approach that uses microsatellite markers to assign a dispersed seed to its maternal parent. The distinction was made between the seeds passively disperse...

  2. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin profile of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar, Irem; Ekşi, Aziz

    2012-12-15

    The antioxidant capacities, total polyphenolic content and monomeric anthocyanin content of eleven types of sour cherry juice obtained from different varieties of sour cherries were investigated. Antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic content and monomeric anthocyanin contents of the juices were within the ranges 20.0-37.9 mmol/L, 1510-2550 and 350.0-633.5mg/L, respectively. The main anthocyanin compound in sour cherry juice was cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside at concentrations between 140.3 and 320.9 mg/L. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside was followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside within a concentration range of 25.5-85.5mg/L. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside contents were relatively low (2.6-21.5 and 2.0-9.9 mg/L). Anthocyanin capacity and total polyphenol content were fairly well correlated (r=0.742, p0.05). The correlation between antioxidant capacity - cya-3-glucosylrutinoside (r=0.606, p<0.01) and antioxidant capacity - cya-3-rutinoside (r=0.628, p<0.01) was significant. PMID:22980889

  4. Effects of alginate edible coating on quality and antioxidant properties in sweet cherry during postharvest storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chiabrando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars (“Big Lory” and “Grace Star”, were treated with 1%, 3% and 5% sodium alginate as an edible coating before storage. Analytical determinations were made after 7, 14 and 21 days of storage at 4°C. Cherries were analyzed for the following quality parameters: firmness, weight loss, titratable acidity, soluble solid content, external color, anthocyanin content, phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity. Alginate treatment at 3% delayed changes in most of the ripening parameters, weight and acidity losses, softening and color changes. However, the soluble solids content was not affected by the alginate fruit coating. In terms of the antioxidant properties, no significant results were obtained with the use of the alginate coating. The results of this study suggest that alginate treatments at 1% and 3% could be used as natural postharvest treatments in cherry cultivars with the aim of delaying the postharvest ripening process and maintaining fruit quality.

  5. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  6. Determining the Zn Content of Cherry in Field Using VNIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mert Dedeoglu; Levent Baayigit

    2015-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR)spectroscopy is an eco-friendly method used for estimating plant nutrient deficiencies.The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using VNIR method for estima-ting Zn content in cherry orchard leaves under field conditions.The study was conducted in 3 different loca-tions in Isparta region of Turkey.Fifteen cherry orchards containing normal and Zn deficient plants were cho-sen,and 60 leaf samples were collected from each location.The reflectance spectra of the leaves were measured with an ASD FieldSpec HandHeld spectroradiometer and a plant probe.The Zn contents of leaf samples were predicted through laboratory analysis.The spectral reflectance measurements were used to estimate the Zn lev-els using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis method.Prediction models were created using the highest coefficient of determination value.The results show that Zn content of cherry trees can be estimated using the VNIR spectroscopic method (87. 5

  7. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

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    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  8. In vitro sterilization procedures for micropropagation of ‘oblačinska’ sour cherry

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    Mihaljević Ines

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface sterilization is the most important step in preparation of explants for micropropagation, because controlling fungal and bacterial contamination of woody plant from field sources is very difficult. Six sterilizing agents: sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO2], sodium dichloroisocyanurate (DICA, mercuric (II chloride (HgCl2, silver nitrate (AgNO3 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were tested for sterilization of ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry buds, by varying their concentration and time of exposure. The aim of this study was to establish best surface sterilization for in vitro propagation of ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry. Aseptic cultures of ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry were established from axillary buds which were placed in nutrient medium, supplemented with plants hormones 6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 1- naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. The results indicated that among these sterilizing agents silver nitrate (AgNO3 at concentration of 1% for 20 minutes was the best for controlling the infection, whereas sterilization with sodium dichloroisocyanurate (DICA at concentration of 1% for 10 minutes was not satisfactory.

  9. Interaction Between Cryptococcus laurentii, Monilinia fructicola, and Sweet Cherry Fruit at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed mainly to investigate the antagonist-pathogen-host interaction in wounds of the sweet cherry fruits. The antagonistic yeast Cryptococcus laurentii could significantly reduce the brown rot of the sweet cherry fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola at 25 and 1℃. The populations of yeast increased faster in the presence of the pathogen initially, but then decreased rapidly. In the fruits inoculated with M. Fructicola alone or combined with C. Laurentii, an induction of lipid peroxidation as well as activities of the antioxidant enzymes, such as, superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), was observed. The isoenzyme pattern of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) changed greatly after the symptoms appeared, with new PPO isoforms being induced. By contrast, the induction of lipid peroxidation and activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were low, although no significant changes were found in the PPO isoenzyms in the fruits inoculated with antagonist C. Laurentii alone. The inhibition of brown rot during the antagonist pathogen-host interaction in wounds of the sweet cherry fruits was mainly on account of the stimulated growth of C. Laurentii as well as the induction of antioxidant enzymes of the fruits by M. Fructicola.

  10. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens. PMID:26314048

  11. Repellent effects of various cherry tomato accessions on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, T; Resende, J T V; Oliveira, J R F; Scabeni, C J; Zeist, A R; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on resistance sources to improve the genetic resistance of farm-grown tomatoes to arthropod pests, including phytophagous mites. In the present study, we evaluate the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite on different cherry tomato accessions to identify possible sources of resistance (repellent effect) to this pest. Sixty-four accessions of cherry tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal), were tested. In addition, a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato cv. Sweet Grape (susceptible pattern) and the wild tomato accession Solanum pennellii Correll LA-716 (multiple pest resistance) were evaluated as well. The distance traveled by mites on the leaflet surface over time varied largely among cherry tomato accessions. The wild genotype, S. pennellii LA-716, showed the smallest traveled distance on the leaflet surface (0.8 to 1.1 mm over time), and the variety cv. Sweet Grape was one of the genotypes with highest traveled distance (16.2 to 16.4 mm over time). The cherry tomato accessions 2298-42, RVTC-03, and 6889-53 showed a decrease in the traveled distance by mites over time, similar to that as observed in the wild tomato accession LA716. These accessions showed mite repellence levels similar to those of the wild genotype and may, therefore, be good candidates for breeding programs dealing with resistance to mites.

  12. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Anthony; Mathew, Shilpa; Moore, Chris T; Russell, Jean; Robinson, Emma; Soumpasi, Vithleem; Barker, Margo E

    2014-06-01

    Tart cherries are a particularly rich source of anthocyanins. Evidence indicates that dietary intake of anthocyanins is inversely associated with arterial stiffness. We conducted an open-label randomised placebo controlled study to determine whether a tart cherry juice concentrate (Cherry Active) reduced arterial stiffness, inflammation and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in 47 healthy adults (30-50 years). Participants consumed 30 ml of cherry concentrate diluted to a volume of 250 ml with water or the same volume of an energy matched control drink daily for six weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on arterial stiffness (P = 0.218), c-reactive protein (P = 0.220), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.163), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.121), total cholesterol (P = 0.342) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.127). At the end of the intervention, plasma antioxidant capacity (measured as the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.012). We conclude that a tart cherry juice concentrate rich in anthocyanins has no effect on arterial stiffness, c-reactive protein and risk markers for cardiovascular disease, but evokes a minor increase in antioxidant status in healthy adults. PMID:24570273

  13. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  14. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  15. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars. PMID:26646816

  16. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  17. Rapid and sensitive detection of Little cherry virus 2 using isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Tefera A; Zhang, Shulu; Eastwell, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    Little cherry virus 2 (LChV2) (genus Ampelovirus) is the primary causal agent of little cherry disease (LCD) in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) in North America and other parts of the world. This mealybug-transmitted virus does not induce significant foliar symptoms in most sweet cherry cultivars, but does cause virus-infected trees to yield unevenly ripened small fruits with poor flavor. Most fruits from infected trees are unmarketable. In the present study, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) technique was developed using LChV2 coat protein specific primers and probe. Detection of terminally labeled amplicons was achieved with a high affinity lateral flow strip. The RT-RPA is confirmed to be simple, fast, and specific. In comparison, although it retains the sensitivity of RT-PCR, it is a more cost-effective procedure. RT-RPA will be a very useful tool for detecting LChV2 from crude extracts in any growth stage of sweet cherry from field samples. PMID:24797461

  18. Influence of Air Temperature and Pretreatment Solutions on Drying Time, Energy Consumption and Organoleptic Properties of Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gazor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pretreatment solution (no treatment, boiling water, salty boiling water, ethil oleat on drying time of sour cherry were studied experimentally. The thin layer drying of sour cherries was carried out at three air temperatures of 50, 60, 70°C and with constant airflow velocity of 1 m/s. Drying kinetic, energy consumption and organoleptic properties as taste, visual color and texture were evaluated in dried fruits. Results of experiments showed that pretreatment solutions and air temperatures had significant effect on drying time and organoleptic properties of dried sour cherry. Using of pretreatment solution is necessary before drying process. It reduced drying time up to 80% and energy saving was approximately 83% in comparison with no treatment samples. Results of this research indicated that using of salty boiling water as pretreatment and temperature of 50°C in sour cherry drying process cause the best result in drying time and organoleptic evaluation such as taste quality, visual color and texture suitability of dried fruit. In addition, energy consumption for drying reduced noticeably when sour cherry was pretreated with salty boiling water.

  19. Influence of Air Temperature and Pretreatment Solutions on Drying Time, Energy Consumption and Organoleptic Properties of Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gazor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pretreatment solution (no treatment, boiling water, salty boiling water, ethil oleat on drying time of sour cherry were studied experimentally. The thin layer drying of sour cherries was carried out at three air temperatures of 50, 60, 70°C and with constant airflow velocity of 1 m/s. Drying kinetic, energy consumption and organoleptic properties as taste, visual color and texture were evaluated in dried fruits. Results of experiments showed that pretreatment solutions and air temperatures had significant effect on drying time and organoleptic properties of dried sour cherry. Using of pretreatment solution is necessary before drying process. It reduced drying time up to 80% and energy saving was approximately 83% in comparison with no treatment samples. Results of this research indicated that using of salty boiling water as pretreatment and temperature of 50°C in sour cherry drying process cause the best result in drying time and organoleptic evaluation such as taste quality, visual color and texture suitability of dried fruit. In addition, energy consumption for drying reduced noticeably when sour cherry was pretreated with salty boiling water.

  20. The effect of the times and the budding methods on the quality of young trees and the nursery efficiency of cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the effect of the times and the methods of budding on the growth of young cherry trees were conducted in the years 1997-2000 at Felin Experimental Farm of Lublin Agricultural University. The objects of investigations were the young cherry trees obtained as a result of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. seedlings in the way by the chip budding-15th July and T-budding-on the 15th July and the 1st September. The used terms and budding methods did not affect the bud taking and the quality of cherry trees during three years studies. Chip budding of the sweet cherry on the 15th July was the most effective way of this seedling budding. Late budding-on the 1st September-did not change the efficiency of the nursery only in case of mahaleb cherry. The highest number-33 000 of the young trees, average per 1 ha was got as a result of the chip and "T" mahaleb cherry budding on the 1st September.

  1. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  2. Construction of an intra-specific sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genetic linkage map and synteny analysis with the Prunus reference map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkage maps of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Emperor Francis’ (EF) and the wild forest cherry ‘New York 54’ (NY) were constructed using primarily simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and gene-derived markers with known positions on the Prunus reference map. The success rate for identifying SSR markers...

  3. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant. PMID:27144542

  4. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3′ UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3′ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

  5. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Klagges

    Full Text Available Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L, high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1 plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8. These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family.

  6. Production technology of Chinese dwarf cherry vinegar%钙果果醋生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东波

    2011-01-01

    以钙果为原料,对钙果果醋的醋酸发酵工艺进行了研究.研究表明:醋酸发酵的最佳条件是初始酒精度6%vol,接种量6%,发酵最佳温度34℃.通过单因素试验和正交试验研究确定了钙果果醋饮料的最佳配方是钙果果醋的用量10mL/100mL,钙果果汁的用量30mL/100mL,糖的用量12g/100mL.酿制的产品呈樱桃红色,具有钙果浓郁的果香味,醋香纯正,口感柔和,酸甜爽口.%Using Chinese dwarf cherry as raw material, the processing technology of Chinese dwarf cherry vinegar was studied in this paper. The results indicated that the optimal technological conditions of acetic fermentation were as follows: initial alcohol 6% vol, inoculum 6% and fermentation temperature 34℃. The optimal formula were obtained by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment as follows: Chinese dwarf cherry vinegar 10ml/100ml, Chinese dwarf cherry juice 30ml/100ml and sucrose 12g/100ml. The final product has a red cherry color and soft and smooth tastes with fruits flavors of Chinese dwarf cherry

  7. Polyfloral, linden and acacia honeys with dried cherries after three months of storage - antioxidant and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Jelena J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of three types of honey: polyfloral (PH, linden (LH and acacia (AH, without and with addition of dried cherries (40% were analyzed before and after three months of storage. The total phenol (TPh, flavonoid (TFd and anthocyanin (TAn contents, antioxidant activities and sensory properties of honeys with and without the addition of dry cherries were evaluated. TPh and TFd increased with addition of dried cherries to the honey, while enriched honeys showed high TAn. The LH sample with dried cherries showed the highest anthocyanins content (41.41mgCGE/100g. The antioxidant activity increased with addition of dried cherries in honey in the DPPH• test and reducing power. The PH and enriched PH exibited the best antiradical activity compared to LH and AH. The EC50 DPPH values were: 23.81 for PH and 24.19 mg/mL for PH, while the EC50 DPPH were: 1.16 mg/mL for PH40 and 1.18 mg/mL for PH40s. RP0.5 values were: 57.00 mg/mL for PH40 and 56.00 mg/ml for PH40s, while RP0.5 were: 15.05 mg/mL for PH40 and 15.18 mg/mL for PH40s. The statistical analysis showed that TPh, TFd and TAn, and antioxidant activity of honeys and enriched honeys showed significant correlation. Sensory analysis of honey with dried cherries, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory characteristics.

  8. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagges, Carolina; Campoy, José Antonio; Quero-García, José; Guzmán, Alejandra; Mansur, Levi; Gratacós, Eduardo; Silva, Herman; Rosyara, Umesh R; Iezzoni, Amy; Meisel, Lee A; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K) and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L), high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1) plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs) in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8). These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family. PMID:23382953

  9. Modeling daily flowering probabilities: expected impact of climate change on Japanese cherry phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jenica M; Terres, Maria A; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Kobori, Hiromi; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Primack, Richard B; Wilson, Adam M; Gelfand, Alan; Silander, John A

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the drivers of phenological events is vital for forecasting species' responses to climate change. We developed flexible Bayesian survival regression models to assess a 29-year, individual-level time series of flowering phenology from four taxa of Japanese cherry trees (Prunus spachiana, Prunus × yedoensis, Prunus jamasakura, and Prunus lannesiana), from the Tama Forest Cherry Preservation Garden in Hachioji, Japan. Our modeling framework used time-varying (chill and heat units) and time-invariant (slope, aspect, and elevation) factors. We found limited differences among taxa in sensitivity to chill, but earlier flowering taxa, such as P. spachiana, were more sensitive to heat than later flowering taxa, such as P. lannesiana. Using an ensemble of three downscaled regional climate models under the A1B emissions scenario, we projected shifts in flowering timing by 2100. Projections suggest that each taxa will flower about 30 days earlier on average by 2100 with 2-6 days greater uncertainty around the species mean flowering date. Dramatic shifts in the flowering times of cherry trees may have implications for economically important cultural festivals in Japan and East Asia. The survival models used here provide a mechanistic modeling approach and are broadly applicable to any time-to-event phenological data, such as plant leafing, bird arrival time, and insect emergence. The ability to explicitly quantify uncertainty, examine phenological responses on a fine time scale, and incorporate conditions leading up to an event may provide future insight into phenologically driven changes in carbon balance and ecological mismatches of plants and pollinators in natural populations and horticultural crops.

  10. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  11. Cloning, expression, and characterization of sorbitol transporters from developing sour cherry fruit and leaf sink tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-04-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (K(m) sorbitol of 0.81 mM for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mM for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  12. Conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from blackberry and sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Simona; Grosu, Cristian; Ketney, Otto; Stoia, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Blackberry and sweet cherry are important plant foods rich in anthocyanins well-known for their pharmacological and antioxidant effects. The aim of the present paper was to comparatively investigate conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction procedures in order to isolate an enriched crude anthocyanin extract from blackberry (Thornfree cultivar) and sweet cherry (Black Gold cultivar). Hydroethanolic solution and acidified ethanol were used to conventionally extract anthocyanins by a discontinuous process at 4 degreeC for 2/ 24 hours. Added hydrochloric acid in ethanol of different concentrations proved to be more efficient in both type of samples. In the ultrasound-assisted extraction, the highest recovered anthocyanin content in blackberry (107.81 mg 100 g(-1) FM) was obtained with a 10/1 solvent/solid ratio (v/w) at 30 degreeC for 5 minutes, while a 15/1 solvent/solid ratio (v/w) at 30 degreeC for 20 minutes lead to an increased antioxidant capacity as determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power in the extract using 0.1% HCI in 80% ethanol. The optimum conditions obtained for ultrasound-assisted extraction from sweet cherry in 0.1% HCI in 60% ethanol at 30 degree C include a 15/1 solid/solvent ratio (w/v) and 5 minutes for the maximum yield (36.05 mg 100(-1) FM). The final crude anthocyanin extracts may find useful application as dietary supplements, or may be further purified for application as food ingredients. PMID:23878943

  13. Biaxial tensile tests identify epidermis and hypodermis as the main structural elements of sweet cherry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggenwirth, Martin; Fricke, Heiko; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The skin of developing soft and fleshy fruit is subjected to considerable growth stress, and failure of the skin is associated with impaired barrier properties in water transport and pathogen defence. The objectives were to establish a standardized, biaxial tensile test of the skin of soft and fleshy fruit and to use it to characterize and quantify mechanical properties of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit skin as a model. A segment of the exocarp (ES) comprising cuticle, epidermis, hypodermis and adhering flesh was mounted in the elastometer such that the in vivo strain was maintained. The ES was pressurized from the inner surface and the pressure and extent of associated bulging were recorded. Pressure : strain responses were almost linear up to the point of fracture, indicating that the modulus of elasticity was nearly constant. Abrading the cuticle decreased the fracture strain but had no effect on the fracture pressure. When pressure was held constant, bulging of the ES continued to increase. Strain relaxation upon releasing the pressure was complete and depended on time. Strains in longitudinal and latitudinal directions on the bulging ES did not differ significantly. Exocarp segments that released their in vivo strain before the test had higher fracture strains and lower moduli of elasticity. The results demonstrate that the cherry skin is isotropic in the tangential plane and exhibits elastic and viscoelastic behaviour. The epidermis and hypodermis, but not the cuticle, represent the structural 'backbone' in a cherry skin. This test is useful in quantifying the mechanical properties of soft and fleshy fruit of a range of species under standardized conditions. PMID:24876301

  14. Dormancy in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahhou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is admitted that the lack of winter chilling is a limiting factor for the cultivation of temperate fruit trees in warm climates. Nevertheless, the characteristics of dormancy in sweet cherry under such conditions are still not fully understood. Therefore, and in order to contribute to the elucidation of these mechanisms, the objective of this work is to evaluate the dormancy of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under the Mediterranean conditions of Meknes region (Morocco. Evaluation of dormancy behaviour of four varieties was made on the basis of a biological test, known as the « single node cuttings », and histological dissections of flower buds at the time of bud break. The variations of mean time to bud break (MTB were interpreted in terms of the evolution of growth capacity of the buds. The lack of cold affected tree phenological development. The evolution of dormancy in cherry buds showed three phases with variable levels of inertia: the first and third phases being of similar intensity and duration while the second phase was of a high level of inertia (endo-dormancy. The correlative inhibitions of the leaves imposed on the buds continued up to the arrival of continuous low temperatures. The delay in the decrease of inertia reveals insufficient chilling accumulation causing incomplete release from dormancy and low bud break percentage in the orchard. Histological observations showed that vascular connection of flower buds was established during bud break stage. However, flowers showed certain abnormalities, ie low pollen production and malformations of pistils, which limit the possibilities of pollination.

  15. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  16. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions. PMID:27323427

  17. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  18. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions.

  19. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) MYB10 and bHLH Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Starkevič; Jurgita Paukštytė; Vaiva Kazanavičiūtė; Erna Denkovskienė; Vidmantas Stanys; Vidmantas Bendokas; Tadeušas Šikšnianas; Aušra Ražanskienė; Raimundas Ražanskas

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analy...

  20. Artificial nest studies conducted on Osmia species(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in cherry orchards of Sultandağı (Afyonkarahisar)

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out in two sweet cherry orchards in Sultandağı (Afyonkarahisar) at consecutive years in 2009 and 2010. The aim of the study was nested Osmia spp. (Hym.: Megachilidae), which are active during the cherry blossom, with the aid of artificial nests. The bundles of hollow stems of reed (Phragmites australis) with the different diameters were placed to the orchards in the first week of April in both years. As a result, in the artificial nests was determined to show nes...

  1. Mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Moreira AZOUBEL; Murr Fernanda E. Xidieh

    2000-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato as influenced by osmotic agent (sodium chloride and a mixed sodium chloride and sucrose solutions) and solution concentration (10 and 25% w/w) at room temperature (25°C) was studied. Kinetics of water loss and solids uptake were determined by a two parameter model, based on Fick's second law and applied to spherical geometry. The water apparent diffusivity coefficients obtained ranged from 2.17x10-10 to 11.69x10-10 m²/s.

  2. 美国Waukesha Cherry-Burrell公司ECP PD转子泵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Waukesha Cherry-Burrell总部位于美国威斯康星州,是卫生流体设备领域全球知名的研发和供应商。在长达125年的历史中.沃喀莎一直致力于提供洁净的行业最高标准ECPPD转子泵、离心泵、卫生阀门、卫生管件、

  3. 曲线之美--CHERRY MX-BOARD 2.0 C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    在机械键盘领域,CHERRY拥有独一无二的地位。CHERRY轴体是其他品牌争相采用的轴体,做工品质和优秀的手感成为CHERRY的独有特质。更有不少玩家钟情于CHERRY,有着一份浓厚的原厂情结。原厂正品的CHERRY MX-BOARD 2.0 C,正是CHERRY送给粉丝的一份大礼。

  4. Three New Tetranorditerpenes from Aerial Parts of Acerola Cherry (Malpighia emarginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Qing Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acerola cherry is a world famous fruit which contains abundant antioxidants such as vitamin C, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolics. However, studies concerning bioactivity components from aerial parts of acerola (Malpighia emarginata are scarce. In view of this, we have examined the constituents of aerial parts of acerola, and three new tetranorditerpenes acerolanins A–C (1–3 with a rare 2H-benz[e]inden-2-one substructure were isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral studies and acerolanin C was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Furthermore, three new compounds have been studied for their cytotoxic activity.

  5. Three new tetranorditerpenes from aerial parts of acerola cherry (Malpighia emarginata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Qing; Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Ting-Zhao; Han, Qiang; Li, Yan; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Acerola cherry is a world famous fruit which contains abundant antioxidants such as vitamin C, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolics. However, studies concerning bioactivity components from aerial parts of acerola (Malpighia emarginata) are scarce. In view of this, we have examined the constituents of aerial parts of acerola, and three new tetranorditerpenes acerolanins A-C (1-3) with a rare 2H-benz[e]inden-2-one substructure were isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral studies and acerolanin C was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Furthermore, three new compounds have been studied for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24566326

  6. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Świetlik; Kazimierz Słowik; Sebastian Rejman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the sh...

  7. Assessment of self-(in) compatibility in some sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Radičević Sanja; Marić Slađana; Cerović Radosav; Đorđević Milena

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of a three-year study of self-(in)compatibility in four economically important sweet cherry genotypes - ‘Karina’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Summit’, under agro-environmental conditions of Western Serbia. Determination of S-RNase genotype, microscopic observation of the pollen tube growth rate and assaying of the fruit set level after self-pollination were used to assess the genotypes. ‘Kordia’ (S3S6), ‘Regina’ (S1S3) and ‘Summit’ (S...

  8. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Świetlik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the shortest shoots (1-10 cm bore more fruit per unit length as compared to the longer shoots.

  9. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  10. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs and the incompatibility (S gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding.

  11. Use of mCherryOpt Fluorescent Protein in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Eric M; Weiss, David S; Ellermeier, Craig D

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe protocols for using the red fluorescent protein mCherryOpt in Clostridium difficile. The protocols can be readily adapted to similar fluorescent proteins (FPs), such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). There are three critical considerations for using FPs in C. difficile. (1) Choosing the right color: Blue and (especially) red are preferred because C. difficile exhibits considerable yellow-green autofluorescence. (2) Codon optimization: Most FP genes in general circulation have a GC content of ~60 %, so they are not well expressed in low-GC bacteria. (3) Fixing anaerobically grown cells prior to exposure to O2: The FPs under consideration here are non-fluorescent when produced anaerobically because O2 is required to introduce double bonds into the chromophore. Fixation prevents C. difficile cells from becoming degraded during the several hours required for chromophore maturation after cells are exposed to air. Fixation can probably be omitted for studies in which maintaining cellular architecture is not important, such as using mCherryOpt to monitor gene expression. PMID:27507333

  12. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-04-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes.

  13. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  14. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus x gondouinii and Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaud, M; Zanetto, A; David, J L; Laigret, F; Dirlewanger, E

    2004-12-01

    Prunus avium L. (diploid, AA, 2n=2x=16), Prunus cerasus L. (allotetraploid, AAFF, 2n=4x=32) species, and their hybrid Prunus x gondouinii Rehd., constitute the most widely cultivated cherry tree species. P. cerasus is supposed to be an hybrid species produced by the union of unreduced P. avium gametes and normal P. fruticosa gametes. A continuum of morphological traits between these three species makes their assignation difficult. The aim of this paper is to study the genetic relationships between tetraploid and diploid cherry species. In all, 114 genotypes belonging to these species were analyzed using 75 AFLP markers. The coordinates of these genotypes on the first axis of a correspondence analysis allowed us to clearly distinguish each species, to identify misclassifications and to assign unknown genotypes to one species. We showed that there are specific alleles in P. cerasus, which are not present in the A genome of P. avium and which probably come from the F genome of P. cerasus. The frequencies of each marker in the A and the F genomes were estimated in order to identify A and F specific markers. We discuss the utility of these specific markers for finding the origin of the A and F genomes in the allopolyploid species. PMID:15354194

  15. Evaluation of systemic and dermal toxicity and dermal photoprotection by sour cherry kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Istvan; Czompa, Attila; Csepanyi, Evelin; Juhasz, Bela; Kalantari, Heibatullah; Najm, Khadija; Aghel, Nasreen; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-11-01

    The present report describes outcomes of animal studies conducted to determine the systemic and dermal toxicity of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel contents; and a separate evaluation of the photoprotective capacity of the kernel oil fraction. B6 mice and Hartley guinea-pigs were used for these experiments. Dosage groups of 6-8 animals were administered whole kernel meal in a dose range of 0-3000 mg/kg by gavage for 8 days, following which they were killed. The liver and kidney weights were recorded and histological examination performed on sections of these organs. Kidney function was assessed as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and liver function by measurement of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Dermal toxicity was evaluated in a Hartley guinea-pig model by comparing UVB-irradiated shaved skin to which the kernel oil had been applied with distilled water controls. In conclusion, no evidence of toxicity was observed to result from the consumption or dermal application of sour cherry seed kernel in the dose range at which it is likely to be used in foods or healthcare. Moreover, it was shown to have a powerful capacity to protect skin from UV damage. These results suggest it will prove to be a highly safe and effective addition to a wide range of products for general use. PMID:21751269

  16. Curative activity of insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in tart cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2009-10-01

    Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity. PMID:19886451

  17. Tissue bioavailability of anthocyanins from whole tart cherry in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, E Mitchell; Wolforth, Janet; McNish, Robert; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2015-03-15

    Our aim was to confirm and identify the presence of tart cherry anthocyanins in several target tissues of healthy rats. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was employed for detection and characterisation of anthocyanin metabolites. It was shown that four native anthocyanins, namely cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-D-glucoside, and peonidin 3-rutinoside were differentially distributed among targeted tissues of rats. Bladder and kidney contained more total anthocyanins than all other tissues analysed. It was also revealed that the bioavailability pattern of these native anthocyanins among tissues is varied. The highest concentration of individual anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (2339 picograms/gram of tissue) was detected in bladder, followed by cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-d-glucoside (916 picograms/gram) in the liver of rats. Although the diverse distribution of tart cherry anthocyanins in different rat tissues still requires further explanation, it may provide an evidentiary link between tissue bioavailability and health-enhancing properties of anthocyanins at target sites. PMID:25308638

  18. Sour cherry pomace extract encapsulated in whey and soy proteins: Incorporation in cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Pajin, Biljana; Djilas, Sonja; Petrović, Jovana; Lončarević, Ivana; Stajčić, Slađana; Vulić, Jelena

    2016-09-15

    One of the potential sources of valuable bioactives is pomace, a by-product from fruit juice processing industry. In the presented study, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in whey and soy proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10% (WE10 and SE10) and 15% (WE15 and SE15) of flour. Total polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and colour characteristics of enriched cookies were followed during 4 months of storage. Total polyphenols of WE10, SE10, WE15 and SE15 have shown a slight increase (23.47, 42.00, 4.12 and 1.16%, respectively), while total anthocyanins (67.92, 64.33, 58.75 and 35.91%, respectively) and antioxidant activity (9.31, 24.30, 11.41 and 12.98%, respectively) decreased. Colour parameters (L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗)) of cookies were influenced by the colour of encapsulates. Fortified cookies received satisfactory sensory acceptance as well. Encapsulated sour cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced functional characteristics of fortified cookies and their preservation. PMID:27080876

  19. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding. PMID:26516760

  20. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Nocetti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L., and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations of wood density. It was shown that growth rate did not affect wood properties, and density was confirmed to be the trait that best represents the main properties of wood. The absence of relationships between wood density and growth rate was confirmed by densitometric analysis, although an increase of wood density with an increase of ring width was detected for very narrow rings (less than 3 mm wide. The average density at age 7 to 8 was observed to be highly correlated (r > 0.90 to the average density of a 19-year-old tree, allowing reliable estimation of the wood properties of older trees by early investigation of young trees.

  1. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. PMID:24444903

  2. Bee population returns and cherry yields in an orchard pollinated with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P; Trostle, Glen E

    2006-04-01

    During 1998-2003, we used populations of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria Say to pollinate a commercial sweet cherry orchard in northern Utah. Bee densities released each year ranged from 1290 to 1857 females/ha, with approximately twice as many males. Female progeny produced each year were greater than parental populations released, except in 2003, when nesting was poor due to bird predation. Despite poor weather during bloom, and in contrast to most other local producers, the study orchard produced harvestable crops in 1999 (2,964 kg/ha) and 2001 (3,154 kg/ha). In 1998 and 2000, record yields were obtained (10,625 and 12,096 kg/ha, respectively). Including only those years with harvestable crops, average production was 2.2 times higher in 1998-2003 (when O. lignaria populations were used) compared with 1992-1997 (when 10 Apis mellifera hives were used). This is the first study reporting multiyear cherry yields in an orchard pollinated with O. lignaria in North America. PMID:16686139

  3. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C. PMID:27478231

  4. Performa Udang Hias Red Cherry (Neocaridina heteropoda pada Fase Pembesaran Melalui Aplikasi Warna Wadah Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp red cherry shrimp is one of the ornamental potential developed. One of the conservation efforts can be made to increase production by optimizing keragaannya on enlargement phase. This study aims at scaling up the production of red cherry shrimp, especially in the phase of enlargement. Treatment in the form of background color is composed of (A without colors (control, (B white, (C in black, and (D red. Each treatment was repeated three times with a 45-day long research. Container maintenance in the form of an aquarium measuring 14x14x14 cm3 volume of 1 l and equipped with aeration. The prawns used were 10 fish / aquarium with a weighted average of 0.018 ± 0.21 g and the total length of the average of 0.82 ± 0.21 cm. Feeding in the form of an ad bloodworm satiation and include aquatic plant Hydrilla sp. as a source of additional food and shelter in the form of detritus. The results showed that the weight gain and the highest long background color was achieved by treatment D (red which is equal to 0.09 ± 0.3 g and 1.62 ± 0.3 cm. Survival at each treatment reached 100%. The water quality of all treatments during the study period remained within normal limits.

  5. Physicochemical Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Sour Cherry cv. Marasca During Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedisić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry cv. Marasca is Dalmatian cultivar from XVI century. Cultivation is limited on the north and central part of Dalmatia and on the part of the islands, where it achieves the best quality of fruit, high content of dry matter and sugar respectively, agreeable aroma and intense color. Sour cherry cv. Marasca is source of biologically active ingredients, organic and inorganic compounds, dietary fibers, aromatic compounds and high content of phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins and hormone melatonin. Many epidemiological studies showed that phenolic compounds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and they have beneficial effect on human health. Marasca is rich with mentioned compounds. Physicochemical composition (total and soluble dry matter, pH value, total acidity during ripening of cv. Marasca ecotype Recta (Cerasus marasca recta grown in Zadar and Split area were determined. Total and soluble dry matter increased and pH value and total acidity showed little change during ripening. The content of phenolic compounds increased during ripening as well as content of anthocyanins, while antioxidant activity decreased with ripening. That indicates there was no correlation between antioxidant activity and content of total phenolic compounds.

  6. The growth relationships in maiden trees of sour cherry ‘Łutówka’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in a nursery of sour cherry ‘Łutówka’ budded on Prunus mahaleb L. in the years 1993, 2000–2003, and 2013. The height of trees, the diameter of stems, and the length of lateral shoots were measured. The air temperature and precipitation higher than the long-term mean (by approximately 10 % and 28%, respectively contributed to the increase in the stem diameter, the total length of shoots, and the number of shoots per tree. The length of lateral shoots increased from the top of the crown towards the lower parts, however, the number of feathers per tree and the mean length of shoots decreased. A strong positive relationship (r = 0.74, P < 0.05 was revealed between the stem diameter and the total length of shoots. Generally, the correlations between the type of growth of sour cherry maiden trees and morphological traits were similar to those characteristic for apple maiden trees or “knip-boom” type trees.

  7. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  8. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, Md Salik; Awasthi, Prachi; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz Asgar; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses: Cherry virus A (CVA, Genus; Capillovirus), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, unassigned species of the Betaflexiviridae), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1, Genus; Closterovirus) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Genus; Ilarvirus) with nad5 as plant internal control. A reliable and quick method for total plant RNA extraction from pome and stone fruit trees was also developed. To minimize primer dimer formation, a single antisense primer for CVA and CNRMV was used. A mixture of random hexamer and oligo (dT) primer was used for cDNA synthesis, which was highly suited and economic for multiplexing. All four viruses were detected successfully by mRT-PCR in artificially created viral RNA mixture and field samples of sweet cherry. The identity of the viruses was confirmed by sequencing. The assay could detect above viruses in diluted cDNA (10(-4)) and RNA (10(-3), except PNRSV which was detected only till ten times lesser dilution). The developed mRT-PCR will not only be useful for the detection of viruses from single or multiple infections of sweet cherry plants but also for other stone and pome fruits. The developed method will be therefore quite helpful for virus indexing, plant quarantine and certification programs. This is the first report for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses by mRT-PCR.

  9. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'. PMID:18673394

  10. 77 FR 12748 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... require further consideration by the Board, and did not receive sufficient support. ] The Board also... Wisconsin (order). The order is administered locally by the Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board... and help improve grower returns. The action was recommended by the Board at a meeting on September...

  11. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ...: the definition of ``Handle''; and regulations concerning ``Marketing Policy'' and ``Grower Diversion... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 930...

  12. Environmental flow studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey-Cherry Creek, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, Terry J.; Bovee, Ken D.

    2010-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center performed an intensive field study of two sections of Cherry Creek in September 2008 to provide base data for hydrodynamic simulation of the flow conditions in the stream. The USGS Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, at the University of Arizona School of Natural Resources, conducted a survey of the habitat requirements of the resident fish species in Cherry Creek and provided the habitat suitability criteria used in this study. The habitat suitability criteria were combined with hydrodynamic simulation results to quantify fish habitat for the full range of daily flow experienced in the creek and to produce maps of habitat occurrence for those flows. The flow record at the Cherry Creek stream gage was used to generate habitat response values over time. The long-term habitat response was incorporated into an Excel (Registered) spreadsheet to allow evaluation of habitat occurrence with and without an instream water right under different hypothetical water withdrawal scenarios. The spreadsheet displays information about the time sequence of habitat events, the duration of critical events, and habitat retention.

  13. 78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show...

  14. Cherry Blossom Yet to Bloom——Notes on 2013 Chinese University Student Delegation’s Visit to Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng; Guangming

    2013-01-01

    <正>Words such as soft, gentle and elegant are used to describe Japanese cherry blossoms. When tens of thousands of flowers are in full bloom and their pedals shower down, it not only shows the flourishing of Spring but also the vanishing of a momentary beauty. China and Japan have experienced ups and downs in their relationship since the two countries normalized

  15. 78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice..., the Coast Guard published an NPRM in the Federal Register (78 FR 25407) regarding two temporary safety... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show...

  16. The mutated S1-haplotype in sour cherry has an altered S-haplotype-specific F-box protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Nathanael R; Ikeda, Kazuo; Tao, Ryutaro; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2006-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is an outcrossing mechanism in flowering plants that is genetically controlled by 2 separate genes located at the highly polymorphic S-locus, termed S-haplotype. This study characterizes a pollen part mutant of the S(1)-haplotype present in sour cherry (Rosaceae, Prunus cerasus L.) that contributes to the loss of GSI. Inheritance of S-haplotypes from reciprocal interspecific crosses between the self-compatible sour cherry cultivar Ujfehértói Fürtös carrying the mutated S(1)-haplotype (S(1)'S(4)S(d)S(null)) and the self-incompatible sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars carrying the wild-type S(1)-haplotype revealed that the mutated S(1)-haplotype confers unilateral incompatibility with a functional pistil component and a nonfunctional pollen component. The altered sour cherry S(1)-haplotype pollen part mutant, termed S(1)', contains a 615-bp Ds-like element within the S(1)-haplotype-specific F-box protein gene (SFB(1)'). This insertion generates a premature in-frame stop codon that would result in a putative truncated SFB(1) containing only 75 of the 375 amino acids present in the wild-type SFB(1). S(1)' along with 2 other previously characterized Prunus S-haplotype mutants, S(f) and S(6m), illustrate that mobile element insertion is an evolutionary force contributing to the breakdown of GSI. PMID:16985081

  17. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms. PMID:27375255

  18. Isolation and analysis of bioactive constituents of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernel: an emerging functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Edit; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad

    2010-08-01

    A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases. PMID:20482278

  19. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P anthocyanin contents. Belge cultivar showed the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanin, while Starks Gold contained the lowest level of anthocyanins. The darker cultivars, measured by ABTS(+•) , DPPH(•) and FRAP, exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the lighter ones. Bing (42.78 g/kg) and Sweetheart (40.53 g/kg) cultivars contained higher levels of malic acid, which was the most intense organic acid in sweet cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. PMID:25631389

  20. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. PMID:24986906

  1. Ethanol vapor and saprophytic yeast treatments reduce decay and maintain quality of intact and fresh-cut cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an ethanol vapor release pad and a saprophytic yeast (Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatum) to reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of intact or fresh-cut sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) cv. Lapins and Bing. Intact or fresh-cut fruit were pac...

  2. Effects of cultural treatments, seedling type and morphological characteristics on survival and growth of wild cherry seedlings in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetintas C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is receiving increasing attention from foresters in Europe and Turkey for its fast growth, highly-valued wood and benefits for wildlife and biodiversity. Little documentation may be found concerning the selection of appropriate cultural treatments and the quality and types of seedlings used for wild cherry plantations. This study reports the effects of various combinations of intensive cultural treatments (including weed control, soil tillage, and fertilization and seedling types on early growth, survival, and nutrition of one-year-old wild cherry seedlings out-planted on four different sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey. After two years, early seedling survival and growth were clearly enhanced for potted seedlings. For bare-root seedlings, initial seedling root-collar diameter and height successfully correlated with survival two years after planting. Seedlings with a root-collar diameter of 6-8 mm and height of 60-70 cm demonstrated the best survival rates in the field. The wild cherry seedlings were shown to be highly sensitive to herbaceous weed competition early in their establishment, warranting effective weed control. When used in addition to weed control, neither intensive fertilization nor soil tillage treatments significantly increased seedling survival and growth two years after planting. Therefore, intensive site preparation, as well as fertilization, are not recommended at this stage for planting sites without severe nutrient deficiencies.

  3. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though swe

  4. 75 FR 12702 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... behalf. Thus, both statutes have small entity orientation and compatibility. There are approximately 40... supplies fluctuate widely from season to season. In compliance with Office of Management and Budget (OMB...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States...

  5. Book review: Doing a Systematic Review: A Student's Guide, edited by Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry & Rumona Dickson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lecheler

    2014-01-01

    Writing a systematic review is one of the most challenging aspects of the academic process. With Doing a Systematic Review: A Student’s Guide, Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry and Rumona Dickson aim to offer a detailed and effective guide to writing a successful systematic review. This takes the book

  6. 77 FR 24640 - Tart Cherries Grown in the State of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... cherries into markets that are not yet commercially established, product line extensions, or segmentation... diversion credits for new market development and market expansion activities to one year. These changes are intended to facilitate sales and lessen the impact of market expansion activities on volume...

  7. Landing and Oviposition Responses of Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) on Sweet Cherry Treated with Kaolin- and Limestone-Based Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaolin- and limestone-based products were compared for their effects on landing and oviposition on sweet cherry by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). Surround (95% calcined kaolin), Cocoon (100% hydrous kaolin), Eclipse (>97% limestone), and Purshade (62.5% limestone) were studied....

  8. The Role of Top-down Attention in the Cocktail Party: Revisiting Cherry's Experiment after Sixty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchegiani, Letizia; Karadogan, Seliz; Andersen, Taja;

    2011-01-01

    their relation. For this purpose, we perform behavioral experiments inspired by Cherry's classic experiments carried out almost sixty years ago. We make participants listen to a mono signal consisting of two different narratives pronounced by a speech synthesizer under two different conditions. In the first case...

  9. Tart cherry extracts reduce inflammatory stress signaling and enhance calcium buffering in microglial and neuronal cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-colored fruits, like tart cherries, contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease both inflammation (INF) and oxidative stress (OS). Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can enhance cognitive and motor function in aged animals. It has been postulated that at le...

  10. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.;

    2011-01-01

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided...... quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other...

  11. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis. PMID:23976873

  12. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves in ruminant using in situ method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chemical composition and in situ rumen dry matter degradability (DMD of some tree species (cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves were determined. Crude protein (CP concentration varied from 6.76% for almond tree to 2.76% for cherry tree, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, from 29.2, 20.8% for apricot tree to 20.8 and 15.8% for almond tree leaves respectively. Polyphenol and tannin composition measured from 3.49, 1.2% for almond tree to 1.51 and 0.61% for apricot tree, respectively. In situ rumen degradability was carried out in three fistulaed Taleshi native male cattle which were incubated at times of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96-hour. Almond leaves had higher potential degradation (a+b for dry matter (92.37% and cherry leaves showed lower potential degradation (84.12%, respectively. Effective rumen degradable dry matter at rate of 0.05/h varied from 69.86% for almond tree to 52.20% for cherry leaves. Results showed that the almond leaves were higher in nutritive value than cherry and apricot leaves. Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant’s nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of these resources.

  13. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from five sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars during on-tree ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; Ponce, Nora M A; Salum, María L; Raffo, María D; Vicente, Ariel R; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-12-24

    Excessive softening is a major cause of postharvest deterioration during transportation and storage of fresh cherries. In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). In contrast to what is usually shown in most fruits, cherry softening could occur is some cultivars without marked increases in water-soluble pectin. Although polyuronide and hemicellulose depolymerization was observed in the water-soluble and dilute-alkali-soluble fractions, only moderate association occurs between initial polymer size and cultivar firmness. In all the genotypes the Na2CO3-soluble polysaccharides (NSF) represented the most abundant and dynamic wall fraction during ripening. Firm cultivars showed upon ripening a lower neutral sugars/uronic acid ratio in the NSF, suggesting that they have a lower proportion of highly branched polyuronides. The similar molar ratios of arabinose plus galactose to rhamnose [(Ara+Gal)/Rha] suggest that the cultivars differed in their relative proportion of homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) rather than in the size of the RG side chains; with greater proportions of HG in firmer cherries. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was useful to identify the depolymerization patterns of weakly bound pectins, but gave less accurate results on ionically bound pectins, and was unable to find any pattern on covalently bound pectins. PMID:25434844

  14. Imaging of mRNA-protein interactions in live cells using novel mCherry trimolecular fluorescence complementation systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yin

    Full Text Available Live cell imaging of mRNA-protein interactions makes it possible to study posttranscriptional processes of cellular and viral gene expression under physiological conditions. In this study, red color mCherry-based trimolecular fluorescence complementation (TriFC systems were constructed as new tools for visualizing mRNA-protein interaction in living cells using split mCherry fragments and HIV REV-RRE and TAT-TAR peptide-RNA interaction pairs. The new mCherry TriFC systems were successfully used to image RNA-protein interactions such as that between influenza viral protein NS1 and the 5' UTR of influenza viral mRNAs NS, M, and NP. Upon combination of an mCherry TriFC system with a Venus TriFC system, multiple mRNA-protein interactions could be detected simultaneously in the same cells. Then, the new mCherry TriFC system was used for imaging of interactions between influenza A virus mRNAs and some of adapter proteins in cellular TAP nuclear export pathway in live cells. Adapter proteins Aly and UAP56 were found to associate with three kinds of viral mRNAs. Another adapter protein, splicing factor 9G8, only interacted with intron-containing spliced M2 mRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation assays with influenza A virus-infected cells confirmed these interactions. This study provides long-wavelength-spectrum TriFC systems as new tools for visualizing RNA-protein interactions in live cells and help to understand the nuclear export mechanism of influenza A viral mRNAs.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  16. Development of deficit irrigation scheduling strategies for 'Prime Giant' sweet cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Víctor; Domingo, Rafael; Torres, Roque; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro; García, Manuel; López, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Precision regulated deficit irrigation scheduling is useful for improving water productivity and ensuring crop production sustainability. This form of water management requires continuous monitoring in order to know soil and/or plant water status at all times. Water status sensors are key tools for modulating irrigation water amounts. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and agronomic response of cherry trees to different irrigation treatments based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc). However, the final purpose was to establish threshold values of water stress indicators, which can be considered of practical applicability in automatic irrigation scheduling. The experiment was carried out in 2015 in a 0.5 ha commercial plot of 'Prime Giant' cherry [Prunus avium (L.)] in SE Spain. Three treatments were studied i) T110, irrigated above the maximum crop water requirements (110% of ETc), ii) T85, sustained deficit irrigation, irrigated to satisfy 85% of ETc, throughout the growing season, and iii) T100-55, regulated deficit irrigation with different water deficit levels: 100% and 55% of ETc during pre- and postharvest, respectively. Each treatment was randomly distributed in blocks and run in triplicate. Soil and plant water status were assessed from the soil matric potential and volumetric water content (Ym and Ov), midday stem and fruit water potential (Ys and Yf), maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS), daily trunk growth rate (TGR), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (E). Vegetative growth, yield and the quality of the fruit were also evaluated. Ys and MDS signal intensity were used as the main indicators of water stress. The water applied during the 2015 growing season was 7190, 5425 and 4225 m3 ha-1 for T110, T85 and T100-55, respectively. The mean values of Ys during pre- and postharvest were -0.51, -0.57, -0.54 and -0.65, -0.77 and -0.97 MPa in T110, T85 and T100-55, respectively, while Yf was -1.20, -1.36, -1

  17. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Barde, Sonal R; Patwekar, Shailesh L; Tidke, Priti S

    2013-12-01

    More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far.

  18. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry):A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasad G Jamkhande; Sonal R Barde; Shailesh L Patwekar; Priti S Tidke

    2013-01-01

    More than half of the world’s population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far.

  19. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far.

  20. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). PMID:27449955

  1. CHERRY G80-2100HPU:I am 12 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    很早以前买到的G80-2100一直不敢用,其实也是舍不得,终于我的G80-1822(G80-1822)是CHERRY的一把半机械键盘半薄膜式无段落感键盘,也就是说它实现了黑轴键盘的无段落感。)到了,才舍得换上黑色键帽,换上黑色键帽说实话不如原来好看,不过键帽规格完全一样,甚爽!我现在来简单介绍一下这把CHERRY G80-2100HPU(以下简称为2100)。

  2. Inhibitory effects of sweet cherry anthocyanins on the obesity development in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Yu, Zhuoping; Gao, Zichun; Hu, Hao; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, purified sweet cherry anthocyanins (CACN) were evaluated to determine their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and their anti-obesity properties in male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). CACN prevented HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. In vivo experiment revealed that 40 and 200 mg/kg of CACN in food reduced the body weight by 5.2% and 11.2%, respectively. CACN supplementation could also reduce the size of adipocytes, leptin secretion, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and liver triglycerides. Furthermore, CACN could effectively reduce the expression levels of IL-6 and TNFα genes, markedly increase the SOD and GPx activity. Our results indicated that CACN slowed down the development of HFD-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice. PMID:24224922

  3. Flowering time and incompatibility groups: Cultivar combination in commercial sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of eight-year study (1999-2006 of flowering phenophase in 21 introduced sweet cherry cultivars grown under the agro-environmental conditions of West Serbia. Flowering time, as well as progress and abundance of flowering were studied, and classification of the studied cultivars according to flowering time was derived. On the basis of mean several-year overlap in phenophase of full flowering and on the grounds of so far known data on classification of these cultivars among incompatibility groups, we have offered a recommendation for their cultivation in orchards whereby the most effective pollination and fertilization can be ensured as well as good fruit-set and satisfactory fruit yields.

  4. Growth and photosynthesis of Japanese flowering cherry under simulated microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Mami; Ino, Yoshio; Nakamura, Teruko

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate, the leaf characteristics related to photosynthesis, such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata, the leaf area and the dry weight in seedlings of Japanese flowering cherry grown under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions were examined. No significant differences were found in the photosynthetic rates between the two conditions. Moreover, leaf characteristics such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata in the seedlings grown under the simulated microgravity condition were not affected. However, the photosynthetic product of the whole seedling under the simulated microgravity condition increased compared with the control due to its leaf area increase. The results suggest that dynamic gravitational stimulus controls the partitioning of the products of photosynthesis.

  5. INFLUENCE OF THE ROOT TYPE ON THE FRUIT QUALITY OF THREE SOUR CHERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SOTIROV

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were conducted in the period 2003-2005 at the Institute of Agriculture in Kyustendil /Bulgaria/ with three sour cherry cultivars - Heimanns rubinveichsel, M-15 and Nefris, self-rooted and grafted on IK-M9 mahaleb rootstock. The yield per tree, the fruit weight and the content of dry matter, the total sugars and total acids of the fruits were evaluated. The fruit yield of the self-rooted trees was smaller than that of the grafted ones in all experimental years, but the statistical analysis showed significant differences only for cv. Nefris. The rootstock used or its absence did not have considerable influence on the fruit weight. Significant differences in the fruit chemical composition between the grafted and self-rooted trees were not found and it depended mainly on the cultivar and to a smaller extent on the rootstock or its absence.

  6. Genetic divergence of Oblačinska sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan 3

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on examination of 10 important pomologic and technologic properties, genetic divergence of 10 selected Oblačinska sour cherry clones was established. The genetic divergence between the analyzed clones was determined using the hierarchical cluster analysis. The UPGA method was used and the Euclidean distance in order to determine the difference between the groups. Four similar clone groups were obtained on the dendrogram. The objective of clone differentiation was primarily yield, although other properties were taken into account as well. As the most yielded clones for the production, that can be recommended, were clone D8 or clone D4 that are genetically very similar, and clone D3.

  7. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  8. Effect of ripeness and postharvest storage on the phenolic profiles of cherries (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Knudsen, D.;

    2004-01-01

    The phenolic compounds hydroxycinnamates, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols of sweet cherry cultivars Burial, Saco, Summit, and Van harvested in 2001 and 2002 were quantified by HPLC-DAD. Phenolics were analyzed at partially ripe and ripe stages and during storage at 15+/-5 degreesC (room......-rutinosides were the minor anthocyanins, and peonidin 3-glucoside was also present in cvs. Burlat and Van. Epicatechin was the main monomeric flavan-3-ol with catechin present in smaller amounts in all cultivars. The flavonol rutin was also detected. Cultivar Saco contained the highest amounts of phenolics...... to 5-fold during storage at 15+/-5 degreesC (from 47 to 230 mg/100 g of fw). Flavonol and flavan-3-ol contents remained quite constant. For all cultivars the levels of phenolic acids were higher in 2001 and the anthocyanin levels were higher in 2002, which suggest a significant influence of climatic...

  9. Genetic and cytological diversity in cherry tree accessions (Eugenia involucrata DC in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic and cytological diversity and stability of 35 cherry tree accessions collected in Rio Grande do Sul. We used 15 RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA molecular markers and performed cytological analysis and number count of anthers. Analyses of genetic diversity allowed the separation of accessions into four groups, resulting in an average of 8.93 bands per primer amplified, 7.89 polymorphic bands, 88.08% of polymorphism and 86% of genetic similarity. Cytological analyses of gametic cells allowed for the characterization of accessions as diploids with n=11. In these, the average of meiotic cells considered normal was 82.12%; average pollen viability was 92.44% and in vitro germination was 40.26%; the average number of anthers was 161.85 anthers/flowers. Therefore, the accessions evaluated showed high genetic similarity and cytological stability and can be used in commercial plantations or hybridizations.

  10. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise. PMID:25794236

  11. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  12. Transformation of Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (P. cerasus x P. canescens) cherry rootstock mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2006-03-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) scion cv. Montmorency and rootstock cv. Gisela 6 (P. cerasus x P. canescens) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105:pBISN1 carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron interrupted ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA). Whole leaf explants were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens, and selection and regeneration of transformed cells and shoots of both cultivars was carried out for 12 weeks on selection medium containing 50 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km) and 250 mg l(-1) timentin. These media were [Quoirin and Lepoivre (Acta Hortic 78:437-442, 1977)] supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine (BA) + 0.05 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and woody plant medium [Lloyd and McCown (Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 30:421-427, 1980)] containing 2.0 mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA for cv. Montmorency and cv. Gisela 6, respectively. Seven out of 226 (3.1%) explants of cv. Montmorency and five out of 152 (3.9%) explants of cv. Gisela 6 produced 30/39 GUS- and PCR-positive shoots from the cut midribs via an intermediate callus. Southern analysis of the GUS- and PCR-positive transformants confirmed stable integration of the transgenes with 1-3 copy numbers in the genomes of seven lines of cv. Montmorency and five of cv. Gisela 6. The selected transformants have a normal phenotype in vitro. PMID:16369768

  13. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  14. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. PMID:23107685

  16. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  17. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Industrial juice clarification is accomplished by a combination of enzymatic depectinization, gelatin–silica sol, and/or bentonite treatment. The gelatin–silica sol treatment step is particularly slow, mischievous, and requires comprehensive downstream processing to obtain clarified juice......, and determination of turbidity, protein, pectin, and phenolics as responses. The effects of the alternative clarification treatments were assessed immediately after the particular clarification treatment (immediate turbidity) and during 14 days of cold storage (turbidity development). The protease treatment...... during cold storage (haze formation) is assumed to be due to protein–phenol interactions. Our results suggest that proteins play a decisive role in the formation of immediate turbidity in cherry juice, and point to that pectin may contribute to turbidity development during cold storage of cherry juice...

  18. A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

  19. Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

    2002-07-01

    We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine

  20. An analysis of the factors affecting the net operating result at Naval Aviation Depot Cherry Point, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis explains the current process involved in establishing stabilized rates for the Naval Aviation Depot (NADEP) Cherry Point, North Carolina. Existing data were examined to aid in understanding the process for determining stabilized rates, workload standards, and workload allocation. Additionally, this research provides an analysis of the inputs to the rate setting process to determine which has the most influence on the financial operating result. A general history of working capital...

  1. Complete Genomic Characterization of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Zhu, Dongzi; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV) causes the plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated disease. We obtained the complete genome of a PBNSPaV isolate (PBNSPaV-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing followed by overlapping RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a completed genome of PBNSPaV identified from cherry trees. PMID:27198034

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of cherry mottle leaf virus associated with peach wart disease in peach

    OpenAIRE

    Mekuria, Tefera A.; Druffel, Keri L.; Susaimuthu, James; Eastwell, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a peach virus isolate from a naturally infected peach tree showing typical peach wart-like symptoms on the fruit surface was determined and compared to sequences of members of the family Betaflexiviridae. The genome consists of 7,987 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tail, and has four open reading frames (ORFs). Analysis of the whole genome and putative proteins encoded by each ORF revealed greatest sequence similarity to a cherry i...

  3. THE EFFICIENCY OF PLANTATIONS OF SWEET CHERRY ON THE CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS AFL-2 WITH DIFFERENT DENSITY OF PLANTING TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provorchenko A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the peculiarities of growth and fruiting of trees of sweet cherry with varying density. It is established that the average yield for the years of fruiting does not depend on tree planting schemes, and higher profitability of production is marked with the scheme of 5,0×3,0 5,0×2,5 m

  4. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stjepanović Stefan; Ivetić Vladan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a s...

  5. An immunomarking method to determine the foraging patterns of Osmia cornifrons and resulting fruit set in a cherry orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Biddinger, David; Joshi, Neelendra; Rajotte, Edwin; Halbrendt, Noemi; Pulig, Cassandra; Naithani, Kusum; Vaughan, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The foraging patterns of Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera) were determined with an immunomarking method and correlated with fruit set in a commercial tart cherry orchard in Pennsylvania. Adults of O. cornifrons were self-marked with chicken egg-white protein powder from a dispenser nest box placed at the center of the study orchard at early bloom. Flower samples were collected from randomly selected trees (n = 30) located at different distances from the nest box. Flo...

  6. Book review: Doing a Systematic Review: A Student's Guide, edited by Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry & Rumona Dickson

    OpenAIRE

    Lecheler, S.

    2014-01-01

    Writing a systematic review is one of the most challenging aspects of the academic process. With Doing a Systematic Review: A Student’s Guide, Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry and Rumona Dickson aim to offer a detailed and effective guide to writing a successful systematic review. This takes the book beyond the usual "How to…" literature, and makes it a valuable resource for both students as well as more experienced researchers, writes Sophie Lecheler.

  7. Factors affecting within orchard variability of nutrition,yield and quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Neilsen, Gerry H.; Neilsen, Denise; Herbert, Linda; Losso, Istvan; Rabie, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Continuous air temperature measurements were made during 2006-2008 at 30 different locations within a topographically complex orchard containing 10 yr old ‘Sweetheart’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) on Mazzard rootstock in southern British Columbia. Yield, trunk cross-sectional area, fruit quality, and leaf and fruit mineral concentrations were measured throughout the study on adjacent trees at each location. Granier sap flow probes were installed on 10 nearby ‘Sweetheart’ trees to monitor ...

  8. Characterization of volatile compounds of “Drenja”, an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fruits of cornelian cherry

    OpenAIRE

    VELE TEŠEVIĆ; NINOSLAV NIKIĆEVIĆ; SLOBODAN MILOSAVLJEVIĆ; DANICA BAJIĆ; VLATKA VAJS; IVAN VUČKOVIĆ; LJUBODRAG VUJISIĆ; IRIS ĐORĐEVIĆ; MIROSLAVA STANKOVIĆ; MILOVAN VELIČKOVIĆ

    2009-01-01

    In this study, volatile compounds were analyzed in five samples of home-made spirit beverage made by the distillation of fermented fruits of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.). The major volatile compounds, besides ethanol, identified and quantified were: methanol, acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol, amyl alcohols, 1-hexanol and 2-phenylethanol. The minor volatiles were submitted to liquid–liquid extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatogr...

  9. Comparison of DNA comet assay and germination test (half-embryo-test) in gamma-irradiated cherry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry fruits were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses up to 200Gy (effective dose for disinfestation of codling moth), and DNA strand break in seed embryos was investigated by using alkaline comet assay. Immediately after irradiation (≥100Gy), DNA from embryos produced comets with a long and wide tail due to fragmentation. In control cells, DNA relaxed and produced comet with very short tail (with few strand break). After 72h storage, DNA from fruits irradiated at 200 Gy showed comets with little tail and tail moment of comets was same as un-irradiated control. These results indicate that the strand breaks of DNA caused by irradiation in fresh seed embryo are repaired during storage. On the contrary, the ability of germination lost by irradiation did not restored, a dose of 100Gy and more retarded shoot elongation. In cherries irradiated at 100Gy, the shooting percentage was less than 50% at 4th day after incubation. Germination test (Half embryo test) can be discriminate between irradiated and un-irradiated cherries. (author)

  10. Comparison of DNA comet assay and germination test (half-embryo-test) in gamma-irradiated cherry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry fruits were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses up to 200Gy (effective dose for disinfestation of codling moth), and DNA strand break in seed embryos was investigated by using alkaline comet assay. Immediately after irradiation (>-100Gy), DNA from embryos produced comets with a long and wide tail due to fragmentation. In control cells, DNA relaxed and produced comet with very short tail (with few strand break). After 72h storage, DNA from fruits irradiated at 200 Gy showed comets with little tail and tail moment of comets was same as un-irradiated control. These results indicate that the strand breaks of DNA caused by irradiation in fresh seed embryo are repaired during storage. On the contrary, the ability of germination lost by irradiation did not restored, a dose of 100Gy and more retarded shoot elongation. In cherries irradiated at 100Gy, the shooting percentage was less than 50% at 4th day after incubation. Germination test (Half embryo test) can be discriminate between irradiated and un-irradiated cherries

  11. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gu

    Full Text Available The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  12. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  13. Postharvest sour cherry quality and safety maintenance by exposure to Hot- water or treatment with fresh Aloe vera gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Rahele; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Maftoonazad, Neda

    2014-10-01

    Iranian sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were coated with fresh Aloe vera gel or treated with hot water (40 ± 2 °C) for 2 min and stored for 17 days at 4 ± 1 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of gel coated and hot water treated samples were compared with untreated fruit during the cold storage period. Untreated fruit showed increased respiration rate, rapid weight loss and colour change, accelerated aging and ripening. On the contrary, sour cherries, particularly those coated with gel significantly delayed the above mentioned parameters allowing a fruit storability extension. The sensory analysis in both treatments revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying dehydration, maintenance of fruit visual aspect without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma or flavours. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating and immersion in hot water maintained the properties during postharvest storage of sour cherries and could be introduced as two valuable, simple and non-contaminating treatments. PMID:25328241

  14. Evaluation of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruits for their polyphenol content, antioxidant properties, and nutritional components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Laskowski, Piotr; Oszmiański, Jan

    2014-12-24

    Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds, L-ascorbic acid), antioxidant activities, and physicochemical characteristics (fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids, pH, acidity, total and reducing sugars) of 33 different sour cherry cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 41 polyphenolic compounds found were identified and presented as 14 flavan-3-ols, 11 anthocyanins, 5 hydroxycinnamic acids, 10 flavonols, and 1 flavon. The content of total polyphenols (TPs) ranged from 2982.51 ('Wisok' cultivar) to 1539.43 mg/100 g dry weight ('Erdi Nagygyϋmϋscu'cultivar). Flavan-3-ols, the major class of sour cherry polyphenols, represented ∼ 40% of the TP compounds, whereas anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids amounted for about 25% each. The content of l-ascorbic acid did not exceed 22.18 mg/100 g fresh matter. Some polish sour cherry cultivars (especially 'Agat', 'Ametyst', 'Wider', 'Winer', and 'Wisok') may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with strong nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health. PMID:25495123

  15. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on the profile of volatile compounds and polyphenols in cherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Jiang, Wen Guang; Zhao, Yu Ping

    2011-07-15

    Tart cherries of 'Early Richmond', widely grown in Shandong (China), were fermented with six different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, D254, D21 and GRE) to elucidate their influence on the production of volatiles and polyphenols. Acetic acid and 3-methylbutanol were found in the highest concentrations among all identified volatiles with all six yeast strains, followed by 2-methylpropanol and ethyl lactate. RA17 and GRE cherry wines were characterised by a higher amount of esters and acids. D254 wine contained a higher concentration of alcohols. With respect to polyphenols, five phenolic acids and four anthocyanins were identified among all tested samples, with chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside being the major compounds. When using principal component analysis to classify the cherry wines according to the volatiles and polyphenols, they were divided into three groups: (1) RA17 and GRE, (2) RC212 and D254 and (3) BM4×4 and D21. PMID:23140699

  17. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries. PMID:23596519

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L⁎ and b⁎ values and a decrease in a⁎ values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0–6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended. - Highlights: • Sour cherry juice is an abundant source of functional compounds. • Thermal pasteurization is a common food processing method with some adverse effects. • Gamma irradiation has high potential for keeping fruit juice quality. • This technique improved the shelf life

  19. A 280-Year Long Series of Phenological Observations of Cherry Tree Blossoming Dates for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, T.; Luterbacher, J.; Wanner, H.

    2003-04-01

    Phenology is generally described as the timing of life cycle phases or activities of plants and animals in their temporal occurrence throughout the year (Lieth 1974). Recent studies have shown that meteorological and climatological impacts leave their 'fingerprints' across natural systems in general and strongly influence the seasonal activities of single animal and plant species. During the 20th century, phenological observation networks have been established around the world to document and analyze the influence of the globally changing climate to plants and wildlife. This work presents a first attempt of a unique 280-year long series of phenological observations of cherry tree blossoming dates for the Swiss plateau region. In Switzerland, a nation-wide phenological observation network has been established in 1951 currently documenting 69 phenophases of 26 different plant species. A guidebook seeks to increase objectiveness in the network observations. The observations of the blooming of the cherry tree (prunus avium) were chosen to calculate a mean series for the Swiss plateau region with observations from altitudes ranging between 370 and 860 asl. A total number of 737 observations from 21 stations were used. A linear regression was established between the mean blooming date and altitude in order to correct the data to a reference altitude level. Other ecological parameters were unaccounted for. The selected network data series from 1951 to 2000 was combined and prolonged with observations from various sources back to 1721. These include several historical observation series by farmers, clergymen and teachers, data from various stations collected at the newly established Swiss meteorological network from 1864 to 1873 and the single long series of observations from Liestal starting in 1894. The homogenized time series of observations will be compared with reconstructions of late winter temperatures as well as statistical estimations of blooming time based on

  20. The effect of Tembusu virus infection in different week-old Cherry Valley breeding ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunjian; Dou, Yanguo; Ti, Jinfeng; Wang, Aihua; Cheng, Binghua; Zhang, Xin; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-08-30

    To study the effect of Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection on Cherry Valley Breeding ducks of different ages, 350 five-week-old ducks were divided into 14 groups. Ducks in seven experimental group were respectively infected with 1.265×10(5) mean embryo lethal dose (ELD50) of TMUV-AHQY strain (in 4.2mL) by intravenous route. Ducks in control groups were inoculated with Phosphate-buffered Saline (PBS) in the same way. Clinical symptoms, gross and microscopic lesions, viral loads and serum antibodies were detected and recorded for 20days after infection. Some ducks infected at 7 and 21 week s of age showed severe clinical symptoms including depression and inappetence, and no obvious clinical symptoms were seen in other week-old infected ducks. Severe gross lesions including hepatomegaly, meningeal congestion, myocardial hemorrhage, intestinal, myocardial and pulmonary edema were observed in ducks infected at 7, 18 and 21 weeks of age. No or mild gross lesions were observed in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. The main microscopic lesions including hyperaemia, degeneration and necrosis of different cells and inflammatory cellular infiltration mainly consisting of mononuclear cells or lymphocytes were observed in ducks infected at 7 and 21 week of age. But relatively intact structures and rare lymphocytic infiltration were presented in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. Viral antigen was more frequently observed in organ slices collected from 7 week-old infected ducks and few positive staining was found in 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Less viral loads in different tissues and swabs were detected by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The level of viral loads in the tissues of ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age was very lower than that of ducks infected at 7 and 21 weeks of age. Meanwhile, less viral copy numbers were detected in swab samples collected from 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Ducks infected at 14-week-old developed significantly

  1. Promising Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Natural Population in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bijelić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is a rich in Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. populations that grow naturally in a variety of locations. At Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad, an intensive breeding program on this fruit species started in 2006. The paper reviews morphometric characteristics of 16 Cornelian cherry genotypes collected on the territory of the Vojvodina Province and Mačva region in 2008 and 2009, which were found to be superior in terms of fruit size and quality. On average for the two years, the genotype PPC1 had the highest fruit length (27.79 mm, fruit width (18.97 mm, fruit weight (6.61 g, mesocarp weight (5.86 g and the flesh to stone ratio (88.46%. The genotype Žuti had the longest fruit. The effect of year of growing was statistically significant for all studied traits, except for fruit width and fruit shape index. Fruit weight, economically the most important characteristic, ranged in the interval from 2.25 to 6.61 g, with a large number of genotypes having the fruit weight over 3 g. All of the tested genotypes had satisfactory flesh to stone ratio, from 79.00% (CPC9 to 88.46% (PPC1. The highest variability was detected for mesocarp weight (36.48% and fruit weight (33.19% in 2009, while flesh to stone ratio was the most stable characteristic in both test years (CV = 3.84 and 4.09% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The genotype SKC had highest contents of soluble matter (32.37%, total sugars (25.38% and reducing sugars (23.67%. Fruits of the genotype KC2 had highest contents of vitamin C (39.22 mg/100 g fruit and total acids (3.60%. Selection Apatinski rani had the highest content of anthocyanins (109.36 mg/100 g fruit. Depending on the genotype, protein content ranged from 1.43 to 2.71%, and tannin content from 0.65% to 1.31%.

  2. Anatomical Observations of Chinese Dwarf Cherry%中华钙果的形态解剖观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永春; 迟丽华

    2012-01-01

    为给中华钙果的科学开发和综合利用提供依据,对中华钙果的根、茎叶、花、果实进行解剖显微镜观察.结果表明:1)根结构中有发达的韧皮部和木栓层、次生韧皮部,不仅适应性强,而且有很强的输导能力.2)茎为初生结构,由厚角细胞组成,维管束类型是无限外韧维管束.3)叶内有比较厚的角质层和发达的栅栏组织,叶肉组织细胞排列紧凑,叶绿体含量高.4)果皮细胞内有内含物质,果肉细胞为薄壁细胞,果肉厚,维管束的输导组织较发达,且在北方地区适应性较强,有较高的生态、经济效益.%Anatomical observations of the roots, stems, leaves and fruits of the Chinese dwarf cherry were conducted using microscope to provide a basis for its scientiffic exploration and integrated utilization. The results showed that there were developed pholem, rork layer and secondary phloem in the root structure of the Chinese darf cherry, as a result of which they had strong adaptability and transporting ability; Secondly, the stems of the Chinese dwarf cherry had primary structure composed of collenchyma cells and the type of the vascular bundle was unclosed collateral bundle; Thirdly, the leaves of the Chinese dwarf cherry was characterized by thick cuticle and advanced palisade tissue with compact mesophyll cells and high content of chloroplast; At last, the pericarp cells of the fruit contained embedded substances and the flesh were parenchyma cells. The fruit has thick flesh. The conducting tissues of the Chinese dwarf cherry were well developed with strong adaptability in northern districts of China, so that they had high ecological and economic benefits.

  3. Application and validation of autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures for controlled malolactic fermentation and its influence on the aromatic profile of cherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Liu, Wen Li; Jin, Cheng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used for malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a great effect on the production and quality of cherry wines. The present study used an autochthonous Lb. plantarum strain of SGJ-24 which was isolated from spontaneous MLF cherry wines and selected by its best MLF performance and tolerance, to investigate its effect on the kinetic of vinification and on chemical and volatile characteristics of Rainer and May Duck cherry wines, in comparison with a commercial Oenococcus oeni strain of 31 MBR. Monitoring of MLF was carried out by measuring cell viability and malic acid metabolism, and results showed that for both cherry varieties, SGJ-24 can significantly minimize MLF duration. After fermentation, wine samples were chemically characterized and analyzed for volatile profiles. Results demonstrated that no negative impact on the analytical parameters has been found, and a general increase of volatile esters and terpenes was observed when SGJ-24 was involved. Sensory analysis revealed that the global aromatic intensity was enhanced by the introduction of SGJ-24. All these data suggested that the application of Lb. plantarum strain of SGJ-24 as a worthwhile alternative LAB species for Rainer and May Duck cherry winemaking.

  4. Application and validation of autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures for controlled malolactic fermentation and its influence on the aromatic profile of cherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Liu, Wen Li; Jin, Cheng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used for malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a great effect on the production and quality of cherry wines. The present study used an autochthonous Lb. plantarum strain of SGJ-24 which was isolated from spontaneous MLF cherry wines and selected by its best MLF performance and tolerance, to investigate its effect on the kinetic of vinification and on chemical and volatile characteristics of Rainer and May Duck cherry wines, in comparison with a commercial Oenococcus oeni strain of 31 MBR. Monitoring of MLF was carried out by measuring cell viability and malic acid metabolism, and results showed that for both cherry varieties, SGJ-24 can significantly minimize MLF duration. After fermentation, wine samples were chemically characterized and analyzed for volatile profiles. Results demonstrated that no negative impact on the analytical parameters has been found, and a general increase of volatile esters and terpenes was observed when SGJ-24 was involved. Sensory analysis revealed that the global aromatic intensity was enhanced by the introduction of SGJ-24. All these data suggested that the application of Lb. plantarum strain of SGJ-24 as a worthwhile alternative LAB species for Rainer and May Duck cherry winemaking. PMID:26742612

  5. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health.

  6. Influence of Temperature and Preserving Agents on the Stability of Cornelian Cherries Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Moldovan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. fruits are known for their significant amounts of anthocyanins which can be used as natural food colorants. The storage stability of anthocyanins from these fruit extracts, at different temperatures (2 °C, 25 °C and 75 °C, pH 3.02, in the presence of two of the most widely employed food preserving agents (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate was investigated. The highest stability was exhibited by the anthocyanin extract stored at 2 °C without any added preservative, with half-life and constant rate values of 1443.8 h and 0.48 × 10−3 h−1, respectively. The highest value of the degradation rate constant (82.76 × 10−3/h was obtained in the case of anthocyanin extract stored at 75 °C without any added preservative. Experimental results indicate that the storage degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics under each of the investigated conditions. In aqueous solution, the food preservatives used were found to have a slight influence on the anthocyanins’ stability.

  7. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  8. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars from different sweet cherry cultivars by RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Renata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pvs., isolated from sweet cherry grown on different localities in Serbia, were genetically characterized using RAPD analysis. Four out of eleven tested primers (SPH1, DJP 17, DJ 15, and DJ 16 were selected on the basis of the differences between isolates within two pathovars - syringae and morsprunorum race 1. Cumulative RAPD analysis indicated heterogeneity within the population of both groups of tested isolates, revealing four different patterns in each group. RAPD analysis showed up to 24% differences among pv. syringae isolates, as well as 41% in comparison with the reference strain KFB0103 (pv. syringae, while differences of 15% among isolates pv. morsprunorum 1 race and 36% compared to the reference strain CFBP2119 (pv. morsprunorum 1 were observed. Isolates from locality Selenca exhibited three different genotypic patterns of pv. morsprunorum race 1 and one pattern of pv. syringae. Isolates of pv. morsprunorum collected in the same year from two plant organs (branches and leaves of the cv. Vanda yielded two different patterns. The pv. morsprunorum on cv. Kordia and pv. syringae on cv. Regina were detected at Mikicevo locality. The same patterns were observed for isolates of pv. syringae from Kanjiza and Selenca, as well as from Gornji Tavankut in two years of isolation. Differences were noted between isolates from the same pathovar originating from Ljutovo and Mikicevo, as well as with respect to all other isolates of same pathovar. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46007

  9. Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09 using coffee cherry husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M Usha; Appaiah, K A Anu

    2013-08-01

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of underutilized coffee cherry husk (CCH) for the production and optimization of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09 and to study the physico-mechanical properties of BC films. CCH extract was used as a carbon source in various concentrations along with other nutritional components such as nitrogen (corn steep liquor, urea) and additives (ethyl alcohol, acetic acid). Concentration of CCH extract at 1:1 (w/v) along with 8% (v/v) corn steep liquor, 0.2% (w/v) urea, combination of 1.5% ethyl alcohol and 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid resulted in the production of 5.6-8.2 g/L of BC. BC had tensile strength varying between 28.5 and 42.4 MPa. BC produced with CCH and Hestrin and Schramm (HS) media did not differ in structure as analyzed by FT-IR. Scanning electron microscopic studies indicated BC to contain reticulated network of fine fibers. Under optimized condition, based on the other additives, CCH produced more than three folds yield of BC (5.6-8.2 g/L) than control medium (1.5 g/L). This is the first report on the use of CCH for the production of BC and paved way for the utilization of organic wastes with pectin and high polyphenol content.

  10. Colonization patterns of an mCherry-tagged Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubheka, Gugulethu C; Coutinho, Teresa A; Moleleki, Ntsane; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2013-12-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a newly identified member of the potato soft rot enterobacteriaceae. The pathogenesis of this pathogen is still poorly understood. In this study, an mCherry-P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-tagged strain was generated to study P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-potato plant interactions. Prior to use, the tagged strain was evaluated for in vitro growth, plasmid stability, and virulence on potato tubers and shown to be similar to the wild type. Four potato cultivars were evaluated for stem-based resistance against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vitro viable cell counts showed that P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is able to penetrate roots of a susceptible potato cultivar as early as 12 h postinoculation and migrate upward into aerial stem parts. Due to the phenotypic differences observed between tolerant and susceptible cultivars, a comparison of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense colonization patterns in these cultivars was undertaken. In the susceptible cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense cells colonized the xylem tissue, forming "biofilm-like" aggregates that led to occlusion of some of the vessels. In contrast, in the tolerant cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense appeared as free-swimming planktonic cells with no specific tissue localization. This suggests that there are resistance mechanisms in the tolerant cultivar that limit aggregation of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in planta and, hence, the lack of symptom development in this cultivar. PMID:23758294

  11. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip G. Bell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day. On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ, agility and muscle soreness (DOMS were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP, muscle damage (CK and oxidative stress (LOOH were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6 was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  12. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with fresh coffee cherries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kun-hon; Chen, Yi-sheng; Pan, Shwu-fen; Chen, Jen-jye; Wu, Hui-chung; Chang, Yu-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2014-04-01

    A total of 102 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from three different coffee farms in Taiwan. These isolates were classified and identified by the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc, and Weissella species were the most common LAB found in two farms located at an approximate altitude of 800 m. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was the most common LAB found in the remaining farm was located at an approximate altitude of 1,200 m. It is therefore suggested that the altitude and climate may affect the distribution of LAB. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, two strains included in the genera Enterococcus were considered as two potential novel species or subspecies. In addition, a total of 34 isolates showed the antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. Moreover, seven Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains and one Enterococcus faecalis strain were found to have bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance-producing capability. These results suggest that various LAB are associated with fresh coffee cherries in Taiwan. Some of the isolates found in this study showed potential as antifungal agents. PMID:24292770

  13. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. PMID:27115684

  14. Inactivation of Penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Tok, Fatih M; Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner

    2008-08-01

    Inhibitory effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Penicillum expansum inoculated into sour cherry juice, apricot and peach nectars were determined based on germination tube elongation, spore germination rate, and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study. After inoculation of juice/nectar samples with P. expansum spores at the level of 10(5)-10(6)cfu/mL, the samples were processed by bench scale PEF pulse generator as a function of differing electric field strengths (0, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30 and 34kV/cm) and processing times (0, 62, 94, 123, 163, 198 and 218mus). Results revealed that with an increase in electric field strength and processing time, germination tube elongation and spore germination rate were completely inhibited. Light and SEM observations revealed considerable morphological alterations in fungal conidia such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, shrinkage and protoplast leakage. PEF processing of juice/nectars was demonstrated to be effective in inactivating P. expansum. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the inhibitory effects of PEF on germination tube elongation and spore germination rate of P. expansum in fruit juice/nectars. PMID:18541164

  15. Influence of temperature and preserving agents on the stability of cornelian cherries anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Bianca; David, Luminiţa

    2014-01-01

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits are known for their significant amounts of anthocyanins which can be used as natural food colorants. The storage stability of anthocyanins from these fruit extracts, at different temperatures (2 °C, 25 °C and 75 °C), pH 3.02, in the presence of two of the most widely employed food preserving agents (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) was investigated. The highest stability was exhibited by the anthocyanin extract stored at 2 °C without any added preservative, with half-life and constant rate values of 1443.8 h and 0.48 × 10(-3) h(-1), respectively. The highest value of the degradation rate constant (82.76 × 10(-3)/h) was obtained in the case of anthocyanin extract stored at 75 °C without any added preservative. Experimental results indicate that the storage degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics under each of the investigated conditions. In aqueous solution, the food preservatives used were found to have a slight influence on the anthocyanins' stability. PMID:24941341

  16. Radiation-induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ) cvs Napoleon and Bing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saamin, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using gamma radiation to determine radiosensitivities of main and accessory buds, to increase the proportion of mutant tissue, and to determine the type of damage and mode of recovery in irradiated shoot spices of sweet cherry cvs Napoleon and Bin. Survival, growth, and the types of mutations of V/sub 1/ (primary) shoots and V/sub 2/ plants were observed. LD/sub 50/ values, based on survival of forced buds were about 5kR for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air, 5.5kR for acute exposure in water, and 6kR for fractionated dose in water. 0.39-0.69 accessory buds/site on non-irradiated Napoleon had forced after 30 days in the glasshouse. In the Bing field experiment with main buds, the LD/sub 50/ for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air was 3.5kR. In water, the LD/sub 50/ was 5kR for acute treatment and 6.5kR for fractionated dose. The overall mutation frequency in Napoleon V/sub 2/ shoots derived from main buds was 7.6%: 0.04% growth-reduced mutants, 0.4% total leaf mutants, and7.1% partial leaf mutants.

  17. Pomological properties of sweet cherry cultivars grafted on ‘colt’ rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomological properties of 11 newly sweet cherry cultivars grafted on Colt rootstock were studied in the region of Macva over a three-year period (2010- 2012. An investigation has included phenological traits (flowering and maturing, the elements of productivity (number of flowers in an inflorescence, fruit set and yield, the most important fruit characteristics (physical, chemical and sensory, and fruit cracking index. Average time of flowering of tested cultivars was in the first and the second decade of April, while the maturing time was between 15 May (‘Early Lory’ and 20 June (‘Penny’. The highest yield was achieved by cultivars ‘Giorgia’, ‘Sunburst’, and ‘Crystalina’. Large fruit size was found in cultivars ‘Penny’, ‘Santina’, ‘Sunburst’, ‘Olympus’, and ‘Kordia’. The lowest susceptibility to fruit cracking was manifested in cultivars ‘Early Lory’ and ‘Giorgia’. Cultivars ‘Kordia’ and ‘Cristalina’ were given the highest sensory ratings. Overall, the best results were shown by medium-early season cultivar ‘Santina’, which can be recommended for commercial cultivation. In addition, the early-season cultivar ‘Early Lory’, and the late-season cultivar ‘Kordia’ can also be recommended for cultivation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  18. Assessment of self-(in compatibility in some sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a three-year study of self-(incompatibility in four economically important sweet cherry genotypes - ‘Karina’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Summit’, under agro-environmental conditions of Western Serbia. Determination of S-RNase genotype, microscopic observation of the pollen tube growth rate and assaying of the fruit set level after self-pollination were used to assess the genotypes. ‘Kordia’ (S3S6, ‘Regina’ (S1S3 and ‘Summit’ (S1S2 are self-incompatible genotypes, with a considerable number of pollen tubes ending the growth in the middle third of the style and lack of fruit set. ‘Karina’, as S3S4 genotype, behaved as self-compatible, since its pollen tubes reached the base of the style and ovary, penetrating the nucellus. In addition, fruit set for ‘Karina’ was recorded in all three years of study (40.26%, 18.79% and 21.81%, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064: Development and preservation of genetic potential of temperate zone fruits

  19. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma; Davison, Gareth W; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise. PMID:27455316

  20. Variability components and heritability of pomological and chemical characteristics in sour cherry clones of cultivar Montmorency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 12 sour cherry clones of cultivar Montmorency 5 pomological (fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, stone weight and fruit stem length and 4 chemical characteristics (soluble solid content, total acid content, invert sugar content and total sugar content were investigated. Based on results of analysis of variance for all examined characteristics, variability components, coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation and coefficient of heritability in a broader sense were calculated. Considering components of total variability, year represented the component that caused variability of majority examined characteristics in the highest percentage. Coefficients of genetic variation showed that in investigated clones total acid content varied the least (CVg = 1.79%, and the most fruit weight (CVg = 11.41%. The lowest phenotypic varying was determined for fruit length (CVf = 4.01% but the highest for fruit weight (CVf = 13.86%. Coefficient of heritability was the highest for stone weight (h2 = 70.27%, and the lowest for total acid content (h2 = 7.73%.

  1. IMPACT OF PREPLANTING FERTILIZATION ON THE LEAF NUTRIENT CONTENT OF YOUNG SOUR CHERRY TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRISHKOV

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of seven variants of organic and mineral preplanting fertilization on the content of the main macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in the leaves of sour cherry trees, Erdi Bötermö cv., grafted on two types of rootstocks - seedling forms of Mahaleb (IK-M9 and Droganyellow bigarreau. The investigation was carried out during the period 2001-2003 in an experimental orchard at the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil. There was no significant effect of the different preplanting fertilization variants on leaf nitrogen content. The trees on rootstock Droganyellow bigarreau responded more pronouncedly to phosphorous and potassium fertilization, which corresponded to the higher leaf phosphorous and potassium content, compared to those on IK-M9. In all variants, there was a trend for a higher calcium concentration in the leaves of the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau. Leaf magnesium level decreased over experimental years, which was more strongly manifested by the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau, whereas in the variants on the Mahaleb rootstock it was of higher values.

  2. The effect of temperature on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of sour cherry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effect of three different temperatures (5, 15 and 25°C on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth of five sour cherry cultivars: ‘Heimanns Konservenweichsel’, ‘Kelleriis 14’, ‘Oblačinska’, ‘Rexelle’ and ‘Šumadinka’. Pollen germination a % agar % Temperature significantly affected pollen germination. High germination rates (50-70% were obtained at both 15°C and 25°C. Satisfactory germination rates (42-51% were also obtained at 5°C in some cultivars (‘Rexelle’, ‘Šumadinka’ and ‘Heimanns Konservenweichsel’. The influence of temperature on the pollen tube growth was more prominent. The length of pollen tubes was three to six times higher at 15°C and 25°C in comparison with 5°C. This has led to the conclusion that the temperature of 5°C, although it could be adequate for pollen germination, is not high enough for optimal pollen tube growth. was determined by germinating pollen grains in culture medium containing 0.7agar-and 15sucrose. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31063

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment of Wild Cherry Wood on Abrasion Resistance and Withdrawal Capacity of Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Aytin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In its wise use, many properties of wood are important. Among these properties, wood abrasion resistance (AR and withdrawal capacity of screws (WCS are deemed to be relatively signifi cant. It is well know that heat treatment changes the resistance features of wooden materials by changing the structural characteristics of wood. Within the scope of this study, the effects were investigated of the temperature and duration of heat treatment of Wild Cherry (Cerasus avium (L. Monench on its AR and its WCS in the radial direction and tangential direction. The test results indicated that weight loss (WL and thickness reduction (TR remained almost the same in the radial direction specimen, but there was significant TR in the tangential direction specimen. As a result of these changes, the abrasion effect of the S-42 abrader diminished based on the increase in the number of cycles. However, in both the radial and tangential direction, the WCS decreased to a significantly greater extent in the heat-treated specimens than in the control specimens.

  4. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  5. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  6. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change.

  7. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree.

  8. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)).

  9. Leaf area prediction models for Zinnia elegans Jacq., Zinnia haageana regel and 'profusion cherry' Modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Zinnia elegans Jacq., Zinnia haageana regel e 'profusion cherry'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area measurements are of value in physiological and agronomic studies. The use of prediction models to estimate leaf area is a simple, accurate and nondestructive method. The present work suggests leaf area prediction models for Zinnia elegans ('Liliput' and 'Thumbelina', Z. haageana ('Carpet Persa' and Z. elegans x Z. angustifolia ('Profusion Cherry', potential flower potplant cultivars. At the stages of visible apical flower bud and flowering, 250 and 300 leaves were collected from greenhouse grown plants, respectively, at each season (fall, winter, spring and summer, totaling 1,000 and 1,200 leaves, for each developmental stage. The maximum length (L, maximum width (W and real leaf area (RLA were measured with a Digital Image Analysis System - Delta T Devices. The relation between RLA and the product of length by width (LW, was studied through linear models, for each cultivar, at each developmental stage. The models for the flower bud stage were: RLA = 0.0009 + 0.7765 LW ('Profusion Cherry', RLA = 0.0021 + 0.8156 LW ('Thumbelina', RLA = 0.0031 + 0.8003 LW ('Liliput', RLA = 0.0036 + 0.7719 LW ('Carpet Persa', and for flowering stage: RLA = 0.0029 + 0.7899 LW ('Profusion Cherry', RLA = 0.8318 LW ('Thumbelina', RLA = 0.001 + 0.8417 LW ('Liliput', RLA = 0.0042 + 0.723 LW ('Carpet Persa'. Models were considered adequate to estimate leaf area.A determinação da área foliar é importante em estudos fisiológicos e agronômicos. O uso de modelos para estimativa da área foliar é um método simples, de boa precisão e não destrutivo. O presente trabalho determina modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Zinnia elegans ('Liliput' e 'Thumbelina', Z. haageana ('Carpet Persa' e Z. elegans x Z. angustifolia ('Profusion Cherry', cultivares ornamentais com potencial para produção em vaso. Foram coletadas 250 e 300 folhas, respectivamente, nos estádios de gema florífera apical visível e de floração, de plantas cultivadas em casa de vegeta

  10. Research Progress in Cherry Gummosis and Its Prevention Methods%樱桃流胶病研究进展及防治方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杨; 魏国芹; 孙玉刚

    2013-01-01

      Cherry gummosis was one of the most destructive diseases in the cherry planting, which mainly harmed tree branches and led to the tree weakening, and the decline in fruit yield and quality. The paper reviewed the recent researches of cherry gummosis, including the disease symptoms, pathogen, the development of diseases and the way of invasion, and suggested the main prevention and control of gummosis as well.%  流胶病是樱桃生产上常见的病害之一,主要危害树体枝干,导致树势衰弱,果实产量和品质下降。综述樱桃流胶病的危害、发病症状和发病规律、致病菌种类、侵染途径,探讨流胶病的防治措施。

  11. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Morten R; Pedersen, Bjarne H; Bertram, Hanne C; Kidmose, Ulla

    2011-11-23

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided into two groups on the basis of both the sensory data and the NMR spectroscopic data. These groups were closely related to the genetic background of the clones. Kelleris clones were distinctly different from Stevnsberry and Fanal clones. Hence, (1)H NMR spectroscopic data seem to correlate with sensory quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other metabolites (ethyl acetate, asparagine, ethanol) could be correlated with sensory attributes; however, a direct causal connection could not be established. PMID:21981716

  12. Fenólicos e carotenóides totais em pitanga Total phenolics and carotenoids in surinam cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência de uma ampla diversidade genética, a pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. apresenta cor que varia do alaranjado até o vermelho escuro quase negro. Em Pernambuco, no entanto, é comum encontrá-la com coloração laranja-avermelhada. Como muitos fitoquímicos presentes em frutos exibem propriedades antioxidantes, com destaque para carotenóides e compostos fenólicos, e frente a escassez de informações sobre seus teores em pitanga, objetivou-se quantificá-los nas seleções cujos frutos apresentam coloração vermelha e roxa. Assim, foram determinados espectrofotometricamente os teores de carotenóides e fenólicos totais nos frutos destas seleções nos estádios maduro e semi-maduro. Na pitanga roxa madura e em sua película também foram determinados os teores de antocianinas, flavonóis e carotenóides totais. Os compostos fenólicos e os carotenóides totais na pitanga roxa madura encontram-se em maiores teores do que na pitanga vermelha no mesmo estádio de maturação. A seleção roxa exibiu quantidade significante de antocianinas, cujo teor foi mais elevado no fruto maduro do que no semi-maduro. Os carotenóides, antocianinas e flavonóis encontram-se mais concentrados na película do que na polpa deste fruto maduro. A presença de antocianinas, flavonóis e carotenóides totais na pitanga roxa fazem deste fruto uma fonte promissora de compostos antioxidantes cujo cultivo deveria ser estimulado.Because of the genetic diversity, fruits of Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. show colours that range from orange to deep, almost dark red. However, in Pernambuco, Brazil, it is common to find this fruit with an orange-red colour. Many phytochemicals in fruits have antioxidant properties with emphasis on phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Since the information on these phytochemicals in surinam cherry is scarce, the aim of this research was to analyse them in fruits which show red and purple colours. Half-mature and mature fruits

  13. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. PMID:19857054

  14. Cloning and characterization of genomic DNA sequences of four self-incompatibility alleles in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, A; Hormaza, J I

    2004-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) in sweet cherry is determined by a locus S with multiple alleles. In the style, the S-locus codifies for an allele-specific ribonuclease ( S-RNase) that is involved in the rejection of pollen that carries the same S allele. In this work we report the cloning and genomic DNA sequence analysis including the 5' flanking regions of four S-RNases of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L., Rosaceae). DNA from the cultivars Ferrovia, Pico Colorado, Taleguera Brillante and Vittoria was amplified through PCR using primers designed in the conserved sequences of sweet cherry S-RNases. Two alleles were amplified for each cultivar and three of them correspond to three new S-alleles named S23, S24 and S25 present in 'Pico Colorado', 'Vittoria' and 'Taleguera Brillante' respectively. To confirm the identity of the amplified fragments, the genomic DNA of these three putative S-RNases and the allele S12 amplified in the cultivar Ferrovia were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences obtained contained the structural features of rosaceous S-RNases. The isolation of the 5'-flanking sequences of these four S-RNases revealed a conserved putative TATA box and high similarity among them downstream from that sequence. However, similarity was low compared with the 5'-flanking regions of S-RNases from the Maloideae. S6- and S24-RNase sequences are highly similar, and most amino-acid substitutions among these two RNases occur outside the rosaceous hypervariable region (RHV), but within another highly variable region. The confirmation of the different specificity of these two S-RNases would help elucidate which regions of the S-RNase sequences play a role in S-pollen specific recognition.

  15. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, α-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

  16. Optimization of extraction parameters on the isolation of phenolic compounds from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Karaaslan, Mehmet; Vardin, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing interest to bio-components obtained from fruit & vegetable wastes. Anthocyanin is one of the components regained from fruits especially from red ones. Sour cherry is considered as industrial fruit since most of the grown fruit is processed into juice and hence considerable amount of pomace is removed from process. The influences of process parameters on the extraction of phenolic compounds from sour cherry pomace were investigated. Fifty-one percent ethanol concentration, 75 °C temperature and 12 mL/g solvent to solid ratio were selected as optimum process parameters. Time effect on the process efficiency was monitored at three different temperatures (25, 50 and 75 °C) and total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents were found to reach equilibrium concentrations between 80 and 100 min time intervals. Ethanol concentrations affected differently extraction yield of anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenolics. Various individual phenolic compounds present in sour cherry pomace were identified and quantified by HPLC equipped with UV/Vis PDA. Of the phenolic compounds, cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, neochlorogenic acid and catechin were the most abundant ones found in the pomace. 14.23 ± 0.38 mg/g total phenolic, 0.41 ± 0.02 mg/g total anthocyanin, 0.19 ± 0.02 mg/g cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/g neochlorogenic acid and 0.22 ± 0.02 mg/g catechin contents (dry weight) were determined in the pomace at optimum extraction conditions. PMID:25892783

  17. 1H NMR metabolic fingerprinting to probe temporal postharvest changes on qualitative attributes and phytochemical profile of sweet cherry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasios eGoulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’ were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ~ 20°C, shelf life for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR. Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumarolquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2 to 8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  18. (1)H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Manganaris, George A

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. 'Canada Giant', 'Ferrovia') were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: 'Canada Giant' fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile 'Ferrovia' possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, (1)H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. 'Ferrovia' fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an (1)H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2-8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits. PMID:26617616

  19. [Determination of anthocyanins in the peel of sweet cherry by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hairong; Yi, Xibin; Tan, Yue; Zong, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jiawei; Xu, Li; Liu, Qingzhong

    2015-06-01

    A method for the determination of seven anthocyanins in the peel of sweet cherry was developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted by methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) hydrochloric acid, and then purified by AB-8 macroporous resins. The separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 2.6 Rm) with mobile phase of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution containing 5 mmol/L ammonium formate and methanol. The sample solution was detected by UPLC-MS/MS with ESI under positive ion and multi reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. The results showed that the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the seven target compounds were 0.26-1.42 µg/kg. The seven anthocyanin standards showed a good linearity in the range of 0-100 µg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.996 4-0.999 3. The average recoveries of the seven anthocyanins were 97.2%-105.4%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.9%-5.8%. The mature fruit samples of sweet cherry red variety "Tieton" and the yellow variety "13-33" were analyzed by this method. The results showed that the anthocyanin composition and contents were significantly different between the two varieties. This method can be used for rapid identification and the determination of anthocyanin components in sweet cherry fruits due to its simple operation, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and covering a wide range of anthocyanins. PMID:26536760

  20. 1H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M.; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N.; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Manganaris, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’) were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2–8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits. PMID:26617616

  1. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures. PMID:26352751

  2. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  3. 樱桃核主要成分分析及其抗氧化性研究%Major Components and Antioxidant Capability Analysis of Cherry Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄天元; 肖军霞

    2014-01-01

    樱桃可以加工成樱桃汁、樱桃酒、樱桃醋、樱桃果脯等农副产品,而樱桃核却在加工中成为废弃物。以大紫红和崂山红樱桃核为材料,测定了其主要成分,并分别对其水、石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇提取物进行了抗氧化性研究。结果表明,樱桃核中主要含有水分、蛋白质和油脂等成分,崂山红樱桃核的4种提取物的还原能力、羟基自由基抑制率和超氧阴离子抑制率最高的均为水提取物,分别达到0.27%、61.5%和38.7%,这说明崂山红樱桃核中起抗氧化作用的主要是水溶性成分。%Cherry can be processed to juice, wine, vinegar and preserve, but the cherry stone is often discarded as a waste. In this paper, the major components in the stone of Dazhihong cherry and Laoshan red cherry were determined and the antioxidant capabilities of the aqueous extract, pettroleum extract, ethyl acetate extract, and n-butanol extract of Laoshan red cherry stone were measured. The results indicated that the cherry stones consisted mainly of water, protein, and lipid. The aqueous extract of the stone of Laoshan red cherry had the highest reducing capability, hydroxyl radical inhibition rate and superoxide anion inhibition activity compared with other organic solvent extracts, reaching 0.27 %,61.5 % and 38.7 % respecitvely, implying that the antioxidant capability of Laoshan red cherry stone was contributed mainly by water-soluble components.

  4. The ground cherry(cerasus fruticosa Pall).a new kind of edible cherry for cold and dry regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DingXiaodong; SuiWei; 等

    1994-01-01

    We have conducted some studies on 3 ground cherry cultivars' artaskaja','Bushkaja' and Maksmorfikaja' introduced from Russia,The results indicated that these cultivars could survive temperature-40℃ during severe winter in Harbin,China and had high drought and disease resistance,the average weight of each fruit reached 2.78g,the contents of Vc and soluble solid exceeded 30mg/100g and 12%,respectively.Not only does the fruits suit for fresh market,but also for processing.Ground cherry is a promising new fruit crop in cold region.

  5. Influence of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Storability and Postharvest Quality of Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L.) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Sheida MOHEBBI; Younes MOSTOFI; Zabihallah ZAMANI; Najafi, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Cornelian cherries were stored in two types of polymeric films (low density polyethylene and polypropylene) and three gas combinations 5%O2 + 20%CO2 + 75%N2, 60%O2 + 20%CO2 + 20%N2 and Air) at 1 °C and 90-95% relative humidity for 35 days. Unpackaged cornelian cherries were used as a control. Samples were taken initially and at intervals of 7-days during storage, when quality parameters were measured. Results showed that modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) allowed the stored fruits to retain ...

  6. THE EFFECTS OF FOLIAR NUTRITION WITH InCa FERTILIZER ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF SWEET CHERRY

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Mikiciuk; Małgorzata Mikiciuk; Ewa Możdżer; Małgorzata Statkiewicz; Urszula Chylewska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the foliar fertilizer InCa on the chemical composition of fruits and leaves of sweet cherry cultivar ‘Burlat’. The study involved 14-year old sweet cherry trees of ‘Burlat’ cultivar, grafted onto ‘PHL-A’ rootstock and growing at 4×3 m spacing. The trees were sprayed with InCa calcium fertilizer based on CaT technology (manufacturer: Plant Impact). The fertilizer was applied three times, at a dose of 1.5 dm3∙ha. The first foliar fertilization...

  7. Influence of the date of cut of rootstocks to the stub on growth of maider sour cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period (1997-1999 investigations were conducted on the effect of 6 date of cut to the stub on tree trunk diameter, height and branching of sour cherry maidens in the nursery.On the Prunus mahaleb seedling rootstock were found no significant influen ce of the date between January, 15 - March, 30 of cut to the stub on growth of sour cherry maidens cv. ´Łutówka' (tree trunk diameter and branching and efficiency of nursery. The date of cutting in 15 April decreased trunk diameter and percent of the first quality trees.

  8. Promising Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Natural Population in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bijelic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Serbia is a rich in Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. populations that grow naturally in a variety of locations. At Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad, an intensive breeding program on this fruit species started in 2006. The paper reviews morphometric characteristics of 16 Cornelian cherry genotypes collected on the territory of the Vojvodina Province and Mačva region in 2008 and 2009, which were found to be superior in terms of fruit size and quality. On average for the two years, the genotype PPC1 had the highest fruit length (27.79 mm, fruit width (18.97 mm, fruit weight (6.61 g, mesocarp weight (5.86 g and the flesh to stone ratio (88.46%. The genotype Žuti had the longest fruit. The effect of year of growing was statistically significant for all studied traits, except for fruit width and fruit shape index. Fruit weight, economically the most important characteristic, ranged in the interval from 2.25 to 6.61 g, with a large number of genotypes having the fruit weight over 3 g. All of the tested genotypes had satisfactory flesh to stone ratio, from 79.00% (CPC9 to 88.46% (PPC1. The highest variability was detected for mesocarp weight (36.48% and fruit weight (33.19% in 2009, while flesh to stone ratio was

  9. Dikegulac-Sodium Effect on Micropropagation and Biochemical Parameters in the Cherry Rootstocks CAB-6P and Gisela 6

    OpenAIRE

    SARROPOULOU, VIRGINIA; DIMASSITHERIOU, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dikegulac-sodium (DS) alone and in combination with benzyladenine (BA) οn the morphogenetic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x Prunus canescens) were investigated. In the CAB-6P rootstock, DS did not promote shoot proliferation whereas its application at 40, 120 and 150 μΜ suppressed shoot length. In the Gisela 6 rootstock, the number of shoots per explant and shoot proliferation rate were greater with 80...

  10. Genetic variability of Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan Jarni; Bart De Cuyper; Robert Brus

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E) = 0.704), while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST) = 0.053, G'(ST) = 0.234). There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a signi...

  11. The Efficacy of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (ReTain) For Improving Fruit Set on ‘0900 Ziraat’ Sweet Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    AĞLAR, Erdal; LONG, Lynn E.; ÖZTÜRK, Burhan; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Yildiz, Kenan; KARAKAYA, Medeni

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect on fruit set and fruit quality of different rates of applications [control (0 mg L-1), 250, 500 and 750 mg L-1] of AVG applied to ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry variety grafted on MaxMa 14 rootstock. Compared to the control, it was determined that fruit set on the trees applied with AVG increased from 97.5% to 130.4%. While the soluble solids content was significantly decreased, significant differences in fruit quality (fruit weight, fruit sizes, fl...

  12. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40/sub 0/C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18/sup 0/C. Photorespiration was not detected.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (panthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  14. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  15. Down-regulation of photosynthesis following girdling, but contrasting effects on fruit set and retention, in two sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, A G; Close, D C; Hennen, L M H P; Pinkard, E A

    2013-12-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees were manipulated to analyse the contribution of soluble sugars to sink feedback down-regulation of leaf net CO2 assimilation rate (Anet) and fruit set and quality attributes. Total soluble sugar concentration and Anet were measured in the morning on fully expanded leaves of girdled branches in two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Kordia' and 'Sylvia' characterised typically by low and high crop load, respectively. Leaves on girdled trees had higher soluble sugar concentrations and reduced Anet than leaves on non-girdled trees. Moreover, RuBP carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vcmax) and triose-phosphate utilisation (TPU) were repressed in the girdled treatments, despite Jmax remaining unchanged; suggesting an impairment of photosynthetic capacity in response to the girdling treatment. Leaf Anet was negatively correlated to soluble sugars, suggesting a sink feedback regulatory control of photosynthesis. Although there were significantly less fruit set and retained in 'Kordia' than 'Sylvia'; girdling had contrasting effects in each cultivar. Girdling significantly increased fruit set and fruitlet retention in 'Sylvia' cultivar, but had no effect in 'Kordia' cultivar. We propose that low inherent sink demand for photoassimilates of 'Kordia' fruit could have contributed to the low fruit retention rate, since both non-girdled and girdled trees exhibited similar retention rate and that increases in foliar carbohydrates was observed above the girdle. In 'Sylvia' cultivar, the carbohydrate status may be a limiting factor for 'Sylvia' fruit, since girdling improved both fruit set and retention, and leaf soluble solids accumulation. PMID:24189522

  16. Tetraquark resonances with the triple flip-flop potential, decays in the cherry in a broken glass approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    We develop a unitarized formalism to study tetraquarks using the triple flip-flop potential, which includes two meson-meson potentials and the tetraquark four-body potential. This can be related to the Jaffe-Wilczek and to the Karliner-Lipkin tetraquark models, where we also consider the possible open channels, since the four quarks and antiquarks may at any time escape to a pair of mesons. Here we study a simplified two-variable toy model and explore the analogy with a cherry in a glass, but a broken one where the cherry may escape from. It is quite interesting to have our system confined or compact in one variable and infinite in the other variable. In this framework we solve the two-variable Schr\\"odinger equation in configuration space. With the finite difference method, we compute the spectrum, we search for localized states and we attempt to compute phase shifts. We then apply the outgoing spherical wave method to compute in detail the phase shifts and and to determine the decay widths. We explore the m...

  17. Cardioprotective mechanisms of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Nagy, Norbert; Varga, Edit; Varadi, Judit; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szabo, Gergo; Szendrei, Levente; Bacskay, Ildiko; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Antal, Miklos; Fesus, Laszlo; Boucher, Francois; de Leiris, Joel; Tosaki, Arpad

    2006-09-01

    The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium. PMID:16617126

  18. Anthocyanin composition, antioxidant efficiency, and α-amylase inhibitor activity of different Hungarian sour cherry varieties (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoki, Judit R; Nemes, Andrea; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Balogh, Péter; Gál, Ferenc; Al-Asri, Jamil; Mortier, Jérémie; Wolber, Gerhard; Babinszky, László; Remenyik, Judit

    2016-03-01

    Five Hungarian sour cherry cultivars were studied to determine their anthocyanin contents and their possible inhibitory properties. The water and methanol soluble antioxidant capacities were separately assessed by photoluminescence showing values ranged from 3.4μgmg(-1) to 15.4μgmg(-1), respectively. The "VN1" variety (selected from "Csengődi csokros") showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The anthocyanin content, measured by pH differential method or isolated by solid phase extraction, was the highest also in "VN1". Correlation was found between the anthocyanin content and the high antioxidant capacity. The main anthocyanin components were cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The presence of malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside was verified by MALDI-TOF MS. Sour cherry extracts and selected anthocyanins inhibited the human salivary alpha-amylase catalyzed hydrolysis competitively. The lowest IC50 value, 55μgmL(-1) or 80μM, was measured for malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside, for which possible binding modes within the alpha-amylase active site could be investigated in silico using molecular docking and molecular dynamics. PMID:26471548

  19. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. MYB10 and bHLH Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Starkevič

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties.

  20. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. PMID:23692746

  1. Stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour through natural sweeteners addition during storage of sour cherry puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Wojdyło, Aneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour of sour cherry puree supplemented with different natural sweeteners (sucrose, palm sugar, erythritol, xylitol, steviol glycoside, Luo Han Kuo), and natural prebiotic (inulin). A total of 18 types of polyphenolic compounds were assessed in the following sour cherry puree by LC-MS-QTof analysis, before and after 6 months of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. Total phenolics determined by UPLC-PDA-FL was 1179.6 mg/100 g dm. In samples with addition of sweeteners the content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1133.1 (puree with steviol glycoside) to 725.6 mg/100 g dm (puree with erythritol), and the content of these compounds strongly affected on antioxidant activity. After 6-month storage, protective effects of some additives (palm sugar, erythritol, steviol glycoside, xylitol and inulin) on the polyphenol content, especially on anthocyanins and consequently on colour, and antioxidant activity were noticed. The results showed that some natural sweeteners might be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial and pharmaceutical perspective. PMID:26593574

  2. Influence of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Storability and Postharvest Quality of Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida MOHEBBI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherries were stored in two types of polymeric films (low density polyethylene and polypropylene and three gas combinations 5%O2 + 20%CO2 + 75%N2, 60%O2 + 20%CO2 + 20%N2 and Air at 1 °C and 90-95% relative humidity for 35 days. Unpackaged cornelian cherries were used as a control. Samples were taken initially and at intervals of 7-days during storage, when quality parameters were measured. Results showed that modified atmosphere packaging (MAP allowed the stored fruits to retain their weight and visual quality throughout the experiment, regardless of the gas combinations used, while by the end of the storage period the unpackaged fruit lost over 30% of their weight and consequently visual quality. Overall, packaging in 60%O2 + 20%CO2 polypropylene (PP and air low density polyethylene (LDPE could retard soluble solid contents, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin index decrease and pH increase during the storage time. Additionally, such packaging could lead to better surface color preservation than that of fruits kept in open containers. Furthermore, packaging in air low density polyethylene and 60%O2 + 20%CO2 low density polyethylene could delay total phenolics accumulation and increase peroxidase activity to levels higher than those in the control. During the maintenance period, no symptoms of decay were observed.

  3. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) MYB10 and bHLH Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkevič, Pavel; Paukštytė, Jurgita; Kazanavičiūtė, Vaiva; Denkovskienė, Erna; Stanys, Vidmantas; Bendokas, Vidmantas; Šikšnianas, Tadeušas; Ražanskienė, Aušra; Ražanskas, Raimundas

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties. PMID:25978735

  4. Colour stabilities of sour cherry juice concentrates enhanced with gallic acid and various plant extracts during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz, Ayşe; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-04-15

    Gallic acid (GA) and pomegranate rind extract (PRE), cherry stem extract (CSE) and green tea extract (GTE) were added to sour cherry juice concentrates (SCJCs) to enhance the colour. Effects of these copigment sources on anthocyanins, colour and turbidity were investigated during storage at -20, 4 and 20°C for 110 days. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (cyd-3-glu-rut, 75%) was the major anthocyanin, followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cyd-3-rut, 23%) and cyanidin-3-sophoroside (cyd-3-soph, 2%). While GA (37-53%), PRE (27-77%) and GTE (44-119%) increased the stabilities of cyd-3-rut and cyd-3-glu-rut, CSE reduced (12-24%) the stabilities of all anthocyanins. Polymeric colour and turbidity values increased after the addition of all extracts and GA. The lowest turbidity value after 110 days of storage at 20°C was determined in the SCJC enhanced with PRE. We recommend the addition of PRE to SCJC for the enhancement of anthocyanin stability and colour intensity, and the reduction in turbidity. PMID:26616935

  5. Protective Effect of a (Poly)phenol-Rich Extract Derived from Sweet Cherries Culls against Oxidative Cell Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Ana A; Rosado-Ramos, Rita; Nunes, Sara L; Figueira, Inês; Serra, Ana Teresa; Bronze, Maria R; Santos, Claúdia N; Duarte, Catarina M M

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key phenomena behind the most common types of chronic diseases. Therefore, the modulation of oxidative stress is an interesting target for acting either through prevention or as a therapeutic approach. In this work, a Portuguese variety of cherry (Saco Cherry) was processed in order to obtain a potent in vitro antioxidant phenolic-rich extract (Ch-PRE), which was further explored to evaluate its potential application as nutraceutical agent against cellular oxidative stress damage. Ch-PRE was mainly composed of anthocyanins, particularly cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and neochlorogenic acid, and exhibited a potent chemical antioxidant activity expressed by its oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) values. Ch-PRE also displayed effective intracellular radical scavenging properties in intestinal epithelial and neuronal cells challenged with oxidative stress but showed a different order of effectiveness regarding the modulation of endogenous antioxidant system. Ch-PRE could be an attractive candidate to formulate an agent for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced disorders such as intestinal inflammation disorders or with an appropriated delivery system for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27023500

  6. Stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour through natural sweeteners addition during storage of sour cherry puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Wojdyło, Aneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour of sour cherry puree supplemented with different natural sweeteners (sucrose, palm sugar, erythritol, xylitol, steviol glycoside, Luo Han Kuo), and natural prebiotic (inulin). A total of 18 types of polyphenolic compounds were assessed in the following sour cherry puree by LC-MS-QTof analysis, before and after 6 months of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. Total phenolics determined by UPLC-PDA-FL was 1179.6 mg/100 g dm. In samples with addition of sweeteners the content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1133.1 (puree with steviol glycoside) to 725.6 mg/100 g dm (puree with erythritol), and the content of these compounds strongly affected on antioxidant activity. After 6-month storage, protective effects of some additives (palm sugar, erythritol, steviol glycoside, xylitol and inulin) on the polyphenol content, especially on anthocyanins and consequently on colour, and antioxidant activity were noticed. The results showed that some natural sweeteners might be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial and pharmaceutical perspective.

  7. Colour stabilities of sour cherry juice concentrates enhanced with gallic acid and various plant extracts during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz, Ayşe; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-04-15

    Gallic acid (GA) and pomegranate rind extract (PRE), cherry stem extract (CSE) and green tea extract (GTE) were added to sour cherry juice concentrates (SCJCs) to enhance the colour. Effects of these copigment sources on anthocyanins, colour and turbidity were investigated during storage at -20, 4 and 20°C for 110 days. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (cyd-3-glu-rut, 75%) was the major anthocyanin, followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cyd-3-rut, 23%) and cyanidin-3-sophoroside (cyd-3-soph, 2%). While GA (37-53%), PRE (27-77%) and GTE (44-119%) increased the stabilities of cyd-3-rut and cyd-3-glu-rut, CSE reduced (12-24%) the stabilities of all anthocyanins. Polymeric colour and turbidity values increased after the addition of all extracts and GA. The lowest turbidity value after 110 days of storage at 20°C was determined in the SCJC enhanced with PRE. We recommend the addition of PRE to SCJC for the enhancement of anthocyanin stability and colour intensity, and the reduction in turbidity.

  8. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness. PMID:24474188

  9. Genetic Characterization and Relatedness among Cherry Cultivars in a Germplasm Bank by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Moreno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed on 38 cultivars of cherry (Prunus avium L. grown in the Jerte Valley, Cáceres, Spain. Thirty five selected decamer primers produced 69 reproducible polymorphic amplification products. The degree of polymorphism detected made possible the identification of all the cultivars by combining the RAPD banding patterns of only seven primers: OPK-08, OPQ-14, OPR-09, OPS-19, OPX-02, OPX-15 and OPZ-13. Eleven unique markers allowed identification of nine cultivars while 15 cultivars were identified by unique banding patterns. A similarity matrix derived from the RAPD amplification products generated by all the primers was obtained using the index of similarity of Jaccard. The similarity coefficients among cultivars ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 with an average of 0.50. A dendrogram based on UPGMA clustering method was constructed using the similarity matrix. The dendrogram showed a good correlation between the clustering of cherry cultivars and their geographic origin, especially revealing a stronger genetic proximity between some of the most characteristic cultivars of the Jerte Valley. This result supports the autochthonous origin hypothesis for these cultivars.

  10. The importance of bee pollination of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus Cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Hansted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low fruit set, despite normally-developed flowers, is often a significant contributor to poor yield of the self-fertile sour cherry (Prunus cerasus cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insect, and particularly, bee pollination on the fruit set of this cultivar, in order to provide orchard management information for both Danish ‘Stevnsbaer’ growers and beekeepers. Visits to cherry flowers by honey bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus species and solitary bees, were recorded during the flowering of ‘Stevnsbaer’ in five separate Danish orchards. The results indicate that there is a significantly higher fruit set on open pollinated branches when compared to caged branches, where bees and other pollinating insects where excluded. The results were qualitatively consistent over three different seasons (2007, 2009 and 2010. A period of prolonged cold, humid weather before and during early flowering probably reduced fruit set significantly in 2010 compared to 2009. Regarding the apparent benefits of bee pollination on fruit set and subsequent implications for yield, we recommend placing honeybees in ‘Stevnsbaer’ orchards during flowering to sustain commercially viable production. Another valuable management strategy would be to improve foraging and nesting conditions to support both honey and wild bees in and around the orchards.

  11. Dynamic Regulation of Nitrogen and Organic Acid Metabolism of Cherry Tomato Fruit as Affected by Different Nitrogen Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xin-Juan; LI Qing-Yu; SONG Xiao-Hui; Shen Qi-Rong; Dong Cai-Xia

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.,cv.hongyangli) were hydroponically cultivated in a greenhouse to determine the effect of different nitrogen (N) forms on organic acid concentration and the activities of related enzymes involved in nitrogen and organic acid metabolism during cherry tomato fruit development.The results showed that fruit nitrate reductase (NR) activity was much higher following treatment with 100% NO-3 and 75% NO-3 +25% NH+4 than with 100% NH+4 except at maturity.Glutamine synthetaee (GS) activity trended downward during fruit development under all three treatments.Plants fed 100% NH4+ had the lowest fruit citrate and malate levels at maturity,with the highest malate concentration at an early stage.The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was found to be in accord with the malate concentration with every N source.Under all three N forms,the citrate synthase (CS) activity peaked one week before the citrate concentration.

  12. Effects of Salt and Water Stress on Plant Growth and on Accumulation of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Compounds in Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad AL HASSAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salt and water stress on growth and several stress markers were investigated in cherry tomato plants. Some growth parameters (stem length and number of leaves and chlorophyll contents were determined every third day during plant growth, and leaf material was collected after 25 and 33 days of treatment. Both stresses inhibited plant growth; chlorophyll levels, however, decreased only in response to high NaCl concentrations. Proline contents largely increased in leaves of stressed plants, reaching levels high enough to play a major role in cellular osmotic adjustment. Despite reports indicating that tomato does not synthesize glycine betaine, the stress-induced accumulation of this osmolyte was detected in cherry tomato, albeit at lower concentration than that of proline. Therefore, it appears that the plants are able to synthesise glycine betaine as a secondary osmolyte under strong stress conditions. Total sugars levels, on the contrary, decreased in stress-treated plants. Both stress treatments caused secondary oxidative stress in the plants, as indicated by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA contents. Water stress led to an increase in total phenolics and flavonoid contents and a reduction of carotenoid levels in the leaves; flavonoids also increased under high salinity conditions.

  13. 樱桃酒中总酚含量及抗氧化性研究%Study on Total Phenol Content and the Antioxidation of Cherry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方玲玲; 肖作兵; 牛云蔚; 于海燕; 朱建才

    2011-01-01

    对4种樱桃酒的抗氧化能力进行初步测定分析,使用的抗氧化指标为清除DPPH自由基能力及清除羟基自由基能力;使用福林酚法测定樱桃酒的总酚含量。结果表明,樱桃酒具有较强的抗氧化性,樱桃酒清除自由基能力与总酚的含量呈正比。%The antioxidation of four kinds of cherry fruit wine was measured. The measured antioxidation indexes included flee DPPH and OH radical scavenging capability. The total phenol content in cherry fruit wine was measured by Folin-Ciocaltcu method. The results indicated that cherry fruit wine had a strong antioxidation activity and total phenol content was positively related to free radicals scavenging effects of cherry fruit wine.

  14. Studies on Scaled Production Technology of Cherry Fruit Wine%樱桃果酒规模化生产工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭意如; 刘明; 张世杰

    2015-01-01

    以鲜食樱桃果实为原料,采用全汁发酵法酿制樱桃果酒,优化樱桃果酒规模化生产工艺,通过不同发酵工艺的对比试验表明,樱桃去核、带皮酶解后清汁发酵原酒更能保留樱桃浓郁果香和应有色泽,并且口感丰满醇厚;同时确定了规模化生产樱桃发酵酒的技术参数。%Fresh cherry was used as main material to produce wine in fermented way.Optimizing Scaled production process of cherry wine, By comparing different fermentation process, got out, clear juice of cherry fermentation after enzymolysis base on going nuclear, with skin can retain rich fruit Aroma and it's colour and lustre, and palatedfullness.Got the technical parameters of cherry fruit wine when scaledly produced.

  15. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.

  16. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit.

  17. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods. PMID:26988485

  18. Use of the mCherry Fluorescent Protein To Study Intestinal Colonization by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Winschau F; Deane, Shelly M; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals, and some LAB species receive considerable attention due to their health benefits. Although many papers have been published on probiotic LAB, only a few reports have been published on the migration and colonization of the cells in the GIT. This is due mostly to the lack of efficient reporter systems. In this study, we report on the application of the fluorescent mCherry protein in the in vivo tagging of the probiotic strains Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423. The mCherry gene, encoding a red fluorescent protein (RFP), was integrated into a nonfunctional region on the genome of L. plantarum 423 by homologous recombination. In the case of E. mundtii ST4SA, the mCherry gene was cloned into the pGKV223D LAB/Escherichia coli expression vector. Expression of the mCherry gene did not alter the growth rate of the two strains and had no effect on bacteriocin production. Both strains colonized the cecum and colon of mice.

  19. In vitro cold-storage duration of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L) shoots is affected by carbon source and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro cold storage of fruit crop germplasm is useful for preservation of heritage or commercial cultivars. Shoot cultures of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars Dolgozdannaya, Moya Radost and Zukovskaya, were cold stored at 4°C in either five-section tissue-culture bags or in 150 ml glass j...

  20. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit. PMID:26313246

  1. Influence of variety, storage, and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on chemical composition and bioactivity of polysaccharides from sweet cherry and apple tree fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examined the effect of extraction regime (hot water vs. simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and postharvest storage on the chemical composition, molecular weight, and bioactive properties of polysaccharides obtained from sweet cherries (Lapins and Staccato varieties and apples (Gala and Fuji varieties. The yields of the polysaccharides isolated from cherries and apples ranged from 0.2 to 2.4% on a dry weight fruit basis. All of the isolated polysaccharides contained protein, phenolic compounds, and uronic acid. All polysaccharides contained the sugar monomers: rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. Also, all of the polysaccharides obtained using the different extraction regimes were shown to possess antioxidant activity as determined with the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assays. Only the polysaccharides isolated from the cherry and apples after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion showed appreciable α-glucosidase inhibition activity, with polysaccharides obtained from Staccato cherries showing nearly 90% of the inhibition of α-glucosidase as achieved with the positive control acarbose. This work shows that bioactive polysaccharides are available and/or can be isolated during digestion which supports the concept that fruit polysaccharides play a role in enhancing human health.

  2. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-week-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One week old ducks showed endocardial haemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three week old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-week-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-week-old ducks at 3 –5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P<0.05. More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 dpi to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  3. In Vivo and In Vitro Detection of Luminescent and Fluorescent Lactobacillus reuteri and Application of Red Fluorescent mCherry for Assessing Plasmid Persistence.

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    Shokoufeh Karimi

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus reuteri is a symbiont that inhabits the gastrointestinal (GI tract of mammals, and several strains are used as probiotics. After introduction of probiotic strains in a complex ecosystem like the GI tract, keeping track of them is a challenge. The main objectives of this study were to introduce reporter proteins that would enable in vivo and in vitro detection of L. reuteri and increase knowledge about its interactions with the host. We describe for the first time cloning of codon-optimized reporter genes encoding click beetle red luciferase (CBRluc and red fluorescent protein mCherry in L. reuteri strains ATCC PTA 6475 and R2LC. The plasmid persistence of mCherry-expressing lactobacilli was evaluated by both flow cytometry (FCM and conventional plate count (PC, and the plasmid loss rates measured by FCM were lower overall than those determined by PC. Neutralization of pH and longer induction duration significantly improved the mCherry signal. The persistency, dose-dependent signal intensity and localization of the recombinant bacteria in the GI tract of mice were studied with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS, which allowed us to detect fluorescence from 6475-CBRluc-mCherry given at a dose of 1×1010 CFU and luminescence signals at doses ranging from 1×105 to 1×1010 CFU. Both 6475-CBRluc-mCherry and R2LC-CBRluc were localized in the colon 1 and 2 h after ingestion, but the majority of the latter were still found in the stomach, possibly reflecting niche specificity for R2LC. Finally, an in vitro experiment showed that mCherry-producing R2LC adhered efficiently to the intra cellular junctions of cultured IPEC-J2 cells. In conclusion, the two reporter genes CBRluc and mCherry were shown to be suitable markers for biophotonic imaging (BPI of L. reuteri and may provide useful tools for future studies of in vivo and in vitro interactions between the bacteria and the host.

  4. In Vivo and In Vitro Detection of Luminescent and Fluorescent Lactobacillus reuteri and Application of Red Fluorescent mCherry for Assessing Plasmid Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shokoufeh; Ahl, David; Vågesjö, Evelina; Holm, Lena; Phillipson, Mia; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a symbiont that inhabits the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals, and several strains are used as probiotics. After introduction of probiotic strains in a complex ecosystem like the GI tract, keeping track of them is a challenge. The main objectives of this study were to introduce reporter proteins that would enable in vivo and in vitro detection of L. reuteri and increase knowledge about its interactions with the host. We describe for the first time cloning of codon-optimized reporter genes encoding click beetle red luciferase (CBRluc) and red fluorescent protein mCherry in L. reuteri strains ATCC PTA 6475 and R2LC. The plasmid persistence of mCherry-expressing lactobacilli was evaluated by both flow cytometry (FCM) and conventional plate count (PC), and the plasmid loss rates measured by FCM were lower overall than those determined by PC. Neutralization of pH and longer induction duration significantly improved the mCherry signal. The persistency, dose-dependent signal intensity and localization of the recombinant bacteria in the GI tract of mice were studied with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS), which allowed us to detect fluorescence from 6475-CBRluc-mCherry given at a dose of 1×1010 CFU and luminescence signals at doses ranging from 1×105 to 1×1010 CFU. Both 6475-CBRluc-mCherry and R2LC-CBRluc were localized in the colon 1 and 2 h after ingestion, but the majority of the latter were still found in the stomach, possibly reflecting niche specificity for R2LC. Finally, an in vitro experiment showed that mCherry-producing R2LC adhered efficiently to the intra cellular junctions of cultured IPEC-J2 cells. In conclusion, the two reporter genes CBRluc and mCherry were shown to be suitable markers for biophotonic imaging (BPI) of L. reuteri and may provide useful tools for future studies of in vivo and in vitro interactions between the bacteria and the host. PMID:27002525

  5. A pollen-expressed gene for a novel protein with an F-box motif that is very tightly linked to a gene for S-RNase in two species of cherry, Prunus cerasus and P. avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ikeda, Kazuo; Ushijima, Koichiro; Sassa, Hidenori; Tao, Ryutaro

    2003-07-01

    This study describes a novel F-box protein gene in the S-locus of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) and sweet cherry (P. avium). The gene showed an S-haplotype-specific sequence polymorphism and the expression was specific to pollen. Genomic DNA blot analysis of eight sweet cherry cultivars with the probe for the F-box protein gene under low stringency conditions yielded RFLP bands specific to the S-haplotypes of each cultivar. We discuss the possibility of the gene for the F-box protein being a candidate for the male determinant of gametophytic self-incompatibility in PRUNUS: PMID:12881505

  6. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINSTPhytophthora infestans Identificación de los principales componentes moleculares de la resistencia de tomate cherry contra Phytophthora infestans

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    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.El tomate cherry Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt's es bastante resistente a la gran parte de aislamientos de Phytophthora infestans. Se han identificado dos aislamientos, US940480 y US970001 que causan interacción incompatible y compatible respectivamente. US970001 es uno de los pocos aislamientos causantes de interacción compatible con este cultivo. Con el fin de identificar genes con expresión diferencial en interacciones compatible e incompatible, analizamos DNA copia de 12899 clones independientes en tres tiempos posteriores a la inoculación del patógeno. Se aplicaron diversas herramientas estadísticas para identificar componentes moleculares claves de la respuesta de la planta al patógeno. Cuarenta y tres genes fueron detectados como activados durante la interacci

  8. 樱桃保鲜运输包装系统研究%Study on Cherry Fresh-keeping and Transport Packaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐静静; 贾长学

    2011-01-01

    樱桃在贮运过程中易腐烂变质,在分析樱桃保鲜方法的基础上,提出了樱桃的保鲜运输包装系统设计方案。该包装系统采用了由内而外的设计方法,对包装系统的小包装、中包装及大包装3个部分进行了材料选择及结构设计。使用该包装系统对樱桃进行包装贮藏实验,以樱桃主要成分含量的变化来评价包装效果,结果表明该系统对果品的保鲜效果良好。%Rot of cherry was easily happened during storage and transport.A cherry fresh-keeping and transport packaging system was put forward based on the analysis of cherry fresh-keeping methods.The packaging system was developed by from inside to outside design method.The system is composed by small package,middle package and large package.Material and structure of every package composition was chose and designed.Packaging and storage experiments were carried out using the packaging system.The change of main ingredients content in cherry was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the packaging system.The results showed that the packaging system has good fresh-keeping effect for cherry.

  9. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality. PMID:27162405

  10. Investigation on the Changes in Color Parameters and Turbidity of Cornelian Cherry (cornus mass L Produced by Microwave and Conventional Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Naderi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Red colored fruits such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L are recognized as being healthy. The color of these fruits is an important sensory property in assessment of product quality therefore, minimizing the loss of color in the process is very important. Materials and Methods: In this study, comparison of the color, turbidity, degradation rate of anthocyanin, and rate of evaporation in cornelian cherry (cornus mass L juice produced from microwave and conventional heating at different operational pressures (12, 38.5 and 100 K Pa was investigated. Results: The final brix juice 42  was obtained in 137, 125, and 93 min by conventional heating at 100, 38.5 and 12 K Pa, respectively. Applying microwave energy decreased the required times to 115, 90 and 75 min at 100, 38.5 and 12 K Pa, respectively. In both methods, the heating temperature at pressures of 12, 38 and 100 K Pa was 50, 75 and 100 ° C, respectively. The results also showed that hunter lab values (L, a, and b were decreased with increasing the time of process, turbidity, and degradation rate of anthocyanin. Conclusions: The heating method affects the color, degradation rate of anthocyanins and evaporation rate of cornelian cherry concentrate. Also the results indicated that temperature and time of process are higher in conventional heating than in microwave. Degradation of anthocyanins and color of cornelian cherry juice was more evident in rotary evaporation as compared to microwave heating method. Thus according to the results, microwave energy could be successfully used in production of cornelian cherry juice concentrate.

  11. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin. PMID:24443499

  12. The Investigation of Cherry Pollinators%大樱桃传粉昆虫的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云毅; 武文卿; 马卫华; 邵有全

    2012-01-01

    In order to research species and numbers of cherry pollinators.The author used sample survey and netting in the fixed points to survey pollinators of cherry flowering in the Shenwangpo Village and the Shi Village in Jiang County of cherry major producing areas of Shanxi Province.The results showed that: (1) 3290 specimens were collected, through identification they belonged to 4 orders, 15 families, 26 species, Hymenoptera was 64.83%-74.81% of cherry pollinators, Apidae was the major pollinators of Hymenoptera.(2) β diversity analysis showed that, pollinators community similarity coefficient was 0.63 at mountain area and plain area, along the changes of environmental gradient from mountain area to plain area, species showed a relative reducing trend.(3) Peak times of insects collection activities was 9:00-11:00, according to the numbers of collected insects from many to few one day, they were sorted as fellows: Apidae, Andrenidae, Syrphidae and Anthophoridae, when the temperature was 10℃, insects began activities, Apidae was the earliest insect to begin out-nest activities.%为了探明大樱桃传粉昆虫的种类和数量.在山西省大樱桃主产区以样地调查法与定点网捕方式调查绛县申王坡村、史村的大樱桃花期传粉昆虫.结果表明:(1)采集标本3290头,经鉴定共分为4个目15个科26个种.在传粉昆虫中膜翅目占64.83%~74.81%,膜翅目传粉昆虫中以蜜蜂科为主;(2)β多样性分析显示,平川区和山区2个调查样地传粉昆虫群落相似性系数为0.63,沿着从山区到平川区环境梯度的变化,物种有相对减少趋向;(3)9:00-11:00为昆虫采集活动高峰时段,按一天中采集昆虫数量排序依次为蜜蜂、地蜂、食蚜蝇和条蜂;气温10℃时,开始有昆虫活动,最早出巢活动的昆虫为蜜蜂.大樱桃访花昆虫种类较多,膜翅目昆虫是大樱桃花期的主要传粉昆虫,山区传粉昆虫的物种较平川丰富.

  13. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae. PMID:26329800

  14. Influence of selected plant amines on probing behaviour of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempruch, C; Goławska, S; Osiński, P; Leszczyński, B; Czerniewicz, P; Sytykiewicz, H; Matok, H

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the influence of common plant polyamines and tyramine on probing behaviour in the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.). Electrical penetration graphs (DC) were used to monitor the probing and feeding behaviour of R. padi exposed to the amines agmatine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine and tyramine. The study results showed that the analyzed amines tended to shorten the stylet activity of aphids in the gels (as indicated by the g-C pattern), prolong the duration of non-probing behaviour (g-np pattern) and decrease salivation into the gels (g-E1pattern) and ingestion from the gels (g-G pattern). The 10 mM concentration of the studied amines, especially cadaverine, reduced or completely inhibited aphid ingestion. The obtained results demonstrate that plant amines participate in plant defence responses to R. padi through disturbance of its probing behaviour and the intensity of such effects is concentration dependent. PMID:26898153

  15. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanović Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a seedling and the Quality Index. Height and diameter have proven to be good indicators of quality. Root volume has proven to be a better indicator of the quality of seedlings than root length. The weight ratio of the aboveground and underground parts of broadleaved trees in the dry state must be defined in advance, both when the measurements are carried out with and without leaves. The Quality Index has proven to be the most comprehensive morphological indicator of quality.

  16. Early and Late Diagenetic Origins of the widespread middle Devonian Purcell/Cherry Valley Limestone in the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Arthur, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic geochemistry, lithofacies characteristics and fluid inclusion microthemometry are investigated to evaluate the deposition and diagenesis of the thin, basin-wide Purcell/Cherry Valley carbonate member within the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation. This carbonate interval is fine-grained and sparsely fossiliferous, with abundant nodular and disseminated pyrite, which distinguish it from normal lowstand carbonate units. A process that involves upward or lateral migration of methane with oxidation at or near the seafloor by sulfate-reduction, precipitating pyrite and 13C-depleted carbonate (commonly less than -10‰) could be responsible for the origin of this unusual carbonate layer. Samples of Purcell/Cherry Valley carbonate within Marcellus black shale collected from both shallow well core from the basin margin and core from producing wells in the basin center exhibit depleted carbon isotopic (δ13C=-10.2 to -2‰) and highly depleted oxygen isotopic signatures (δ18O=-13.2 to -8.7‰). The oxygen isotope values may indicate strong late diagenetic overprint. Primary fluid inclusions in calcite precipitates within tectonically induced fractures in this carbonate member mainly consist of three different types: aqueous brine inclusions, methane inclusions and light hydrocarbon inclusions. The petrologic analysis of fluid inclusions shows that hydrocarbons migrated with the brine. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions suggest mineral trapping occurred at fluid temperatures of 90-98°C. Moreover, with constrains of isotopic composition of Devonian oilfield brine (δ18O =+2 to -3‰) and veins (δ18O=-12 to -11‰, δ13C=-3.0 to 1‰), the calculated diagenetic temperature should also be relatively high (~ 100°C). Lithofacies characteristics, isotopic compositions and fluid inclusion microthermometries are all consistent with the conclusion that this carbonate member partially originated from methane oxidation and then underwent a high degree of

  17. Cell wall antibiotics provoke accumulation of anchored mCherry in the cross wall of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Yu

    Full Text Available A fluorescence microscopy method to directly follow the localization of defined proteins in Staphylococcus was hampered by the unstable fluorescence of fluorescent proteins. Here, we constructed plasmid (pCX encoded red fluorescence (RF mCherry (mCh hybrids, namely mCh-cyto (no signal peptide and no sorting sequence, mCh-sec (with signal peptide, and mCh-cw (with signal peptide and cell wall sorting sequence. The S. aureus clones targeted mCh-fusion proteins into the cytosol, the supernatant and the cell envelope respectively; in all cases mCherry exhibited bright fluorescence. In staphylococci two types of signal peptides (SP can be distinguished: the +YSIRK motif SP(lip and the -YSIRK motif SP(sasF. mCh-hybrids supplied with the +YSIRK motif SP(lip were always expressed higher than those with -YSIRK motif SP(sasF. To study the location of the anchoring process and also the influence of SP type, mCh-cw was supplied on the one hand with +YSIRK motif (mCh-cw1 and the other hand with -YSIRK motif (mCh-cw2. MCh-cw1 preferentially localized at the cross wall, while mCh-cw2 preferentially localized at the peripheral wall. Interestingly, when treated with sub-lethal concentrations of penicillin or moenomycin, both mCh-cw1 and mCh-cw2 were concentrated at the cross wall. The shift from the peripheral wall to the cross wall required Sortase A (SrtA, as in the srtA mutant this effect was blunted. The effect is most likely due to antibiotic mediated increase of free anchoring sites (Lipid II at the cross wall, the substrate of SrtA, leading to a preferential incorporation of anchored proteins at the cross wall.

  18. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials.

  19. Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI. PMID:21569932

  20. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials. PMID:27299365

  1. Changes in fine-root production, phenology and spatial distribution in response to N application in irrigated sweet cherry trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Pamela; Bonomelli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Factors regulating fine-root growth are poorly understood, particularly in fruit tree species. In this context, the effects of N addition on the temporal and spatial distribution of fine-root growth and on the fine-root turnover were assessed in irrigated sweet cherry trees. The influence of other exogenous and endogenous factors was also examined. The rhizotron technique was used to measure the length-based fine-root growth in trees fertilized at two N rates (0 and 60 kg ha(-1)), and the above-ground growth, leaf net assimilation, and air and soil variables were simultaneously monitored. N fertilization exerted a basal effect throughout the season, changing the magnitude, temporal patterns and spatial distribution of fine-root production and mortality. Specifically, N addition enhanced the total fine-root production by increasing rates and extending the production period. On average, N-fertilized trees had a length-based production that was 110-180% higher than in control trees, depending on growing season. Mortality was proportional to production, but turnover rates were inconsistently affected. Root production and mortality was homogeneously distributed in the soil profile of N-fertilized trees while control trees had 70-80% of the total fine-root production and mortality concentrated below 50 cm depth. Root mortality rates were associated with soil temperature and water content. In contrast, root production rates were primarily under endogenous control, specifically through source-sink relationships, which in turn were affected by N supply through changes in leaf photosynthetic level. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous factors interacted to control the fine-root dynamics of irrigated sweet cherry trees.

  2. Changes in fine-root production, phenology and spatial distribution in response to N application in irrigated sweet cherry trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Pamela; Bonomelli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Factors regulating fine-root growth are poorly understood, particularly in fruit tree species. In this context, the effects of N addition on the temporal and spatial distribution of fine-root growth and on the fine-root turnover were assessed in irrigated sweet cherry trees. The influence of other exogenous and endogenous factors was also examined. The rhizotron technique was used to measure the length-based fine-root growth in trees fertilized at two N rates (0 and 60 kg ha(-1)), and the above-ground growth, leaf net assimilation, and air and soil variables were simultaneously monitored. N fertilization exerted a basal effect throughout the season, changing the magnitude, temporal patterns and spatial distribution of fine-root production and mortality. Specifically, N addition enhanced the total fine-root production by increasing rates and extending the production period. On average, N-fertilized trees had a length-based production that was 110-180% higher than in control trees, depending on growing season. Mortality was proportional to production, but turnover rates were inconsistently affected. Root production and mortality was homogeneously distributed in the soil profile of N-fertilized trees while control trees had 70-80% of the total fine-root production and mortality concentrated below 50 cm depth. Root mortality rates were associated with soil temperature and water content. In contrast, root production rates were primarily under endogenous control, specifically through source-sink relationships, which in turn were affected by N supply through changes in leaf photosynthetic level. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous factors interacted to control the fine-root dynamics of irrigated sweet cherry trees. PMID:26888890

  3. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds. PMID:25806548

  4. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  5. 中国甜樱桃病毒病及其检测技术研究进展%Advances in Sweet Cherry Viruses and Detection Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 严雪瑞; 刘庆忠

    2012-01-01

    综述了近年来中国对甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)病毒病及其检测技术的相关报道,介绍了中国甜樱桃上常见病毒的种类、危害及特性,主要包括:李属坏死环斑病毒(PNRSV)、李矮缩病毒(PDV)、苹果褪绿叶斑病毒(ACLSV)、樱桃锉叶病毒(CRLV)、樱桃病毒A(CVA)、樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(CGRMV)、樱桃小果病毒(LChV);阐述了甜樱桃病毒检测中所用的方法、技术,包括指示植物法(生物学鉴定法)、电子显微镜技术、血清学方法、分子生物学技术方法等.%The recent virus disease research on sweet cherry in China was reviewed, the species of the main sweet cherry viruses identified and the characteristics of these viruses were introduced. These viruses included Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prunus dwarf virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Cherry rasp leaf virus, Cherry virus A, Cherry green ring mottle virus,Little cherry virus. The detection technologies were also described, including indicator plant,electron microscopy,sero-logical method and molecular biological techniques.

  6. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L.) and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L.) e cerejeira (Prunus avium L.) em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Remedios Morales Corts; Luciano Cordeiro Rodrigues; Jesús Maria Ortíz Marcide; Rodrigo Pérez Sánches

    2008-01-01

    Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal), were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the syst...

  7. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols. PMID:24191680

  8. Postharvest treatments with salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid delayed ripening and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Daniel; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Castillo, Salvador; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María

    2011-05-25

    Sweet cherry cultivars ('Cristalina' and 'Prime Giant') harvested at commercial ripening stage were treated with salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or oxalic acid (OA) at 1 mM and then stored for 20 days under cold temperature. Results showed that all treatments delayed the postharvest ripening process, manifested by lower acidity, color changes and firmness losses, and maintained quality attributes for longer periods than controls. In addition, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity increased in untreated fruit during the first 10 days of storage and then decreased, while in fruits of all treatments, these parameters increased continuously during storage without significant differences among treatments. Thus, postharvest treatments with natural compounds, such as SA, ASA or OA, could be innovative tools to extend the storability of sweet cherry with higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity as compared with control fruits. PMID:21506518

  9. Determination of some B Vitamins in Sour Cherry Juice Using Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction Followed by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Parsaei, Parvin; Bahmaei, Manouchehr; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine thiamine (B1), nicotinamide (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) in sour cherry juice. This method was rapid, simple and sensitive. Separation was accomplished using a C18 column. The optimum chromatographic conditions were found to be: mobile phase consisted of 8% methanol and 92% aqueous phase (1% (V/V) acetic acid water solution); flow rate,...

  10. Determination of some B Vitamins in Sour Cherry Juice Using Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction Followed by High-performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, Parvin; Bahmaei, Manouchehr; Ghannadi, AliReza

    2014-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine thiamine (B1), nicotinamide (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) in sour cherry juice. This method was rapid, simple and sensitive. Separation was accomplished using a C18 column. The optimum chromatographic conditions were found to be: mobile phase consisted of 8% methanol and 92% aqueous phase (1% (V/V) acetic acid water solution); flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; detection wavelength, 260 nm and pH, 3.3. The extraction efficiency of thiamine, nicotinamide and pyridoxine was influenced by factors such as: additional salt effect, the kind and volume of disperser and extraction solvents. In this research, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for thiamine, 1.5 and 5 ng/mL for nicotinamide, 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for pyridoxine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.87% (n=3). An appropriate linear behavior over the observed concentration range was obtained with the value of R²>0.996 for the target vitamins. This method was successfully applied to the sour cherry juice samples. Sour cherry var. Gise (Prunus cerasus var. Gise), which was used in this research, was a local variety of the sour cherry with large stone, double flowers, double fruits, dark red skin and dark red juice. This variety was identified in high altitude areas of Isfahan province after five years of study, since 2005, by Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Isfahan. PMID:25587335

  11. Sucrose Replacement by Sweeteners in Strawberry, Raspberry, and Cherry Jams: Effect on the Textural Characteristics and Sensorial Profile—A Chemometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Vilela; Sílvia Matos; Ana S. Abraão; Lemos, André M.; Nunes, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in jams preparation; however his excessive consumption has been related to several diseases; therefore its replacement by alternative sweeteners is an attractive solution. Nonetheless, substitution of sucrose in jam’s preparation can cause changes in texture, structure, and flavor, making them less attractive to the consumers. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop strawberry, raspberry, and cherry jams with more adequate nutritional profile, maintaining thei...

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wei

    Full Text Available Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.. The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights

  13. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven Van Nocker; Moritz Knoche

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...

  14. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Verónica; Solís, Simón; Sagredo, Boris; Gainza, Felipe; Muñoz, Carlos; Gasic, Ksenija; Hinrichsen, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs) and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri) cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species. PMID:26011256

  15. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. PMID:23121861

  16. The specification of cultivation technology in Allium mongolicum and Cherry%樱桃、沙葱套种高效栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永; 扈顺; 李凤臻; 刘燕; 朱春侠

    2015-01-01

    沙葱是内蒙古新兴发展的一种特色野生蔬菜。为了发展新型种植模式,提高农民收益,通过多年试验,根据樱桃和沙葱的生长发育特性及种植习性,从土壤及整地要求、品种选择、播种时间、种植模式、水肥管理、病虫防治、采收晾晒等方面探索出樱桃套种沙葱(野生蔬菜)高效栽培与管理模式,旨在为樱桃套种沙葱技术提供科学依据。%Allium mongolicum is one species of new and developing characteristic wild vegetable in Inner Mongolia. In order to develop late-model and enhance income of farmer,By repeatedly experiment,according to growing developing and habit of Cherry and Allium mongolicum, some measures of efficient artificial domesticated cultivation of Cherry and Allium mongolicum were put forward,such as soil demand,introductive source,sowing time, productive technology,fertilizer and water management,pest control and the harvest,storage and transportation of seeds. It aimed to provide the direction for standardized cultivation of Cherry and Allium mongolicum.

  17. 玩星际2用什么?499樱桃!——CHERRY MX-BOARD2.0红轴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮杰; 飞飞

    2012-01-01

    上期杂志皮杰率先为大家介绍了CHERRY MX-BOARD2.0黑轴款机械键盘,而本期,作为杂志社的星际2编辑的皮杰,自然要为我们星际2玩家介绍一款适合我们星际2玩家的键盘了。樱桃(CHERRY)作为键盘中的"高帅富"品种,但其推出的CHERRY MX-BOARD2.0款却以其低廉的价格以及高品质为我们学生类玩家带来了极大的便利,而CHERRY MX-BOARD2.0红轴机械键盘无疑是最适合我们星际2玩家的!

  18. Tart cherry juice induces differential dose-dependent effects on apoptosis, but not cellular proliferation, in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R; Wooden, Alissa

    2012-11-01

    Consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits, for example, tart cherries, is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This is due, in large part, to the diverse myriad bioactive agents, that is, polyphenol anthocyanins, present in fruits. Anthocyanin-rich tart cherries purportedly modulate numerous cellular processes associated with oncogenesis such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation (CP), and cell cycle progression, although the effective concentrations eliciting these effects are unclear. We hypothesized that several dose-dependent effects over a large concentration range of 100% tart cherry juice (TCJ) would exist and affect these processes differentially with the potential for cellular protection and cellular death either by apoptosis or by necrosis. In this in vitro study, we tested the dose response of TCJ on CP and cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. TCJ was added at 0.03-30% (v/v) to cells and incubated overnight with the medium alone or with increasing TCJ. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly reduced by 20% at ≥10% (v/v) TCJ and associated with necrosis, but was not different between the control and treatment groups at anthocyanins), yet significantly decreased (Panthocyanins. The data support a biphasic effect on apoptosis and no effect on proliferation. PMID:23057779

  19. Bioassay-based isolation and identification of phenolics from sweet cherry that promote active glucose consumption by HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Li, Xin; Liu, Yunxi; Leng, Feng; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-02-01

    A variety of phenolics had been found to be functional in promoting cellular glucose consumption that is important for blood glucose regulation. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) is rich in such kinds of phenolics, including hydrocinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols. Furthermore, a sweet cherry phenolics-rich extract (PRE) was found to be effective in promoting HepG2 glucose consumption. Seventeen components were preliminarily identified by HPLC-ESI-MS, including 9 hydrocinnamic acids, 4 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, and 1 flavan-3-ol. To investigate the cellular glucose consumption-promotion activity of different phneolics subclasses, the phenolics were further fractionated into an anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), hydrocinnamic acid-rich fraction (HRF), and flavonol-rich fraction (FRF) through liquid-liquid extraction and mix-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. The 3 fractions promoted HepG2 glucose consumption to different levels, with the promotion effects of HRF and FRF stronger than that of the ARF. The results provide guidance on the use of sweet cherry as a functional fruit. PMID:25559482

  20. Impact of Cultivar on Profile and Concentration of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Kernel Oils Recovered from Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-06-01

    Lipophilic bioactive compounds in oils recovered from the kernels of seven sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, harvested at single location in 2013, were studied. Oil yield in sweet cherry ranged between 30.3-40.3 % (w/w) dw. The main fatty acids were oleic acid (39.62-49.92 %), linoleic acid (31.13-38.81 %), α-eleostearic acid (7.23-10.73 %) and palmitic acid (5.59-7.10 %), all four represented approximately 95 % of the total detected fatty acids. The ranges of total tocochromanols and sterols were between 83.1-111.1 and 233.6-419.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, the γ-tocopherol and β-sitosterol were the main lipophilic minor bioactive compounds. The content of the carotenoids and squalene were between 0.38-0.62 and 60.9-127.7 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Three significant correlations were found between oil yield and total contents of sterols (r = -0.852), tocochromanols (r = -0.880) and carotenoids (r = -0.698) in sweet cherry kernel oils. The oil yield, as well as the content of lipophilic bioactive compounds in oil was significantly affected by the cultivar. PMID:26984340