WorldWideScience

Sample records for cherries

  1. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  2. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  3. Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Hungate, F.P.; Tingey, G.L.; Olsen, K.L.; Fountain, J.B.; Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffit, H.R.; Johnson, D.A.; Lunden, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective disinfestation treatment with no significant degradation of fruit at doses well above those required for quarantine treatment. Sufficient codling moth control was achieved at projected doses of less than 25 krad; cherry fruit fly control, at projected doses of less than 15 krad. Dose levels up to 60 krad did not adversely affect cherry quality factors tested. Irradiation above 60 krad reduced the firmness of cherries but had no significant impact on other quality factors tested. Irradiation of cherries below 80 krad did not result in any significant differences in sensory evaluations (appearance, flavor, and firmness) in tests conducted at OSU. Irradiation up to 200 krad at a temperature of about 25 0 C (77 0 F) did not measurably extend shelf life. Irradiation at 500 krad at 25 0 C (77 0 F) increased mold and rotting of cherries tested. There is no apparent advantage of irradiation over low-temperature fumigation

  4. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  5. Cherries: Calendar of Operations for Home Gardeners

    OpenAIRE

    Geisel, Pamela M; Unruh, Carolyn L; Vossen, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This series of handy guides for the home orchard gives a quick overview of major tasks that should be undertaken during the winter dormant, spring bloom, summer growing and harvest, and autumn seasons. This guide is for cherry.

  6. Dissipation rate of acetamiprid in sweet cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lazić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples was evaluated at several intervals from the product application until the end of the pre-harvest interval. An orchard of sweet cherries located at Stepanovićevo village near Novi Sad was used in this study. Acetamiprid was applied according to the manufacturer’s recommendation for protecting sweet cherries from their most important pests. Sweet cherry fruit samples were collected at eight intervals: immediately after acetamiprid application and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after application. The extraction of acetamiprid from sweet cherry samples was performed using a QuEChERS-based method. Determination was carried out using an HPLC-UV diode array detection system (Agilent 1100, United States with an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm internal diameter, 1.8 μm particle size. The method was subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The recovery data were obtained by spiking blank sweet cherry samples at three concentration levels (0.1-0.3 mg/ kg, yielding 85.4% average recovery. Precision values expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD were below 1.61% for the intraday precision. Acetamiprid showed linear calibrations from 0.05 to 2.5 μg/ml with correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.995%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 5 μg/kg and 14 μg/kg, respectively. The validated method was applied in the analysis of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples. During the study period, the concentration of acetamiprid decreased from 0.529 mg/kg to 0.111 mg/kg. The content of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples at the end of the pre-harvest interval was below the maximum permissible level specified by the Serbian and EU MRLs.

  7. Pilgrim Souvenir: Hood of Cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Jeffs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This lead alloy badge from the British Museum represents a medieval hood repurposed as a sack for a harvest of cherries. It measures 38 by 30 millimetres and was cast integrally with its pin and clasp in a three-part mould. When first made, it would have shone like silver. Badges were purchased in their millions by pilgrims between the late twelfth and early sixteenth centuries, as attractive, wearable and cheap souvenirs of their visits to holy sites. By the later Middle Ages badges were also worn as general symbols of devotion, as livery insignia, and as humorous or amorous tokens; which of these categories the “hood of cherries” badge falls into is debatable. Five of them have been found: three in Salisbury, and another in London, while the provenance of the fifth is unknown. Their cataloguers reluctantly associate them with the cult of St Dorothy, whose emblem is a basket of fruit, although Spencer expressed concern that, “a fashionable hood seems far removed from her story.” There are also possible alternative explanations to its meaning, which will be explored here.

  8. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  9. The effects of the cherry variety on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINOSLAV NIKIĆEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy produced from five cherry varieties (Oblacinska, Celery’s 16, Rexle, Heiman’s Ruby and Heiman’s Conserve grown in Serbia were studied. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of these distillates led to the identification of 32 components, including 20 esters, benzaldehyde, 6 terpenes and 5 acids. The ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. The benzaldehyde content was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The average benzaldehyde concentration in the samples ranged between 2.1 and 24.1 mg L-1. The total sensory scores of the cherry brandies ranged between 17.30 to 18.05, with the cherry brandy produced from the Celery’s 16 variety receiving the highest score (18.05.

  10. Gender in Winterson's Sexing the Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Kintzele, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In his article "Gender in Winterson's Sexing the Cherry" Paul Kintzele examines the ways in which Jeanette Winterson's 1989 novel explores and critiques aspects of gender and sexuality. While acknowledging the importance of the performance theory of gender that derives from the work of Judith Butler, Kintzele contends that such an approach must be complemented with a psychoanalytic approach that insists on a particular distinction between sex and gender. Although some scholars map the sex/gen...

  11. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  12. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  13. The effects of the fermentation with immobilized yeast and different cherry varieties on the quality of cherry brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miličević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate influence of different fermentation processes (by immobilized yeast cells and classical fermentation and different cherry varieties (Maraska, Montmorencys and Kelleris on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandies. Cherry brandies were analyzed to determine chemical composition, aroma profile and sensory properties. Cherry brandies produced by immobilized yeast cells had a higher content of aldehydes, but lower content of total acids, total extract, higher alcohols and esters compared to the samples produced by classical fermentation process. Furfural was not detected in cherry distillates produced by immobilized yeast cells, while distillates produced by classical fermentation process had very low content. Cherry brandies produced by classical fermentation process had significantly higher content of benzaldehyde which has great influence on aroma of cherry brandies. Ethyl octanoate which is considered one of the most important contributors to the aroma of alcoholic distillates was found in the highest concentrations in Maraska distillates. The best evaluated sample was brandy produced from Maraska cherry variety fermented by immobilized yeast cells followed by brandy produced also from Maraska cherry variety, but by classical fermentation process.

  14. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  15. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of black cherry for flowering control and insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry is one of the most valuable hardwood species for cabinetry, furniture, and veneer. The goal of this study was to develop transgenic black cherry plants with reproductive sterility and enhanced insect resistance. Black cherry TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PsTFL1) was overexpressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in black cherry via

  17. Organic fertilization in cherry tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janini Tatiane Lima Souza Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is highly demanding with regard to mineral nutrients. The use of animal manure shows to be an efficient and sustainable fertilization way for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of cattle manure in the vegetative and reproductive growth of cherry tomato. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Plant Science Department of Universidade Federal de Vicosa, using a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and 4 replications, besides 1 control treatment using chemical fertilizer as a source of NPK. After 45 days from the beginning of the experiment, the number of leaves, flowers, and fruits, the dry mass of leaves, stem, flowers, fruits, and roots, the stem length, and the root volume were evaluated. The nutrient content in leaves, stem, and roots was also evaluated. Plants grown with chemical fertilizer obtained a lower average for all phytotechnical variables analyzed. The number of leaves and fruits, and the production of dry matter of leaves, fruits, and stems showed an upward linear response with an increase in manure doses. The Ca, Mg, and S leaf contents were higher in the treatment with chemical fertilization.

  18. The Correlation between Cherry Picking Female Consumers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Consumers who are branded as cherry pickers are price sensitive shoppers with no brand loyalty but this market segment has been found to be potentially attractive for retailers, contrary to the myth that they are a retailers' nemesis.

  19. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

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    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  1. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  3. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  4. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. The Committee's...

  5. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  6. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  7. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporating in a filling contained in a pastry shell mature, pitted, stemmed cherries that are fresh, frozen, and/or canned. The top of the pie may be open or it may be wholly or partly covered with pastry or other suitable topping. Filling, pastry, and topping components of the food consist of optional...

  8. A review of the health benefits of cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health ...

  9. Regulation of the growth and photosynthesis of cherry tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth and photosynthetic characteristics of cherry tomato seedlings were investigated under seven light irradiations such as dysprosium lamps (white light; control, C), red light emitting diodes (LEDs) (R), blue LEDs (B), orange LEDs (O), green LEDs (G), red and blue LEDs (RB) and red, blue and green LEDs (RBG) ...

  10. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  11. Acoustic tomography for decay detection in black cherry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Shanqing Liang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using acoustic tomography for detecting internal decay in high-value hardwood trees in the forest. Twelve black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees that had a wide range of physical characteristics were tested in a stand of second-growth hardwoods in Kane, PA, using a PiCUS Sonic Tomograph tool. The trees were felled after the field...

  12. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell ...

  13. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  14. Effect of antioxidant extract from cherries on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, Tahsini

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has continuously increased worldwide over the past few decades. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in diabetic subjects have been reported. It has been suggested that enhanced production of free radicals and oxidative stress is the central event for the development of diabetic complications. Antioxidants can play an important role in the improvement of diabetes. There are many reports on the effects of antioxidants in the management of diabetes. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of antioxidant extract and purified sweet and sour Cherries on hyperglycemia, microalbumin and creatinine level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty six adult Male Wistar rats were divided equally into six groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by an intraperitoneal injection with 120 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Oral administration of cherry extract at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose, and urinary microalbumin. Also an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urine was observed in the diabetic rats treated with the cherry extract as compared to untreated diabetic rats. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of diabetes is used. In conclusion, cherry antioxidant extract proved to have a beneficial effect on the diabetic rats in this study. In light of these advantageous results, it is advisable to broaden the scale of use of sweet and sour cherries extract in a trial to alleviate the adverse effects of diabetes.

  15. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  16. Cherry tomato yield in greenhouses with different plastic covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different plastic covers on microclimate and cherry tomato yield in greenhouses. The experiments were carried out in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo (Brazil, during three growing periods (2008/2009/2010. A greenhouse was divided in: Environment I (EI - covered with plastic film anti-UV and thermo-reflective shading screen, and Environment II (EII - covered with diffusive plastic film; monitored with automatic weather sensors; and cultivated with cherry tomato (‘Sweet Grape’ and ‘Sweet Million’. Use of diffusive plastic in greenhouses provides a better inside distribution of solar energy without causing major changes in air temperature and relative humidity, resulting in higher yield (kg plant-1, fruits quantity (number plant-1 and fruits average weight than those obtained under thermo-reflective shading screen.

  17. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P; Chmielewski, Frank-M

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar 'Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  18. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  19. Improvement of new types by mutation breeding in cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunter, B.; Kantoglu, Y.; Bas, M.; Burak, M.

    2009-01-01

    Turkey, which is a major cultivation area for cherry, is ranked either as first or second in worldwide cherry production with an annual production amount of 200.000 tonnes. Out of this amount, 7% is exported which holds a c. 20% share of the global export. Due to the plantations of different altitudes resulted by the rich geographical structure, our country has a diverse harvest calendar. Hence, it is possible to export cherries in similar quality for almost five-six weeks with different maturation periods. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar.In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen in 2000. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock. According to measurement and calculation on young trees in the field, efficient mutation dose and mutation frequency were found 33,75 Gy and %4.1 respectively.Trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). According to the data 8 mutant variety candidate (dwarf, semi dwarf, high yield and crackles) were selected in 371 living mutant trees for advance observations.

  20. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Ghanshyam Das Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show ...

  1. Dietary supplementation with tart cherries for prevention of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Ashli

    2017-01-01

    The cherry fruit is a nutrient-dense food with comparatively low caloric content and significant amounts of key nutrients and bioactive food chemicals. Much of the health benefit of cherries is attributed to their high amounts of anthocyanins, which have anti-oxidant and anticancer properties that contribute to changes in cell signaling pathways involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. In this project, we aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with tart cherries ...

  2. Sour and duke cherry viruses in South-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the phytosanitary status of sour and duke cherry genetic resources in the Iberian Peninsula, and the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. Young leaf samples were taken from 204 sour and duke cherry trees belonging to ten cultivars, and were assayed by DAS-ELISA. Samples positive for any of the three viruses were also tested by RT-PCR. To associate the leaf symptoms with virus presence, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated that 63% of the cherry trees were infected by at least one of these viruses. PNRSV occurred in all cultivars sampled and presented the highest infection rate (46%, followed by PDV (31% and ACLSV (6%. Many trees, (60 to 100%, were asymptomatic while harbouring single and mixed virus infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses included chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on secondary veins and interveinal regions, for PNRSV, generalized chlorosis around the midveins, for PDV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots, for ACLSV, and generalized interveinal chlorosis, for mixed PNRSV and PDVinfections.

  3. Complete solution of the modified Cherry oscillator problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1990-04-01

    In 1925, T.M. Cherry presented a simple example demonstrating that linear stability analysis will in general not be sufficient for finding out whether a system is stable or not with respect to small-amplitude perturbations. The example consisted of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators, one possessing positive energy, the other negative energy, with frequencies ω 1 =2ω 2 allowing third-order resonance. In a previous paper, the present author reformulated Cherry's example and then generalized it to three coupled oscillators corresponding to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory like that of Maxwell-Vlasov. Cherry was able to present a two-parameter solution set for his example which would, however, allow a four-parameter solution set, and a three-parameter solution set for the resonant three-oscillator case was obtained which, however, would allow a six-parameter solution set. Nonlinear instability could therefore be proven only for a very small part of the phase space of the oscillators. This paper now gives the complete solution for the three-oscillator case and shows that, except for a singular case, all initial conditions, especially those with arbitrarily small amplitudes, lead to explosive behaviour. This is true of the resonant case. The non-resonant oscillators can sometimes also become explosively unstable, but only if the initial amplitudes are not infinitesimally small. (orig.)

  4. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... shall be prohibited from having any financial interest in the cherry industry and shall possess such...

  5. Quality response of 'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries to low rose electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.R.; Neven, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries were irradiated at doses of 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 and 0.90 kGy using a linear accelerator. Cherries were evaluated for quality immediately after treatment and again after 14 days storage at 1C. No variation in soluble solids, titratable acidity or flavor were noted at any of the irradiation doses. Defects were increased for 'Rainier' cherries at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy, but no change in defects of 'Bing' cherries were present regardless of irradiation doses. Objective color of 'Bing' cherries was lighter with more red at irradiation doses greater than 0.30 kGy, but this change in color was not evident visually. Objective color of 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. This reduction in 'Rainier' red color was evident visually at an irradiation dose of 0.90 kGy. No change in 'Bing' green stem color was evident, but 'Rainier' stem color improved at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy. Firmness of both 'Bing' and 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. By using the linear accelerator at doses of 0.60 kGy or less, 'Ring' and 'Rainier' cherries can be irradiated with no major quality loss to meet quarantine requirements

  6. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  7. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Zhu, Dongzi; Liu, Weizhen; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  8. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...; FV12-923-1 IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of sweet...

  9. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  10. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    .... The existing paragraph (e) would be redesignated as paragraph (d), and the introductory sentence of... reported by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, and 1,500 Washington cherry producers, the... revise the introductory sentence of paragraph (g) to read as follows: Sec. 923.322 Washington cherry...

  11. Analysis of Wave Velocity Patterns in Black Cherry Trees and its Effect on Internal Decay Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined stress wave velocity patterns in the cross sections of black cherry trees, developed analytical models of stress wave velocity in sound healthy trees, and then tested the effectiveness of the models as a tool for tree decay diagnosis. Acoustic tomography data of the tree cross sections were collected from 12 black cherry trees at a production...

  12. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  13. 78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay... National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West Arm of Grand Traverse Bay. At the conclusion of the National Cherry Festival on July 6, 2013, fireworks will be launched in...

  14. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p Contents of cytoplasmic (p content increased gradually, and then internal damage occurred. Sweet cherry softening closely correlated with moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Application of half-embryo test to irradiated apples and cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Aya; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples and cherries. The optimum incubation temperature for apples and cherries was 30 o C and 25 o C, respectively. Benzyladenine stimulated the shooting of cherry half-embryos, therefore, they were incubated with 10 μM benzyladenine. The irradiation of apples and cherries caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryos. A dose of 0.15 kGy or more almost totally retarded shoot elongation. If shooting is less than 50%, the apples and cherries are identified as ''irradiated''. An assessment could be made after 1 to 4 days and the detection limit of the irradiation dose is 0.15 kGy. (author)

  16. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    OpenAIRE

    Giovambattista Sorrenti; Maurizio Quartieri; Silvia Salvi; Moreno Toselli

    2017-01-01

    Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1), pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1) an...

  17. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  18. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  19. Production and quality of fertirrgated cherry tomatoes with pisciculture wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires da Silva Araujo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the production and the quality of fertirrigated cherry tomatoes with pisciculture wastewater with and without probiotics. The experiment was conducted in pots, under ambient conditions protected by 50% sombrite. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates, the experimental unit consisting of thirty-two plants. Four water slides were tested: water; water from fish farms without the use of probiotics; water with probiotic and probiotic pisciculture wastewater. Probiotic addition was performed every 48 hours, with 0,5 g of probiotic containing at least 5x109 billion colony forming units per viable gram for every 8 L of water, each plant receiving 1 L of water manually in the morning. The soil used in the experiment to fill the vessels was classified as a NEOSOLO QUARTZARENIC dystrophic sandy texture caatinga stage, mixed with organic compound. The results showed that there was no difference between treatments for yield, number of fruits, fruit weight and pH. The treatment of water with probiotic was the one that presented lower acidity and better relation SST / ATT. The reuse of fish water with and without addition of the probiotic for fertirrigation of the cherry tomato crop did not interfere in the fruit production.

  20. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  1. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  2. The correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Van Scheers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailers often use price promotions to discriminate between consumers who can shift purchases over time and those who cannot. Retailers consistently tend to charge lower prices than necessary, pricing defensively to prevent loyal customers from cherry picking, or shifting to competitors. Knowledge about cherry picking behaviour will enable retailers to obtain a higher share of disposable income from even price-sensitive shoppers, while at the same time charging higher prices. Recent studies indicate that effective cherry picking entails saving costs through price searching over time, price searching across stores, or both. This study examines the relationship between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping. Interviews were conducted at ten different retail outlets over three days, and the results show that there is a highly significant correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping.These results should help retailers to benefit from cherry picking by taking a proactive approach to store switching and store location, two of the main influences on cherry picking behaviour.

  3. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  4. Automated Detection of Branch Shaking Locations for Robotic Cherry Harvesting Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Amatya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Automation in cherry harvesting is essential to reduce the demand for seasonal labor for cherry picking and reduce the cost of production. The mechanical shaking of tree branches is one of the widely studied and used techniques for harvesting small tree fruit crops like cherries. To automate the branch shaking operation, different methods of detecting branches and cherries in full foliage canopies of the cherry tree have been developed previously. The next step in this process is the localization of shaking positions in the detected tree branches for mechanical shaking. In this study, a method of locating shaking positions for automated cherry harvesting was developed based on branch and cherry pixel locations determined using RGB images and 3D camera images. First, branch and cherry regions were located in 2D RGB images. Depth information provided by a 3D camera was then mapped on to the RGB images using a standard stereo calibration method. The overall root mean square error in estimating the distance to desired shaking points was 0.064 m. Cherry trees trained in two different canopy architectures, Y-trellis and vertical trellis systems, were used in this study. Harvesting testing was carried out by shaking tree branches at the locations selected by the algorithm. For the Y-trellis system, the maximum fruit removal efficiency of 92.9% was achieved using up to five shaking events per branch. However, maximum fruit removal efficiency for the vertical trellis system was 86.6% with up to four shakings per branch. However, it was found that only three shakings per branch would achieve a fruit removal percentage of 92.3% and 86.4% in Y and vertical trellis systems respectively.

  5. Tracking cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains with the ostreolysin A-mCherry protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Skočaj

    Full Text Available Ostreolysin A (OlyA is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II-Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1-positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell.

  6. Effects of wood biochar addition on growth of cherry radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Huadan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Guocheng

    2018-03-01

    Extensive cultivation and unreasonable management of the farmland result in severe soil degradation such as compaction, acidification, and salinization. Our results showed that the biochar amendment increased the cherry radish germination rate, while barely influenced the fresh biomass of shoot and root. Moreover, both 1.5% and 3% biochar addition showed no significant difference in the fruit shape index of cherry radish compared to the control treatment. These results suggested that the biochar application alone could not improve the cherry radish growth in this tested soil. Thus, application of biochar combined with fertilizer or composted with organic wastes should be taken into account for this soil.

  7. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  8. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  9. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  10. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  11. Gamma-rays irradiation of greenwood cuttings cherry varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of irradiation of greenwood cuttings of the sweet cherry grafted varieties Napoleon, Drogans Gelbe and Ryzhdavishka Belvitsa, performed at 2500 R. The treated buds have been treated on rootstocks in a nursery and trees have been raised from the grafts in a planting. Different teratological alterations were observed in shoots of most trees developed from treated buds such as fasciations, bi-, tre-, and tetra-furcation as well as branchlets with a pseudodichotomical ramification. Several forms, having a very good fruit bearing and lower strength of growth than the initial varieties, were selected. A large number of slightly growing mutagenous forms were established of the Drogans Gelbe variety. Their fruits do not differ substantially from those of the initial varieties. (author)

  12. Analisis Pengukuran Produktivitas Perusahaan Alsintan CV. Cherry Sarana Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Fithri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CV Cherry Sarana Agro is a manufacturing company, which produces agricultural machinery. In reality, company evaluatesits work and performance based on level of profits. In order to maintain the company's performance, it is necessary to measures the productivity of company to see how effective the performance of this company. So it can be determined what is needed in order to improve the performance of the company and also can increase profits. Measuring the productivity can be seen from the financial data that obtained from the company. Then based on data processing, show this company's productivity levels decreased during the period of measurement and it means company requires efforts to increase the efficient use of inputs. It is necessary for company to increase its productivity for the future. This improvement was made by taking into account the partial productivity as inputs that affect the profitability of the company on an ongoing basis.

  13. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers.

  14. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high ... the highest was recorded on "V", while the smallest was in Spanish bush. Training system and density did not affect the fruit weight.

  15. Selected cultivars of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) as a new food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    Cornelian cherry is a widely distributed species in. Europe and it .... In connection with the decrease of .... Relationship between total phenolic content (g GAE.kg-1 FM) and DPPH radical scavenging .... Biodiversity, ex-situ conservation and.

  16. Construction of Two mCherry Plasmids (pXG-mCherry for Transgenic Leishmania: Valuable Tools for Future Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Vacas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania is the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 12 million people around the world. Current treatments are toxic and poorly effective due to the acquisition of resistance within Leishmania populations. Thus, the pursuit for new antileishmanial drugs is a priority. The available methods for drug screening based on colorimetric assays using vital dyes are time-consuming. Currently, the use of fluorescent reporter proteins is replacing the use of viability indicator dyes. We have constructed two plasmids expressing the red fluorescent protein mCherry with multiple cloning sites (MCS, adequate for N- and C-terminal fusion protein constructs. Our results also show that the improved pXG-mCherry plasmid can be employed for drug screening in vitro. The use of the red fluorescent protein, mCherry, is an easier tool for numerous assays, not only to test pharmacological compounds, but also to determine the subcellular localization of proteins.

  17. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  18. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  20. Tay-Sach disease with "cherry-red spot"--first reported case in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Balasubramaniam, S; Sunder, R; Jamalia, R; Karunakar, T V N; Alagaratnam, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of Tay-Sachs disease with retinal 'cherry-red spots' in a 19-month-old Malay child. Molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The case highlights that 'cherry-red spot' is a useful clinical clue in Tay-Sachs disease and several other lysosomal storage disorders. It serves as an ideal illustration of the eye as a window to inborn error of metabolism.

  1. Identification of the translational start site of codon-optimized mCherry in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Paul; Muwanguzi-Karugaba, Julian; Melief, Eduard; Files, Megan; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluorescent proteins are used widely as reporter genes in many organisms. We previously codon-optimized mCherry for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and generated expression constructs with high level expression in mycobacteria with multiple uses in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the expression of fluorescent proteins in mycobacteria and the translational start codon for mCherry has not been experimentally determined. Results We determined the translational start site ...

  2. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  3. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  5. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  6. Fruit size QTL analysis of an F1 population derived from a cross between a domesticated sweet cherry cultivar and a wild forest sweet cherry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Sebolt, A.M.; Sooriyapathirana, S.S.; Wang, D.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Olmstead, J.W.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maximizing fruit size is critical for profitable sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) production. Yet, despite its importance, little is known about the genetic control of fruit size. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit size and two essential components of

  7. The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Chandler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. This diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of Drosophila. Since the bacterial microbiota of Drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with D. suzukii are distinct from that of other Drosophila. Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. We find that the bacterial communities associated with these samples of D. suzukii contain a high frequency of Tatumella. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter, two taxa with known associations with Drosophila, were also found, although at lower frequency than Tatumella in four of the five samples examined. Sampling D. suzukii from different locations and/or while feeding on different fruits is needed to determine the generality of the results determined by these samples. Nevertheless this is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the bacterial communities of this ecologically unique and economically important species of Drosophila.

  8. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  9. Stability of midazolam in syrspend SF and syrspend SF cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine central nervous system depressant available as an injection, tablet, or oral syrup. The need for alternative dosage form options for patients unable to take tablets and shortages of other forms of the drug have led compounding pharmacies to seek alternatives, mainly solutions and suspensions. Additionally, some patients are unable to use suspending agents containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of midazolam in sorbitol-free, alcohol-free SyrSpend SF and SyrSpend SF Cherry suspending agents. The studied samples were compounded into a 1-mg/mL suspension and stored in low-actinic plastic bottles at temperatures between 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C and at room temperature conditions. Six samples were assayed at each time point out to 58 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The samples remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on the data collected, the beyond-use date of these preparations is at least 58 days when protected from light at both refrigerated and room temperature storage conditions.

  10. The Missing Set: How Landscape Acts in The Cherry Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Leone

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is the cherry orchard almost entirely absent from the stage? How does this absent landscape function dramatically? Chekhov's own garden expertise supports a study of the way that landscape in this play—its presence at once pervasive and virtual—both transcends and subverts the functions of setting. Such a reading of the function of landscape leads us to new ways of answering old questions about the play, as well: is the orchard more or other than a symbol? is the play a comedy? I examine the features and conventions of an orchard and garden landscape as they collide with characters' apprehension of the orchard as a repository of the past, and with Lopahin's plans—radical, practical and Romantic—for its future. The orchard's fate parallels the dispersal and re-definition of the family; that shared human and landscape drama can be read to show how landscape is constructed and how that construct depends upon, reflects, and may subvert human intentions.

  11. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  12. Breeding programme for developing new sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sweet cherry is a major structural species in Bulgaria. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, in 2010 it occupied 21% of the fruit tree areas, which defined it as a leading fruit crop. It represents 16% of the total fruit production in the country, as is the relative share of peach, being surpassed only by apple and plum production. The increased interest in establishing new cherry plantations necessitates the provision of new market-oriented cultivars with a better sensory profile of the fruits, resistant to biotic and abiotic stress factors, suitable for creating modern intensive cherry plantations. The Bulgarian sweet cherry cultivars are chronologically discussed and a thorough description of the development of the sweet cherry breeding programme, launched at the Fruit Growing Institute in Plovdiv in 1987, is presented. Current objectives comply with the world's major breeding trends and the changing market requirements. The paper reflects the main objectives of the programme and the finalized products obtained in the last twenty years of the past century and first decade of the new millennium, i.e. the new cultivars 'Kossara', 'Rosita', 'Rozalina' and 'Thrakiiska hrushtyalka' and some promising hybrids.

  13. A Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product as a Supply of Tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Garrido

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L -Tryptophan (tryptophan is an essential amino acid in humans. It has important roles as a precursor of different bioactive compounds. Based on previous studies in which tryptophan has been shown to be present in fresh cherries, the aim of the present work was to analyze the tryptophan content of a Jerte Valley cherry-based product. A previously optimized method of analysis of tryptophan was used, ie, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FL. As expected, HPLC/FL technique permitted to detect and quantify the tryptophan content in a different matrix rather than fresh cherries. In fact, the Jerte Valley cherry-based product contained 69.54 ± 10.64 ppm of tryptophan, thereby showing that this product is a good source of tryptophan. In summary, it has been proven that the Jerte Valley cherry-based product is rich in tryptophan and may be indicated as a supply of this essential amino acid as well as having potential health benefits for conditions where tryptophan is necessary.

  14. Identifying promising accessions of cherry tomato: a sensory strategy using consumers and chefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mariella C; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón; Freitas, Daniela De G C; Silva, Aline L S; Carmo, Margarida G F; Abboud, Antonio C S

    2013-06-01

    An increased production of cherry and gourmet tomato cultivars that are harvested at advanced colour stages and sold at a higher price has been observed in the last 10 years. In this context, producers need information on the sensory characteristics of new cultivars and their perception by potential consumers. The aim of the present work was to obtain a sensory characterisation of nine cherry tomato cultivars produced under Brazilian organic cultivation conditions from a chef and consumer perspective. Nine organic cherry tomato genotypes were evaluated by ten chefs using an open-ended question and by 110 consumers using a check-all-that-apply question. Both methodologies provided similar information on the sensory characteristics of the cherry tomato accessions. The superimposed representation of the samples in a multiple factor analysis was similar for consumers' and chefs' descriptions (RV coefficient 0.728), although they used different methodologies. According to both panels, cherry tomatoes were sorted into five groups of samples with similar sensory characteristics. Results from the present work may provide information to help organic producers in the selection of the most promising cultivars for cultivation, taking into account consumers' and chefs' perceptions, as well as in the design of communication and marketing strategies. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Storage affects the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of cherries (Prunus avium L) on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    Four sweet cherry cultivars (cvs), Burlat, Saco, Summit and Van, were analysed at harvest and after storage at 2 and 15degreesC for 30 and 6 days respectively. Phenolic profiles in methanolic extracts of freeze-dried samples of the fresh and differently stored cherries were quantified by high...

  16. 78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay... the hazards associated with fireworks displays and aircraft involved in the National Cherry Festival... Festival fireworks display and air show. At the close of the comment period, no comments were received in...

  17. Factors affecting quality and health promoting compounds during growth and postharvest life of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Sofia; Schouten, Rob; Silva, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Berta

    2017-01-01

    Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport, and

  18. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    during cold storage (haze formation) is assumed to be due to protein–phenol interactions. Our results suggest that proteins play a decisive role in the formation of immediate turbidity in cherry juice, and point to that pectin may contribute to turbidity development during cold storage of cherry juice...

  19. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  20. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  1. Low dose irradiation of 'Rainer' sweet cherries as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.R.; Moffitt, H.R.; Eakin, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    'Rainier' cherries, with and without gibberellic acid treatment were subjected to radiation at dose levels of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 KGy and held for 14 and 21 days at 1C before removal from storage and quality determined. No variation in fruit or stem color, soluble solids, titratable acidity or sensory difference was noted at any of the radiation dose levels. There was 13% loss in-firmness due to radiatlon treatment between 0.4 and 1.0 KGy. Cherries that were treated with gibberellic acid were superior canidates for radiation treatment. 'Rainier' cherries can be irradiated as soon as quality parameters have reached acceptable levels for commercial harvest

  2. Red cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella) processed by pulsed electric field - Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine A G; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Pook, Chris; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Ying Leong, Sze; Lu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples. Stored samples also had increased cyanidin glucoside content. However, concentration of rutin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and isorhamnetin rutinoside significantly decreased in samples stored for 24h. In conclusion, sweet cherries were only influenced by storage after PEF processing. PEF processing did not affect the growth of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  4. Climate change and spring frost damages for sweet cherries in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Götz, Klaus-P.; Weber, Katharina C.; Moryson, Susanne

    2018-02-01

    Spring frost can be a limiting factor in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.) production. Rising temperatures in spring force the development of buds, whereby their vulnerability to freezing temperatures continuously increases. With the beginning of blossom, flowers can resist only light frosts without any significant damage. In this study, we investigated the risk of spring frost damages during cherry blossom for historical and future climate conditions at two different sites in NE (Berlin) and SW Germany (Geisenheim). Two phenological models, developed on the basis of phenological observations at the experimental sweet cherry orchard in Berlin-Dahlem and validated for endodormancy release and for warmer climate conditions (already published), were used to calculate the beginning of cherry blossom in Geisenheim, 1951-2015 (external model validation). Afterwards, on the basis of a statistical regionalisation model WETTREG (RCP 8.5), the frequency of frost during cherry blossom was calculated at both sites for historical (1971-2000) and future climate conditions (2011-2100). From these data, we derived the final flower damage, defined as the percentage of frozen flowers due to single or multiple frost events during blossom. The results showed that rising temperatures in this century can premature the beginning of cherry blossom up to 17 days at both sites, independent of the used phenological model. The frequency and strength of frost was characterised by a high temporal and local variability. For both sites, no significant increase in frost frequency and frost damage during blossom was found. In Geisenheim, frost damages significantly decreased from the middle of the twenty-first century. This study additionally emphasises the importance of reliable phenological models which not only work for current but also for changed climate conditions and at different sites. The date of endodormancy release should always be a known parameter in chilling/forcing models.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of Pru a 1, the major cherry allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, S; Metzner, K; Haustein, D; Vieths, S

    1997-06-01

    A high percentage of birch pollen allergic patients experiences food hypersensitivity reactions after ingestion of several fruits and vegetables. Previous work demonstrated common epitopes on an allergen of Mr 18,000 from sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and Bet v 1, the major allergen from birch pollen. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed a sequence identity of 67% with Bet v 1. Here we report the cloning and cDNA sequencing of this cherry allergen. The entire deduced amino acid sequence described a protein of Mr 17,700 with 59.1% identity to Bet v 1. High degrees of identity in the range of 40 to 60% were also found with related allergens from other kinds of tree pollen and plant foods as well as with stress-induced proteins from food plants such as parsley, potato and soya. The coding DNA of the cherry protein was cloned into vector pET-16b and expressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) as a His-tag fusion protein. As shown by SDS-PAGE, the apparent molecular masses of the nonfusion protein and the natural allergen were identical. The fusion protein showed high IgE binding potency when sera from patients allergic to cherry were tested by immunoblotting and enzyme allergosorbent tests. Moreover, it cross-reacted strongly with IgE specific for the natural counterpart and for Bet v 1. The high biological activity of the recombinant fusion protein was further confirmed by the induction of a strong histamine release in basophils from cherry-allergic patients. Since sera from 17/19 of such patients contained IgE against this allergen it was classified as a major allergen and named Pru a 1. Recombinant Pru a 1 mimics most of the allergenic potency of cherry extract and hence could be a useful tool for studying the molecular and immunological properties of pollen related food allergens.

  6. Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: A case study from Isparta province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, Vecdi; Ekinci, Kamil; Keener, Harold M.; Akbolat, Davut; Ekinci, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted using a face to face questionnaire with 92 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) producers from 10 villages in five districts of the Isparta province where there is intensive sweet cherry production. The data collected was analyzed for the energy and economics of sweet cherry production. The results showed that the most energy consuming input for the different operations investigated was chemical fertilisers (45.35%), especially nitrogen (38.05%). The energy consumption for Diesel fuel was 21.53% of the total energy input. Although chemicals for plant protection had a small portion (1.45%) of the total energy input, the use of pesticide in sweet cherry production per hectare in the Isparta province was 5.36 times higher than that of Turkey's average, increasing the environmental risk problem. The energy use efficiency, defined as energy produced per unit of energy used, was 1.23. The specific energy of sweet cherry production was determined to be 3163.43 MJ tonnes -1 . It was found that the direct and indirect energy inputs were 34.48% and 54.91% of the total energy input, respectively. Among the inputs, renewable energy sources constituted 16.34% of the total energy input, which was lower than that of the non-renewable resources (chemical fertilisers and Diesel fuel). The results showed that the net return from sweet cherry production in the surveyed farms was satisfactory, as demonstrated by the benefit-cost ratio of 2.53 calculated by dividing the gross value of production by the total cost of production per hectare

  7. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  8. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1 are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05 by the panelists.

  9. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  10. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  12. Preliminary Valuation of “Y” and “V”-Trellised Canopies for Mechanical Harvesting of Plums, Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries for the Fresh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plums, sweet cherry, and sour cherry trees were spaced 4.5 m × 1.5 m to be trained to “Y” and “V”-trellising systems for mechanical harvesting, with a canopy contact harvester, attending to obtain fruits meeting the requirements of the fresh fruit market. The applied trellising systems were compared with the standard central leader system at the same spacing. The most of trellised trees grew less vigorously than the standard trees, and after 3 years of training, the trees were suitable for mechanical harvesting with the harvester designed at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice. The trellised trees were able to set as many fruitlets as those grown in the form of central leader and gave a comparable yield, but differences between cultivars were significant. Light interception in the third year after planting was lower for trees of sour cherry and plum growing in the “Y”-20° and “V” in comparison to the trees with central leader. Illumination of trellised canopies at the level of 0.7 and 1.5 m was the most favorable in “V” system when compared to control and “Y” training systems. Cost of construction for the trellising systems of stone fruits calculated per 1 ha was two times higher when compared with the standard system.

  13. Hemangioma rubi no couro cabeludo Cherry hemangioma in the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma rubi (HR é dermatose de origem vascular extremamente freqüente, acometendo mais de 75% da população acima de 70 anos de idade. Em geral compõe-se de lesões múltiplas,localizadas predominantemente no alto do tronco e braços. Clinicamente é caracterizado por lesões que variam desde máculas puntiformes até lesões papulosas com cinco milímetros de diâmetro. As mais novas são vermelhas, em tons vivos, e as mais antigas podem ser azuladas. O HR é de etiologia desconhecida. Histologicamente chama atenção uma neoformação de vasos capilares, que se tornam dilatados e com fenestrações em suas paredes. A membrana basal está muito espessada e existe abundante estroma de colágeno entre os vasos. O presente trabalho demonstra a alta incidência do HR no couro cabeludo Em amostra de 171 pacientes, sendo 85 homens e 86 mulheres, o autor observou que 123 deles (72% tinham HR no couro cabeludo, localização em que o HR nunca foi descrito na literatura.Cherry hemangioma (CH is an extremely frequent dermatosis with vascular origin involving more than 75% of the population over 70 years of age. Normally they are multiplex spots and focus predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. Clinically they are characterized by pinpoint maculae and papules with up to 5 millimeters in diameter. The most recent lesions can be a strong red color while the older ones are bluish. The etiology of CH is still unknown. From the histologic standpoint, the neoformation of the capillary tube draws attention: they are very dilated and with fenestration along the wall. The basement membranes are thickened and there is abundant collagen stroma between the veins. This work demonstrates the high frequency of CH in the scalp. In a sample of 171 patients (85 men and 86 women the author noted that 123 (72% had CH in the scalp. However, according to the literature, CH in the scalp has never been described.

  14. Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting of black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    An improved protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an elite, mature black cherry genotype was developed. To increase transformation efficiency, vacuum infiltration, sonication, and a combination of the two treatments were applied during the cocultivation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105...

  15. The occurrence of PPV in cherry trees in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Fanigliulo, A.; Comes, S.; Petrzik, Karel; Karešová, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 657, - (2004), 237-244 ISSN 0567-7572 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) NAZV QD1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : Plum pox virus * Prunus avium * sweet cherry cultivars * ELISA * RT-PCR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady

    2017-02-01

    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  18. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  19. 75 FR 77564 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... As with other, similar marketing order programs, reports and forms are periodically studied to reduce... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0081... Percentages for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  20. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60 Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  2. Cherry Picking Robot Vision Recognition System Based on OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through OpenCV function, the cherry in a natural environment image after image preprocessing, color recognition, threshold segmentation, morphological filtering, edge detection, circle Hough transform, you can draw the cherry’s center and circular contour, to carry out the purpose of the machine picking. The system is simple and effective.

  3. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC, and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  4. Productive variability, border use and plot size in trials with cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Knowing the productive variability within protected environments is crucial for choosing the experimental design to be used in that conditions. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the variability of fruit production in protected environment cultivated with cherry tomatoes and to verify the border effect and plot size in reducing this variability. To this, data from an uniformity test carried out in a greenhouse with cherry tomato cv. ‘Lili’ were used. Total fresh mass of fruits per plant was considered being these plants arranged in cropping rows parallel to the lateral openings of the greenhouse and also the same plants arranged in columns perpendicular to these openings. To generate the borders, different scenarios were designed by excluding rows and columns and using different plot sizes. In each scenario, homogeneity of variances among the remaining rows and columns was tested. There is no variability of fruit production among rows or columns in trials with cherry tomatoes carried out in greenhouses and the use of border does not bring benefits in terms of reduction of coefficient of variation or reduction of cases of variance heterogeneity among rows or columns. Plots with a size equal to or greater than two plants make possible to use the completely randomized design in the cherry tomato trials in greenhouses.

  5. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  6. Influence of Post-Harvest Ripening on the Levels of Selected Compounds in Various Cherry Cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goliáš, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kožíšková, J.; Kotas, Petr; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 36 (2018) ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : neochlorogenic acid * organic acids * p-coumaroylquinic acid * rutin * storage * sugars * sweet cherries Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2016

  7. Authentication of "Cereza del Jerte" sweet cherry varieties by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradilla, Manuel J; Martín, Alberto; Aranda, Emilio; Hernández, Alejandro; Benito, María J; Lopez-Corrales, Margarita; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure based on protein analysis by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) that can be used as an alternative to other methods in the determination of sweet cherry varieties for the authentication of "Cereza del Jerte". Two autochthonous varieties of sweet cherry type "Picota", 'Ambrunés' and 'Pico Negro', and the foreign variety 'Sweetheart' were used in the study. Two protocols for extracting the methanol-soluble proteins were tested. On the basis of the results, direct evaporation with nitrogen of a methanol extract was included in the extraction protocol for routine analysis. This method was found to give excellent repeatability of the corrected migration time (CMT), and showed greater effectiveness in discriminating sweet cherry varieties than the SDS-PAGE technique. Three peaks found in the FZCE electropherograms were investigated as a basis for discriminating between varieties. In addition, the FZCE analysis of methanol-soluble proteins provides information about the physico-chemical parameters relevant to the sensorial quality of the sweet cherries. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... producer returns by providing pack differentiation; and benefit producers, handlers, and consumers. DATES... producer returns by providing pack differentiation, and is expected to benefit producers, handlers, and..., and container regulations for any variety or varieties of cherries grown in the production area...

  9. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  10. A method for assessing frost damage risk in sweet cherry orchards of South Patagonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of frost damage risk is important in planning the development of new orchard areas and for decision-making on design and installation of frost control systems. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive method to quantify frost damage risk in different sweet cherry

  11. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  12. Cryopreservation of dormant vegetative buds of tart and sweet cherry in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field collections of clonally propagated fruit crops such as tart and sweet cherry are vulnerable to damage by pests, diseases and environmental stresses and are expensive to maintain. There is a need in Kazakhstan to create backup collections of plants to guarantee germplasm preservation. Cryoprese...

  13. 75 FR 46901 - Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... misspelling in a footnote. The issues raised by the remaining commenters are discussed below. One commenter... Turkey and Iran at an economic disadvantage in the world cherry market. The treatments discussed in the... pest-free areas for that pest. Because the cooler climate and geographical isolation of Tasmania...

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  15. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  16. Sensitivity of promising cherry hybrids and new cultivars to economically important fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasileva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a result of years of developing the breeding programme for creating novel sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute (FGI, Plovdiv, a reach hybrid fund from first and second hybrid generation is created. Of the selected and propagated hybrids at a more advanced stage of testing are 11 hybrids along with three new cultivars of the FGI Plovdiv ('Kossara', 'Rosalina' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' grafted on three rootstocks were tested for sensitivity to causers of economically important fungal diseases in sweet cherry - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm Arx, shothole blight (Stigmina carpophila (Lev. Ellis and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena (G. Wint Honey. The degree of infestation under field conditions is reported by determining the index of attack on leaves and fruit, using the formula of McKinney. As the most sensitive elites are outlined elite El.17-31 (to cherry leaf spot and elite El.17-136 (to shothole blight. The cultivars 'Kossara' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' exhibit an average resistance to the three diseases, as the values for the index of infestation are lower or similar to those of standard cultivars 'Van' and 'Bing', while 'Rosalina' demonstrated sensitivity to shothole blight and brown rot. Interesting is the elite El.17- 37 demonstrating the least infestation of Blumeriella jaapii - 7.33% and Monilinia fructigena - 6.67%. The same has a set of valuable qualities as late maturing date and very large fruits with excellent sensory profile, making it a potential candidate cultivar.

  17. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid

  18. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature policy makers.

  19. Ozone exposure, uptake, and response of different-sized black cherry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd S. Frederickson; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; Thomas E. Kolb

    1996-01-01

    Differences in exposure, uptake and relative sensitivity to ozone between seedling, sapling, and canopy black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were characterized during two growing seasons in north central Pennsylvania. Open-grown trees of all sizes received a similar amount of ozone exposure. Seedlings had greater foliar ozone injury, expressed...

  20. Identification and characterization of a new member of the genus Luteovirus from cherry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenz, Ondřej; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Fránová, Jana; Koloniuk, Igor; Špak, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 2 (2017), s. 587-590 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14004 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cherry trees * Luteovirus * new virus * ChALV Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  1. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  2. Stage-specific fluorescence intensity of GFP and mCherry during sporulation In Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kirra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent proteins are powerful molecular biology tools that have been used to study the subcellular dynamics of proteins within live cells for well over a decade. Two fluorescent proteins commonly used to enable dual protein labelling are GFP (green and mCherry (red. Sporulation in the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has been studied for many years as a paradigm for understanding the molecular basis for differential gene expression. As sporulation initiates, cells undergo an asymmetric division leading to differential gene expression in the small prespore and large mother cell compartments. Use of two fluorescent protein reporters permits time resolved examination of differential gene expression either in the same compartments or between compartments. Due to the spectral properties of GFP and mCherry, they are considered an ideal combination for co-localisation and co-expression experiments. They can also be used in combination with fluorescent DNA stains such as DAPI to correlate protein localisation patterns with the developmental stage of sporulation which can be linked to well characterised changes in DNA staining patterns. Findings While observing the recruitment of the transcription machinery into the forespore of sporulating Bacillus subtilis, we noticed the occurrence of stage-specific fluorescence intensity differences between GFP and mCherry. During vegetative growth and the initial stages of sporulation, fluorescence from both GFP and mCherry fusions behaved similarly. During stage II-III of sporulation we found that mCherry fluorescence was considerably diminished, whilst GFP signals remained clearly visible. This fluorescence pattern reversed during the final stage of sporulation with strong mCherry and low GFP fluorescence. These trends were observed in reciprocal tagging experiments indicating a direct effect of sporulation on fluorescent protein fluorophores. Conclusions Great care should be taken

  3. Cornelian Cherry Germplasm Resource and Physicochemical Characterization of Its Fruit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hassanpour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cornus is a very large genus which comprises 40 species of shrubs and trees native to Central and Southern Europe and parts of Western Asia. Many species are grown as ornamentals. Only a few species are grown for their fruits, chief among which is the cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.. Study on the nutritional value of the cornelian cherry has focused on nutrients which play a role in preventing diseases such as scurvy. Fresh cornelian cherry fruits contain twice as much vitamin C as oranges. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and physicochemical properties of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. fruits in Iran. Materials and Methods: Distribution of cornelian cherry was traced on the map according to the visitation of the different provinces. In order to study the characteristics of the fruit, samples were taken from five different areas and various parameters were evaluated. Fruit and seed weight (g were measured by a digital balance with a sensitivity of 0.001 g (Scaltec Company, Gottingen, Germany; model SPB31. Fruit length (mm, fruit diameter (mm, seed diameter (mm and seed length (mm were measured using a digital vernier caliper with a sensitivity of 0.01 mm. TSS was determined by refrectometry of one drop extracted juice of each fruit at 25°C (Kyoto Electronics Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Japan, and Model RA-250HE. TA was determined by titration and the pH value was indicated by pH meter (HBJ-260. In addition, total ascorbic acid content was determined by the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH method. Data were subjected to calculate of descriptive statistics by SPPSS and means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test at p

  4. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  5. The determination of antioxidant activity of Brazil-cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves extract using FRAP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Maulida, Ika Rahma; Muhaimin

    2017-12-01

    Brazil-cherry leaves (Eugenia uniflora L.) have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic and flavonoids compounds. The aim of the study was to obtain antioxidant activity using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method. Brazil-cherry leaves were extracted using soxhlet method by ethanol 70%. The free radical activity absorbance was measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 711 nm and the total value of antioxidant activity was calculated based on the data absorbance. The results showed that Brazil-cherry leaves have the antioxidant activity with the value 2.493mgAAE/g extract.

  6. Viability of probiotic bacteria and some chemical and sensory characteristics in cornelian cherry juice during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Nematollahi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that low pH and presence of inhibitor phenolic compounds of cornelian cherry juice have negative effect on viability of probiotics, especially industrial strains during refrigerated storage.

  7. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... combinations. Gelatin-silica sol consistently had the best effect on juice clarity. Centrifugation of cherry juice (10000g for 15 min) prior to clarification treatment significantly improved juice clarity and diminished the rate of haze formation during cold storage of juice. Both treatment of precentrifuged...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  8. Physicochemical properties, firmness, and nanostructures of sodium carbonate-soluble pectin of 2 Chinese cherry cultivars at 2 ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifen; Chen, Fusheng; An, Hongjie; Yang, Hongshun; Sun, Xiaoyang; Guo, Xingfeng; Li, Lite

    2008-08-01

    Firmness and physicochemical properties of 2 Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus L.) cultivars (soft cultivar "Caode" and crisp cultivar "Bende") at unripe and ripe stages were investigated, and the qualitative and quantitative information about sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (SSP) nanostructures was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lengths and widths of the cherry SSPs are very regular: almost all of the widths and lengths of SSP single molecules are composed of several basic units. The widths of the SSP chains are 37, 47, 55, and 61 nm, and the lengths are 123, 202, and 380 nm in both cultivars. The results show that the firmer cherry groups (crisp fruit) contain more percentages of wide and short SSP chains than soft fruit, and the unripe groups contain more percentages of wide and long SSP chains than corresponding ripe groups. They indicate that those nanostructural characteristics of SSP are closely related with firmness of the Chinese cherries in each cultivar.

  9. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  10. In vivo and in vitro production of some genotypes of cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato is a variety that is poorly present at Macedonian fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, while having different shapes and colors, and it is used mainly for fresh consumption. The features of this variety are portrayed its sweetness and aroma, which further enriche the ta...

  11. Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Vavoura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars in order of increasing amounts of volatiles were: Lapins < Canada giant < Ferrovia < Skeena. Physicochemical parameters determined included: titratable acidity (TA, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, maturity index (MI and total phenolic content (TPC. TA ranged between 0.21 and 0.28 g malic acid/100 g fresh weight (FW. The pH ranged between 3.81 and 3.96. TSS ranged between 13.00 and 16.00 °Brix. MI ranged between 51.8 and 75.0. TPC ranged between 95.14 and 170.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. Sensory evaluation showed that cherry colour, in order of increasing intensity, was: Canada giant < Ferrovia < Lapins < Skeena. Respective order for cherry firmness was: Canada giant < Lapins ≤ Ferrovia < Skeena and for flavour: Lapins < Canada giant < Skeena ≤ Ferrovia. Correlation of volatiles to physicochemical and sensory attributes showed varying trends.

  12. Microbial diversity in pitted sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) as affected by High-Hydrostatic Pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Sweet cherries are a highly appreciated seasonal fruit rich in anthocyanins. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of High-Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) processing on the microbiological quality and bacterial biodiversity of sweet cherries. Pitted cherries inoculated with their own epiphyte microbiota to simulate a worst-case scenario of contamination during preparation and processing were treated or not by HHP (600MPa, 8min) and stored at 4°C for 60days. HHP treatment reduced total viable counts by 4.65 log cycles. The surviving bacterial fraction did not increase significantly (phigh-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Proteobacteria had highest relative abundance (88.70%) in the spiked cherries followed by Firmicutes (11.04%). Gluconobacter and Enterobacteriaceae together with Leuconostoc were the most abundant Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Upon application of HHP treatment, 97.62% of OTUs from the surviving fraction belonged to Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae also decreased markedly while Acetobacteraceae (represented mainly by Gluconobacter) increased to 89.18%. Gluconobacter dominated during storage. Results from the present study provide insights on the microbiota of sweet cherries and the dynamics of the bacterial populations surviving HHP treatments that may be useful to improve the non-thermal preservation of cherries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  14. Results of isotopic investigations of nitrogen nutrition of apples and cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makariev, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of 15 N study of absorption and dislocation of nitrogen fertilization in apple and cherry plantations and field trials localized nitrogen fertilization of apple plantations. It is found that there is a good functional relation between the individual roots and all skeletal branches of the crown. The apple- and cherry trees can satisfy their nitrogen needs by a part of their root system and hence the introduction of nitrogen into the whole nutrition area is not absolutely necessary. The localized nitrogen fertilization in every other row or only in the row band of apple plantations increases its biological, economic and ecological efficiency. The method is patented. 2 tabs, 7 figs, 5 refs

  15. Obtaining cherry and apple tree radiomutants by irradiation of grafts in gamma cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvojka, L.; Fridrich, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain dwarf mutants of cherry and apple trees. Two methods of irradiation were used: a) winter grafts were irradiated with 60 Co (4-5 kR) and grafted in the crowns of adult trees or of two-year-old rootstocks; b) summer buds on mature annual shots were irradiated with 2-3 kR and grafted on two-year-old rootstocks. Thus the clones of dwarf cherry trees (cv. Napoleon's and Techlovicka) were obtained which were further tested for fruit-bearing in experimental plantations. Colour mutants of apple tree (cv. Champion) with yellow and red fruits were also obtained as well as dwarf types of trees. (author)

  16. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  17. Cherry Creek North Improvements and Fillmore Plaza Landscape Performance Benefits Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    The 16-block Cherry Creek North retail district was designed to be Denver's premier outdoor shopping area. Yet deteriorating infrastructure, tired aesthetics and competition from an adjacent indoor mall had led to steady decline. Fillmore Plaza in the heart of the district was no longer a desirable public space since being closed to vehicular traffic in 1987. The new streetscape strengthens the retail environment, preserves the district's history and character, improves identity, beautifies t...

  18. contents of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) type grown in Konya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, several physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of one earliest (May 19) sweet cherry type grown in Konya region were determined. The results in terms of chemical properties were total soluble solids, 18.33 mg/100 g; pH, 3.86; color, S41P50E41; texture, 0.25 kg/cm2; and juice yield, 66.28%.

  19. Thinning cherry-maple stands in West Virginia: 5-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1988-01-01

    In northern West Virginia, 60-year-old cherry-maple stands were thinned to 75,60, and 45 percent relative stand density. Analysis of 5-year growth data showed that basal-area growth was not reduced by thinning. Cubic-foot and board-foot volume growth decreased slightly. Individual-tree growth of all trees, dominant/codominant trees, and the 50 largest diameter trees...

  20. Microclonal Multiplication of wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from Shoot Tips and Root Sucker Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different combinations and concentrations of the growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N6- (2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on axillary shoot multiplication rates for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) shoot explants were determined. Apical shoot tips and axillary buds from juvenile trees (5-year old) and from root suckers of mature trees (55-year old) were us...

  1. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  2. Evaluation of kiln-drying schedules for wild cherry wood (Cerasus avium)

    OpenAIRE

    Korkut, Süleyman; Ünsal, Öner; Kocaefe, Duygu; Aytin, Ayhan; Gökyar, Asli

    2013-01-01

    Wild cherry wood (Cerasus avium (L.) Monench) lumber with a nominal thickness of 5 cm from Duzce region in Turkey was dried through conventional kiln drying using two different programs which are unprotective drying schedules, and protective drying schedules. The aim was to obtain the most desirable kiln schedule for keeping the wood quality at an appropriate level up to final moisture content of 12±2% was reached. Intensity of warping (twist, bow, cup, crook) occurrence, superficial, interna...

  3. Self fertile and exportable sweet cherry cultivar improvement by mutation and cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, sweet cherry production reached at 195,000 tons in the last two years. This value is 13% of the world production. Globally USA was the largest exporter of cherries in 2004, accounting for 21,2 % of world trade, just ahead of Turkey, which accounted for 20,07 % [3]. The major high quality and exporting sweet cherry variety is 0900 Ziraat. It is a mid to late season variety with heart fruit shape, pink and very firm flesh and excellent flavor. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar. In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock in greenhouse, located on Ministry of Agriculture, Yalova Atatuerk Horticultural Central Research Institute. At the end of the first year young trees were transferred from greenhouse to orchard. According to 60 days data 'efficient mutation dose' was calculated . After first year which was including physiological effects, trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). Among the 371 living mutant trees, nominee of dwarf, large fruits (>30 mm) and high yield types were observed. According to the data's 58 mutant variety candidate were selected for advance observations. (Includes 63 tables, 29 figures)

  4. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): A review

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad G. Jamkhande; Sonal R. Barde; Shailesh L. Patwekar; Priti S. Tidke

    2013-01-01

    More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and an...

  5. Cultivation of cherry tomato under irrigation with saline water and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianne G. S. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was carried out from August 2013 to January 2014 to evaluate growth and production of cherry tomato cultivated under irrigation with water of different salinity levels and fertilized with different nitrogen (N doses, in experiment conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The statistical design was randomized blocks in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of water (0.3, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (60, 100, 140 and 180 mg kg-1. Growth and production variables of cherry tomato decrease linearly from the irrigation water salinity of 0.3 dS m-1 on. The longer exposure of plants to salt stress caused the highest reductions, and the root dry matter, leaf area and the number of clusters are the most sensitive variables. The highest value of plant height at 125 days after transplantation was obtained with the N dose of 139 mg kg-1 of soil. Increasing N doses reduced the effect of salinity on cherry tomato growth at 125 days after transplantation.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs

  8. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

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    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  10. Chemical and functional properties of cell wall polymers from two cherry varieties at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; de Escalada Plá, Marina F; Stortz, Carlos A; Rojas, Ana M

    2013-01-30

    The cell wall polysaccharides of Regina and Sunburst cherry varieties at two developmental stages were extracted sequentially, and their changes in monosaccharide composition and functional properties were studied. The loosely-attached pectins presented a lower d-galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratio than ionically-bound pectins, as well as lower thickening effects of their respective 2% aqueous solution: the lowest Newtonian viscosity and shear rate dependence during the pseudoplastic phase. The main constituents of the cell wall matrix were covalently bound pectins (probably through diferulate cross-linkings), with long arabinan side chains at the RG-I cores. This pectin domain was also anchored into the XG-cellulose elastic network. Ripening occurred with a decrease in the proportion of HGs, water extractable GGM and xylogalacturonan, and with a concomitant increase in neutral sugars. Ripening was also associated with higher viscosities and thickening effects, and to larger distribution of molecular weights. The highest firmness and compactness of Regina cherry may be associated with its higher proportion of calcium-bound HGs localized in the middle lamellae of cell walls, as well as to some higher molar proportion of NS (Rha and Ara) in covalently bound pectins. These pectins showed significantly better hydration properties than hemicellulose and cellulose network. Chemical composition and functional properties of cell wall polymers were dependent on cherry variety and ripening stage, and helped explain the contrasting firmness of Regina and Sunburst varieties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PaCYP78A9, a Cytochrome P450, Regulates Fruit Size in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Xiliang Qi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an important fruit crop in which fruit size is strongly associated with commercial value; few genes associated with fruit size have, however, been identified in sweet cherry. Members of the CYP78A subfamily, a group of important cytochrome P450s, have been found to be involved in controlling seed size and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, and tomato. However, the influence of CYP78A members in controlling organ size and the underlying molecular mechanisms in sweet cherry and other fruit trees remains unclear. Here, we characterized a P. avium CYP78A gene PaCYP78A9 that is thought to be involved in the regulation of fruit size and organ development using overexpression and silencing approaches. PaCYP78A9 was significantly expressed in the flowers and fruit of sweet cherry. RNAi silencing of PaCYP78A9 produced small cherry fruits and PaCYP78A9 was found to affect fruit size by mediating mesocarp cell proliferation and expansion during fruit growth and development. Overexpression of PaCYP78A9 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased silique and seed size and PaCYP78A9 was found to be highly expressed in the inflorescences and siliques of transgenic plants. Genes related to cell cycling and proliferation were downregulated in fruit from sweet cherry TRV::PaCYP78A9-silencing lines, suggesting that PaCYP78A9 is likely to be an important upstream regulator of cell cycle processes. Together, our findings indicate that PaCYP78A9 plays an essential role in the regulation of cherry fruit size and provide insights into the molecular basis of the mechanisms regulating traits such as fruit size in P. avium.

  12. Systemic Inflammatory Load in Young and Old Ringdoves Is Modulated by Consumption of a Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jonathan; Terrón, María del Pilar; Garrido, María; Barriga, Carmen; Paredes, Sergio Damián; Espino, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A chronic subclinical inflammatory status that coexists with immune dysfunction is commonly found in the elderly population. Consumption of foods rich in antioxidants (e.g., cherries) is an attractive strategy to reduce risk from chronic diseases. Based on previous studies showing the antioxidant effect of a Jerte Valley cherry derivative product in humans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intake of a Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage on inflammatory load in both young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). To this purpose, circulating levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as serum levels of different acute-phase proteins were measured before and after a 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage. Thus, the 10-day treatment with the cherry-based beverage modulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both young and old ringdoves by down-regulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ) and up-regulating the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-2, and IL-10). Moreover, the 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based product reduced the levels of several proteins involved in acute-phase responses, such as C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin, and serum amyloid P component. On the other hand, old birds showed imbalanced levels of inflammatory markers toward a pro-inflammatory status, thereby underlining the fact that aging is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and inflammation-related chronic diseases. To sum up, the data suggest a potential health benefit by consuming the cherry-based beverage, especially in aged populations, through their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:22846077

  13. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  14. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  15. Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Karen; Au, Kimberlee; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. 'Bluecrop' blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Sweetheart' cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11-14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf-life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g(-1) reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Maize histone H2B-mCherry: a new fluorescent chromatin marker for somatic and meiotic chromosome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Elizabeth S; Clemente, Thomas E; Bass, Hank W

    2012-06-01

    Cytological studies of fluorescent proteins are rapidly yielding insights into chromatin structure and dynamics. Here we describe the production and cytological characterization of new transgenic maize lines expressing a fluorescent histone fusion protein, H2B-mCherry. The transgene is expressed under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter, including its first exon and intron. Polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping and root-tip microscopy showed that most of the lines carrying the transgene also expressed it, producing bright uniform staining of nuclei. Further, plants showing expression in root tips at the seedling stage also showed expression during meiosis, late in the life cycle. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells and nuclei from various somatic and meiotic cell types showed that H2B-mCherry produced remarkably clear images of chromatin and chromosome fiber morphology, as seen in somatic, male meiotic prophase, and early microgametophyte cells. H2B-mCherry also yielded distinct nucleolus staining and was shown to be compatible with fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found several instances where H2B-mCherry was superior to DAPI as a generalized chromatin stain. Our study establishes these histone H2B-mCherry lines as new biological reagents for visualizing chromatin structure, chromosome morphology, and nuclear dynamics in fixed and living cells in a model plant genetic system.

  17. Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Fruits of Different Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Spontaneous Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia-Constantina CORNESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out on six local cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes, grown in Turceni town (Gorj county and Baita village (Hunedoara county, in Romania. Several morphological and biochemical characteristics of cultivars were determined. Fruit weight and fruit flesh ratio of the analyzed genotypes ranged from 1.33 to 2.31 g and 61.53 to 78.58% respectively. Soluble solid contents were determined, the lowest noted as 10% and the highest as 25.5%. Results have shown that there was a high diversity in cornelian cherry populations within different ecological areas. Differences were exhibited in terms of fruit size and biochemical characteristics. The results of the study are useful for attempting to select superior genotypes of cornelian cherry for culture.

  18. Cross-amplified microsatellites in the European cherry fly, Rhagoletis cerasi: medium polymorphic-highly informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, A A; Asimakopoulou, A K; Papadopoulos, N T; Bourtzis, K

    2011-02-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its big economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of its natural populations. Knowledge about an insect pest on molecular, genetic and population levels facilitates the development of environmentally friendly control methods. In this study, we present the development of 13 microsatellite markers for R. cerasi, through cross-species amplification. These markers have been used for the genotyping of 130 individuals from five different sampling sites in Greece. Our results indicate that (i) cross-species amplification is a versatile and rapid tool for developing microsatellite markers in Rhagoletis spp., (ii) the microsatellite markers presented here constitute an important tool for population studies on this pest, and (iii) there is clear structuring of natural European cherry fly populations.

  19. [Health effects of sour cherries with unique polyphenolic composition in their fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Stefanovitsné Bányai, Éva

    2018-05-01

    Health effects of fruit consumption are confirmed by many studies. Such effects are attributed to the polyphenolic compounds accumulating in fruit skin and mesocarp tissues. They contribute to the regulation on transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. Since people consume much less fruits than the recommended quantities, a new approach includes the promotion of super fruits that are extremely rich sources of specific health compounds. A comparative analysis of Hungarian stone fruit cultivars detected a huge variability in fruit in vitro antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content. Two outstanding sour cherry cultivars ('Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal') were identified to accumulate elevated levels of polyphenolic compounds in their fruits. Sour cherries with different polyphenolic compositions were tested against alimentary induced hyperlipidemia using male Wistar rat model. Consumption of cherry fruit had different consequences for different cultivars: consumption of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits resulted in 30% lower total cholesterol levels in the sera of hyperlipidemic animals after only 10 days of treatment. However, the consumption of 'Újfehértói fürtös' fruit has not induced significant alterations in the same parameter. Other lipid parameters also reflected the short-term beneficial effects of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits. We suggest that not only some tropical and berry fruits might be considered as super fruits but certain genotypes of stone fruits as well. These have indeed marked physiological effects. Since 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' are rich sources of colourless polyphenolics (e.g., phenolic acids and isoflavonoids) and anthocyanins, respectively, the protective effects associated with their consumption can be attributed to different polyphenolic compounds. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(18): 720-725.

  20. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  1. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Szalóki-Dorkó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3, were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L. The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18 %, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19 % were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2 of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production.

  2. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

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    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  3. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Ning eLi; Chuanwei eLv; Ruichao eYue; Ying eShi; Sidang eLiu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi) and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed...

  4. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks sho...

  5. Mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZOUBEL Patricia Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato as influenced by osmotic agent (sodium chloride and a mixed sodium chloride and sucrose solutions and solution concentration (10 and 25% w/w at room temperature (25°C was studied. Kinetics of water loss and solids uptake were determined by a two parameter model, based on Fick's second law and applied to spherical geometry. The water apparent diffusivity coefficients obtained ranged from 2.17x10-10 to 11.69x10-10 m²/s.

  6. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  7. 'Cherry red spot' in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de; Ramos, Régia Maria Gondim; Pereira, Felipe Bezerra Alves; Bezerra, Andreya Ferreira Rodrigues; Fernandes, Daniel Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, caused by enzyme hexosaminidase A deficiency that leads to an accumulation of GM2 in neurocytes which results in progressive loss of neurological function. The accumulation of lipid in retinal ganglion cells that leads to a chalk-white appearance of the fundus called 'cherry red spot' is the hallmark of Tay-Sachs disease. It is also seen in others neurometabolic diseases as well as in central retinal artery occlusion. This case reports a child with Tay-Sachs disease in a family with four previous similar deaths without diagnostic.

  8. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Klagges

    Full Text Available Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L, high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1 plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8. These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family.

  9. Polyfloral, linden and acacia honeys with dried cherries after three months of storage - antioxidant and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Jelena J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of three types of honey: polyfloral (PH, linden (LH and acacia (AH, without and with addition of dried cherries (40% were analyzed before and after three months of storage. The total phenol (TPh, flavonoid (TFd and anthocyanin (TAn contents, antioxidant activities and sensory properties of honeys with and without the addition of dry cherries were evaluated. TPh and TFd increased with addition of dried cherries to the honey, while enriched honeys showed high TAn. The LH sample with dried cherries showed the highest anthocyanins content (41.41mgCGE/100g. The antioxidant activity increased with addition of dried cherries in honey in the DPPH• test and reducing power. The PH and enriched PH exibited the best antiradical activity compared to LH and AH. The EC50 DPPH values were: 23.81 for PH and 24.19 mg/mL for PH, while the EC50 DPPH were: 1.16 mg/mL for PH40 and 1.18 mg/mL for PH40s. RP0.5 values were: 57.00 mg/mL for PH40 and 56.00 mg/ml for PH40s, while RP0.5 were: 15.05 mg/mL for PH40 and 15.18 mg/mL for PH40s. The statistical analysis showed that TPh, TFd and TAn, and antioxidant activity of honeys and enriched honeys showed significant correlation. Sensory analysis of honey with dried cherries, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory characteristics.

  10. Vegetative and seedling regeneration of pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica): Efficacy of herbicide treatment. NODA note No. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, A U; Bell, F W; Peterson, G W

    1996-11-01

    Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) is a major competing plant commonly found in young conifer plantations in both boreal and northern hardwood forests. This note describes and presents results of a study conducted to determine, for pin cherry, the ratio of the current year`s seedling recruitment versus the previous year`s stem density; seed production; the soil seed bank; and the efficacy of a glyphosate herbicide treatment to control this competitor. The study was carried out in a seven-year-old jack pine plantation north of Atikokan, Ontario.

  11. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  12. Treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (cherry stillage) by integrated aerobic biological oxidation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, F J; Alvarez, P M; Rodríguez, E M; García-Araya, J F; Rivas, J

    2001-01-01

    The performance of integrated aerobic digestion and ozonation for the treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (i.e., cherry stillage) is reported. Experiments were conducted in laboratory batch systems operating in draw and fill mode. For the biological step, activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was used as inoculum, showing a high degree of activity to distillery wastewater. Thus, BOD and COD overall conversions of 95% and 82% were achieved, respectively. However, polyphenol content and absorbance at 254 nm (A(254)) could not be reduced more than 35% and 15%, respectively, by means of single biological oxidation. By considering COD as substrate, the aerobic digestion process followed a Contois' model kinetics, from which the maximum specific growth rate of microorganisms (mu(max)) and the inhibition factor, beta, were then evaluated at different conditions of temperature and pH. In the combined process, the effect of a post-ozonation stage was studied. The main goals achieved by the ozonation step were the removal of polyphenols and A(254). Therefore, ozonation was shown to be an appropriate technology to aid aerobic biological oxidation in the treatment of cherry stillage.

  13. Identification of key molecular components of the resistance of cherry tomato against Phytophthora infestans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Kleine, Liliana; Smart, Christine D; Fry, William E; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme CV matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, us 940480 and us 970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. Us 970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato CDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato CDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all-time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR) genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINST Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt’s wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  15. PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE CHERRY TOMATO GENOTYPE GROUP BEFORE INFECTION BY Alternaria tomatophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO CESAR RODRIGUES MOREIRA CATÃO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight (caused by Alternaria tomatophila is a major disease of tomato with no resistant cultivars. Thus, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and productive genotypes for the development of new cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the productive potential of cherry tomato genotypes grown in the summer / fall, the severity of early blight on leaves and the incidence of disease in fruits. The treatments consisted of Carolina tomato genotypes, Cereja Vermelho, CH 152 and CLN1561A. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six replications, and the experimental plot had 16 plants. The following characteristics were evaluated: area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, average number of microinjuries on the fruits (MF, average number of fruits per bunch (NFC, average number of bunches per plant (NCP, average number of fruits per plant (NFP, average yield, number of fruits with incidence of early blight per plant (NFI and the severity of early blight in leaves (%. The cherry tomato genotype CH152 showed tolerance to early blight with a smaller area under the disease progress curve, lower severity and fruits with incidence of A. tomatophila were not observed in this genotype. The CH152 had the highest number of fruits per bunch, greater number of bunches per plant, higher number of fruits per plant and higher productivity. This line has great potential of being integrated into breeding programs.

  16. Sample size for estimation of the Pearson correlation coefficient in cherry tomato tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the required sample size for estimation of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between cherry tomato variables. Two uniformity tests were set up in a protected environment in the spring/summer of 2014. The observed variables in each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits, and total weight of fruits, with calculation of the Pearson correlation matrix between them. Sixty eight sample sizes were planned for one greenhouse and 48 for another, with the initial sample size of 10 plants, and the others were obtained by adding five plants. For each planned sample size, 3000 estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient were obtained through bootstrap re-samplings with replacement. The sample size for each correlation coefficient was determined when the 95% confidence interval amplitude value was less than or equal to 0.4. Obtaining estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient with high precision is difficult for parameters with a weak linear relation. Accordingly, a larger sample size is necessary to estimate them. Linear relations involving variables dealing with size and number of fruits per plant have less precision. To estimate the coefficient of correlation between productivity variables of cherry tomato, with a confidence interval of 95% equal to 0.4, it is necessary to sample 275 plants in a 250m² greenhouse, and 200 plants in a 200m² greenhouse.

  17. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Taking a Second Bite at the Appeal Cherry: Molaudzi v S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrich W Jordaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The principle of res judicata is well-established in our law: essentially it means that parties to a dispute have only one metaphorical "bite at the cherry". The "bite" can entail appealing through the hierarchy of courts, but once the parties have exhausted their appeals, they cannot re-litigate the same dispute. However, in the recent case of Molaudzi v S 2015 2 SACR 341 (CC the appellant attempted to appeal to the Constitutional Court twice: the first time the application for leave to appeal was dismissed; the second time the application was granted and the appeal upheld. The appellant got a second "bite at the cherry". In Molaudzi v S the Constitutional Court developed the common law by creating an interest-of-justice exception to the principle of res judicata and – for the first time in the Constitutional Court's history – overturned one of its own judgements. In this case note I present the background of the case of Molaudzi v S, analyse the judgement, and differentiate it from another Constitutional Court case that dealt with res judicata, namely Mpofu v Minister for Justice and Constitutional Development 2013 2 SACR 407 (CC.

  19. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of food packaging methylcellulose films containing stem extract of Ginja cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Débora; Piccirillo, Clara; Pullar, Robert C; Castro, Paula Ml; Pintado, Maria M E

    2014-08-01

    Food contamination and spoilage is a problem causing growing concern. To avoid it, the use of food packaging with appropriate characteristics is essential; ideally, the packaging should protect food from external contamination and exhibit antibacterial properties. With this aim, methylcellulose (MC) films containing natural extracts from the stems of Ginja cherry, an agricultural by-product, were developed and characterized. The antibacterial activity of films was screened by the disc diffusion method and quantified using the viable cell count assay. The films inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains (Listeria innocua, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli). For the films with lower extract content, effectiveness against the microorganisms depended on the inoculum concentration. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that those containing the extracts had a smooth and continuous structure. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that these materials do not transmit light in the UV. This study shows that MC films containing agricultural by-products, in this case Ginja cherry stem extract, could be used to prevent food contamination by relevant bacterial strains and degradation by UV light. Using such materials in food packaging, the shelf life of food products could be extended while utilizing an otherwise wasted by-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Prevention of Chilling Injury of Cherry Tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. Messina(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanifeh seyed hajizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables play a major role in providing vitamins and minerals that are essential in the metabolism. In addition to providing vitamins and minerals compounds, they are called secondary metabolites. Tomatoes are one of the most vegetables in diets of people around the world. Low temperature stress associated with the production of reactive oxygen species causing damage can occur before or after harvest, farm, transportation, storage and marketing. Today, a greater emphasis is placed on post-harvest storage of agricultural products to increase productivity and make better use of labor resources, worker, energy and money, rather than an increase in production. One of the most promising treatments is the use of salicylic acid for prevention of the frost damage of post-harvest fruits and vegetables with different mechanisms such as increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system activity. Salicylic acid is known as a signal molecule in the induction defense mechanisms in plants. SA is a well-known phenol that can prevent ACO activity that is the direct precursor of ethylene and decreases Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS with increasing enzyme antioxidant activity. Salicylic acid is a natural phenolic compound known as a plant hormone having positive effect on storage life and quality of fruits. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre- and post-harvest application of salicylic acid on antioxidant properties and quality of tomato and its effect was evaluated on prevention of chilling injury of cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Material and Methods: This research was conducted in a greenhouse of Horticulture Department of University of Maragheh. Treatments were included before harvest at fruit set stage with the control (distilled water and 0.75 mM salicylic acid spraying and after harvest, red ripened fruits were used for treatments control and immersion in 0.75 mM salicylic acid. Then all the treated fruits

  1. PERSPECTIVE SWEET CHERRY CULTIVARS SELECTED BY SIDORENKO INSTITUTE OF IRRIGATED HORTICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgova S.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We presented the study of varieties of sweet cherries during 2004-2011 in the southern steppes of Ukraine. Objects of research were the famous breeding varieties that are listed in the National Plant Register of Ukraine together with perspective varieties. We have identified varieties with high resistance to frost generative buds. We have identified resistant and highly resistant varieties for resistance to the flowers of spring frosts. We have also identified the class for complex resistance to fungal diseases of stone fruit. We also identified a variety with very high yield. We have selected varieties in taste and product quality. We have selected several varieties of the complex agronomic traits, some of which have been included in the National Register of plants of Ukraine, often promising. According to the results obtained by the best research we have identified promising sweet cherry varieties that are adapted to the environmental conditions. These promising varieties are not inferior varieties cultivated with a range of indicators.

  2. HARVEST LABOR QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY:CASE STUDY OF CHERRY GROWING IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO JARA-ROJAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, the cherry tree has been one of the fastest growing and most profitable crops in the last ten years. However, increasing production costs, the scarcity of hired labor, and unfavorable exchange rates have reduced the productivity and competitiveness of the Chilean fruit sector. The aim of this article is to evaluate the harvest labor quality in cherry growing in Chile through the use of productivity indicators. A harvest labor evaluation system (HLES was designed and four indicators were measured: Average Weight of Harvested Box, Average Daily Production per Worker, Percent of Export Fruit, and Percent of Fruit Discarded. Significant differences werefound between the 2010/11 season (with the HLES implementation and the previous seasons without HLES. The average worker yield, average weight of a filled box, and fruit quality improved, while the amount of discarded fruit decreased. Hired labor management in agriculture is crucial for improving the productivity of the fresh fruit export producers. The use of HLES and the adoption of new technologies could help to solve the competitiveness problem in the Chilean fruit sector.

  3. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'.

  4. Response to crop-tree release by 7-year-old stems of yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Jr. Trimble; G.R. Jr. Trimble

    1973-01-01

    Five years after crop-tree release of yellow-poplar and black cherry sterns in a 7-year-old stand of Appalachian hardwoods, measurements indicated that released trees were but slightly superior to control trees in height, diameter, and crown position. Sprout regrowth of cut tree stems and grapevines had largely nullified the effects of release. Indications are that for...

  5. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. 75 FR 29684 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... for the establishment of production research, market research and development, and/or promotional... rate intended to cover administrative costs and research and promotional costs be identified. Section... the assessment rate ($0.005 per pound of cherries) would continue to fund the Board's research and...

  7. 75 FR 57161 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... establishment of production research, market research and development, and/or promotional activities designed to... intended to cover administrative costs and research and promotional costs be identified. Section 930.48 of... the assessment rate ($0.005 per pound of cherries) will continue to fund the Board's research and...

  8. Valorization of postharvest sweet cherry discard for the development of dehydrated fruit ingredients: compositional, physical, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschinis, Lorena; Sette, Paula; Salvatori, Daniela; Schebor, Carolina

    2018-04-20

    Sweet cherries are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, which may contribute to a healthy diet. The objective of this work was to generate dehydrated ingredients from postharvest discard of sweet cherries. Four dried ingredients were obtained from fresh sweet cherry discard (Lapins var.) using an osmotic dehydration pretreatment and freeze drying or air drying. The ingredients showed an important phenolic contribution (2.8-6.6 g gallic acid kg -1 of product) and preserved the natural color of the fruit to a great extent. Freeze-dried ingredients were less hygroscopic than air-dried ones, and presented with a softer texture. All the ingredients were in a supercooled state at room temperature (T g range: -23.0 to -18.8 °C). Sugar infusion pretreatment caused a decrease in water sorption capacity and molecular mobility; it also reduced the initial rehydration rate. Relevant differences in nutritional and structural characteristics of the ingredients were observed depending on the processing method used. These ingredients could be incorporated into different processed foods, such as snacks, cereal mixtures, cereal bars, and bakery and confectionery products. Air-dried control ingredients presented better nutritional qualities and air-dried sweet cherries with sugar infusion pretreatment could be appropriate ingredients for applications where sweet flavor and slow rehydration rate are required. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and... commodities from South Africa. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and... for approving the importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can...

  10. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  12. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though

  13. Book review: Doing a Systematic Review: A Student's Guide, edited by Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry & Rumona Dickson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2014-01-01

    Writing a systematic review is one of the most challenging aspects of the academic process. With Doing a Systematic Review: A Student’s Guide, Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry and Rumona Dickson aim to offer a detailed and effective guide to writing a successful systematic review. This takes the book

  14. 75 FR 31719 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... the past, the primary product produced and sold was frozen cherries; the product mix is now more... marketing efforts by having better quality products available when reserves are released to the market. One... 4, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 31719

  15. Are commercial sweet cherry rootstocks adapted to climate change? Short-term waterlogging and CO2 effects on sweet cherry cv. 'Burlat'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Hernández-Munuera, María; Piñero, M Carmen; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2018-05-01

    High CO 2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO 2 concentrations, ambient (400 µmol mol -1 ) and elevated (800 µmol mol -1 ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for 7 d, followed by 7 d of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks. 'Mariana 2624' was also clearly affected by waterlogging that increased lipid peroxidation and the Cl - and SO 4 2- concentrations in all the studied plants. Nevertheless, CO 2 was able to overcome this reduction in photosynthesis, augmenting growth, increasing soluble sugars and starch, raising turgor and regulating the concentrations of Cl - and SO 4 2- , while lowering the NO 3 - concentration in leaves of all the studied rootstocks. In concordance with these results, the proline levels indicated a more intense stress at control CO 2 than at high CO 2 for waterlogged plants. 'Mariana 2624' was more resistant to waterlogging than 'Adara', and both were more resistant than 'LC 52' in control CO 2 conditions; this clearly enhanced the chance of survival under hypoxia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Edible Coating Using a Chitosan-Based Colloid Incorporating Grapefruit Seed Extract for Cherry Tomato Safety and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Jo; Park, Hyeon Hwa; Song, Kyung Bin; Min, Sea C

    2018-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO 2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees--a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package ('chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. 'Payne') at Davis, California.

  19. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  20. Composition of volatile aromatic compounds and minerals of tarhana enriched with cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Hasan; Tarakçı, Zekai

    2017-03-01

    Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC-MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples. The octanoic acid from acids, benzaldehyde (CAS) phenylmethanal from aldehydes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one from ketones, octadecane (CAS) n -octadecane form terpenes, ethyl caprylate from esters and benzenemethanol (CAS) benzyl alcohol from alcohols had the highest percentage of volatile aromatic compounds. Tarhana samples were rich source of Mn, Cu and Fe content.

  1. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  3. Microencapsulation of purple Brazilian cherry juice in xanthan, tara gums and xanthan-tara hydrogel matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Josiane K; Zambiazi, Rui C; Borges, Caroline D; Krumreich, Fernanda D; da Luz, Suzane R; Hartwig, Naralice; da Rosa, Cleonice G

    2013-11-06

    The purple Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice was encapsulated in xanthan, tara and xanthan-tara hydrogel matrixes. Encapsulation efficiency, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry, release profile, stability of carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. Encapsulation was confirmed. The highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained with xanthan gum and hydrogel was mostly indicated for the release of carotenoids in GFS and IFS medium. Phenolic compounds had the highest release rate but not in a gradually way, regardless of wall material and fluids under analysis. Stored microparticles at 4 and 25 °C, showed carotenoid degradation. Xanthan and hydrogel wall material provided the greatest stability to these compounds. The microparticles' anti-oxidant activity decreased during storage due to the degradation of carotenoids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Apple, Cherry, and Blackcurrant Increases Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation in Liver of Transgenic Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstad, Trude; Paur, Ingvild; Poulsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) is essential in normal physiology, and several human disorders involve inappropriate regulation of NF-B. Diets dominated by plant-based foods protect against chronic diseases, and several food derived compounds have been identified as promising NF-B modulators. We...... investigated the effects of diets supplemented with apple, blackcurrant, or cherries on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-B activation in transgenic NF-B-luciferase mice. Whole body and organ specific NF-B activities were determined. The mice had ad libitum access to the respective experimental diets for 7...... slightly higher whole-body NF-B activation at 4 h, and all 3 experimental groups had higher NF-B activation at 6 h. LPS-induced NF-B activation in liver was increased with all 3 experimental diets, but no effects were observed in other organs. Our findings indicate that high intakes of lyophilized fruits...

  5. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Barde, Sonal R; Patwekar, Shailesh L; Tidke, Priti S

    2013-12-01

    More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  7. Análisis de ruta de tomate Cherry en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Sobreira Fábio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar las principales variables asociadas a la resistencia poscosecha del tomate Cherry (tomate tipo cereza (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, y con base en ello, orientar la selección de materiales para programas de mejoramiento. Se utilizó un diseño experimental en bloques completos aleatorizados, con tres repeticiones y 10 frutos por parcela. Para el análisis de los datos se adoptó un diagrama causal ilustrativo, considerando la resistencia poscosecha como variable básica, y las siguientes variables explicativas: peso medio de los frutos, diámetro de la cicatriz del pedúnculo, grosor del mesocarpio, contenido de sólidos solubles y pH. Se realizaron análisis de varianza, correlaciones genotípicas y multicolinealidad; y desdoblamiento de las correlaciones genotípicas por medio de análisis de ruta (portugués: "análise de trilha". Considerando separadamente los caracteres estudiados, el grosor del mesocarpio y el peso medio de los frutos son los que contribuyen en una mayor medida a explicar las variaciones en la resistencia poscosecha del tomate Cherry. Es posible obtener ganancias en resistencia poscosecha por medio de selección indirecta vía grosor del mesocarpio. Esta ganancia será mayor si entre los frutos de mayor grosor del mesocarpio se seleccionan los que presentan menor peso.

  8. Impact of utilization of alternative wood products of less conventional species (cherry and acacia) on the phenolic composition and sensory profile evolution of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Mariana Ferreira Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Viticultura e Enologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Faculdade de Ciências. Universidade do Porto The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent changes, in the course of 90 days, in the phenolic and volatile composition and sensory properties in one red wine matured in contact with Portuguese (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and French (Quercus petraea L.) oak, acacia (Robina pseudoacacia) and cherry (Prunus Avium) wood chips and a cherry (Prunus avium) wood powder. ...

  9. Characterization and evaluation of some lines from cherry tomatoes lycopersicon esculentum mill. Var. Cerasiforme (dunal) and their ability for micropropagation in in vitro conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Tomato production in the Republic of Macedonia is present on more than 5700 hectares, being the leading vegetable crop in the region of Strumica. Cherry tomato however, is poorly present at our fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, with different shapes and colors and it is used ma...

  10. Do Farmers Really Plant Apples for Their Income and Cherries for Their Retirement? The Effects of Risk, Scope and Scale on Orchard Land Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Brady, Michael P.; Tozer, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Most fruit growers in Central Washington that produce apples or cherries typically grow both. This is interesting given that important sources of complementarities which generate economies of scope, such as crop rotations, that motivate crop diversification throughout agriculture are not present. An alternative explanation is risk mitigation because apple and cherry yields and prices are somewhat uncorrelated. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the relative importance of economies of scope ...

  11. Tart Cherries and health: Current knowledge and need for a better understanding of the fate of phytochemicals in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba C, Mayta-Apaza; Daya, Marasini; Franck, Carbonero

    2017-09-28

    Tart cherries are increasingly popular due to purported health benefits. This Prunus cesarus species is cultivated worldwide, and its market has increased significantly in the last two decades due to improvements in agricultural practices and food processing technology. Tart cherries are rich in polyphenols, with a very specific profile combining anthocyanins and flavonols (berries-like) and chlorogenic acid (coffee-like). Tart cherries have been suggested to exert several potentially beneficial health effects including: lowering blood pressure, modulating blood glucose, enhancing cognitive function, protecting against oxidative stress and reducing inflammation. Studies focusing on tart cherry consumption have demonstrated particular benefits in recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage and diabetes associated parameters. However, the bioconversion of tart cherry polyphenols by resident colonic microbiota has never been considered, considerably reducing the impact of in vitro studies that have relied on fruit polyphenol extracts. In vitro and in vivo gut microbiota and metabolome studies are necessary to reinforce health claims linked to tart cherries consumption.

  12. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, D.J.; Benck, R.M.; Merle, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  13. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  15. Integration of ozonation and an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) for the treatment of cherry stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro M; Beltrán, Fernando J; Rodríguez, Eva M

    2005-01-01

    Cherry stillage is a high strength organic wastewater arising from the manufacture of alcoholic products by distillation of fermented cherries. It is made up of biorefractory polyphenols in addition to readily biodegradable organic matter. An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used to treat cherry stillage at influent COD ranging from 5 to 50 g/L. Different cycle times were selected to test biomass organic loading rates (OLR(B)), from 0.3 to 1.2 g COD/g VSS.d. COD and TOC efficiency removals higher than 80% were achieved at influent COD up to 28.5 g/L but minimum OLR(B) tested. However, as a result of the temporary inhibition of acetogens and methanogens, volatile fatty acids (VFA) noticeably accumulated and methane production came to a transient standstill when operating at influent COD higher than 10 g/L. At these conditions, the AnSBR showed signs of instability and could not operate efficiently at OLR(B) higher than 0.3 g COD/g VSS.d. A feasible explanation for this inhibition is the presence of toxic polyphenols in cherry stillage. Thus, an ozonation step prior to the AnSBR was observed to be useful, since more than 75% of polyphenols could be removed by ozone. The integrated process was shown to be a suitable treatment technology as the following advantages compared to the single AnSBR treatment were observed: greater polyphenols and color removals, higher COD and TOC removal rates thus enabling the process to effectively operate at higher OLR, higher degree of biomethanation, and good stability with less risk of acidification.

  16. Microbiological Quality and Incidence of Salmonella on Cherry Tomatoes at Retail in Querétaro, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cervantes, Marla G; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Martínez-Peniche, Ramón; Martínez-Gonzáles, Nanci E; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2018-04-01

    Multiple outbreaks related to Salmonella in tomatoes require an evaluation of the risk associated with cherry tomatoes due to the increase in its production, consumption, and marketing in Mexico's central region. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality of cherry tomatoes obtained from two retail sale points (supermarkets and local markets). Cherry tomato samples (333) were collected from four supermarkets and from four local markets, and the contents of aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were quantified; the presence of Salmonella was simultaneously determined. The median values of the microbial populations were obtained, and the data were analyzed per the sampling site by using the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The median of aerobic plate count content in tomatoes obtained from supermarkets ranged between 2.2 and 4.4 log CFU/g, and in markets from 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/g. For molds and yeasts, the tomatoes from supermarkets (2.0 to 4.1 log CFU/g) and markets (1.5 to 4.5 log CFU/g) showed similar contents. Regardless of the sampling site, the values of total coliforms were very low, ranging from 1.0 to 1.8 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected in 5.4 and 20.1% of samples from supermarkets and markets, respectively; in both sites, the content was low (0.3 to 5.8 most probable number per g). The incidence of Salmonella was 14.1% in supermarkets and 7.8% in local markets. The results obtained from this investigation highlight the elevated risk for consumer health associated with the ingestion of cherry tomatoes.

  17. Crop-tree release increases growth of 12-year-old yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Precommercial thinning was done in a 12-year-old Appalachian hardwood sapling stand in West Virginia. Two crop-tree release techniques were used--crown touching and crown touching plus 5 feet. Results indicated that both treatments significantly increased 5-year d.b.h. growth for released yellow-poplar and black cherry crop trees. Although there was a major increase in...

  18. Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahirul Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’. The conditions were: (1 control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1; (2 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; (3 NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; and (4 NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1. NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits.

  19. Effect of ultrasound on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türken, Tuğba; Erge, Hande S

    2017-09-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine effect of ultrasonication on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology, since ultrasound is known as an alternative method for thermal food processing. Sour cherry juice was sonicated at varying amplitude levels (50, 75, 100%); moderate temperatures (20, 30, 40 ℃); and treatment times of 2, 6, 10 min at a constant frequency of 20 kHz. Different ultrasonication amplitudes, temperatures, and times had no significant effect on pH,°Bx, and titratable acidity. A significant increase in total monomeric anthocyanins was observed as the amplitude level and temperature increased (p < 0.01). An increase in the total phenolics was also obtained as the temperature increased (p < 0.05). The effect of amplitude level on antioxidant capacity of sour cherry juice was also found significant (p < 0.05). Color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C, h) generally increased by increasing temperature, amplitude level, and treatment time. It was determined that Escherichia coli O157:H7 significantly affected by temperature and treatment time (p < 0.05).

  20. Comparison of DNA comet assay and germination test (half-embryo-test) in gamma-irradiated cherry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    2002-01-01

    Cherry fruits were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses up to 200Gy (effective dose for disinfestation of codling moth), and DNA strand break in seed embryos was investigated by using alkaline comet assay. Immediately after irradiation (≥100Gy), DNA from embryos produced comets with a long and wide tail due to fragmentation. In control cells, DNA relaxed and produced comet with very short tail (with few strand break). After 72h storage, DNA from fruits irradiated at 200 Gy showed comets with little tail and tail moment of comets was same as un-irradiated control. These results indicate that the strand breaks of DNA caused by irradiation in fresh seed embryo are repaired during storage. On the contrary, the ability of germination lost by irradiation did not restored, a dose of 100Gy and more retarded shoot elongation. In cherries irradiated at 100Gy, the shooting percentage was less than 50% at 4th day after incubation. Germination test (Half embryo test) can be discriminate between irradiated and un-irradiated cherries. (author)

  1. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequential culture with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and management of fermentation temperature to improve cherry wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Zhao, Yu Ping; Liu, Wen Li; Jin, Cheng Wu

    2016-04-01

    There has been limited research on the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of cherry wines. This work used an autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii strain 49 (TD49) in association with a commercial S. cerevisiae RC212 yeast, to investigate the effect of multi-starter culture (sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation) and fermentation temperature on the quality of cherry wines. Both TD49 and RC212 proliferated during alcoholic fermentation (AF) under sequential inoculation conditions, whereas in the case of simultaneous inoculation, TD49 increased slowly at first and then declined sharply near the fermentation end. The analytical profile showed that both mixed fermentations produced lower levels of volatile acidy and higher levels of aromatic compounds than those from RC212 mono-culture. During sensory analysis, wines from sequential fermentation obtained the highest score, mainly due to the higher intensity in 'fruity' and 'floral' characters. As for the influence of temperature, a low temperature (20 °C) enhanced TD49 persistence during AF, but the sensory quality decreased anyway; 30 °C resulted in decreases in most measured descriptors. Therefore, 25 °C was selected as the best culture temperature. TD49/RC212 sequential inoculation and fermentation at 25 °C significantly enhanced the cherry wine quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Biocontrol of Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit by use of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Bao, Yihong; Shen, Danhong; Feng, Wu; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Jia; Zheng, Xiao Dong

    2008-04-30

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman isolated from the south of East China Sea was evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest decay of cherry tomatoes caused by Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that washed cell suspension of R. paludigenum provided better control of A. alternata than any other treatment, while the autoclaved cell culture failed to provide protection against the pathogen. The concentration of antagonist had significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in vivo: when the concentration of the washed yeast cell suspension was used at 1 x 10(9)cells/ml, the percentage rate of black rot of cherry tomato fruit was only 37%, which was remarkably lower than that treated with water (the control) after 5days of incubation at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, a great biocontrol efficacy of R. paludigenum was observed when it was applied prior to inoculation with A. alternata: the longer the incubation time of R. paludigenum, the lower disease incidence would be. However, there was little efficacy when R. paludigenum was applied after A. alternata inoculation. In addition, on the wounds of cherry tomato, it was observed that R. paludigenum grew rapidly increasing 50-fold during the first 12h at 25 degrees C. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report concerning that the marine yeast R. paludigenum could be used as a biocontrol agent of postharvest fungal disease.

  4. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, Md Salik; Awasthi, Prachi; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz Asgar; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses: Cherry virus A (CVA, Genus; Capillovirus), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, unassigned species of the Betaflexiviridae), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1, Genus; Closterovirus) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Genus; Ilarvirus) with nad5 as plant internal control. A reliable and quick method for total plant RNA extraction from pome and stone fruit trees was also developed. To minimize primer dimer formation, a single antisense primer for CVA and CNRMV was used. A mixture of random hexamer and oligo (dT) primer was used for cDNA synthesis, which was highly suited and economic for multiplexing. All four viruses were detected successfully by mRT-PCR in artificially created viral RNA mixture and field samples of sweet cherry. The identity of the viruses was confirmed by sequencing. The assay could detect above viruses in diluted cDNA (10(-4)) and RNA (10(-3), except PNRSV which was detected only till ten times lesser dilution). The developed mRT-PCR will not only be useful for the detection of viruses from single or multiple infections of sweet cherry plants but also for other stone and pome fruits. The developed method will be therefore quite helpful for virus indexing, plant quarantine and certification programs. This is the first report for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses by mRT-PCR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mazzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers’ survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016 observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption.

  7. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer this knowle......The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer...... as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...... and its amide coincided with flowering time in both species. Taken together, these results contribute to elucidating parts of the complex network regulating flowering time in perennial plants....

  8. Quality Maintenance and Storability Extension of Cornelian Cherry Fruit by Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mohebbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of packaging with two types of polymeric films (Low density polyethylene and polypropylene and three gas compositions (Air, 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ and 20% CO₂ + 5% O₂ on quantitative and qualitative attributes and storage life of cornelian cherry fruits were evaluated. Also some fruits in containers without cap were considered as control. After treatment, the fruits were stored at 1°C and 90-95% Relative Humidity for 35 days. Samples were taken initially and at 7-day intervals during storage, and to simulate market conditions they were placed at room temperature for 24 hr, and then qualitative and quantitative parameters such as weight loss, surface color, anthocyanin index, visual quality, decay, pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid and vitamin C were measured. The results showed that gas combination of 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ with polyethylene packaging and air in polypropylene packaging had a significant effect on maintaining pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid compared with control fruits. Also, the fruits packed with polyethylene packaging in 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ showed the best effect on retaining of vitamin C and anthocyanin index. In conclusion, the application of MAP regardless of gas combination was found to be more effective in maintaining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics compared with fruits without packaging.

  9. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  10. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  11. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Use of microsatellites for evaluation of genetic diversity in cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much of the diversity of tomato is found in wild forms, the most important being the Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme and S. pimpinellifolium. The objective of this research was to assess the genetic diversity of 30 introductions of cherry tomato with 36 microsatellite molecular markers. The study was conducted at the Plant Transformation Research Center (PTRC of the University of California. A dendrogram was built using the Dice-Nei and Li similarity index and the UPGMA clustering method, where introductions were differentiated without preserving a distribution pattern obeying the geographical area of origin. A coefficient of genetic differentiation was found (Fst = 0.3474, showing a high genetic differentiation of the introductions; those from Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru were the most genetically diverse, presenting 100% of polymorphic loci. The molecular variance analysis indicated a variation of 11% between the groups and 89% within the same. The broad genotypic variability of the evaluated introductions favors the possibility of selecting those for genetic improvement and sustainable use of the species.

  13. Microclimatic changes caused by different plastic coverings in greenhouses cultivated with cherry tomato in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In regions with intense solar radiation it is common the use of aluminated covers in greenhouses, with the aim of reducing the inside temperature. However, the use of these covers reduces photosynthetic active radiation (PAR transmitted into the greenhouse. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different covers on microclimate in greenhouses cultivated with cherry tomato during three growing seasons. The environment I was covered with plastic film anti-UV and with thermo-reflective screen (40% disposed internally. The environment II was covered with diffusive plastic film (55%. The transmitted solar radiation to the interior of covered environments was, on average, 5.5 MJ m-2 day-1 in the environment I and 8.2 MJ m-2 day-1 in environment II. The air temperature in environment II was, on average, 1°C higher than external conditions. The highest difference for the relative humidity (RH was also observed between environment II and the outside conditions, with 10.7% for the minimum RH during the first growing period. Considering all growing periods, the diffusive plastic film provided higher solar energy availability inside the greenhouse than the plastic film with thermo-reflective screen, without causing major changes in air temperature and relative humidity, and promoting greater productivity of tomato grown under this environment for the three periods evaluated.

  14. Transcriptome and Metabolite Changes during Hydrogen Cyanamide-Induced Floral Bud Break in Sweet Cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Irina A; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Burow, Meike; Bayo-Canha, Almudena; Junge, Alexander; Gericke, Oliver; Møller, Birger L; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Release of bud dormancy in perennial woody plants is a temperature-dependent process and thus flowering in these species is heavily affected by climate change. The lack of cold winters in temperate growing regions often results in reduced flowering and low fruit yields. This is likely to decrease the availability of fruits and nuts of the Prunus spp. in the near future. In order to maintain high yields, it is crucial to gain detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms controlling the release of bud dormancy. Here, we studied these mechanisms using sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.), a crop where the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is routinely used to compensate for the lack of cold winter temperatures and to induce flower opening. In this work, dormant flower buds were sprayed with hydrogen cyanamide followed by deep RNA sequencing, identifying three main expression patterns in response to HC. These transcript level results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and supported further by phytohormone profiling (ABA, SA, IAA, CK, ethylene, JA). Using these approaches, we identified the most up-regulated pathways: the cytokinin pathway, as well as the jasmonate and the hydrogen cyanide pathway. Our results strongly suggest an inductive effect of these metabolites in bud dormancy release and provide a stepping stone for the characterization of key genes in bud dormancy release.

  15. Transcriptome and Metabolite Changes during Hydrogen Cyanamide-Induced Floral Bud Break in Sweet Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Ionescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Release of bud dormancy in perennial woody plants is a temperature-dependent process and thus flowering in these species is heavily affected by climate change. The lack of cold winters in temperate growing regions often results in reduced flowering and low fruit yields. This is likely to decrease the availability of fruits and nuts of the Prunus spp. in the near future. In order to maintain high yields, it is crucial to gain detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms controlling the release of bud dormancy. Here, we studied these mechanisms using sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., a crop where the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC is routinely used to compensate for the lack of cold winter temperatures and to induce flower opening. In this work, dormant flower buds were sprayed with hydrogen cyanamide followed by deep RNA sequencing, identifying three main expression patterns in response to HC. These transcript level results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and supported further by phytohormone profiling (ABA, SA, IAA, CK, ethylene, JA. Using these approaches, we identified the most up-regulated pathways: the cytokinin pathway, as well as the jasmonate and the hydrogen cyanide pathway. Our results strongly suggest an inductive effect of these metabolites in bud dormancy release and provide a stepping stone for the characterization of key genes in bud dormancy release.

  16. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  18. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip G. Bell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day. On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ, agility and muscle soreness (DOMS were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP, muscle damage (CK and oxidative stress (LOOH were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6 was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  19. High pressure and thermal pasteurization effects on sweet cherry juice microbiological stability and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Rui P.; Rainho, Daniel; Santos, Mauro D.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated high pressure processing (P1 - 400 MPa/5 min; P2 - 550 MPa/2 min) and thermal pasteurization (TP - 70°C/30 s) effects on sweet cherry juice's microbiological and physicochemical parameters, during four weeks of refrigerated storage. All treatments reduced the microbiological load to undetectable levels not affecting total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The pH increased with all treatments, however, it decreased during storage. Phenols were differently affected: TP increased them by 6%, P1 had no effect while P2 decreased them by 11%. During storage, phenols in control and TP samples decreased by 26% and 20%, P1 samples decreased them by 11% whereas P2 showed no variation. TP had no effect on anthocyanins, while pressure treatments increased them by 8%. Anthocyanins decreased during storage, particularly in the control and P1 (decreasing 41%). All treatments had no effect on antioxidant activity until the 14th day, thereafter high pressure processing samples showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  20. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  1. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3–5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks. PMID:26106382

  2. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  3. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  4. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate ( 14 CO 2 ) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40 0 C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18 0 C. Photorespiration was not detected

  5. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2011-01-01

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided...... into two groups on the basis of both the sensory data and the NMR spectroscopic data. These groups were closely related to the genetic background of the clones. Kelleris clones were distinctly different from Stevnsberry and Fanal clones. Hence, 1H NMR spectroscopic data seem to correlate with sensory...... quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other...

  6. 1H NMR metabolic fingerprinting to probe temporal postharvest changes on qualitative attributes and phytochemical profile of sweet cherry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasios eGoulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’ were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ~ 20°C, shelf life for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR. Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumarolquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2 to 8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  7. 1H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M.; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N.; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Manganaris, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’) were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2–8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits. PMID:26617616

  8. (1)H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Manganaris, George A

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. 'Canada Giant', 'Ferrovia') were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: 'Canada Giant' fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile 'Ferrovia' possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, (1)H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. 'Ferrovia' fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an (1)H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2-8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  9. Evaluation of Bee Diversity within Different Sweet Cherry Orchards in the Sultandaği Reservoir (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güler Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many varieties of sweet cherry are self-incompatible. Therefore, sweet cherry orchards require a huge population of pollinator bees to carry out an adequate amount of pollen transfer between the different varieties. Our study was conducted to evaluate the differences in the richness and diversity of these pollinators within very closely located sweet cherry orchards, and to understand the underlying effects causing these differences. The study was conducted in the Sultandağı Reservoir (Turkey which covers the towns of Sultandağı (Afyonkarahisar and Akşehir (Konya. In order to avoid a sampling bias, Malaise traps were used to collect bee samples. Sampling collections were repeated for three years; from 2007 to 2009, between April and May. The traps were set in the bud-swell period and lifted in the green-fruit period. Climatic data were taken from meteorology stations near the orchards. Vegetation in the surrounding areas was also inspected. The composition of pollinator bee species was determined and compared between orchards. In total, 83 bee species and 38 plant species were recorded. It was found that Halictidae is the most abundant and richest group among the pollinator bees. The effects of the quantity of the Malaise traps on bee sampling success were also tested. It was found that one trap per 325 trees is enough for an adequate sampling. Apart from the annual fluctuations of bee richness in the orchards, general differences in the bee diversity among orchards might be affected by the surrounding vegetation and especially from different agricultural practices such as tilling the ground.

  10. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Sorbitol Transporters from Developing Sour Cherry Fruit and Leaf Sink Tissues1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (Km sorbitol of 0.81 mm for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mm for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  11. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Quality of Fruit, Fresh and Processed as Compote, of certain Cherry Tree Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Caplan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The five cherry tree cultivars presented in this paper (Van, Stela, Simbol, Boambe de Cotnari, Gesmerdorf are those that occupy most of the surface cultivated with this species at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta. The observations and measurements concerning the biometrical and organoleptic characteristics of fresh fruit (size, aspect, firmness, taste, stone percentage, as well as the biochemical features (soluble dry substance, soluble carbohydrates, revealed the superiority of the Van and Simbol cultivars. Processed as compote, all the cultivars, apart from Stela, displayed a very good processing capacity.

  13. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): foliar sensitivity as related to metabolite levels and cell architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the first four leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle) was followed to determine the relationship between foliar sensitivity to ozone as related to selected soluble metabolites and leaf-cell arrangement. Although relatively high metabolite (protein, sugars, phenols) levels and compact cell arrangement may be advanced as factors contributing to the resistance of young leaves (L/sub 3,4/ of 21-day old plants) these same parameters do not explain the resistance of old leaves (L/sub 1,2/ of 30-day old plants). 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Effectiveness of managed populations of wild and honey bees as supplemental pollinators of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) under different climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ was rec......Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer...

  15. Influence of the date of cut of rootstocks to the stub on growth of maider sour cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period (1997-1999 investigations were conducted on the effect of 6 date of cut to the stub on tree trunk diameter, height and branching of sour cherry maidens in the nursery.On the Prunus mahaleb seedling rootstock were found no significant influen ce of the date between January, 15 - March, 30 of cut to the stub on growth of sour cherry maidens cv. ´Łutówka' (tree trunk diameter and branching and efficiency of nursery. The date of cutting in 15 April decreased trunk diameter and percent of the first quality trees.

  16. 樱桃核主要成分分析及其抗氧化性研究%Major Components and Antioxidant Capability Analysis of Cherry Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄天元; 肖军霞

    2014-01-01

    樱桃可以加工成樱桃汁、樱桃酒、樱桃醋、樱桃果脯等农副产品,而樱桃核却在加工中成为废弃物。以大紫红和崂山红樱桃核为材料,测定了其主要成分,并分别对其水、石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇提取物进行了抗氧化性研究。结果表明,樱桃核中主要含有水分、蛋白质和油脂等成分,崂山红樱桃核的4种提取物的还原能力、羟基自由基抑制率和超氧阴离子抑制率最高的均为水提取物,分别达到0.27%、61.5%和38.7%,这说明崂山红樱桃核中起抗氧化作用的主要是水溶性成分。%Cherry can be processed to juice, wine, vinegar and preserve, but the cherry stone is often discarded as a waste. In this paper, the major components in the stone of Dazhihong cherry and Laoshan red cherry were determined and the antioxidant capabilities of the aqueous extract, pettroleum extract, ethyl acetate extract, and n-butanol extract of Laoshan red cherry stone were measured. The results indicated that the cherry stones consisted mainly of water, protein, and lipid. The aqueous extract of the stone of Laoshan red cherry had the highest reducing capability, hydroxyl radical inhibition rate and superoxide anion inhibition activity compared with other organic solvent extracts, reaching 0.27 %,61.5 % and 38.7 % respecitvely, implying that the antioxidant capability of Laoshan red cherry stone was contributed mainly by water-soluble components.

  17. Effect of dark sweet cherry powder consumption on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and biomarkers of gut health in obese db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose F. Garcia-Mazcorro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12 for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10 and lean (n = 10 mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR were used to analyze the gut microbiota; SCFAs and biomarkers of gut health were also measured using standard techniques. According to 16S sequencing, supplemented mice harbored a distinct colonic microbiota characterized by a higher abundance of mucin-degraders (i.e., Akkermansia and fiber-degraders (the S24-7 family as well as lower abundances of Lactobacillus and Enterobacteriaceae. Overall this particular cherry-associated colonic microbiota did not resemble the microbiota in obese or lean controls based on the analysis of weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance metrics. qPCR confirmed some of the results observed in sequencing, thus supporting the notion that cherry supplementation can change the colonic microbiota. Moreover, the SCFAs detected in supplemented mice (caproate, methyl butyrate, propionate, acetate and valerate exceeded those concentrations detected in obese and lean controls except for butyrate. Despite the changes in microbial composition and SCFAs, most of the assessed biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and intestinal health in colon tissues and mucosal cells were similar in all obese mice with and without supplementation. This paper shows

  18. Biological nutrient recovery from culturing of pearl gourami (Trichogaster leerii ) by cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in aquaponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdom, Shima; Shekarabi, Seyed Pezhman Hosseini; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using different densities of cherry tomato as a bio-filter in a simple media-based aquaponic system to recycle nutrients from pearl gourami intensive culture wastewater was evaluated. Water quality parameters including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite (NO 2 - ), nitrate (NO 3 - ), phosphate (PO 4 3- ), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in outlet of the aquaponic system during a 60-day experimental period. Cherry tomato was planted at four densities of 0 (control), 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 9 (T3) plants per aquaponic unit with a constant fish stock density. Each treatment was equipped with aquaponic systems containing fish tank and plant growing bed. Productivity of the system was measured by recording the fish and plant growth indices. The potential in removing nitrogen of the water was the highest in T3 (with nine plants) compared to other treatments (p aquaponic growing bed system can be created a sustainable ecosystem which both the plant and fish can thrive and suitable for home-made production system.

  19. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  20. Differentiation of closely related but biologically distinct cherry isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M; Pasini, R; Howell, W E; Mink, G I

    1999-07-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) exists as a number of biologically distinct variants which differ in host specificity, serology, and pathology. Previous nucleotide sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of cloned reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of several biologically distinct sweet cherry isolates revealed correlations between symptom type and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 3a (putative movement protein) and 3b (coat protein) open reading frames. Based upon this analysis, RT-PCR assays have been developed that can identify isolates displaying different symptoms and serotypes. The incorporation of primers in a multiplex PCR protocol permits rapid detection and discrimination among the strains. The results of PCR amplification using type-specific primers that amplify a portion of the coat protein gene demonstrate that the primer-selection procedure developed for PNRSV constitutes a reliable method of viral strain discrimination in cherry for disease control and will also be useful for examining biological diversity within the PNRSV virus group.

  1. Characterization of Sugar and Polyphenolic Diversity in Floral Nectar of Different 'Oblačinska' Sour Cherry Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffa, Basem; Nedić, Nebojša M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Tosti, Tomislav B; Gašić, Uroš M; Natić, Maja M; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M

    2017-09-01

    'Oblačinska' sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian orchards. Since fruit trees in temperate zone reward insects by producing nectar which 'quality' affects the efficiency of insect pollination, the aim of this study was analyzing of sugars and polyphenolics in floral nectar of 16 'Oblačinska' sour cherry clones with different yielding potential. The contents of sugars and sugar alcohols were analyzed by ion chromatography, while polyphenolic profile was established using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Fourteen sugars and six sugar alcohols were detected in nectar samples and the most abundant were fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Eleven polyphenols were quantified using available standards, while another 17 were identified according to their exact masses and characteristic fragmentations. Among quantified polyphenols, rutin, naringenin, and chrysin were the most abundant in nectar. Principal component analysis showed that some polyphenol components (naringin, naringenin, and rutin) together with sugars had high impact of spatial distribution of nectar samples on score plot. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. The importance of bee pollination of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus Cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Hansted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low fruit set, despite normally-developed flowers, is often a significant contributor to poor yield of the self-fertile sour cherry (Prunus cerasus cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insect, and particularly, bee pollination on the fruit set of this cultivar, in order to provide orchard management information for both Danish ‘Stevnsbaer’ growers and beekeepers. Visits to cherry flowers by honey bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus species and solitary bees, were recorded during the flowering of ‘Stevnsbaer’ in five separate Danish orchards. The results indicate that there is a significantly higher fruit set on open pollinated branches when compared to caged branches, where bees and other pollinating insects where excluded. The results were qualitatively consistent over three different seasons (2007, 2009 and 2010. A period of prolonged cold, humid weather before and during early flowering probably reduced fruit set significantly in 2010 compared to 2009. Regarding the apparent benefits of bee pollination on fruit set and subsequent implications for yield, we recommend placing honeybees in ‘Stevnsbaer’ orchards during flowering to sustain commercially viable production. Another valuable management strategy would be to improve foraging and nesting conditions to support both honey and wild bees in and around the orchards.

  3. Fruit Set of Several Sour Cherry Cultivars in Latvia Influenced by Weather Conditions Before and During Flowering

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    Feldmane Daina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit set is a crucial stage in the process of yield formation, which is influenced by environmental factors, growing technologies and peculiarities of genotype. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of pollen (viability and germination capacity and the effect of weather before and during flowering on fruit set in sour cherry cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’, ‘Zentenes’, ‘Bulatnikovskaya’, and ‘Orlica’. The research was carried out in Institute of Horticulture (Latvia University of Agriculture in 2009-2016. Good pollen viability and germination was found for cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’ and ‘Bulatnikovskaya’. Negative effects of increasing air temperature (in the range of 7.7 to 17.5 °C and relative humidity (in the range of 51.4 to 88.5% was observed for all cultivars during flowering. The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, wind and the amount of days with precipitation differed depending on sour cherry cultivar.

  4. Biocontrol activity of a cold-adapted yeast from Tibet against gray mold in cherry tomato and its action mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Wisniewski, Michael E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    Cold-adapted biocontrol yeast was selected from four yeast isolates from Tibet against gray mold of cherry tomato in cold storage. The strain numbered LB2 showed the best biocontrol activity and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii. Competition for nutrient, space, and induced fruit resistance was also its antagonistic mechanism. Compared with C. laurentii from sea-level place, the reason why LB2 had a better biocontrol activity was studied. More trehalose and proline in cell of LB2 made it exhibit a better cellular activity at low temperature, such as higher population dynamics in the wounds of cherry tomato and more biocontrol-related enzyme secretion, chitinase and β-glucanase. The better oxidative stress tolerance was another characteristic of LB2. Maybe because of the ideal culture condition, there was no obvious difference between these two yeasts in the growth in vitro test at low temperature. Although the same phenomenon existed in the low pH stress test, LB2 still had higher cell concentration under this stress. Comparative transcriptomics method was also applied to analyze the cell activity of LB2 and C. laurentii at different temperatures. The results showed that more active response in the intracellular structure and intracellular metabolic process to cold temperature made LB2 had a better activity. The present study indicated a possibility to select cold-adapted biocontrol yeast from Tibet and also showed its primary action mechanism.

  5. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

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    Ning eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-week-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One week old ducks showed endocardial haemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three week old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-week-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-week-old ducks at 3 –5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P<0.05. More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 dpi to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  6. Relationship between fruit weight and the fruit-to-leaf area ratio, at the spur and whole-tree level, for three sweet cherry varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit weight is the main quality parameter of sweet cherries and leaf area/fruit is the most important characteristic influencing fruit weight. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between Mean Fruit Weight (MFW) and the Fruit Number to Leaf Area Ratio (FNLAR) for `Bing¿,

  7. Use of the mCherry Fluorescent Protein To Study Intestinal Colonization by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Winschau F.; Deane, Shelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals, and some LAB species receive considerable attention due to their health benefits. Although many papers have been published on probiotic LAB, only a few reports have been published on the migration and colonization of the cells in the GIT. This is due mostly to the lack of efficient reporter systems. In this study, we report on the application of the fluorescent mCherry protein in the in vivo tagging of the probiotic strains Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423. The mCherry gene, encoding a red fluorescent protein (RFP), was integrated into a nonfunctional region on the genome of L. plantarum 423 by homologous recombination. In the case of E. mundtii ST4SA, the mCherry gene was cloned into the pGKV223D LAB/Escherichia coli expression vector. Expression of the mCherry gene did not alter the growth rate of the two strains and had no effect on bacteriocin production. Both strains colonized the cecum and colon of mice. PMID:26116681

  8. Protein, free amino acid, phenloic, ß-carotene, and lycopene content, and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects of 12 greenhouse-grown commercial cherry tomato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of water, free amino acids, amino acid metabolites, crude protein, the carotene pigments ß-carotene and lycopene, and 9 characterized and 2 incompletely characterized individual phenolic (flavonoid) compounds of 12 greenhouse-grown cherry tomato varieties of various colors (green, yellow...

  9. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.

  10. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  11. In Vivo and In Vitro Detection of Luminescent and Fluorescent Lactobacillus reuteri and Application of Red Fluorescent mCherry for Assessing Plasmid Persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufeh Karimi

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus reuteri is a symbiont that inhabits the gastrointestinal (GI tract of mammals, and several strains are used as probiotics. After introduction of probiotic strains in a complex ecosystem like the GI tract, keeping track of them is a challenge. The main objectives of this study were to introduce reporter proteins that would enable in vivo and in vitro detection of L. reuteri and increase knowledge about its interactions with the host. We describe for the first time cloning of codon-optimized reporter genes encoding click beetle red luciferase (CBRluc and red fluorescent protein mCherry in L. reuteri strains ATCC PTA 6475 and R2LC. The plasmid persistence of mCherry-expressing lactobacilli was evaluated by both flow cytometry (FCM and conventional plate count (PC, and the plasmid loss rates measured by FCM were lower overall than those determined by PC. Neutralization of pH and longer induction duration significantly improved the mCherry signal. The persistency, dose-dependent signal intensity and localization of the recombinant bacteria in the GI tract of mice were studied with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS, which allowed us to detect fluorescence from 6475-CBRluc-mCherry given at a dose of 1×1010 CFU and luminescence signals at doses ranging from 1×105 to 1×1010 CFU. Both 6475-CBRluc-mCherry and R2LC-CBRluc were localized in the colon 1 and 2 h after ingestion, but the majority of the latter were still found in the stomach, possibly reflecting niche specificity for R2LC. Finally, an in vitro experiment showed that mCherry-producing R2LC adhered efficiently to the intra cellular junctions of cultured IPEC-J2 cells. In conclusion, the two reporter genes CBRluc and mCherry were shown to be suitable markers for biophotonic imaging (BPI of L. reuteri and may provide useful tools for future studies of in vivo and in vitro interactions between the bacteria and the host.

  12. Potential of carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low dose gamma irradiation to maintain storage quality, inhibit fungal growth and extend shelf-life of cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Rather, S A; Suradkar, P; Parveen, S; Mir, M A; Shafi, F

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality, inhibiting fungal incidence and extending shelf-life of cherry fruit. Two commercial cherry varieties viz. Misri and Double after harvest at commercial maturity were coated with CMC at levels 0.5-1.0 % w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.2 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80 %) conditions for evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters. Fruits were evaluated after every 3 and 7 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. CMC coating alone at levels 0.5 and 0.75 % w/v was not found effective with respect to mold growth inhibition under either of the two conditions. Individual treatment of CMC coating at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation proved helpful in delaying the onset of mold growth up to 5 and 8 days of ambient storage. During post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %, irradiation alone at 1.2 kGy gave further 4 days extension in shelf-life of cherry varieties following 28 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of cherry fruit during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 % but, combination of CMC at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation was found significantly ( p  ≤ 0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of cherry fruit. The above combinatory treatment besides maintaining storage quality resulted in extension of 6 days in shelf life of cherry varieties during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 80 % following 28 days of refrigeration. Above Combination treatment gave a maximum of 2.3 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count of cherry fruits after 9 and 28

  13. Discrimination of cherry wines based on their sensory properties and aromatic fingerprinting using HS-SPME-GC-MS and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Liu, Shengjiang; Gu, Yongbo; Xu, Na; Shang, Yi; Zhu, Jiancai

    2014-03-01

    Volatiles of cherry wines were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), multivariate statistical techniques (such as principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) and correlation analysis) to differentiate sensory attributes of 3 groups of the wines through characterization of volatiles of cherry wine. Seventy-five volatiles were identified in 9 samples, including 29 esters, 22 alcohols, 8 acids, 3 ketones, 5 aldehydes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. The PCA results showed that the cherry wines were mainly differentiated by 8 sensory attributes. The samples W2, W4, and W7 were grouped around sweet aromatic and the samples W1, W5, and W9 were highly associated with the sweet, esters, green, bitter, and fermented. Nevertheless, the samples W3, W6, and W8 were located close to the sour, alcoholic, and fruity. The final result of correlation analysis was in conformity with the conclusion of PCA. The CA results showed that the group of W2, W4, and W7, and the group of W1, W5, and W9 had less difference than the group of W3, W6, and W8. The reason should be that esterification reactions and fermentation process during the ageing period was more extended. The results of analyzing revealed that HS-SPME-GC-MS coupled with chemometrics could give an appropriate way of characterizing and classifying the cherry wines. Attributes that represent and discriminate among cherry wines might be made use of a better comprehending of the wines and for being utilized in future work. In addition, several chemometrics were used to classify the type of wines and try to install the relationship between volatiles and sensory property. Especially, PCA clearly revealed that the most contributing compounds for sensory attributes of cherry wines, CA was a more applicable way to distinguish types of cherry wines. Therefore, a feasible method that would be helpful to promote the quality of the wines by

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Detection of Luminescent and Fluorescent Lactobacillus reuteri and Application of Red Fluorescent mCherry for Assessing Plasmid Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shokoufeh; Ahl, David; Vågesjö, Evelina; Holm, Lena; Phillipson, Mia; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a symbiont that inhabits the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals, and several strains are used as probiotics. After introduction of probiotic strains in a complex ecosystem like the GI tract, keeping track of them is a challenge. The main objectives of this study were to introduce reporter proteins that would enable in vivo and in vitro detection of L. reuteri and increase knowledge about its interactions with the host. We describe for the first time cloning of codon-optimized reporter genes encoding click beetle red luciferase (CBRluc) and red fluorescent protein mCherry in L. reuteri strains ATCC PTA 6475 and R2LC. The plasmid persistence of mCherry-expressing lactobacilli was evaluated by both flow cytometry (FCM) and conventional plate count (PC), and the plasmid loss rates measured by FCM were lower overall than those determined by PC. Neutralization of pH and longer induction duration significantly improved the mCherry signal. The persistency, dose-dependent signal intensity and localization of the recombinant bacteria in the GI tract of mice were studied with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS), which allowed us to detect fluorescence from 6475-CBRluc-mCherry given at a dose of 1×1010 CFU and luminescence signals at doses ranging from 1×105 to 1×1010 CFU. Both 6475-CBRluc-mCherry and R2LC-CBRluc were localized in the colon 1 and 2 h after ingestion, but the majority of the latter were still found in the stomach, possibly reflecting niche specificity for R2LC. Finally, an in vitro experiment showed that mCherry-producing R2LC adhered efficiently to the intra cellular junctions of cultured IPEC-J2 cells. In conclusion, the two reporter genes CBRluc and mCherry were shown to be suitable markers for biophotonic imaging (BPI) of L. reuteri and may provide useful tools for future studies of in vivo and in vitro interactions between the bacteria and the host.

  15. Evaluation of ozone injury on foliage of black cherry (Prunus serotina) and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A; Renfro, J; Somers, G; Nash, B

    1997-01-01

    The incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina) seedlings and saplings and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) plants in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by surveys along selected trails conducted during late summer 1992. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury on black cherry was 47% and the percent injured leaves/injured plant and average leaf area injured were 43 and 6%, respectively. Maximum severity (avg. leaf area of the most severely injured leaf) was 12%. Black cherry seedlings and saplings exhibiting ozone injury were taller than non-injured plants. When insect feeding was present, it occurred 96% of the time on plants with ozone injury. Significantly more injury (p=0.007) on black cherry (% injured leaves/injured black cherry) occurred in the NW section of GRSM compared with the other Park sections. Regression analyses showed no relationships in ozone injury with respect to aspect, slope or elevation. Tall milkweed was evaluated twice during August for ozone injury. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury was 74 and 79% for the first and second survey, respectively. The percentage of injured leaves per plant from the first to second survey was 63 to 79%, respectively. Tall milkweeds showing ozone injury were taller than the non-injured plants. The percentage of insect-damaged plants was 50% among plants without ozone injury and 60% among ozone-injured plants. Non-injured tall milkweed had fewer flowers and/or pods than the injured plants. Mean leaf area injured increased over time, and mean maximum leaf area injured increased from 8 to 11% during the same period. Regression analyses showed no differences in ozone injury regarding aspect, slope or elevation. Our findings indicate that ozone injury is widespread throughout the Park on sensitive vegetation.

  16. Cloning and expression analysis of cDNAs for ABA 8'-hydroxylase during sweet cherry fruit maturation and under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Sun, Liang; Wu, Jiefang; Zhao, Shengli; Wang, Canlei; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Leng, Ping

    2010-11-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in various aspects of plant growth and development, including adaptation to environmental stress and fruit maturation in sweet cherry fruit. In higher plants, the level of ABA is determined by synthesis and catabolism. In order to gain insight into ABA synthesis and catabolism in sweet cherry fruit during maturation and under stress conditions, four cDNAs of PacCYP707A1 -PacCYP707A4 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, and one cDNA of PacNCED1 for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway, were isolated from sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L.). The timing and pattern of PacNCED1 expression was coincident with that of ABA accumulation, which was correlated to maturation of sweet cherry fruit. All four PacCYP707As were expressed at varying intensities throughout fruit development and appeared to play overlapping roles in ABA catabolism throughout sweet cherry fruit development. The application of ABA enhanced the expression of PacCYP707A1 -PacCYP707A3 as well as PacNCED1, but downregulated the PacCYP707A4 transcript level. Expressions of PacCYP707A1, PacCYP707A3 and PacNCED1 were strongly increased by water stress. No significant differences in PacCYP707A2 and PacCYP707A4 expression were observed between dehydrated and control fruits. The results suggest that endogenous ABA content is modulated by a dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, which are regulated by PacNCED1 and PacCYP707As transcripts, respectively, during fruit maturation and under stress conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Allelic diversity of S-RNase at the self-incompatibility locus in natural flowering cherry populations (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Mukai, Y

    2004-03-01

    In the Rosaceae family, which includes Prunus, gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus), and the S-locus product expressed in the pistils is a glycoprotein with ribonuclease activity (S-RNase). Two populations of flowering cherry (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa), located on Hachijo Island in Japan's Izu Islands, were sampled, and S-allele diversity was surveyed based on the sequence polymorphism of S-RNase. A total of seven S-alleles were cloned and sequenced. The S-RNases of flowering cherry showed high homology to those of Prunus cultivars (P. avium and P. dulcis). In the phylogenetic tree, the S-RNases of flowering cherry and other Prunus cultivars formed a distinct group, but they did not form species-specific subgroups. The nucleotide substitution pattern in S-RNases of flowering cherry showed no excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to synonymous substitutions. However, the S-RNases of flowering cherry had a higher Ka/Ks ratio than those of other Prunus cultivars, and a subtle heterogeneity in the nucleotide substitution rates was observed among the Prunus species. The S-genotype of each individual was determined by Southern blotting of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA, using cDNA for S-RNase as a probe. A total of 22 S-alleles were identified. All individuals examined were heterozygous, as expected under GSI. The allele frequencies were, contrary to the expectation under GSI, significantly unequal. The two populations studied showed a high degree of overlap, with 18 shared alleles. However, the allele frequencies differed considerably between the two populations.

  18. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  19. Factors Affecting Quality and Health Promoting Compounds during Growth and Postharvest Life of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Correia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport, and storage. During production, the correct combination of scion × rootstock will produce fruits with higher firmness, weight, sugars, vitamins, and phenolic compounds that boost the fruit antioxidant activity. Orchard management, such as applying drip irrigation and summer pruning, will increase fruit sugar levels and total phenolic content, while application of growth regulators can result in improved storability, increased red coloring, increased fruit size, and reduced cracking. Salicylic acid, oxalic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate are promising growth regulators as they also increase total phenolics, anthocyanins, and induce higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. These growth regulators are now also applied as fruit coatings that improve shelf-life with higher antioxidant enzyme activities and total phenolics. Optimizing storage and transport conditions, such as hydro cooling with added CaCl2, chain temperature and relative humidity control, are crucial for slowing down decay of quality attributes and increasing the antioxidant capacity. Application of controlled atmosphere during storage is successful in delaying quality attributes, but lowers ascorbic acid levels. The combination of low temperature storage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is successful in reducing the incidence of fruit decay, while preserving taste attributes and stem color with a higher antioxidant capacity. A new trend in MAP is the use of biodegradable films such as micro-perforated polylactic acid film that combine significant retention of quality attributes, high consumer acceptability, and a reduced environmental footprint. Another trend

  20. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae.

  1. Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Duan, Rui; Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Tan, Linglin; Cheng, Qiang; Liao, Man; Ding, Binying

    2017-11-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P ducks. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Contemporary pollen flow, characterization of the maternal ecological neighbourhood and mating patterns in wild cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, J E; Vaughan, S P; Connolly, T; Sing, L; Moodley, D J; Russell, K

    2009-08-01

    Conversion of lowland woodland to agricultural land and resulting fragmentation in Britain has been ongoing since Neolithic times. To counteract this decline, plantations of native species, often based on non-British planting stock, have been established. This may ultimately be detrimental to the integrity of the native gene pool. We explore the genetic and ecological factors influencing the success of components of the local pollen pool, including the effect of a non-native planting on an ancient woodland population of wild cherry. Wild cherry exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) and vegetative reproduction, both of which may be determinants of paternal success. The majority (61%) of the successful pollen originated from within the study site with a maximum pollen transfer distance of 694 m. There was a distinct departure from random mating, with over half the successful pollen originating from trees which occur within 100 m of the mother tree. Self-incompatibility, clonality, tree size and proximity to the mother tree were all found to influence paternal success. Kinship of pollen gametes within a maternal progeny was highest when a mother tree was surrounded by a large number of ramets of a single, compatible clone consisting of large, adult trees. Although the contribution from the non-native plantation is currently low, it is likely that this will increasingly contribute to the progeny of the adjacent ancient population as it matures. The results clearly show that in self-incompatible species, such as P. avium, close neighbours may be pollinated by very different components of the local pollen pool.

  3. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

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    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  4. Design of ultrasonic probe and evaluation of ultrasonic waves on E.coli in Sour Cherry Juice

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    B Hosseinzadeh Samani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common method used for juice pasteurization is the thermal method since thermal methods contribute highly to inactivating microbes. However, applying high temperatures would lead to inefficient effects on nutrition and food value. Such effects may include vitamin loss, nutritional flavor loss, non-enzyme browning, and protein reshaping (Kuldiloke, 2002. In order to decrease the adverse effects of the thermal pasteurization method, other methods capable of inactivation of microorganisms can be applied. In doing so, non-thermal methods including pasteurization using high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP, electrical fields, and ultrasound waves are of interest (Chen and Tseng, 1996. The reason for diminishing microbial count in the presence of ultrasonic waves could be due to the burst of very tiny bubbles developed by ultrasounds which expand quickly and burst in a short time. Due to this burst, special temperature and pressure conditions are developed which could initiate or intensify several physical and/or chemical reactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. Materials and methods: In order to supply uniform ultrasonic waves, a 1000 W electric generator (Model MPI, Switzerland working at 20±1 kHz frequency was used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. For this purpose, a certain amount of sour cherry fruit was purchased from local markets. First, the fruits were washed, cleaned and cored. The prepared fruits were then dewatered using an electric juicer. In order to separate pulp suspensions and tissue components, the extracted juice was poured into a centrifuge with the speed of 6000 rpm for 20 min. For complete separation of the remaining suspended particles, the transparent portion of the extract was passed through a

  5. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

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    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Changes in fine-root production, phenology and spatial distribution in response to N application in irrigated sweet cherry trees.

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    Artacho, Pamela; Bonomelli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Factors regulating fine-root growth are poorly understood, particularly in fruit tree species. In this context, the effects of N addition on the temporal and spatial distribution of fine-root growth and on the fine-root turnover were assessed in irrigated sweet cherry trees. The influence of other exogenous and endogenous factors was also examined. The rhizotron technique was used to measure the length-based fine-root growth in trees fertilized at two N rates (0 and 60 kg ha(-1)), and the above-ground growth, leaf net assimilation, and air and soil variables were simultaneously monitored. N fertilization exerted a basal effect throughout the season, changing the magnitude, temporal patterns and spatial distribution of fine-root production and mortality. Specifically, N addition enhanced the total fine-root production by increasing rates and extending the production period. On average, N-fertilized trees had a length-based production that was 110-180% higher than in control trees, depending on growing season. Mortality was proportional to production, but turnover rates were inconsistently affected. Root production and mortality was homogeneously distributed in the soil profile of N-fertilized trees while control trees had 70-80% of the total fine-root production and mortality concentrated below 50 cm depth. Root mortality rates were associated with soil temperature and water content. In contrast, root production rates were primarily under endogenous control, specifically through source-sink relationships, which in turn were affected by N supply through changes in leaf photosynthetic level. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous factors interacted to control the fine-root dynamics of irrigated sweet cherry trees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Multigene panel next generation sequencing in a patient with cherry red macular spot: Identification of two novel mutations in NEU1 gene causing sialidosis type I associated with mild to unspecific biochemical and enzymatic findings

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    Ulrike Mütze

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Sialidosis should be suspected in patients with cherry red macular spots, even with non-significant urinary sialic acid excretion. Multigene panel next generation sequencing can establish a definite diagnosis, allowing for counseling of the patient and family.

  8. Determination of S-genotype in apple and sweet cherry cultivars released at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak

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    Marić Slađana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apples and sweet cherries are generally characterized by self-incompatibility, which is controlled by the multiallelic locus S with gametophytic action. Thus the identification of S-genotype represents crucial information for fruit breeders and growers. The aim of this study was to identify the S-genotype of two apple (‘Čačanska Pozna’ and ‘Čadel’ and two sweet cherry (‘Asenova Rana’ and ‘Čarna’ cultivars developed at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method with consensus and allele-specific primers. The S-genotype of apple cultivars ‘Čačanska Pozna’ (S7S9 and ‘Čadel’ (S2S7 were consistent with parental combinations ‘Starking Delicious’ (S9S28 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9 and ‘Golden Delicious’ (S2S3 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9, respectively. For sweet cherry cultivars ‘Asenova Rana’ [‘Drogans Gelbe’ (S1S5 × ‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4] and ‘Čarna’ [‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4 × ‘Bigarreau de Schrecken’ (S1S3], S3S9 and S1S4 were identified respectively, suggesting that the reported pedigree is erroneous. The trueness-to-type of DNA samples of both sweet cherry cultivars was confirmed by comparison of cultivar samples from more than one site. Upon this testing, the remaining inconsistency indicated that aforementioned parentages of the sweet cherry cultivars were incorrect. These discrepancies could be the result of possible pollen contamination, or mistakes either in breeders recording or in seed processing and seedling production. The results of S-genotyping of apple and sweet cherry cultivars provide relevant information on correct assignment of these cultivars to cross-compatibility groups, which are important for cross design in developing new cultivar, as well as for orchard management in the efficient production of fruits. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31064: Development and preservation

  9. A study of spin-lattice relaxation rates of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries using high-T c SQUID-based NMR in ultralow magnetic fields

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    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wu, Pei-Che

    2017-08-01

    We study the concentration dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rates, T 1 -1, of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries by using high-T c SQUID-based NMR at magnetic fields of ˜97 μT. The detected NMR signal, Sy (T Bp), is fitted to [1 - exp(-T Bp/T 1)] to derive T 1 -1, where Sy (T Bp) is the strength of the NMR signal, T Bp is the duration of pre-polarization and T 1 -1 is the spin-lattice relaxation rate. It was found that T 1 -1 increases as the sugar concentrations increase. The increased T 1 -1 is due to the presence of more molecules in the surroundings, which increases the spin-lattice interaction and in turn enhances T 1 -1. The T 1 -1 versus degrees Brix curve provides a basis for determining unknown Brix values for cherries as well as other fruits.

  10. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

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    Evandro eDe Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI from M. circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days. During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC values of 7.5 mg/mL and 10 µL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL and CAR (5 or 2.5 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 µL/mL inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  12. Seeing red; the development of pON.mCherry, a broad-host range constitutive expression plasmid for Gram-negative bacteria.

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    Michael J Gebhardt

    Full Text Available The development of plasmid-mediated gene expression control in bacteria revolutionized the field of bacteriology. Many of these expression control systems rely on the addition of small molecules, generally metabolites or non-metabolized analogs thereof, to the growth medium to induce expression of the genes of interest. The paradigmatic example of an expression control system is the lac system from Escherichia coli, which typically relies on the Ptac promoter and the Lac repressor, LacI. In many cases, however, constitutive gene expression is desired, and other experimental approaches require the coordinated control of multiple genes. While multiple systems have been developed for use in E. coli and its close relatives, the utility and/or functionality of these tools does not always translate to other species. For example, for the Gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of Legionnaires' Disease, the aforementioned Ptac system represents the only well-established expression control system. In order to enhance the tools available to study bacterial gene expression in L. pneumophila, we developed a plasmid, pON.mCherry, which confers constitutive gene expression from a mutagenized LacI binding site. We demonstrate that pON.mCherry neither interferes with other plasmids harboring an intact LacI-Ptac expression system nor alters the growth of Legionella species during intracellular growth. Furthermore, the broad-host range plasmid backbone of pON.mCherry allows constitutive gene expression in a wide variety of Gram-negative bacterial species, making pON.mCherry a useful tool for the greater research community.

  13. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice for 12 weeks improves memory and cognition in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen; Roodenrys, Steven; Batterham, Marijka; Potter, Jan; Traynor, Victoria; Gilbert, Hayley; Morgan, Olivia; Richards, Rachelle

    2017-02-01

    Dietary flavonoids, including anthocyanins, may positively influence cognition and may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of dementia. We aimed to assess whether daily consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice changed cognitive function in older adults with dementia. Blood pressure and anti-inflammatory effects were examined as secondary outcomes. A 12-week randomised controlled trial assessed cognitive outcomes in older adults (+70 year) with mild-to-moderate dementia (n = 49) after consumption of 200 ml/day of either a cherry juice or a control juice with negligible anthocyanin content. Blood pressure and inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. ANCOVA controlling for baseline and RMANOVA assessed change in cognition and blood pressure. Improvements in verbal fluency (p = 0.014), short-term memory (p = 0.014) and long-term memory (p ≤ 0.001) were found in the cherry juice group. A significant reduction in systolic (p = 0.038) blood pressure and a trend for diastolic (p = 0.160) blood pressure reduction was evident in the intervention group. Markers of inflammation (CRP and IL-6) were not altered. Inclusion of an anthocyanin-rich beverage may be a practical and feasible way to improve total anthocyanin consumption in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, with potential to improve specific cognitive outcomes.

  15. A Cherry Seed-Derived Spice, Mahleb, is Recognized by Anti-Almond Antibodies Including Almond-Allergic Patient IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Kyle A; Liu, Changqi; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2017-08-01

    There are a number of examples of immunologic cross-reactivity elicited by pollens, fruits, seeds, and nuts of closely related plant species. Such cross-reactivity is of particular concern for patients with food allergies. In this report, we investigated a spice (mahleb) that is prepared from the kernel of the St. Lucie cherry, Prunus mahaleb, for cross-reactivity with almond (Prunus dulcis), using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Almond and mahleb are members of the same genus. Cross-reactivity between the mahleb and almond was demonstrated by reaction of cherry and almond kernel protein extracts with antibodies raised against almond proteins. Almond-specific murine monoclonal IgG, rabbit polyclonal IgG, and almond-allergic serum IgE each exhibited cross-reactivity with cherry kernel protein. Because of the demonstrated cross-reactivity between almond and mahleb, these findings should be of special concern to almond-allergic patients and attending medical personnel. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Oregano essential oil-based natural antimicrobial packaging film to inactivate Salmonella enterica and yeasts/molds in the atmosphere surrounding cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sang-Jo; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film containing the natural antimicrobial oregano essential oil (OEO) as an active packaging application for decreasing the microbial growth. The film exerted an antimicrobial effect via the atmosphere surrounding the food rather than direct contact, thereby preserving the quality of cherry tomatoes. A packaging film containing microencapsulated OEO was developed. The loading content increased gradually (104.29-234.29 μg OEO/mg film) with the amount of OEO incorporated (1%, 2%, and 3%), where the PVA films containing 2% OEO had the highest loading efficiency (91.64%), followed by 1% OEO (90.96%) and 3% OEO (88.38%). The antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated by applying it to fresh cherry tomatoes at 4 °C and 22 °C for 7 days. The large 2% OEO film as well as both the small and large 3% OEO films had strong antimicrobial effects against Salmonella enterica, molds and yeasts, and mesophilic aerobic bacteria. The changes in the hardness, weight, and color of the cherry tomatoes during storage did not differ significantly. The films could be utilized as a packaging material for fresh produce with antimicrobial effects because of the controlled atmosphere surrounding the food rather than by direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Produtos de acerola: estudo da estabilidade de vitamina C West indian cherry products: study of vitamin C stability

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    Fábio Yamashita

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A acerola é um fruto altamente perecível e que contém altos teores de vitamina C, sendo este o seu principal atrativo em termos nutricionais. A atual legislação brasileira prevê uma variação de, no máximo, 20% do teor dos nutrientes especificados no rótulo. Devido a essa exigência seria importante que os fabricantes considerassem tanto o teor inicial de vitamina C quanto a perda ao longo da armazenagem dos produtos de acerola. Neste trabalho, foi feito o acompanhamento da estabilidade da vitamina C em polpa pasteurizada e acerola in natura congeladas, ambas armazenadas a -12ºC e -18ºC, e em suco de acerola pasteurizado engarrafado, mantido a temperatura ambiente, ao longo de 4 meses de armazenagem. As polpas congeladas não apresentaram degradação significativa durante este período, já as in natura apresentaram cinética de degradação de 1ª ordem e o suco de ordem zero. Após 4 meses de armazenagem as acerolas armazenadas a -12ºC e -18ºC apresentaram teores de 869±12 e 1.223±148 mg vit.C/100g, representando uma perda de 43% e 19%, respectivamente, em relação ao teor inicial. Polpas a -12ºC e -18ºC apresentaram teores de 1.314±6 e 1.322±2 mg vit.C/100g, respectivamente, representando uma perda de, aproximadamente, 3% e o suco apresentou uma perda de 32%, correspondendo a um teor final de 673±17mg vit.C/100g.West indian cherry is a very perishable fruit and its vitamin C content is its principal nutritional appeal. Brazilian legislation admits a 20% variation in the nutrient content from the one specified on the label. Due to this requirement the initial vitamin C content and losses during storage should be known in products. Vitamin C stability in pasteurized pulp and west indian cherry in natura, both frozen and stored at -12ºC e -18ºC and of the pasteurized juice stored at room temperature, were determined during four months. Frozen pulps had no significant vitamin C degradation during this period and fruits in

  18. [A new strategy for enhancing acanthamoebicidal activity with synthesis of nanoflower of Laurocerausus officinalis Roemer (cherry laurel) fruit extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldemir, Ayşe; Karaman, Ülkü; Yusufbeyoğlu, Sadi; Eken, Ayşe; Ildız, Nilay; İlgün, Selen; Çolak, Cemil; Kaçmaz, Gamze; Öçsoy, İsmail; Çankaya, Soner

    2018-01-01

    Pathogenic Acanthamoeba species often cause infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis among people who use contact lenses. It is a type of infection that can result in corneal ulceration, visual loss or even blindness, if not treated. There are various therapeutic options available in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections but they are usually tough treatments with limited efficacy. For instance, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a commonly used contact lens disinfectant which is effective against Acanthamoeba but it is toxic to the cornea. For these reasons, new and more efficacious treatment options are required for Acanthamoeba infections. In this context, plants are considered natural resources for the discovery of new drugs. Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (cherry laurel) (Rosaceae) grows in Black Sea region; and it is known as "Taflan", "Laz kirazı" or "Karayemis". Local people are using the seeds against diabetes, while the fruits are consuming as food, and used fordiuretic and passing kidney stones. It has also been reported that the seeds of the cherry laurel are used as an antiparasitic agent in this area. The aim of the study was to confirm the traditionally use of antiparasitic activity of this fruit and to increase the potential effect by means of organic-inorganic hybrid synthesis. Total phenol contents of methanol extracts prepared from endocarp, mesocarp and seeds of the fruit were calculated. The effects of methanol extracts and nano flower (NFs) plants synthesized from these extracts on the proliferation of Acanthamoeba castellanii were investigated. Thus, for the first time, novel organic-inorganic nanobio-antiparasitic agents called NFs were produced from cherry laurel and the increase in the amoebicidal activity of the NFs was elucidated. The characterization of NFs were determined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. In addition, the catalytic

  19. Desempenho de substratos no cultivo do tomateiro do grupo cereja Performance of substrates on cherry tomato gowth

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    Carolina Fernandes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de substratos compostos por areia, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e casca de amendoim no cultivo do tomateiro do grupo cereja. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com sete substratos e quatro repetições. Os substratos resultaram da combinação de proporções volumétricas de areia (A, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BC e casca de amendoim (CA: S1 = A; S2 = 2/3 A + 1/3 BC; S3 = 2/3 A + 1/3 CA; S4 = 2/3 A + 1/6 BC + 1/6 CA; S5 = 1/2 A + 1/2 BC; S6 = 1/2 A + 1/2 CA e S7 = 1/3 A + 1/3 BC + 1/3 CA. As variáveis avaliadas foram submetidas à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Os valores de densidade (D, espaço de aeração (EA e água facilmente disponível (AFD dos substratos foram estatisticamente diferentes. Os substratos apresentaram valores de D entre 790 e 1604 kg m-3, EA entre 2 e 21% e AFD entre 14 e 25%. A produtividade do tomateiro cultivado nos diferentes substratos foi estatisticamente igual, variando entre 8,5 e 10,7 kg m-2. O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e a casca de amendoim podem ser utilizados na composição de substratos à base de areia, para o cultivo do tomateiro do grupo cereja, cultivar Sindy, em casa de vegetação.Cherry tomato growth was evaluated using substrates composed of sand, crushed sugar cane and peanut bark, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was the complete randomized block with seven substrates and four replications. The seven substrates were made up of different combinations of sand (S, crushed sugar cane (CSC and peanut bark (PB: S1 = S; S2 = 2/3 S + 1/3 CSC; S3 = 2/3 S + 1/3 PB; S4 = 2/3 S + 1/6 CSC + 1/6 PB; S5 = 1/2 S + 1/2 CSC; S6 = 1/2 S + 1/2 PB e S7 = 1/3 S + 1/3 CSC + 1/3 PB. The evaluated parameters were submitted to a variance analysis and averages were compared by the Tukey test, at 5% probability level. The bulk density (BD, aeration space (AS and easily available

  20. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  1. Propagação da pitangueira através da enxertia de garfagem Surinam cherry propagation through grafting

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    Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pitangueira é uma frutífera nativa com potencial para exploração comercial. Entretanto, os métodos de propagação mais comuns não são satisfatórios para a multiplicação desta espécie em larga escala. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar o uso do método de enxertia de garfagem no topo, em fenda cheia e dupla fenda, bem como a melhor época para a realização desta prática (julho, agosto e setembro, nas condições do Sul do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2005, na Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (tipo de garfagem x época de enxertia, com 5 repetições. Conclui-se que a enxertia de garfagem no topo, em fenda cheia e/ou em dupla fenda, pode ser utilizada para a propagação vegetativa da pitangueira durante o inverno, sendo que a enxertia de garfagem em fenda cheia proporcionou melhores percentuais de pegamento dos enxertos (60,0% do que a garfagem em dupla fenda (44,2%. Quanto à época, os melhores percentuais foram obtidos no mês de setembro, com 67,5% de pegamento dos enxertos, seguido pelo mês de agosto e julho, com 51,3% e 37,5%, respectivamente.The Surinam cherry is a native fruit from Brazil with a great potential for commercial production. However, the common clonal propagation methods have not given a high percentage of success. The present work had the aim to test the use of two types of grafting: cleft graft and wedge graft as well as the best time to use this technique (July, August and September, under Southern Brazil conditions. The experiment was carried out at EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, in Pelotas, RS, in the year of 2005. The experimental design was completely randomized arranged as a 2x3 factorial plan (type of grafting x time, with 5 replications . It was concluded that both types of grafting could be used, during the winter time, for asexual propagation of Surinam cherry. Cleft grafting had the highest percentage of

  2. Time indices of multiphasic development in genotypes of sweet cherry are similar from dormancy to cessation of pit growth.

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    Gibeaut, David M; Whiting, Matthew D; Einhorn, Todd

    2017-02-01

    The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size. Volume was calculated from photographic measurements of reproductive buds, ovaries and pits at all phases of development. A population of unfertilized ovaries was produced using bee-exclusion netting to enable a statistical comparison with an open pollinated population to detect differences in size and shape between successful and failing fruit growth. Anthesis timing and fruiting-density were manipulated by floral extinction at the spur and whole-tree scales. Developmental time indices were analysed using polynomial curve fitting of log-transformed data supported by Richards and logistic functions of asymptotic growth of the pit and maturing fruit, respectively. Pre-anthesis growth began at the completion of eco-dormancy. A slight decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was observed during bud scale separation approx. -16 d from anthesis (DFA) before resumption of exponential growth to a maximum about 14 DFA. After anthesis, reduced growth of unfertilized or defective ovaries was partly discriminated from successful fruit at 5 DFA and completely at 25 DFA. Time indices of RGR inflections were similar among cultivars when adjusted for anthesis date alone, until the end of pit growth. Asymptotic growth of the pit underpinned the declining growth rate of fruit at the end of the first exponential

  3. Characterization of edible films of Swartzia burchelli phosphated starches and development of coatings for post-harvest application to cherry tomatoes

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    Millene Aparecida Gomes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The market demand for corn starch and cassava continues to increase because of their use in edible applications, their biodegradable nature, and other appealing properties. As a result, there is a need to identify alternative starch sources, for example, the seeds of S. burchelli, with the potential to be modified for use in post-harvest applications. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and characterize edible films based on the starch phosphates of the seeds of S. burchelli, with the specific aim to apply these starches to cherry tomatoes for post-harvest conservation. After extraction, the starch was phosphorylated with sodium tripolyphosphate (STP in different concentrations and times according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with additional treatment (native starch. After modification, the starch phosphates were selected for the preparation of edible films using glycerol as a plasticizer, in proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% for each selected starch. The films were measured for thickness, permeability to water vapor and solubility in water. According to their permeability values, 4 films were selected for application in the coverage of cherry tomatoes. The conservation of cherry tomatoes with and without coverage was studied over 8 evaluation times (up to 21 days at 10±2 °C and 80±5% relative humidity. The weight loss, soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturation index, and firmness were measured every 3 days during storage. The starch phosphates showed a phosphorus content within that established by standards, such that the resulting films are acceptable for use in food for human consumption. The edible films presented with an acceptable appearance and without the development of cracks. The concentration of glycerol and the type of starch influenced the characteristics of the films, increasing the permeability and reducing the water solubility of the various edible films. The best result obtained regarding the conservation of cherry

  4. Engaging the community in the process of changing school start times: experience of the Cherry Creek School District.

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    Meltzer, Lisa J; McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy E; Siegfried, Scott A

    2017-12-01

    Despite growing evidence of the positive impact of later school start times on adolescent health and academic outcomes, relatively few districts have changed start times due to concerns about transportation, child care, and athletics/extracurricular activities. This paper provides a case study of the Cherry Creek School District's (CCSD) successful efforts to change start times. The CCSD is a diverse district with an enrollment of almost 55,000 students in suburban Denver. As part of CCSD's strategic plan, a multi-disciplinary task force was formed to examine the impact of start times on student achievement, and recommend a start time schedule driven by best practices on adolescent sleep patterns, balanced with family and community needs. Over 18 months the task force's work included engaging the community through meetings, as well as conducting a large survey (n = 24,574) of parents, teachers, and students, and gathering online feedback. An iterative process utilized feedback at every stage to refine the final recommendation given to the Board of Education. Survey results, implementation considerations, outcome evaluation plans, and lessons learned are discussed. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-01-01

    A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt) of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02) and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV) is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  6. Liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.): characterization of aqueous dispersions and lyophilized formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, P A; Yokota, D; Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A F; Pinho, S C

    2010-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves were produced by dry film hydration. Gas chromatography demonstrated the compounds found in the essential oil were effectively incorporated in the aqueous dispersions of liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the incorporation of the essential oil did not cause phase separation in the membrane structure; the gel-liquid crystalline transition temperature (main transition) remained the same despite the higher heterogeneity indicated by the transition peak broadening. Different cryoprotectors (sucrose and trehalose) were added to the liposomal formulations to be tested in their ability to protect the liposomal structure during the lyophilization. The morphological aspect of the lyophilized powders analysed by scanning electron microscopy showed significant differences among the samples with and without cryoprotectors. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the cryoprotectors interacted effectively with the polar heads of phospholipids in the bilayer. In terms of water absorption, trehalose was identified as a much more effective protector agent against it than sucrose. The cryoprotectors showed different degrees of effectiveness of preservation of the liposomal structure when the rehydration assays of lyophilized liposomes were carried out, as particle size measurements indicated a moderate process of fusion when the formulations with sucrose were rehydrated.

  7. The price of protection: a defensive endosymbiont impairs nymph growth in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Daniel J; Bos, Jorunn I B; Valentine, Tracy A; Karley, Alison J

    2018-05-24

    Bacterial endosymbionts have enabled aphids to adapt to a range of stressors, but their effects in many aphid species remain to be established. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus), is an important pest of cereals worldwide and has been reported to form symbiotic associations with Serratia symbiotica and Sitobion miscanthi L-type Symbiont endobacteria, although the resulting aphid phenotype has not been described. This study presents the first report of R. padi infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Individuals of R. padi were sampled from populations in Eastern Scotland, UK, and shown to represent seven R. padi genotypes based on the size of polymorphic microsatellite markers; two of these genotypes harboured H. defensa. In parasitism assays, survival of H. defensa-infected nymphs following attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani (Viereck) was five-fold higher than for uninfected nymphs. Aphid genotype was a major determinant of aphid performance on two Hordeum species, a modern cultivar of barley H. vulgaris and a wild relative H. spontaneum, although aphids infected with H. defensa showed 16% lower nymph mass gain on the partially-resistant wild relative compared with uninfected individuals. These findings suggest that deploying resistance traits in barley will favour the fittest R. padi genotypes, but symbiont-infected individuals will be favoured when parasitoids are abundant, although these aphids will not achieve optimal performance on a poor quality host plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Montmorency Cherries Reduce the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses to Repeated Days High-Intensity Stochastic Cycling

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    Phillip G. Bell

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the impact of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC on physiological indices of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage across 3 days simulated road cycle racing. Trained cyclists (n = 16 were divided into equal groups and consumed 30 mL of MC or placebo (PLA, twice per day for seven consecutive days. A simulated, high-intensity, stochastic road cycling trial, lasting 109 min, was completed on days 5, 6 and 7. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured from blood samples collected at baseline and immediately pre- and post-trial on days 5, 6 and 7. Analyses for lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and creatine kinase (CK were conducted. LOOH (p < 0.01, IL-6 (p < 0.05 and hsCRP (p < 0.05 responses to trials were lower in the MC group versus PLA. No group or interaction effects were found for the other markers. The attenuated oxidative and inflammatory responses suggest MC may be efficacious in combating post-exercise oxidative and inflammatory cascades that can contribute to cellular disruption. Additionally, we demonstrate direct application for MC in repeated days cycling and conceivably other sporting scenario’s where back-to-back performances are required.

  9. The Assessment Of The Risk Of Allergenicity Of ‘Sabina’ And ‘Debreceni Bötermö’ Sour Cherry Cvs (Prunus Cerasus L. In A Guinea Pig Model

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    Jasińska-Stroschein Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The allergic reactions to fruits are lesser known among food sensitivities. The most common fruits belonging to the Rosaceae family that might cause allergic reactions are apples, pears and peaches. However, little is known about the potential allergic reactions caused by another member of the Rosaceae, the cherry. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of any allergic reaction or food hypersensitivity resulting from topical application and chronic oral administration of cherry fruits. The cherry fruits ‘Sabina’ cv. were produced in the orchard in Dąbrowice according to the principles of integrated (IFP and organic (OR productions. Fruits of ‘Debreceni Bötermö’ cv. were produced in Dąbrowice (IFP, and in the orchard in Nowy Dwór (OR. The experiments were performed on 65 outbred young, adult, white albinotic guinea pigs (Dankin Hartley. Three procedures were applied: I. Guinea-Pig Maximization Test (GPMT; II. Chronic administration of fruits and III. Skin prick (Dreborg test. The skin reactions based on GPMT or Dreborg tests revealed no differences between the two cherry cultivars ‘Sabina’ and ‘Debreceni’ obtained from integrated or organic production. Similarly, it was not observed of any effect of cultivars of cherries nor the type of fruits production on the guinea pig skin reaction as a result of chronic feeding with fruits.

  10. Content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of pumpkin puree enriched with japanese quince, cornelian cherry, strawberry and apples.

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    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2011-01-01

    When evaluated in terms of taste, smell or active ingredients, pumpkin in itself is not very attractive as a raw material. Hence, it is recommended to blend pumpkin with other fruits, which are aromatic, have a defined taste, and contain a large quantity of active ingredients and organic acids to improve its palatibility. The pumpkin chosen for the experiments was of the variety Karowita, of species Cucurbita maxima. Ten different of compositions were prepared for the purpose of the study: 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry each, or 20 and 30% (w/w) of strawberry and apple each. The puree was then analysed for dry matter, extract, viscosity, colour, vitamin C, total polyphenols, carotenoids and DPPH. The highest content of vitamin C, which was in direct proportion to the quantity of the supplement added (17.88 to 23.43 mg·100 g(-1)), was detected in the quince-enriched puree. The lowest vitamin C content was determined in apple-enriched samples (1.36 to 1.6 mg·100 g(-1)). A similar pattern was observed with total polyphenols: the highest values were measured in quince-enriched puree, and the lowest in the puree supplemented with apple. Taking into account antioxidant properties of the samples, quince-enriched pumpkin puree was found to be the most attractive, and apple-enriched pumpkin puree the least attractive one. The results suggest a wide range of application for pumpkin puree enriched with various additives.

  11. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1-4) encoding 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levers, Kyle; Dalton, Ryan; Galvan, Elfego; Goodenough, Chelsea; O'Connor, Abigail; Simbo, Sunday; Barringer, Nicholas; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Riechman, Steven; Crouse, Stephen; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70% of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC

  13. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS.

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    Verónica Guajardo

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.

  14. Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Karen M; Bell, Phillip G; Lodge, John K; Constantinou, Costas L; Jenkinson, Sarah E; Bass, Rosemary; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of selected phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a randomised, double-blinded, crossover design, 12 healthy males consumed either 30 or 60 mL of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate. Following analysis of the juice composition, venous blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-consumption of the beverage. In addition to examining some aspects of the concentrate contents, plasma concentrations of protocatechuic acid (PCA), vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic (CHL) acid were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array for quantitation and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS) for qualitative purposes. Vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation were also assessed in vitro. Both the 30 and 60 mL doses of Montmorency cherry concentrate contained high amounts of total phenolics (71.37 ± 0.11; 142.73 ± 0.22 mg/L) and total anthocyanins (62.47 ± 0.31; 31.24 ± 0.16 mg/L), as well as large quantities of CHL (0.205 ± 0.24; 0.410 ± 0.48 mg/L) and VA (0.253 ± 0.84; 0.506 ± 1.68 mg/L). HPLC/LCMS identified two dihydroxybenzoic acids (PCA and VA) in plasma following MC concentrate consumption. Both compounds were most abundant 1-2 h post-initial ingestion with traces detectable at 8 h post-ingestion. Cell migration was significantly influenced by the combination of PCA and VA, but not in isolation. There was no effect of the compounds on cell proliferation. These data show new information that phenolic compounds thought to exert vasoactive properties are bioavailable in vivo following MC consumption and subsequently can influence cell behaviour. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of Montmorency cherries.

  15. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  16. Combination of antagonistic yeasts with two food additives for control of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G Z; Tian, S P; Xu, Y; Chan, Z L; Li, B Q

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate beneficial effect of two food additives, ammonium molybdate (NH4-Mo) and sodium bicarbonate (NaBi), on antagonistic yeasts for control of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola in sweet cherry fruit under various storage conditions. The mechanisms of action by which food additives enhance the efficacy of antagonistic yeasts were also evaluated. Biocontrol activity of Pichia membranefaciens and Cryptococcus laurentii against brown rot in sweet cherry fruit was improved by addition of 5 mmol l(-1) NH4-Mo or 2% NaBi when stored in air at 20 and 0 degrees C, and in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage with 10% O2 + 10% CO2 at 0 degrees C. Population dynamics of P. membranefaciens in the wounds of fruit were inhibited by NH4-Mo at 20 degrees C after 1 day of incubation and growth of C. laurentii was inhibited by NH4-Mo at 0 degrees C in CA storage after 60 days. In contrast, NaBi did not significantly influence growth of the two yeasts in fruit wounds under various storage conditions except that the growth of P. membranefaciens was stimulated after storage for 45 days at 0 degrees C in CA storage. When used alone, the two additives showed effective control of brown rot in sweet cherry fruit and the efficacy was closely correlated with the concentrations used. The result of in vitro indicated that growth of M. fructicola was significantly inhibited by NH4-Mo and NaBi. Application of additives improved biocontrol of brown rot on sweet cherry fruit under various storage conditions. It is postulated that the enhancement of disease control is directly because of the inhibitory effects of additives on pathogen growth, and indirectly because of the relatively little influence of additives on the growth of antagonistic yeasts. The results obtained in this study suggest that an integration of NH4-Mo or NaBi with biocontrol agents has great potential in commercial management of postharvest diseases of fruit.

  17. Effects of planting density and bearing-branch composition on the yield of sweet cherry [Prunus avium] grown by hedge-row training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, A.; Shinya, K.; Watanabe, K.; Inomata, M.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the yield of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) grown by hedge-row training, the following two methods were compared: increased numbers of spurs and bouquet spurs to improve the spur composition and narrowed row intervals to increase planting density. To develop spurs and bouquet spurs, 30 cm long branches were positioned at 30 cm intervals on lateral branches in addition to the conventional spur development from 5 cm current shoots. Although this measure decreased the number of bouquet spurs, it increased the total number of spurs including the conventional short spurs to improve the yield to 1,024 kg/10a from 557 kg/10a using conventional hedge-row training. However, this method decreased solar radiation in the tree crowns thereby lowering fruit quality. In contrast, increasing planting density from 3-m intervals to 2- or 1.5-m intervals did not affect fruit quality. Moreover, in contrast to a yield of 588 kg/10a when row intervals were 3 m, the row intervals narrowed to 2 m and 1.5 m improved the yield to 881 kg/10a and 1,101 kg/10a, respectively. The above results show that decreasing row intervals is an effective method for increasing the yield of sweet cherries grown by hedge-row training without lowering fruit quality

  18. Selected Plant Metabolites Involved in Oxidation-Reduction Processes during Bud Dormancy and Ontogenetic Development in Sweet Cherry Buds (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Baldermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many biochemical processes are involved in regulating the consecutive transition of different phases of dormancy in sweet cherry buds. An evaluation based on a metabolic approach has, as yet, only been partly addressed. The aim of this work, therefore, was to determine which plant metabolites could serve as biomarkers for the different transitions in sweet cherry buds. The focus here was on those metabolites involved in oxidation-reduction processes during bud dormancy, as determined by targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry-based methods. The metabolites addressed included phenolic compounds, ascorbate/dehydroascorbate, reducing sugars, carotenoids and chlorophylls. The results demonstrate that the content of phenolic compounds decrease until the end of endodormancy. After a long period of constancy until the end of ecodormancy, a final phase of further decrease followed up to the phenophase open cluster. The main phenolic compounds were caffeoylquinic acids, coumaroylquinic acids and catechins, as well as quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. The data also support the protective role of ascorbate and glutathione in the para- and endodormancy phases. Consistent trends in the content of reducing sugars can be elucidated for the different phenophases of dormancy, too. The untargeted approach with principle component analysis (PCA clearly differentiates the different timings of dormancy giving further valuable information.

  19. Experimental reproduction of beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome by infection in cherry valley ducklings with a novel goose parvovirus-related parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-02-01

    Infection of clinically susceptible ducks, including cherry valley and Muscovy ducks, with a novel goose parvovirus (GPV)-related virus (N-GPV) can result in beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). To obtain new insights into the host range and pathogenic potential of this novel waterfowl parvovirus, cherry valley ducklings (n=20) were experimentally infected with N-GPV strain SDLC01. An equal number of ducklings served as uninfected controls. The appearance of clinical signs, histopathological changes, viral shedding, and seroconversion was monitored for 20 days post-infection. Infection status of all ducks was monitored using indirect ELISA, virus neutralization test, nested PCR, clinical indicators, and microscopic examination. Three ducks developed the typical clinical, gross, and histological changes of BADS. By study day 6, the infected ducks had seroconverted to N-GPV. The antibodies raised were neutralizing against the SDLC01 strain in vitro. Here we successfully developed an experimental infection model for studying the pathogenicity and role of N-GPV in BADS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlewanger, E; Quero-García, J; Le Dantec, L; Lambert, P; Ruiz, D; Dondini, L; Illa, E; Quilot-Turion, B; Audergon, J-M; Tartarini, S; Letourmy, P; Arús, P

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during 3-8 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs for flowering and maturity dates were highly stable, detected each year of evaluation, suggesting that they were not affected by climatic variations. For flowering date, major QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LG) 4 for apricot and sweet cherry and on LG6 for peach. QTLs were identified on LG2, LG3, LG4 and LG7 for the three species. For maturity date, a major QTL was detected on LG4 in the three species. Using the peach genome sequence data, candidate genes underlying the major QTLs on LG4 and LG6 were investigated and key genes were identified. Our results provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in flowering and maturity dates that could be used to develop cultivar ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  2. Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alcoholic fermentation behaviour and wine aroma of cherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Jiang, Xiao Man; Zhao, Yu Ping

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effect of mixed fermentation of non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii ZYMAFLORE Alpha(TD n. Sacch) and Metschnikowia pulcherrima JS22) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts (D254 and EC1118) on the production of cherry wines, in comparison with commonly used mono-culture. Results obtained during AF demonstrated that negligible inhibitory effect was observed in S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair, whereas a strong antagonistic effect was detected between MJS22 and S. cerevisiae strain, resulting in an early death of MJS22. For volatile components determined, S. cerevisiae/MJS22 couple was found to significantly boost the production of most detected compounds, more particularly in higher alcohols, esters, acids and terpenes; while the characteristic of S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair is an increase in fruity esters, higher alcohols and decrease in acid production. Sensory evaluation revealed that S. cerevisiae/MJS22 pair reinforced sweet, green and fatty notes to the cherry wines, and S. cerevisiae/Alpha trial enhanced the fruity odour and reduced green note. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Random Insertion of mCherry Into VP3 Domain of Adeno-associated Virus Yields Fluorescent Capsids With no Loss of Infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Judd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-derived vectors are promising gene delivery systems, and a number of design strategies have been pursued to improve their performance. For example, genetic insertion of proteins into the capsid may be used to achieve vector retargeting, reduced immunogenicity, or to track vector transport. Unfortunately, rational approaches to genetic insertion have experienced limited success due to the unpredictable context-dependent nature of protein folding and the complexity of the capsid's macroassembly. We report the construction and use of a frame-enriched DNase-based random insertion library based on AAV2 cap, called pAAV2_RaPID (Random Peptide Insertion by DNase. The fluorescent mCherry protein was inserted randomly throughout the AAV2 capsid and the library was selected for fluorescent and infectious variants. A capsid site was identified in VP3 that can tolerate the large protein insertion. In contrast to previous efforts to incorporate fluorescent proteins into the AAV2 capsid, the isolated mCherry mutant maintains native infectivity while displaying robust fluorescence. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the pAAV2_RaPID platform library can be used to create fully infectious AAV vectors carrying large functional protein domains on the capsid.

  4. THE IMPACT OF THE IMPULSE BUYING DIMENSION AND CHERRY PICKING: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY (Consumers Case Study in a mall in Central Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Ruswanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to further test the contradictory research result. Mathai & Haridas’ findings (2014 stated that a discounted price did not influence impulse buying. Meanwhile Ruswanti, (2013 found that a discounted price tended to influence the consumers’ spontaneous shopping. Data discovered by Nielsen (2007 stated that apparently 85% of Indonesian consumers tend to buy things on an impulse. This research was in the form of a survey, the sample being 197 people, of whom 96 respondents were female, and males the other 101. The respondents ages were between 17-50 years old, those with an income of 3 million rupiahs numbered 83 persons, 64 people had an income above 5 millions rupiahs, and 50 respondents had an income above 10 million rupiahs. The technical design was a purposive sampling;70% of the consumers liked the discounted products, and bought something on the spur of the moment at least once. The regression analysis was with SPSS 19; the results show that the external, internal, situational environment, products’ variety, and sociocultural effects significantly influenced the cherry picking. The respondents with an income of above 3-5 million preferred spontaneous shopping. This research gives a contribution to the development of the consumers’ behavioral theory through impulse buying and cherry picking.

  5. Effects of replacing a dietary antibacterial agent (zinc bacitracin) with copper salts in Cherry Valley Pekin meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D W; Wang, L C; Wen, C; Hooge, D M; Liang, C; Zhou, Y M

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of high dietary copper concentrations obtained from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC, 58% copper) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4, 25% copper) in replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in duck diets. 2. A total of 960 one-day-old Cherry Valley meat-strain ducks were divided into 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicates per treatment, in a 6-week feeding trial. The ducks were fed a basal diet supplemented with AGP (40 mg zinc bacitracin/kg and 40 mg garlicin/kg of diet) or 150 mg of Cu/kg of diet, given as either CuSO4 or TBCC. 3. The body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake and mortality of ducks were not affected by the dietary treatments. However, the feed/gain ratio of ducks that were fed TBCC diets was significantly lower than those of ducks that were fed CuSO4 diets and were similar to those in the AGP group. 4. TBCC increased the Cu content in the liver tissue of ducks compared with the content in those that were fed the diet supplemented with AGP. TBCC also increased the Fe and Zn content in breast muscles compared with that in ducks that were fed the diet supplemented with CuSO4. 5. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly higher in the serum of ducks that received the diet supplemented with TBCC than AGP or CuSO4. TBCC treatment decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum of ducks compared with groups supplemented with CuSO4. 6. No significant difference was observed in liver or muscle fat content among the different dietary treatment groups. The serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was lower in ducks fed AGP diets than those fed CuSO4 diets. 7. It was concluded that the replacement of AGP with 150 mg of Cu/kg of feed from TBCC improved the feed efficiency, trace mineral deposition and antioxidant status more than when the source of copper was CuSO4.

  6. Hydrology, water quality, and nutrient loads to the Bauman Park Lake, Cherry Valley, Winnebago County, Illinois, May 1996-April 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Trugestaad, Aaron

    1998-01-01

    The Bauman Park Lake occupies a former sand and gravel quarry in the Village of Cherry Valley, Illinois. The lake is eutrophic, and nuisance growths of algae and aquatic macrophytes are supported by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) that are derived primarily from ground-water inflow, the main source of water for the lake. The lake has an average depth of about 18 feet, a maximum depth of about 28 feet, and a volume of 466 acre-feet at a stage of about 717 feet above sea level. The lake also is subject to thermal stratification, and although most of the lake is well oxidized, nearly anoxic conditions were present at the lake bottom during part of the summer of 1996. 4,648 pounds of nitrogen compounds were added to the Bauman Park Lake from May 1996 through April 1997. Phosphorus compounds were derived primarily from inflow from ground water (68.7 percent), sediments derived from shoreline erosion (15.6 percent), internal regeneration (11.7 percent), waterfowl excrement (1.6 percent), direct precipitation and overland runoff (1.2 percent), and particulate matter deposited from the atmosphere (1.2 percent). Nitrogen compounds were derived from inflow from ground water (62.1 percent), internal regeneration (19.6 percent), direct precipitation and overland runoff (10.1 percent), particulate matter deposited from the atmosphere (3.5 percent), sediments derived from shoreline erosion (4.4 percent), and waterfowl excrement (0.3 percent). About 13 pounds of phosphorus and 318 pounds of nitrogen compounds flow out of the lake to ground water. About 28 pounds of nitrogen is removed by denitrification. Algae and aquatic macrophytes utilize nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and dissolved phosphorus. The availability of dissolved phosphorus in the lake water controls algal growth. Uptake of the nutrients, by aquatic macrophytes and algae, temporarily removes nutrients from the water column but not from the lake basin. Because the amount of nutrients entering the lake greatly exceeds

  7. Above-ground woody biomass allocation and within tree carbon and nutrient distribution of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Morhart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global search for new ways to sequester carbon has already reached agricultural lands. Such land constitutes a major potential carbon sink. The production of high value timber within agroforestry systems can facilitate an in-situ carbon storage function. This is followed by a potential long term ex- situ carbon sinkwithin long lasting products such as veneer and furniture. For this purpose wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is an interesting option for middle Europe, yielding high prices on the timber market. Methods: A total number of 39 wild cherry were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to assess the leafless above ground biomass. The complete trees including stem and branches were separated into 1 cm diameter classes. Wood and bark from sub-samples were analysed separately and nutrient content was derived. Models for biomass estimation were constructed for all tree compartments. Results: The smallest diameter classes possess the highest proportion of bark due to smaller cross sectional area. Tree boles with a greater amount of stem wood above 10 cm in diameter will have a more constant bark proportion. Total branch bark proportion also remains relatively constant above d1.3m measurements of 8 cm. A balance is evident between the production of new branches with a low diameter and high bark proportion offset by the thickening and a relative reduction in bark proportion in larger branches. The results show that a single tree with an age of 17 and 18 years can store up to 85 kg of carbon within the aboveground biomass portion, an amount that will increase as the tree matures. Branches display greater nutrient content than stem sections per volume unit which can be attributed to a greater bark proportion. Conclusions: Using the derived models the carbon and the nutrient content of above-ground woody biomass of whole trees can be calculated. Suggested values for carbon with other major and minor nutrients held within relatively immature trees

  8. Variabilidade fenotípica em genótipos de acerola Phenotypic variability in West Indian cherry genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EVERALDO GOMES

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available As medidas de variabilidade fenotípica, correlações, efeitos diretos e indiretos na aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata DC. da região de Itápolis, SP, objetivaram direcionar o processo seletivo de genótipos. Os parâmetros comprimento e largura média de folhas, altura de planta, diâmetro de copa, peso médio de fruto, peso médio de polpa/fruto, peso médio de 20 frutos e peso médio de polpa por 20 frutos mostraram diferenças quanto a genótipos e épocas. Em acidez, tamanho e largura média de fruto, as diferenças são exclusivas em relação a épocas, sugerindo ações de condições climáticas. A altura é um bom parâmetro tipificador na diferenciação e seleção de genótipos. As condições meteorológicas podem influenciar marcadamente em caracteres tecnológicos (acidez e em medidas dos frutos. Destacaram-se as associações positivas entre comprimento de folhas com tamanho e peso de frutos e as correlações negativas destes com vitamina C; seguida de correlações positivas e significativas de tamanho com largura de frutos. Dos efeitos diretos sobre vitamina C, relacionam-se os efeitos de Brix e diâmetro de copa como positivos. Contudo, nas condições estudadas, as medidas das folhas estão associadas positivamente com tamanho e peso dos frutos e negativamente com vitamina C. Além disso, observa-se que as medidas dos frutos associam-se positivamente com os caracteres de peso e rendimento, que estão negativamente associados com vitamina C. A seleção sobreBrix pode direcionar ganhos em polpa e em vitamina C.The measures in the phenotypic variability, correlation, direct and indirect effects in the West Indian cherry (Malpighia emarginata DC., from Itápolis, São Paulo State, Brazil, aimed to subsidize the management of the selective process in the genotypes. The parameters length and width of leaves, height of plant, diameter of canopy, weight medium of fruit, weight of pulp/fruit, weight medium of 20 fruits and weight

  9. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another Los estudios epidemiológicos son como las cerezas, van una detrás de la otra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Lunet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations.El proverbio "Las palabras son como las cerezas" que expresa cómo cuando empezamos a hablar los asuntos van surgiendo de manera encadenada y terminamos con largas conversaciones, del mismo modo en que las cerezas que salen del plato encadenadas cuando cogemos una, puede también puede ser aplicado a la investigación epidemiológica. Una secuencia de estudios epidemiológicos, cada uno derivado del anterior, se presenta como un ejemplo de cómo cada investigación puede derivar en nuevas cuestiones en los estudios siguientes. Esta descripción subraya la necesidad de una planificación adecuada así como la utilidad de los estudios piloto para describir las deficiencias que difícilmente podrían haber sido anticipadas sin trabajo de campo. Se pretende ilustrar como la investigación epidemiológica puede proporcionar un enfoque profundo a cuestiones de investigación, siempre y cuando los resultados sean interpretados correctamente y las opciones metodológicas subóptimas sean tenidas en cuenta en futuras investigaciones.

  10. Energy flow and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional sweet cherry orchards located in or close to Natura 2000 sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litskas, Vassilios D.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Kiose-Kampasakali, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    An energy analysis in orchards is useful to deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate, by selecting organic and conventional sweet cherry orchards located in/or close to Natura 2000 sites (a) the energy flow between the two farming systems and (b) the effect of farming system to gas emissions (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O). Twenty farms [(2-conventional and 2-organic) x 5-locations] were selected during 2003-2004. Means averaged over all locations for insecticides and fungicides application, fuel, insecticides, fungicides, non-renewable energy inputs, energy shoot outputs, energy fruit outputs, energy shoot + fruit outputs, fruit production, shoot efficiency, fruit efficiency, shoot + fruit efficiency, non-renewable energy efficiency, gas emissions were higher in conventional than in organic orchards, while fertilizer application, harvesting, fertilizers, labor, total energy inputs, renewable energy inputs, intensity and non-renewable energy consumption were higher in organic orchards. Means averaged over two farming systems for fertilizer, insecticide and fungicide application were higher in GRL2 and GRL5. The means averaged over two systems for transportation had the highest value in GRL4 and the lowest in GRL5. Finally, means averaged over two farming systems for labor had the highest value in GRL2. Non-renewable energy inputs as percent of total inputs were 82.63 and 52.42% in conventional and organic sweet cherry orchards respectively. The results show that organic farming systems could reduce non-renewable energy inputs and gas emissions in an efficient way in areas related to Natura 2000 sites.

  11. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs and their effect on virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-qing

    2014-12-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are silencing signals in plants. Virus-resistant transgenic rootstocks developed through siRNA-mediated gene silencing may enhance virus resistance of nontransgenic scions via siRNAs transported from the transgenic rootstocks. However, convincing evidence of rootstock-to-scion movement of siRNAs of exogenous genes in woody plants is still lacking. To determine whether exogenous siRNAs can be transferred, nontransgenic sweet cherry (scions) was grafted on transgenic cherry rootstocks (TRs), which was transformed with an RNA interference (RNAi) vector expressing short hairpin RNAs of the genomic RNA3 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA). Small RNA sequencing was conducted using bud tissues of TRs and those of grafted (rootstock/scion) trees, locating at about 1.2 m above the graft unions. Comparison of the siRNA profiles revealed that the PNRSV-hpRNA was efficient in producing siRNAs and eliminating PNRSV in the TRs. Furthermore, our study confirmed, for the first time, the long-distance (1.2 m) transfer of PNRSV-hpRNA-derived siRNAs from the transgenic rootstock to the nontransgenic scion in woody plants. Inoculation of nontransgenic scions with PNRSV revealed that the transferred siRNAs enhanced PNRSV resistance of the scions grafted on the TRs. Collectively, these findings provide the foundation for 'using transgenic rootstocks to produce products of nontransgenic scions in fruit trees'. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Adaptive Response of Listeria monocytogenes to Heat, Salinity and Low pH, after Habituation on Cherry Tomatoes and Lettuce Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poimenidou, Sofia V; Chatzithoma, Danai-Natalia; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens found on fresh produce may encounter low temperatures, high acidity and limited nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of habituation of Listeria monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes or lettuce leaves on its subsequent response to inhibitory levels of acid, osmotic and heat stress. Habituation was performed by inoculating lettuce coupons, whole cherry tomatoes or tryptic soy broth (TSB) with a three-strains composite of L. monocytogenes, which were further incubated at 5°C for 24 hours or 5 days. Additionally, cells grown overnight in TSB supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) at 30°C were used as control cells. Following habituation, L. monocytogenes cells were harvested and exposed to: (i) pH 3.5 adjusted with lactic acid, acetic acid or hydrochloric acid (HCl), and pH 1.5 (HCl) for 6 h; (ii) 20% NaCl and (iii) 60°C for 150 s. Results showed that tomato-habituated L. monocytogenes cells were more tolerant (P lettuce, and habituation on both foods resulted in more stress resistant cells than prior growth in TSB. On the contrary, the highest resistance to heat stress (P lettuce-habituated L. monocytogenes cells followed by TSB-grown cells at 5°C for 24 h, whereas tomato-habituated cells were highly sensitized. Prolonged starvation on fresh produce (5 days vs. 24 h) increased resistance to osmotic and acid stress, but reduced thermotolerance, regardless of the pre-exposure environment (i.e., tomatoes, lettuce or TSB). These results indicate that L. monocytogenes cells habituated on fresh produce at low temperatures might acquire resistance to subsequent antimicrobial treatments raising important food safety implications.

  13. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  14. Cloning and expression profiling of the PacSnRK2 and PacPP2C gene families during fruit development, ABA treatment, and dehydration stress in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Guo, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Yuzhuang; Wang, Yantao; Peng, Xiang; Wei, Yan; Zhai, Zefeng; Zhao, Wei; Li, Tianhong

    2017-10-01

    Plant SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) and protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family members are core components of the ABA signal transduction pathway. SnRK2 and PP2C proteins have been suggested to play crucial roles in fruit ripening and improving plant tolerance to drought stress, but supporting genetic information has been lacking in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Here, we cloned six full-length SnRK2 genes and three full-length PP2C genes from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that PacSnRK2.2, PacSnRK2.3, PacSnRK2.6, and PacPP2C1-3 were negatively regulated in fruits in response to exogenous ABA treatment, PacSnRK2.4 and PacSnRK2.5 were upregulated, and PacSnRK2.1 expression was not affected. The ABA treatment also significantly promoted the accumulation of anthocyanins in sweet cherry fruit. The expression of all PacSnRK2 and PacPP2C genes was induced by dehydration stress, which also promoted the accumulation of drought stress signaling molecules in the sweet cherry fruits, including ABA, soluble sugars, and anthocyanin. Furthermore, a yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that PacPP2C1 interacts with all six PacSnRK2s, while PacPP2C3 does not interact with PacSnRK2.5. PacPP2C2 does not interact with PacSnRK2.1 or PacSnRK2.4. These results indicate that PacSnRK2s and PacPP2Cs may play a variety of roles in the sweet cherry ABA signaling pathway and the fruit response to drought stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Potassium Concentration in Nutrient Solution on Lycopene, Vitamin C and Qualitative Characteristics of Cherry Tomato in Saline Conditions

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    E. Shabani Sangtarashani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K has a special place in improving the quality of agricultural products. To evaluate the effect of K concentration in nutrient solution on lycopene content, vitamin C and qualitative characteristics of cherry tomato in NaCl salinity conditions, an experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications at university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, in 2010. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of K (0.2, 2, 7 and 14 mM in nutrient solution with 60 mM NaCl concentration. A nutrient solution treatment without salinity was considered as control. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in a hydroponic system. The results indicated that increasing of K concentration increased lycopene content in fruit. Lycopene content in control treatment showed significant difference (P<0.01 in comparison with salinity treatments. With increasing the K concentration (except at 14 mM concentration, vitamin C content was increased, but indicated no statistically significant difference. Vitamin C content in saline conditions was more than control treatment, but showed no significant difference. Adding potassium concentration in nutrient solution improved yield and enhanced quality parameters such as percentage of dry matter, soluble solids and electrical conductivity of fruit extract. Since in saline conditions, the qualitative characteristics of tomato at 7 mM concentration were in the best situation, therefore using this concentration is recommended.

  16. Biological systems coupled for treating wastewater from processing coffee cherries: I – Removal of organic matter - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13627

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    Ronaldo Fia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of upflow anaerobic filters followed by constructed wetlands (CW were evaluated in the treatment of wastewater from processing coffee cherries (WCP. The filters (F were made up of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and SACs were made of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed with HDPE geomembranes and filled with gravel ‘zero’. WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio equal to 100/5/1. As a result, the values of influent and effluent pH remained within the range appropriate to the biological degradation of organic material. The system could not bear the shock of the organic load, which reduced the organic matter removal efficiency. Based on the analysis of performance and operating conditions employed, only the system that received the lowest organic load (F1+CW1 on the third phase, was effective in removing organic matter.  

  17. Activity of in vitro forms of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on cariogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa C; Freires, Irlan A; Almeida, Leopoldina F D; Moura, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo D; Paulo, Marçal Q; Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469). Five dentifrices were used: D1: containing hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D2: containing fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D3: containing triclosan and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L; D4: containing triclosan, fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D5: positive control (Colgate Total 12). To determine the antibacterial activity, the technique used was the minimum inhibitory concentration by the diffusion method in solid culture medium. At the concentration 0.05 g/mL, the best results were achieved with D1 (18 mm) and D4 (24 mm) on L.casei, and with D3 (19 mm) on S. oralis. The dentifrices D3 and D4 were found to have greater activity on the Streptococcus oralis, while D4 and D1 were found to have greater activity on Lactobaccilus casei. It is concluded that dentifrices with Eugenia uniflora L. have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that clinical trials should be conducted.

  18. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2014-01-01

    . The remaining 8 pollen types were from entomophilous plants. Based on the results it is estimated that a mean of 220,000 O. rufa cocoons would be needed per hectare if the species were to be an effective, supplementary pollinator of P. cerasus cv. Stevnsbaer. Practical, economic and environmental considerations...... investigates the activity and food preferences of this species during flowering of sour cherry (P. cerasus cv. Stevnsbaer). Female O. rufa provisioned a mean of 2.96 ± 1.44 cells each with 6.24 ± 1.46 pollen types during the receptive period of flowering . In all 17 different pollen types were collected...... of which the most dominant were Salix (41.4% ± 9.34%) and Acer (33.24% ± 8.81%), followed by Betula (8.16% ± 5.08%), P. cerasus (8.16% ± 1.79%) and Fagus (3.56% ± 1.96%). P. cerasus was present in all samples. Nine pollen types were from anemophilous plants and represented 87.94% of the pollen collected...

  19. Growth response in radish to sequential and simultaneous exposures of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. [Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogsett, W.E.; Holman, S.R.; Gumpertz, M.L.; Tingey, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential and simultaneous exposures of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle to 0.8 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/ nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and 0.8 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/ sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) were conducted under both day- and night-time conditions to examine the effects on growth and development. Plants were exposed for 2 h per week over the four-week growing period. Frequent harvests at regular intervals were utilized for determination of the growth analysis functions. Sequential exposure to the two pollutants had no effect on growth compared with the charcoal-filtered air controls. Simultaneous exposure to the gases significantly reduced plant growth. The relative growth rate was reduced throughout the growing period apparently influenced by a reduced net assimilation rate. The partitioning of the available assimilate was altered to favor leaf growth at the expense of hypocotyl development. Night-time simultaneous exposures also altered growth progress but to a lesser degree than exposures during the day.

  20. Methyl salicylate-induced arginine catabolism is associated with up-regulation of polyamine and nitric oxide levels and improves chilling tolerance in cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Shen, Lin; Li, Fujun; Meng, Demei; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-09-14

    The effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) on chilling injury (CI) and gene expression levels, enzyme activities, and metabolites related to arginine catabolism in cherry tomato fruit were investigated. Freshly harvested fruits were treated with 0.05 mM MeSA vapor at 20 °C for 12 h and then stored at 2 °C for up to 28 days. MeSA reduced CI and enhanced the accumulation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, which was associated with increased gene expression levels and activities of arginase, arginine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase at most sampling times. MeSA also increased nitric oxide synthase activity, which at least partly contributed to the increased nitric oxide content. The results indicate that MeSA activates the different pathways of arginine catabolism in cold-stored fruit and that the reduction in CI by MeSA may be due to the coordinated metabolism of arginine and the increase in polyamines and nitric oxide levels.

  1. Kinetics of the Degradation of Anthocyanins, Phenolic Acids and Flavonols During Heat Treatments of Freeze-Dried Sour Cherry Marasca Paste

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    Zoran Zorić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heating temperature (80–120 °C and processing time (5–50 min on the stability of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin- 3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside and phenolic acids (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids in freeze-dried Marasca sour cherry pastes was studied. The degradation rates of individual anthocyanins, quercetin-3-glucoside and phenolic acids followed the first order reaction kinetics. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was found to be the most unstable among the anthocyanins, together with p-coumaric and neochlorogenic acids among other phenols. Activation energies for anthocyanin degradation ranged from 42 (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside to 55 kJ/mol (cyanidin-3-glucoside, and for other phenols from 8.12 (chlorogenic acid to 27 kJ/mol (neochlorogenic acid. By increasing the temperature from 80 to 120 °C, the reaction rate constant of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside increased from 2.2·10–2 to 8.5·10–2 min–1, of p-coumaric acid from 1.12·10–2 to 2.5·10–2 min–1 and of quercetin-3-glucoside from 1.5·10–2 to 2.6·10–2 min–1. The obtained results demonstrate that at 80°C the half-life of anthocyanins ranges from 32.10 min for cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside to 45.69 min for cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and of other phenolic compounds from 43.39 for neochlorogenic acid to 66.99 min for chlorogenic acid. The results show that the heating temperature and duration affect the anthocyanins considerably more than the other phenols in terms of degradation.

  2. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  3. Índices fisiológicos e de crescimento de um porta-enxerto de aceroleira sob estresse salino Physiological and growth indices of a West Indian Cherry rootstock under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo T. Gurgel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura há registros de variações na fisiologia e no desenvolvimento de genótipos diversos em condições de estresse salino. Não se encontrando informações nesse sentido, sobre aceroleira, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de se avaliar os efeitos da salinidade sobre o clone BV1, através de variáveis fisiológicas e de crescimento, na fase de formação de porta-enxerto. Os estudos foram realizados no Campo Experimental de Pacajus (EMBRAPA, na cidade de Pacajus, CE, testando-se seis níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (condutividade elétrica, variando de 0,5 a 5,5 dS m-1, preparada mantendo-se a proporção 7:2:1 entre Na:Ca:Mg, respectivamente. O sistema radicular da aceroleira é mais sensível à salinidade que a parte aérea, assim como a fitomassa seca total quando comparada com a área foliar. A eficiência da aceroleira em produzir matéria nova por unidade de matéria preexistente, aumenta com a elevação do nível de salinidade da água de irrigação. A velocidade de crescimento e a fotossíntese líquida da aceroleira decrescem com o aumento do estresse salino.It is known that the physiological behavior of the plants under saline stress conditions vary among genotypes. Considering non existence of references about effect of salinity in West Indian Cherry plants, the objective of this study was to evaluate such effects on the growth and physiology of the clone BV1 rootstock. The studies were carried out at the Experimental Center of Pacajus (EMBRAPA, in the city of Pacajus - CE. The treatments studied were six levels of salinity of the irrigation water (electrical conductivity varying from 0.5 to 5.5 dS m-1. The results obtained show that the efficiency of the West Indian Cherry to produce new matter in relation to preexisting increases with the elevation of salinity. The root system of the West Indian Cherry is more affected than the aerial parts by water salinity. The growth velocity and the net

  4. Repetibilidade da produção, número e peso de frutos de seleções de pitanga roxa Repeatability of the production, number and weight of fruits of selections purple surinam cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Severino de Lira Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a produção, número de frutos e peso do fruto de seleções de pitanga roxa (Eugenia uniflora L. estimar por diferentes métodos seus coefificientes de repetibilidade e o número mínimo de avaliações necessárias para selecioná-las com maior confiabilidade, sob as condições edafoclimáticas da Zona da Mata Norte de Pernambuco. O método de componentes principais mostra-se eficiente para estimar coeficientes de repetibilidade da produção, número de frutos e peso da pitanga. A cultivar Tropicana (fruto vermelho apresenta a maior produção média anual, quando comparada com as pitangas de coloração roxa. Entre as cinco seleções de pitanga roxa, a IPA-15.1 apresenta a maior produção média anual. Para peso do fruto, o melhor resultado foi obtido pela seleção IPA-41.1. Os coeficientes estimados para produção número de frutos e peso da pitanga indicam que a variância ambiental pouco influencia essas características fenotípicas de uma safra para outra. Para produção, número de frutos e peso do fruto são necessárias 2, 2 e 5 safras, respectivamente, para selecionar genótipos superiores de pitanga com 90% de confiabilidade dos resultados.This study aimed to evaluate the production, number of fruits and weight of the fruit of selections of pitanga purple, different methods for estimating their coefficients of repeatability and the minimum number of evaluations required to select them with greater reliability, under edaphoclimatic conditions of the Forest Zone of North Pernambuco State, Brazil. The method of principal components was more efficient to estimate the repeatability coefficients of production, number of fruits and weight of surinam cherry fruit. The ‘Tropicana’ cultivar (red fruit presents the highest average annual production when compared with the surinam cherry staining purple. Among the five purple surinam cherry of selections, the IPA-15.1 presents the highest

  5. Secagem de café cereja descascado por ar quente e microondas Drying pulped coffee cherry beans by means of hot air ond microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cunha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a viabilidade de produzir café cereja descascado seco pela aplicação de microondas para assistir a secagem convencional a ar quente, a fim de reduzir o tempo de processo, com o aumento do rendimento industrial e da qualidade do produto perante os métodos tradicionais de secagem. Dois ciclos de secagem foram testados: a processo em secador rotativo convencional a ar quente, com umidade do produto reduzida de 45-50 a 11-13% b.u.; b processo subdividido em uma primeira etapa de pré-secagem convencional a ar quente de 45-50 a 30% b.u., seguida de etapa de secagem final por ar quente e microondas, com redução de 30 a 11-13% b.u. de umidade do produto. O tempo global do primeiro para o segundo ciclo de secagem foi reduzido de 15 a 37,5 para pouco mais de 10 horas, respectivamente. A qualidade sensorial do produto foi avaliada pela "prova da xícara", complementada por análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, com resultados satisfatórios. Um estudo preliminar dos aspectos econômicos envolvidos na ampliação de escala para uma linha industrial de processamento de café com a inclusão de um sistema a microondas foi também delineado.This research concerns a process development study focussing the application of microwaves to pulped coffee cherries production, in order to reduce the drying time and increase the industrial yield and product quality when compared to conventional drying processes. Two drying cycles were tested: a a hot air drying process using a conventional batch rotary dryer from 45-50 to 11-13% w.b. product moisture; b a two stage process, whereby the product was pre dried with hot air from 45-50 to 30% w.b., followed by a final microwave and hot air drying stage, to reduce product moisture from 30 to 11-13% w.b. The overall drying time was reduced from 15 to 37.5 hours to about 10 hours, respectively. The sensory quality of the product was evaluated by the "cup test", complemented

  6. Relações genotípicas entre componentes da resistência pós-colheita em tomate Cereja e Salada Genotypic relationships between components of postharvest resistance of Cherry and Salad tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moreira Sobreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a necessidade de realizar análise de trilha individualizada para tomates tipo Salada (L. esculentum e Cereja (L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, visando obter informações sobre quais variáveis estão relacionadas com a resistência pós-colheita (RPC, e orientar a seleção de materiais para programas de melhoramento. Realizaram-se análises de variâncias, correlações genotípicas, diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e o desdobramento das correlações genotípicas por meio de análise de trilha. As variáveis mais explicativas da RPC em tomates tipo Salada foram o diâmetro da cicatriz do pedúnculo (DCP e o diâmetro médio do fruto (DMF; a espessura do mesocarpo (ESP e o peso médio dos frutos (PMF em tipo Cereja. Em tomates Cereja, ganhos podem ser obtidos na RPC por meio de seleção indireta via ESP. Estes serão maiores se dentre os frutos de maior ESP forem selecionados os de menor PMF. No caso de Salada, deve-se selecionar indiretamente os frutos de menor DCP e dentre estes os de maior DMF. A análise de trilha deve ser realizada considerando cada tipo de tomate, visto que as variáveis explicativas diferem entre estes.This study aimed to evaluate the need for individual path analysis to Cherry (L. esculentum var. cerasiforme and Salad (L. esculentum tomatoes type, seeking information about which variables are associated with post-harvest resistance (PHR, and guide the selection of material for breeding programs. We performed the variance analysis, genotypic correlations, multicolinearity diagnosis, and the display of genotypic correlations through path analysis. The more explicatory variables of PHR in Salad tomatoes type were the peduncle scar diameter (PSD and the fruit mean diameter (FMD; the mesocarp thickness (MST and fruit mean weight (FMW in cherry type. For Cherry tomatoes, gains can be obtained in the PHR through indirect selection by MST. This will be greatest if among the fruits with more

  7. Evaluation of a Biostimulant (Pepton Based in Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Animal Protein in Comparison to Seaweed Extracts on Root Development, Vegetative Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Gold Cherry Tomatoes Grown under Low Stress Ambient Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Polo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of different application rates of an enzyme hydrolyzed animal protein biostimulant (Pepton compared to a standard application rate of a biostimulant derived from seaweed extract (Acadian on plant growth parameters and yield of gold cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Biostimulant treatments were applied starting at 15 days after transplant and every 2 weeks thereafter for a total of 5 applications. One treatment group received no biostimulant (Control. Three treatment groups (Pepton-2, Pepton-3, Pepton-4 received Pepton at different application rates equivalent to 2, 3, or 4 kg/ha applied by foliar (first 2 applications and by irrigation (last 3 applications. Another treatment group (Acadian received Acadian at 1.5 L/ha by irrigation for all five applications. All groups received the regular fertilizer application for this crop at transplantation, flowering, and fruiting periods. There were four plots per treatment group. Each plot had a surface area of 21 m2 that consisted of two rows that were 7 m long and 1.5 m wide. Plant height, stem diameter, distance from head to bouquet flowering, fruit set distance between the entire cluster and cluster flowering fruit set, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant was recorded for 20 plants (5 plants per plot at 56 and 61 days after the first application. Root length and diameter of cherry tomatoes were determined at harvest from 20 randomly selected plants. Harvesting yield per plot was registered and production per hectare was calculated. Both biostimulants improved (P < 0.05 all vegetative parameters compared with the control group. There was a positive linear (P < 0.001 effect of Pepton application rate for all parameters. The calculated yield was 7.8 and 1 Ton/ha greater that represent 27 and 2.9% higher production for Pepton applied at 4 kg/ha compared to the control and to Acadian, respectively. In conclusion, Pepton was

  8. Armazenamento de pitangas sob atmosfera modificada e refrigeração: II - qualidade e conservação pós-colheita Storage of Suriname cherry under modified atmosphere and refrigeration: quality and postharvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira dos Santos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atmosfera modificada (AM na conservação pós-colheita de pitangas colhidas nos estádios de maturação e início da pigmentação (IP, vermelho-alaranjado (VA e vermelho predominante (VP e armazenadas a 10 e a 14 ºC (90 ± 1%UR e condições ambientes (23± 2 ºC e 85 ± 2%UR. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração resultou em menores perdas de massa, incidência de fungo e enrugamento. A AM também permitiu um aumento de quatro dias na vida útil pós-colheita, mantendo a qualidade acima do limite de aceitação durante oito dias, para pitangas do estádio VA mantidas sob refrigeração. Em conjunto, pitangas colhidas no estádio de maturação vermelho-alaranjado apresentaram melhor potencial de armazenamento, quando mantidas sob atmosfera modificada a 10 ºC.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere (MA on postharvest conservation of Suriname cherry harvested in the maturity stages: pigment initiation (PI, red-orangish (RO and predominant red (PR, and stored at 10, 14 ºC (90 ± 1% RH, and room temperature (23± 2 ºC and 85 ± 2% RH. The use of MA associated with refrigeration resulted in lower mass loss, fungi incidence, and fruit shrinkage. The MA also allowed a four-day increase in postharvest life, maintaining the general quality above acceptance limit during eight days, for Suriname cherries of RO maturity stage, kept under refrigeration. Collectively, Suriname cherries harvested at the maturity stage red-orangish presented the best storage potential, when kept under modified atmosphere at 10 ºC.

  9. Indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja em resposta a derivados de folhas de pitangueira Induction of phytoalexins in cotyledons of soybean in response to the derivatives of leaf surinan cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A demanda mundial por alimentos isentos de agrotóxicos tem impulsionado a pesquisa para a busca de métodos alternativos ao controle de patógenos em plantas. A ativação dos mecanismos de defesa com o uso de indutores vem demonstrando ser uma alternativa viável e promissora. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais tem demonstrado capacidade para induzir a produção de fitoalexinas, como um mecanismo de defesa em plantas tratadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial da planta Eugenia uniflora L. (pitangueira em induzir fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja (Glycine max. Os derivados de extrato alcoólico, infusão, maceração e decocção, obtidos de folhas de pitangueira, foram usados nas concentrações de 0,1; 1; 10 e 40%, além de óleo essencial. Água foi utilizada como controle e quitosana (1% como indutor de referência. Os preparados de pitangueira apresentaram capacidade de indução das fitoalexinas gliceolinas em cotilédones de soja, respondendo ao aumento das concentrações dos preparados. O óleo essencial apresentou destacável efeito na indução de fitoalexinas, sendo superior aos demais preparados. Quitosana induziu fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja e pode ser utilizado em estudos similares como um indutor de referência.The worldwide demand for food without pesticides has stimulated the research on alternative methods to control pathogens in plants. The activation of defense mechanisms by inductors seems a viable and promising alternative. The use of medicinal plants extracts has demonstrated capacity to induce the production of phytoalexins, as a mechanism of defense in treated plants. The objective of this research was to verify the potential of Eugenia uniflora L. (surinan cherry to induce phytoalexins in cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max. The derivatives alcoholic extract, infusion, maceration and decoction, obtained of surinan cherry were used in the concentrations of 0.1; 1; 10 and 40%, beyond

  10. Plant survival of barbados cherry genotypes after frost injury in northern Parana State/ Recuperação de plantas de genótipos de aceroleira afetadas por geada no norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Barbados cherry is a tropical fruit that when cultivated in subtropical areas is exposed to frosts which cause considerable damages to the leaves and can kill plants. The frosts of July 2000 in Northern Paraná State made possible the evaluation of 19 Barbados cherry genotypes propagated through cuttings. A minimum air temperature of –1,3°C was recorded on 17 July at the meteorological station; the minimum ground temperature was around –5,4°C. All plants were severely injured in 100% of leaves. The evaluation was made the following year to the frost, through sprouts status. It was observed that Barbados cherry genotypes present differences in cold hardiness. Some genotypes were killed and others survived, with good vegetation on the next year. The following genotypes presented the best recovery: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ and ‘Lígia.’ The findings are discussed in relation to temperature limits reported in the literature.A aceroleira é uma planta de clima tropical que também tem sido cultivada em áreas subtropicais, ficando com isso sujeita à ocorrência de geadas, que causam danos consideráveis à folhagem e podem levar as plantas à morte. As geadas de julho de 2000 no Norte do Paraná possibilitaram a avaliação de 19 genótipos de acerola, propagados vegetativamente. A temperatura mínima foi de –1,3° C no abrigo meteorológico em 17 de julho, que corresponde a – 5,4 °C na relva. Todas as plantas tiveram danos em 100% das folhas. No ano seguinte à geada, avaliou-se a recuperação das plantas com base na brotação apresentada. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que os genótipos de aceroleira apresentam respostas diferentes à geada, sendo que alguns são levados à morte e outros conseguem se recuperar na estação de crescimento seguinte. Os genótipos que apresentaram melhor recuperação foram: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ e ‘Lígia’. Os resultados são discutidos em rela

  11. Herança do formato do fruto em tomateiro do grupo cereja Inheritance of fruit shape in cherry tomato group

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    Gabriel Mascarenhas Maciel

    2008-12-01

    period of July 2003 through March, 2005 with the objective to determine the fruit shape of the cherry tomato plant. Two wild genotype contrasting tomato plants were utilised with the fruit shape: long fruit shape (LF and round fruit shape (RF. Reciprocal crosses and backcross were realised and the fruit shape was evaluated in the generations origininated from these crosses. All plants of the F1 generation produced round shape fruit. In the F2 generation, 111 plants produced round fruit shape and 47 plants produced long fruit shape. On the backcross generation (F1 x LF 47 plants produced round fruit shape and 42 plants produced long fruit shape. These results when analysed by chi square, confirmed Mendelian segregation 3:1 and 1:1 respectively. It was concluded that the studied fruit shape has monogenic inheritance. The allele that determines fruit round shape has complete dominance over the allele that determines elongated shape fruit with possible action of the sun locus.

  12. Produtividade de tomate tipo cereja cultivado em ambiente protegido e em diferentes substratos Productivity of cherry tomato cultivated in a protected environment and in different substrates

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    Mônica T A de Gusmão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em Jaboticabal-SP, sob ambiente protegido, objetivando avaliar quatro substratos (Rendimax-Estufa®, areia, solo coberto com filme de polietileno preto e solo descoberto e quatro híbridos de tomateiro tipo cereja ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' e 'Sweet Million', sendo os substratos comercial e areia acondicionados em sacos plásticos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. Utilizou-se irrigação por gotejamento, sendo a dotação hídrica realizada em função dos dados obtidos em um tanque Classe A. A solução nutritiva utilizada foi a recomendada por Castellane & Araújo (1995 para a cultura do tomateiro. Os frutos foram colhidos semanalmente, durante o período de 24/11/2000 a 24/01/2001, sendo avaliados o número e produtividade diária de frutos. Os cultivos em solo proporcionaram maior produção diária que no substrato comercial e em areia, para os híbridos Gisele e 'Mascot'. O híbrido 'Gisela' mostrou-se mais produtivo nos cultivos em solo, enquanto o híbrido 'Cheri', embora tenha proporcionado menores produções em peso, produziu maior número de frutos por planta. A produtividade dos tratamentos mais produtivos foi satisfatória, estando de acordo com os padrões de produção para a cultura no Brasil.The experiment was carry out in Jaboticabal-SP, under a protected environment, aiming to evaluate four substrates of root development (substrates Rendimax®, sand, soil with mulch of black polyethylene film and soil without mulch and four hybrids of cherry tomato ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' and 'Sweet Million'. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, in a factorial array (4 x 4, with four replications. The irrigation/fertigation was done with a trickle system, being the hydric dotation established based upon the measurements of the class A pan. The nutritious solution was recommended by Castellane & Araújo (1995 for

  13. Qualidade pós-colheita de cerejas cv. Ambrunés utilizando coberturas comestíveis Post harvest quality of cherry cv. Ambrunés using edible coatings

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    Celso Duarte Carvalho Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a qualidade de cerejas cv. Ambrunés ("picotas", cobertas com películas comestíveis à base de zeína e cera de carnaúba, aplicadas na forma de imersão e pulverização, e armazenadas em ambiente controlado a 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa de 90 - 95 %. Os parâmetros usados para avaliar a qualidade dos frutos foram: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, perda de peso, relação SST/ATT e deterioração fúngica. Os frutos foram avaliados até o 52º dia de conservação. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba mostrou-se superior em todos os parâmetros, quando comparados com os frutos-testemunha e os cobertos com zeína. A cobertura à base de zeína provocou a aceleração da maturação dos frutos e apresentou deterioração fúngica a partir do 24º dia de armazenamento. Foi observado que a forma de comercialização das cerejas sem o pedúnculo ("picotas" representa maior possibilidade de contaminação fúngica através da área lesionada. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba aplicada na forma de imersão retardou a podridão até o 45º dia de conservação, apresentando-se como o melhor tratamento.The objective of this study was evaluate the quality of cherries cv Ambrunés (cherries perforated covered with edible coatings based on zeina and carnaúba wax emulsion, appliied in the form of immersion and pulverization and storage in controlled environment with temperature 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC and humidity 90 - 95 %. The parameters used to evaluate the quality of the fruits were: soluble solid, titratable acidity, loss of weight, soluble solid relation / titratable total acidity and fungal deterioration. The fruits were evaluated until the 52nd day of conservation. The treatment that used the emulsion carnaúba wax was superior in all of the parameters when compared with the control fruits and the fruits coatings with zeina. The coating based on zeína provoked an acceleration

  14. Uso do algoritmo de Gower na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja = Using Gower’s algorithm on the genetic divergence determination among cherry tomato accessions

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    Mariella Camargo Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A análise conjunta de variáveis qualitativas e quantitativas tem sido apontada como ferramenta útil na estimativa da divergência genética entre os acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar uma coleção de germoplasma de tomateiro do grupo cereja, com base em descritores qualitativos e quantitativos e utilizar o algoritmo de Gower na quantificação da divergência genética. Estudaram-se 40 acessos de tomateiro cereja, cultivados em manejo orgânico nas condições de Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados quatro descritores qualitativos relacionados aos frutos e nove descritores quantitativos. Os dados foram analisados de forma conjunta pelo algoritmo de Gower. Detectou-se variabilidade para coloração, formato e número de lóculos do fruto. A coloração vermelha foi observada em 25 acessos testados, registrando-se também a produção de frutos amarelos, laranjas e marrons. Para número de lóculos, foi registrada a ocorrência de frutosbi, tri, tetra e pluriloculares (com até sete lóculos. O método UPGMA foi o que obteve o maior coeficiente de correlação cofenética (0,80, observando-se a formação de sete grupos. Os grupos formados permitiram a distinção de frutos classificados como cereja e outros que não se adequaram a esta definição, por estarem acima do diâmetro equatorial proposto para esta classe. The joint analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables has been considered a useful tool to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions of a gene bank. The purpose of this research was: (i to characterize a collection of cherry tomatoes, using quantitative and qualitative descriptors, and (ii to use Gower’s algorithm to quantify genetic divergence among genotypes, employing a joint descriptors analysis. Forty accessions of organically grown cherry tomato were studied in Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fourqualitative fruit descriptors

  15. Propagação vegetativa de genótipos de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. do Sul do Brasil por enxertia de garfagem Vegetative propagation of surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. genotypes from Southern Brazil, through cleft graft

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    Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o uso da enxertia de garfagem em fenda cheia na propagação vegetativa de diferentes genótipos de pitangueira. Foram utilizados sete genótipos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de fruteiras nativas do Sul do Brasil, mantidos na Embrapa Clima Temperado, em Pelotas-RS, dos quais foram coletados garfos (estacas semilenhosas, com aproximadamente 5 cm de comprimento. Utilizou-se como porta-enxertos de plantas de pitangueira oriundas de sementes. O diâmetro médio no ponto de enxertia foi de 2,5 mm. A enxertia foi realizada em setembro de 2006. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por 10 plantas. Foram avaliadas as percentagens de brotação e de pegamento dos enxertos. Os percentuais de estacas brotadas variaram entre 45,0% e 95,0%, enquanto o pegamento dos enxertos variou entre 40,0% e 87,5%. Percentuais acima de 65,0% foram obtidos para as seleções "Pit 75", "Pit 61" e "Pit 137", para ambos os parâmetros avaliados, brotação e pegamento dos enxertos. Existe diferença entre genótipos desta espécie quanto à capacidade de pegamento na enxertia por garfagem no topo em fenda cheia. Este tipo de enxertia é apropriado para a propagação vegetativa da pitangueira.This work had the objective of testing cleft grafting as a way to asexually propagate different genotypes of Surinam cherry. Bud wood of around 5 cm length were collected from seven genotypes of the Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS. Seedling plants of Surinam cherry seedlings were used as rootstocks. The average diameter at the grafting point was 2.5 mm. Grafting was done on September, 2006. The experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with four replications and 10 plants per plot. Evaluations were based on percentage of obtained plants in relation to the total number of grafts and percentage of grafts with leaf burst

  16. Cherry Necrotic Rusty Mottle and Cherry Green Ring Mottle Viruses in Czech Cherry Germplasm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Šafářová, D.; Lenz, Ondřej; Koloniuk, Igor; Navrátil, M.; Fránová, Jana; Špaková, Vlastimila; Paprštein, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2017), s. 195-200 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14004 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : double-stranded-rna * 1st report * detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  17. Combinatorial treatment of tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids reduces cognitive impairments and inflammation in the mu-p75 saporin-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchynski, Jessica J; Lowrance, Steven A; Pappas, Colleen; Rossignol, Julien; Puckett, Nicole; Sandstrom, Michael; Dunbar, Gary L

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than five million Americans and is characterized by a progressive loss of memory, loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and an increase in oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplements of antioxidants and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may reduce the cognitive deficits in AD patients. The current study tested a combinatorial treatment of antioxidants from tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids from Nordic fish and emu oils for reducing cognitive deficits in the mu-p75 saporin (SAP)-induced mouse model of AD. Mice were given daily gavage treatments of Cerise(®) Total-Body-Rhythm™ (TBR; containing tart cherry extract, Nordic fish oil, and refined emu oil) or vehicle (methylcellulose) for 2 weeks before intracerebroventricular injections of the cholinergic toxin, mu-p75 SAP, or phosphate-buffered saline. The TBR treatments continued for an additional 17 days, when the mice were tested on a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Results indicate that TBR decreased the SAP-induced cognitive deficits assessed by the object-recognition, place-recognition, and Morris-water-maze tasks. Histological examination of the brain tissue indicated that TBR protected against SAP-induced inflammatory response and loss of cholinergic neurons in the area around the medial septum. These findings indicate that TBR has the potential to serve as an adjunctive treatment which may help reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in disorders involving cholinergic deficits, such as AD.

  18. Mutational epitope analysis of Pru av 1 and Api g 1, the major allergens of cherry (Prunus avium) and celery (Apium graveolens): correlating IgE reactivity with three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, Philipp; Lehmann, Katrin; Nerkamp, Jörg; Haase, Tanja; Wangorsch, Andrea; Fötisch, Kay; Hoffmann, Silke; Rösch, Paul; Vieths, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Birch pollinosis is often accompanied by adverse reactions to food due to pollen-allergen specific IgE cross-reacting with homologous food allergens. The tertiary structure of Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen, for example, is nearly identical with Bet v 1, the major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen. In order to define cross-reactive IgE epitopes, we generated and analysed mutants of Pru av 1 and Api g 1.0101, the major celery (Apium graveolens) allergen, by immunoblotting, EAST (enzyme allergosorbent test), CD and NMR spectroscopy. The mutation of Glu45 to Trp45 in the P-loop region, a known IgE epitope of Bet v 1, significantly reduced IgE binding to Pru av 1 in a subgroup of cherry-allergic patients. The backbone conformation of Pru av 1 wild-type is conserved in the three-dimensional structure of Pru av 1 Trp45, demonstrating that the side chain of Glu45 is involved in a cross-reactive IgE epitope. Accordingly, for a subgroup of celery-allergic patients, IgE binding to the homologous celery allergen Api g 1.0101 was enhanced by the mutation of Lys44 to Glu. The almost complete loss of IgE reactivity to the Pru av 1 Pro112 mutant is due to disruption of its tertiary structure. Neither the mutation Ala112 nor deletion of the C-terminal residues 155-159 influenced IgE binding to Pru av 1. In conclusion, the structure of the P-loop partially explains the cross-reactivity pattern, and modulation of IgE-binding by site-directed mutagenesis is a promising approach to develop hypo-allergenic variants for patient-tailored specific immunotherapy. PMID:12943529

  19. Efecto de la Inclusión de un Extracto de Cereza (Prunus avium L. sobre el Estado de Oxidación y las Características Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales de Salchichas Tipo Frankfurt Effect of the Inclusion of a Cherry Extract (Prunus avium L. on the Oxidation and Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Frankfurter Type Sausages

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    Yeni Lorena Isaza Maya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resúmen. Uno de los principales factores limitantes de la calidad y aceptabilidad de la carne y los derivados cárnicos es la oxidación lipídica. Con el objetivo de inhibir o minimizar el deterioro ocasionado por la misma en salchichas tipo Frankfurt, se adiciona un extracto de cereza comercial, y se evalúa el efecto de éste sobre el estado de oxidación y las características fisicoquímicas y sensoriales durante 60 días de almacenamiento. Se encontró que el extracto de cereza mantiene los valores de TBARS (ácido tiobarbitúrico y la concentración de peróxido de las salchichas por debajo de los del producto testigo (sin adición de extracto de cereza, pero con presencia de ascorbato de sodio. Las salchichas con adición del extracto de cereza no presentan diferencias con el producto testigo desde el punto de la percepción de los descriptores sensoriales y las diferencias de las características fisicoquímicas y de color no son demasiado grandes en comparación con el testigo, de esta manera, el extracto de cereza puede ser usado para minimizar la oxidación lipídica de las salchichas tipo Frankfurt, sin afectar en gran medida las características propias de la misma.Abstract. Lipid oxidation is a limiting factor in quality and acceptability of meat and meat products. In order to inhibit or to minimize lipid oxidation in Frankfurters sausages, a commercial cherry extract was added and evaluated the effect on oxidation and physicochemical and sensorial characteristics for 60 days of storage. It was found that commercial cherry extract hold TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values and peroxides concentration, lesser than a product no added with cherry extract but added with sodium ascorbate. Frankfurters added with cherry extract no showed any difference with Frankfurters no added with cherry extract from sensorial descriptors perception and were no much greater differences in physicochemical and color characteristics

  20. Avaliação físico-química e sensorial de fermentado de acerola Physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of a fermented West Indian cherry beverage

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    Edilene Cléa Dos Santos Segtowick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O processamento de frutas para a obtenção de bebidas é uma forma de agregar valor a essa matéria-prima e remunerar melhor o produtor rural por meio do aumento de demanda. Tendo essa ideia como premissa, o objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir fermentados de acerola e caracterizá-los físico-química e sensorialmente. A produção das bebidas foi baseada na legislação brasileira de fermentado de fruta e de vinho. Os fermentados foram produzidos a partir de suco (prensa e polpa (despolpadora de acerola, e adoçados com açúcar para a obtenção de três tipos de bebidas: seco, meio seco e suave. As bebidas foram analisadas físico-quimicamente quanto a pH, teor alcoólico, açúcar redutor, açúcar redutor total, acidez total, acidez volátil, acidez fixa, extrato seco, extrato seco reduzido, relação álcool/extrato seco reduzido, dióxido de enxofre livre, dióxido de enxofre total e turbidez. A análise sensorial das bebidas foi feita pelo teste de escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, sendo considerados aparência, odor, sabor e avaliação global. Os resultados das análises físico-químicas e sensorial foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (significância de 5%. Tanto as matérias-primas (suco e polpa como as diferentes concentrações de açúcar (seco, semisseco e suave interferiram nos parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais dos fermentados de acerola, sendo que os provadores demonstraram preferência pelas bebidas mais adocicadas.Fruit processing for beverage production purposes is a way of adding value to the raw material and of raising the farmer’s income by increasing the demand. Thus the objective of this work was the production of fermented West Indian cherry beverages and their physicochemical and sensory evaluation. The beverages were produced based on the Brazilian legislation for fermented fruit beverages and wine. The fermented beverages were produced

  1. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

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    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  2. Armazenamento de pitanga sob atmosfera modificada e refrigeração: I-transformações químicas em pós-colheita Storage of Suriname cherry under modified atmosphere and refrigeration: I - postharvest chemical changes

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    Adriana Ferreira dos Santos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar as transformações pós-colheita em pitangas colhidas nos estádios de maturação vermelho-alaranjado (VA e vermelho predominante (VP e mantidas sob atmosfera modificada (AM por filme de cloreto de polivinila (PVC, a 10 ± 0,5 ºC, 14 ± 0,5ºC e (90 ± 1%UR e a temperatura ambiente (23 ± 2°C e 85 ± 2%UR. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração permitiu manutenção dos sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, dos açúcares solúveis totais e vitamina C, e também resultou em menor taxa de aumento nos carotenóides totais para frutos do estádio de maturação VA mantido a 10 e 14ºC. Em conjunto, pitangas colhidas no estádio vermelho-alaranjado foram as que apresentaram melhor manutenção das características intrínsecas durante oito dias de armazenamento sob atmosfera modificada a 10ºC.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate postharvest changes in Suriname Cherry harvested in the maturity stages red-orangish (RO and predominant red (PR, kept under modified atmosphere (MA by polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, at 10± 0.5 ºC, 14± 0.5 ºC, 90 ± 1% RH and room temperature (23 ± 2°C. The use of MA associated with refrigeration allowed the maintenance of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble sugars, and vitamin C, and also resulted in lower increase rate in total carotenoids for fruits in the RO maturity stages kept at 10 e 14ºC. All together, Suriname Cherries harvested in red-orangish skin color were those that presented better maintenance of the intrinsic characteristics during 8 days storage under modified atmosphere at 10ºC.

  3. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pitangueira submetidas a diferentes procedimentos de secagem e substratos - Parte 1 Physiological quality of surinam cherry seeds submitted to different procedures of drying and substrates - Part 1

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    Lúcia H. de M. Sena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, no presente trabalho, determinar o procedimento de secagem e substratos ideais para avaliar a viabilidade e o vigor de sementes de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (2 procedimentos de secagem: à sombra e ao sol; 4 substratos: Areia, vermiculita, pó-de-coco e papel toalha com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada uma. Caracterizou-se a curva de absorção de água pela semente e se avaliaram os seguintes parâmetros: germinação (%, primeira contagem de germinação (%, índice de velocidade de germinação e sementes mortas (%. O experimento foi conduzido em germinador do tipo BOD, regulado a temperatura constante de 25 ºC e regime de luz contínua. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi realizado, a secagem à sombra e o substrato vermiculita podem ser recomendados para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica, porque proporcionaram maior germinação e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas de pitangueira.The present work had as its objective to determine the ideal procedure of drying and the substrate to evaluate the viability and vigour of surinam cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.. The experiment was developed in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme 2 x 4 (2 procedures of drying: shade and sun; 4 substrates: sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and paper towels with four replications of 25 seeds each. The water absortion curve was characterized and the following parameters were analyzed: germination percentage, first germination count (%, germination speed index and dead seeds (%. The experiment was conducted in a BOD germinator regulated at constant temperature of 25 ºC and regime of continuous light. In the conditions where the work was carried out, the drying under shade and vermiculite may be recommended to evaluate the vigour because they provided the best germination and initial development of surinam cherry seedlings.

  4. Nutritional properties of cherry tomatoes harvested at different times and grown in an organic cropping Propriedades nutricionais de tomates cereja colhidos em diferentes épocas e cultivado em sistema orgânico

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    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical characteristics of the cherry tomato cultivated in organic and conventional production systems and harvested at either 30 or 45 days of cropping were evaluated using a randomized, 2x2 factorial design (2 cropping systems x 2 harvesting times with five repetitions. The parameters analyzed were color, centesimal composition, total energetic value, carotenoids and bioactive amine content. Tomatoes harvested at 30 days had higher total soluble solid (TSS content when grown conventionally, but when harvested at 45 days, both conventional and organic tomatoes had similar TSS values, probably due to increased N availability in the soil. Organic cherry tomatoes had higher contents of β-carotene, lycopene and bioactive amine. On the other hand, tomatoes from conventional cropping were more alkaline and brighter. In conclusion, organic tomatoes are more nutritious than conventional varieties, and if allowed to ripen for up to 45 days, contain higher levels of TSS, carotenoids and total bioactive amines.As características físico-químicas de tomates cereja cutivados em sistema orgânico e convencional e colhidos em 30 ou 45 dias de cultivo foram avaliadas em um delineamento casualizado, fatorial 2x2 (2 sistemas de cultivo x 2 épocas de colheita com cinco repetições. Foram analisados os parâmetros cor, composição centesimal, valor energético total e conteúdo de carotenóides e de aminas bioativas. Tomates colhidos em 30 dias tiveram maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, possivelmente devido ao aumento de disponibilidade de N no solo. Os tomates orgânicos tiveram maior conteúdo de β-caroteno, licopeno e aminas bioativas. Por outro lado, os tomates convencionais foram menos ácidos e tiveram maior brilho. Conclui-se que tomates orgânicos são mais nutritivos que os convencionais, e se amadurecerem até 45 dias concentram maior teor de SST, carotenóides e aminas bioativas totais.

  5. Efeito da luz e da temperatura de congelamento sobre a estabilidade das antocianinas da pitanga roxa The effects of light and freezing temperature upon the stability of purple surinam cherry's anthocyanins

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    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas G. de Lima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As antocianinas são corantes naturais que podem ser utilizadas como alternativa em substituição aos corantes sintéticos. Entretanto, a baixa estabilidade destes compostos é o principal fator que dificulta sua aplicação como corante em alimentos. Frente à escassez de estudo sobre o pigmentos antociânicos da pitanga roxa, este trabalho teve como propósito avaliar a sua estabilidade à luz e ao congelamento. Utilizando a leitura de absorbância do extrato antociânico submetido às condições experimentais foi evidenciado que a luz reduziu o seu tempo de meia-vida, enquanto que a temperatura de congelamento exerceu pequeno efeito na degradação dos pigmentos.Anthocyanins are natural colorants that can be used as alternative to synthetic dyes. However, the low stability of these compounds is the main drawback in their application as food colorants. Since the information on anthocyanin pigments in Surinam cherry is scarce, the purpose of this investigation was to assess their stability to light and freezing storage. The anthocyanin extract absorbance, under the experimental conditions, showed that light incidence reduced the half-life of anthocyanin extract; meanwhile the freezing storage had little effect on these pigments degradation.

  6. Monitoring of Biodistribution and Persistence of Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus in a Murine Model of Ovarian Cancer Using Capsid-Incorporated mCherry and Expression of Human Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P. Dmitriev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant limiting factor to the human clinical application of conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd-based virotherapy is the inability to noninvasively monitor these agents and their potential persistence. To address this issue, we proposed a novel imaging approach that combines transient expression of the human somatostatin receptor (SSTR subtype 2 reporter gene with genetic labeling of the viral capsid with mCherry fluorescent protein. To test this dual modality system, we constructed the Ad5/3Δ24pIXcherry/SSTR CRAd and validated its capacity to generate fluorescent and nuclear signals in vitro and following intratumoral injection. Analysis of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE biodistribution in mice revealed reduced uptake in tumors injected with the imaging CRAd relative to the replication-incompetent, Ad-expressing SSTR2 but significantly greater uptake compared to the negative CRAd control. Optical imaging demonstrated relative correlation of fluorescent signal with virus replication as determined by viral genome quantification in tumors. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies demonstrated that we can visualize radioactive uptake in tumors injected with imaging CRAd and the trend for greater uptake by standardized uptake value analysis compared to control CRAd. In the aggregate, the plasticity of our dual imaging approach should provide the technical basis for monitoring CRAd biodistribution and persistence in preclinical studies while offering potential utility for a range of clinical applications.

  7. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductance Components in Field Grown, Mature Sweet Cherry Trees Análisis de los Componentes de Conductancia Hidráulica en Árboles Maduros de Cerezo Dulce en Condiciones de Campo

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    Ricardo Oyarzún

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step towards understanding soil water extraction and plant water relationships, the components of hydraulic conductance (K of mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees were evaluated in situ based on a Ohm´s law analog method. In June 2004, K was determined for 10-yr-old ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ trees, from simultaneous measurements of whole canopy gas exchange and leaf (sunlit and shaded and stem water potentials (Ψ. Leaf water potential of sunlit leaves was lower than shaded leaves, reaching minimum values of ca. -2.3 MPa around 14:00 h (solar time. Average total hydraulic conductance was 60 ± 6 mmol s-1 MPa-1, presenting a slight decreasing trend as the season progressed. The analysis of tree K components showed that it was higher on the stem-leaf pathway (150 ± 50 mmol s-1 MPa-1, compared to the root-stem component (100 ± 20 mmol s-1 MPa-1, which is in agreement with literature reports for other fruit trees. A weak hysteresis pattern in the daily relationship between whole-canopy transpiration (weighted sunlit and shaded leaves vs. Ψ was observed, suggesting that water storage within the tree is not a significant component of sweet cherry water balance.Como un paso necesario para la comprensión de la extracción de agua desde el suelo y las relaciones suelo-agua-planta, los componentes de la conductancia hidráulica (K en árboles adultos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. fue evaluada in situ con un método basado en una analogía de la Ley de Ohm. En Junio de 2004, K fue determinada para árboles ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ de 10 años de edad, a partir de mediciones simultáneas de intercambio gaseoso del follaje en forma integrada y potenciales hídricos (Ψ de hojas individuales (soleadas y sombreadas y del xilema. Los potenciales hídricos de las hojas soleadas fueron menores que los de las hojas sombreadas, alcanzando valores mínimos de ca. -2.3 MPa alrededor de 14:00 h (hora solar. La conductancia hidr

  8. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização Cherry tomato growth and yield in soilless system using wastewater from desalination process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonath Werissimo da Silva Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade agrícola sustentável é o maior desafio nas regiões áridas e semiáridas por causa da escassez de água para irrigação, sendo comum o uso de água salobra para irrigação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia sob quatro níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva com adição de rejeito salino em sistema de produção hidropônico. As plantas de tomate foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco e irrigadas com soluções nutritivas preparadas com água de abastecimento e com águas salinas preparadas diluindo-se água de rejeito coletado em um dessalinizador a 75%; 50% e 25% e 0%, correspondendo à condutividades elétricas de 2,1; 3,55; 4,88, 6,02 e 6,96 dS m-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos (níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva e quatro repetições. A altura e a massa seca das plantas reduziram com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. O consumo hídrico da cultura foi influenciada pela adição de rejeito salino na solução nutritiva e a salinidade limiar, considerando-se a produtividade da cultura, ficou em torno de 3,51 dS m-1. A adição de até 25% de rejeito de dessalinizador (diluição de 75% à solução nutritiva permite o cultivo do tomate cereja, cv. 'Samambaia', sem haver redução na produtividade.Sustainable agricultural production is the most challenge facing many arid and semiarid regions due to the severe shortage of water for irrigation, thus the use of saline water for irrigation is common. The aim of this research was to examine the response of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia under four levels of salinity of the nutritional solution with added water reject from desalting under soilless conditions. Plants were grown in pots filled with coconut fiber and irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap

  9. Comprimento de estacas e parte do ramo na formação de mudas de aceroleira Size and part of the branch to be used as barbados cherry cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade rizogênica, a brotação e o vigor de estacas caulinares de aceroleira foram avaliados em condições de casa de vegetação na Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Fortaleza-CE, no período de novembro de 2000 a janeiro de 2001, objetivando determinar a parte do ramo e o tamanho mais apropriado para estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 3x3, correspondendo a três posições no ramo (apical, mediano e basal e três comprimentos de estacas (10; 15 e 20 cm, com três repetições de 10 estacas por parcela. As estacas, colhidas de plantas com 2,5 anos de idade, foram plantadas em tubetes de 288cm³ contendo uma mistura de casca de arroz carbonizada e vermicomposto, na proporção volumétrica de 2:3, e cultivadas por um período de 60 dias sob condições de nebulização intermitente. Avaliaram-se a percentagem de estacas enraizadas, o peso da matéria seca do sistema radicular e parte aérea, o número de folhas, de gemas sem brotação e as ramificações emitidas por estaca. Os resultados indicaram que estacas caulinares com 10 centímetros de comprimento e colhidas da porção mediana dos ramos são mais apropriadas para a produção de mudas de aceroleira por estaquia, sob condições de casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente.The rhizogenic capacitity, sprouting and vigor of cuttings from barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C were evaluated in greenhouse conditions at the EMBRAPA - National Center for Research of Tropical Agroindustry, Fortaleza-CE, from November 2000 to January 2001, aiming to identify the best branch part and size for cuttings preparation. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme, corresponding to three positions on the branch (apical, median and basal and three length (10, 15 and 20 cm, with three replications composed by 10 cuttings each, and cultured on tubets of 288 cm³, filled wich a misture

  10. Potencial agroclimático para a cultura da acerola no Estado de Minas Gerais Agroclimatic potential for the West Indian Cherry cropping in the State of Minas Gerais

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    Maria J. H. de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar o zoneamento agroclimático do Estado de Minas Gerais, visando dar subsídios à seleção de locais para a implantação da cultura da acerola (Malpighia glabra L.. Utilizaram-se dados de temperatura média e precipitação de 110 estações meteorológicas de Minas Gerais e de Estados circunvizinhos; com base nesses dados calculou-se o índice de umidade de Thornthwaite & Mather para uma capacidade de armazenamento de água no solo de 125 mm. Elaboraram-se mapas de aptidão térmica e hídrica, a partir da temperatura média e do índice de umidade, para essa cultura, com a sobreposição dos mapas, obteve-se o mapa de aptidão agroclimática do Estado para a cultura da acerola. Cerca de 12,6% do território de Minas Gerais, região sul, e uma pequena parte da região central, são inaptos para o cultivo da aceroleira, devido à ocorrência de baixas temperaturas. Em 55,8% do Estado observam-se condições favoráveis para o cultivo da aceroleira enquanto em 4,5% as condições são regulares. Áreas com aptidão restrita compreendem 27% do Estado, sendo que em 18% o cultivo é recomendado somente com o emprego de irrigação, devido à restrição hídrica, enquanto nos outros 9% o cultivo é limitado pelo excedente hídrico.This study aimed to accomplish the agroclimatic zoning of Minas Gerais State, in order to provide subsidies for selection of areas for implantation of the West Indian Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. crop. The average temperature and precipitation data relative to 110 meteorological stations located in Minas Gerais and surrounding states were used. Based on these data, the moisture index by Thornthwaite & Mather for a soil water storage capacity of 125 mm was calculated. The thermal and hydric aptitude maps were drawn for the crop from the average temperature and moisture index. The State agroclimatic aptitude map was obtained by superposing these maps. It was found that only 12.6% of the state territory

  11. Row spacing and pruning regimes on organically grown cherry tomato Espaçamento e sistema de condução de tomate cereja em cultivo orgânico

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    Vlamir F de Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch number and plant densities on organically grown cherry tomato yield and fruit quality were studied. Labor costs for pruning were also assessed. The essay was conducted at the experimental fields of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 2004 to January 2005. A factorial design was used combining three row spacings (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m, two cherry tomato cultivars (hybrid 'Super-Sweet' and a local self pollinated 'Perinha' and three pruning regimes (free growth, one branch per plant and two branches per plant. The row spacing treatment of 0.6 x 1.5 m resulted in lower number of fruits when compared to the 0.4 x 1.5 m treatment, however, producing fruits with higher individual average mass, which resulted in similar final yield. These yields were higher than the 0.8 m treatment. Yield increases due to the higher number of plants per area were mostly due to the increase of fruit number, which compensated for the decrease of fruit size and mass. The 'free growth' treatment yielded similarly to the two branches per plant treatment. The labor costs were lower under 'free growth' due to the absence of pruning. Both cultivars responded similarly to plant population and pruning regimes.Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do manejo e da densidade de plantio na produtividade de frutos e no custo com mão de obra em sistema orgânico de produção de tomate cereja, foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFRRJ, Seropédica-RJ, de setembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. Foram avaliados os efeitos da combinação de três sistemas de condução (sem tutoramento e sem limitação do número de hastes por planta; tutoramento com condução de uma haste por planta e, tutoramento com condução de duas hastes por planta, três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,4; 0,6 e 0,8 m e duas cultivares de tomate cereja (Perinha Água Branca e Super Sweet. O tratamento com espaçamento de 0,6 x 1,5 m

  12. Evaluation of the adsorption potential of eco-friendly activated carbon prepared from cherry kernels for the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Sabolč; Radonić, Jelena; Trifunović, Snežana; Adamović, Dragan; Mihajlović, Ivana; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana; Turk Sekulić, Maja

    2016-12-15

    Development, characterization and evaluation of the efficiency of cost-effective medium for the removal of Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ from aqueous systems, as a novel, eco-friendly solution for wastewater remediation were done. The precursors for low-cost adsorbent were lignocellulosic raw materials (sweet/sour cherry kernels), as industrial byproducts and components of organic solid waste. Activated carbon synthesis was carried out by thermochemical conversion (H 3 PO 4 , 500 °C) in the complete absence of inert atmosphere. Characterization of the activated carbon was performed by elemental analysis, FTIR, SEM, EDX and BET. BET surface area corresponds to 657.1 m 2  g -1 . The evaluation also included the influence of pH, contact time, solute concentration and adsorbent dose on the separation efficiency in the batch operational mode. The equilibrium and kinetic studies of adsorption were done. The maximum adsorption capacity of the activated carbon for Cd 2+ ions was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm and found to be 198.7 mg g -1 . Adsorption of Pb 2+ and Ni 2+ were better suitable to Freundlich model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 180.3 mg g -1 and 76.27 mg g -1 , respectively. The results indicate that the pseudo-second-order model best describes adsorption kinetic data. Based on desorption study results, activated carbon was successfully regenerated with HNO 3 for 3 cycles. In order to provide the results for basic cost-effective analysis, competing ion-effects in a real sample have been evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pitangueira submetidas a diferentes procedimentos de secagem e substratos - Parte 2 Physiological quality of surinam cherry seeds submitted to different procedures of drying and substrates - Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. de M. Sena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o procedimento de secagem e substratos ideais para avaliar a visibilidade e o vigor das sementes e crescimento inicial das plântulas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (2 procedimentos de secagem: à sombra e ao sol; 4 substratos: Areia, vermiculita, pó-de-coco e papel toalha, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada uma e se avaliaram os seguintes parâmetros: tempo médio de germinação, comprimento da raiz e do epicótilo e massa seca da plântula. O experimento foi conduzido em germinador tipo BOD, regulado a temperatura constante de 25 ºC e regime de luz contínua. O procedimento de secagem à sombra e o substrato vermiculita podem ser recomendados para testar o vigor dessa espécie.This study had as its objective the determination of ideal procedure of drying and the substrate to evaluate the vigour and the initial growth of surinam cherry seedlings (Eugenia uniflora L.. The used design was entirely randomized in factorial scheme 2 x 4 (2 procedures of drying: shade and sun; 4 substrates: sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and paper towels with four replications of 25 seeds each. The following parameters were also analyzed: average time of germination, length of primary root and epicotyl and dry weight of the seedling. The experiment was conducted in BOD regulated at constant temperature of 25 ºC and regime of continuous light. The shade method of drying and the vermiculite substrate can be recommended to test the vigour of this specie.

  14. "Cherry red spot" in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease: case report "Mácula em cereja" em paciente com doença de Tay-Sachs: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, caused by enzime hexosaminidase A deficiency that leads to an accumulation of GM2 in neurocytes which results in progressive loss of neurological function. The accumulation of lipid in retinal ganglion cells that leads to a chalk-white appearance of the fundus called "cherry red spot" is the hallmark of Tay-Sachs disease. It is also seen in others neurometabolic diseases as well as in central retinal artery occlusion. This case reports a child with Tay-Sachs disease in a family with four previous similar deaths without diagnostic.Tay-Sachs é uma doença autossômica recessiva, caracterizada pela deficiência da enzima hexosaminidase A levando ao acúmulo de esfingolipídios (GM2 em células neuronais que resulta em uma perda progressiva da função neurológica. O acúmulo de lipídios em células ganglionais da retina leva a uma aparência de mácula em cereja, característica do fundo de olho de pessoas acometidas. "Mácula em cereja" também pode ser vista em outras doenças neurometabólicas e em oclusão da artéria central da retina. Este trabalho relata o caso de um paciente com doença de Tay-Sachs em uma família com história de quatro óbitos por causas semelhantes sem diagnóstico.

  15. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

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    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  16. Frutificação e desenvolvimento de frutos de aceroleira no Norte do Paraná Fruit set and development of West Indian Cherries in the North of Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Carpentieri-Pípolo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi entender a frutificação e o desenvolvimento da aceroleira das cultivares "Dominga" (UEL-3, "Lígia" (UEL-4 e "Natália" (UEL-5 nas condições de Londrina (PR, em três épocas de florescimento. A porcentagem de frutificação foi obtida a partir da relação entre o número de flores marcadas, polinizadas naturalmente e o número de frutos maduros colhidos. Foi estudada a duração em dias nos estádios de botão, flor, crescimento e desenvolvimento de fruto verde e maduro. A taxa de frutificação variou de 10,7% a 32,7% para as cultivares "Natália" (UEL-5 no florescimento em outubro/novembro e "Dominga" (UEL-3 no florescimento em dezembro/janeiro, respectivamente. O ciclo de frutificação (da antese à colheita foi de 19 a 32 dias, sendo maior no período outubro/novembro do que em dezembro/janeiro e janeiro/fevereiro, quando ocorreram aumento da temperatura e precipitação.The objective of this study was to evaluate fruit set and development of West Indian Cherries. The cultivars 'Dominga' (UEL-3, 'Lígia' (UEL-4 and 'Natália' (UEL-5 were evaluated in Londrina, state of Paraná, in three flowering periods. The fruit set percentage was calculated as the ratio of the number of marked, naturally pollinated flowers to the number of harvested mature fruits. The duration of the flower-bud, flower, green fruit development, and mature fruit stages were assessed as well. The fruit set rate varied from 10.7% for cultivar 'Natália' (UEL-5 in the period October/November to 32.7% for 'Dominga' (UEL-3 in December/January, respectively. The fruit set cycle (from anthesis to harvest lasted between 19 and 32 days. It lasted longer in the October/November period than in December/January and January/February, when the temperature and precipitation increased.

  17. Descritores quantitativos na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja Quantitative descriptors on determining genetic divergence among cherry tomatoes accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Camargo Rocha

    2009-06-01

    ônicas explicaram 78,58% da variação observada, com a formação de sete grupos. A variável mais importante foi a produção de frutos não-comerciais, que explicou 22,71% da variação total. A cultivar 'Perinha Água Branca' foi a que produziu menor porcentagem de frutos não-comerciais (2,0%, enquanto o híbrido Super Sweet produziu 8% de frutos não-comerciais.Cherry tomato is becoming an important crop alternative mainly for small farmers that use family hand labor and use organic management to differentiate their product. The introduction of new genotypes in this market should be supported by germplasm characterization and evaluation. This germplasm could be recommended for farmers or introduced in breeding programs. The aim of this research was to test 40 cherry tomatoes accessions from different sources, being 36 accessions from germplasm collection of Department de Fitotecnia of UFRRJ and four cultivars, namely 'Joanna', 'Perinha Água Branca', 'Samambaia' and Super Sweet. The plants were grown in field conditions, under organic management, in a randomized block design with four replications and five plants per plot, from June to December 2004. The following variables were studied: fruit total yield; commercial and non-commercial fruit yield; longitudinal and equatorial fruit diameter; pulp thickness; minimum, medium and maximum fruit mass variation per plant. The data were analyzed considering Mahalanobis distance and the cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using an Arithmetic Average and canonic variables. The adjustment between the similarity matrix and dendrograma was performed using the cophenetic correlation. The characters relative importance was determined by Singh´s method. The accessions were clustered in two groups, one of them with only one accession (ENAS 1021 and the second group, with 39 accessions, was subdivided generating seven subgroups. The cophenetic correlation was 0.9 meaning a very good adjustment between the

  18. Comportamento da pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L sob irrigação na região do vale do Rio Moxotó, Pernambuco Performance of surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. under irrigation in the Moxotó Valley, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emmanoel Fernandes Bezerra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da pitangueira no Nordeste vem crescendo rapidamente devido à utilização do seu fruto pelas indústrias de polpas e sucos; no entanto, a ausência de cultivares adaptadas às condições irrigadas constitui atualmente um dos principais problemas da cultura. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de dez dentre os 85 acessos da Coleção de Germoplasma de Pitangueira do IPA, sob irrigação, em Ibimirim, na região semi-árida de Pernambuco. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento, rendimento e qualidade do fruto de plantas oriundas de "pé-franco" e enxertadas. A pitangueira conduzida sob irrigação mostrou boa adaptação às condições do Vale do Rio Moxotó, tanto para as características de crescimento como de produção e qualidade do fruto. Os acessos mostraram grande variabilidade em relação às características físicas e químicas do fruto. Foram identificados dois acessos promissores ¯ IPA-13.2 e IPA-1.1E ¯, os quais reuniram as melhores características de produção e de qualidade do fruto.Surinam cherry crop is growing fastly in the Northeast region of Brazil due to its fruit uses by the industry in processing juice and pulp. However, one of the main problems of this crop is the lack of an apropriated cultivar adapted to such climate environments and irrigated conditions. This work was carried out aiming to study the performance of ten among 85 Surinam cherry accesses of IPA's germplasm collection cultivated under drip irrigation at the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State. The following characteristics were evaluated: growth, yield and fruit quality of plants originated from seedlings as well as from grafting. Surinam cherry trees have shown good adaptability to such environmental conditions, both in respect to plant growth characteristics as well as to yield and fruit quality. Accesses have shown great variability in relation to physical-chemical characteristics of

  19. and wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... Yayla. PA. Zonguldak RFD Turkey. Kızılcakese Village (Toptasi), Zonguldak, TURKEY. 389. SE. Germany. PA. NFV Germany. Mittelgebirge (Polle), Germany; N 51,9290 E 9,3890 260. GD. Michigan-1U.S.A.. PS. Sheffield's Seed Co., Inc. U.S.A. NA. NA. NA. Michigan-2 U.S.A.. PS. Lawyer Nursery Inc. U.S.A..

  20. Potential of Cherry Tree on Salt Phytoextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Santos Souza

    2015-06-01

    macro and micronutrients. The conclusion was that the growth of A. acreana seedlings was limited with salinity increase, which also affected negatively the concentration of, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, making it difficult to distribute P and K on the aerial part of A. acreana seedlings.

  1. 21 CFR 145.125 - Canned cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contents over the meshes of a circular sieve which has previously been weighed. The diameter of the sieve... such quantity is 3 pounds or more. The bottom of the sieve is No. 8 woven-wire cloth that complies with the specifications for such cloth set forth in the “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of...

  2. Crescimento inicial do tomateiro-cereja sob irrigação com águas salinas em solo com biofertilizantes bovino Initial growth of cherry tomatoes under irrigation with saline water in a soil with bovine biofertilizer

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    Reinaldo F. Medeiros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi desenvolvido no período de outubro de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010, em ambiente telado do Departamento de Solos e Engenharia Rural do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, PB, para avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação no crescimento inicial do tomate-cereja em solo não salino, sem e com dois tipos de biofertilizante bovino. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5x3, com seis repetições, referente aos valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação: 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1, em solo sem biofertilizante, com biofertilizante comum e enriquecido com leite, melaço e gesso agrícola. Depois de diluídos em água não salina (0,5 dS m-1 na razão de 1:1. Os biofertilizantes foram aplicados uma única vez, dois dias antes da semeadura, a nível de 10% do volume do substrato. Os biofertilizantes proporcionaram maior crescimento das plantas em relação ao solo sem os respectivos insumos, independentemente do nível de salinidade das águas. A adição do biofertilizante comum e do enriquecido elevou o caráter salino do solo com superioridade sobre os tratamentos com apenas águas salinas, mas sem diferença significativa entre ambos.An experiment was conducted, from October 2009 to February 2010, in a greenhouse of the Soil and Rural Engineering Department from CCA – UFPB, Areia – PB, to evaluate the influence of the irrigation water salinity in the initial growth of the cherry tomatoes in a non-saline soil with and without two types of bovine biofertilizer. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 5 x 3, with six repetitions, referring to values of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1 , in the soil without biofertilizer, with ordinary biofertilizer and enriched with milk, molasses, agricultural gypsum. The biofertilizers after

  3. Comparative morphological analysis of cherry tomato fruits from three cropping systems Análise morfológica comparativa de frutos tomate cereja provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo

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    Sônia Cachoeira Stertz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet produces market demand are not always followed by research reports showing the impact of novel, intensive cropping systems on the environment, human and animal health, and eventual chemical and structural changes of plants. This work carries a comparative evaluation of the morphology and anatomy of cherry tomato fruits obtained from organic, conventional and hydroponic cropping systems. Fruits were collected at the free market in the greater Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. For each culture method, 50 fruits their weight, diameter and volume measured. For the anatomical analysis, samples of the pericarp of ten fruits were excised and embedded in glycol methacrylate; 6-mm cuts were then obtained, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on permanent glass slides. The anatomical analysis and illustrations were performed in Olympus and Zeiss photonic microscope. Samples obtained from the organic cropping system presented the highest mass, diameter, volume and density. The pericarp of fruits, obtained from the conventional cropping system presented larger but less abundant cells in comparison to the pericarp of the hydroponic and organic-produced fruits.A ciência agrícola buscou novas formas de cultivo para atender às exigências de mercado e dividiu-se em três grandes vertentes: os sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Todavia, esses avanços nem sempre foram acompanhados por pesquisas que objetivassem apontar o impacto de uma nova técnica agrícola sobre o ambiente, a saúde humana e animal e aos próprios vegetais em seus aspectos químicos e estruturais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo comparativo da morfo-anatomia do fruto do Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Duval A. Gray, cultivado nos sistemas orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Os frutos foram coletados no comércio varejista da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Para cada cultivo foram analisados 50 frutos. Cada

  4. EVALUATING THE FRUIT PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF CHERRY TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE CEREZA Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

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    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The greatest genetic diversity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. in terms of fruit quality characteristics such as flavor, aroma, color, and lycopene and b-carotene contents is found in wild species. This study evaluated the agronomic characteristics and fruit quality of 30 cherry tomato introductions of the germplasm bank of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira in trials conducted at the Montelindo experimental farm of the Universidad de Caldas (1010 m above sea level, average temperature 22.8 °C, average annual rainfall 2200 mm, 76% relative humidity. A 5 x 6 rectangular lattice experimental design was used with 30 treatments (introductions and a commercial control (Sweet Million, 4 replicates/treatment, and 5 plants/replicate as experimental unit. The descriptors used were those suggested by the former International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, now Bioversity International. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's means test using the SAS program. In addition, principal component and cluster dendrogram analyses using the SAS Princom and Cluster procedure (SAS Institute, Cary, NC were performed. Six principal components accounted for 80.39% of the morphological variability of the introductions evaluated. The most promising materials in terms of average fruit weight, yield per plant and per hectare, and soluble solids, vitamin C and lycopene contents were IAC1624, IAC391, IAC3652, LA2131, IAC424, IAC1621, IAC426, LA1480 and IAC1688. The broad phenotypic variability observed in the evaluated introductions favors the potential selection and breeding of tomato for traits associated with fruit production and quality.Resumen. La mayor diversidad genética del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en términos de características de calidad del fruto como sabor, aroma, coloración y contenidos de licopeno y b-caroteno se encuentra en especies silvestres. Este estudio evaluó las características agronómicas y

  5. Comportamento de propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas do suco de acerola armazenado a baixa temperatura Physical, chemical and rheological behavior of West Indian cherry juice stored at low temperature

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    José E. Gomes

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento físico, químico e reológico do suco de cinco genótipos de acerola (CL2, CL5, CL11, R1 e R2 depois de lavadas, as frutas (2 kg foram esmagadas em um processador manual. Do extrato obtido, em peneira de 1,6 mm, para separar o suco dos resíduos e sementes, foi acondicionado 20 mL de suco de cada amostra em tubos plásticos com dimensões 5 x 3 cm, que foram armazenados em freezer a uma temperatura de -10 °C, durante 10 meses. As leituras de sólidos solúveis totais foram refratométricas, o pH foi aferido através de um potenciômetro, o teor de vitamina C pela técnica da redução do iodo e a viscosidade aparente com viscosímetro de cilindros concêntricos. As determinações foram realizadas inicialmente (mês 0 e bimestralmente (2°, 4°, 6°, 8° e 10° mês. Os parâmetros de viscosidade e vitamina C foram os que mais variaram. O genótipo CL-2 se destacou no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e os R1 e R2 em teores de vitamina C. Os sucos analisados mostraram comportamento reológico não-newtoniano e pseudoplástico.With the objective to study physical, chemical and rheological behavior of West Indian cherry juice of five genotypes (CL2, CL5, CL11, R1 and R2 an experiment was conducted with the juice extracted from 2 kg of mature fruits after washing, dried and squashed in a manual processor. The juice was sieved in a 1.6 mm sieve; 20 mL samples were packed in plastic tubes (5 x 3 cm and stored in a freezer at -10 °C for a 10 month period. The evaluations of total soluble solids were refractometric, the pH was determined by potentiometer, vitamin C was measured by iodine reduction technique and apparent viscosity determined in concentric cylinders viscosimeter. The determinations were done initially and at intervals of two months (0, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th. Viscosity and vitamin C were the characteristics which varied highly. The genotype CL-2 surpassed other genotypes in total soluble solids and the

  6. Invasiveness of Cut-Leaf Ground-Cherry (Physalis angulata L. Populations and Impact of Soil Water and Nutrient Availability Potencial Invasor de Poblaciones de Tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L. e Impacto del Contenido de Agua y Disponibilidad de Nutrientes del Suelo

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    Ilias S Travlos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major threat to natural ecosystems and agroecosystems, while weed flora is noticeably changing globally. In this study we evaluated the potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry (Physalis angulata L., a species native to America, to invade the semi-arid regions of Greece. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different environmental resources (nutrient and water availability on seedling growth, biomass production, fecundity, and seed germination of four populations of cut-leaf ground-cherry. Our results suggest that cut-leaf ground-cherry does not tolerate extreme drought during the first growth stages, while it can survive and produce adequate and rapidly germinated seed (> 85% under low soil moisture conditions. Moreover, high water and nutrient availability results in high growth and biomass production and ensures high seed production, reaching more than 4000 seeds plant-1. We suggest that soil water content and nutrient availability are the two critical factors affecting the invasive potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry in semi-arid environments. Understanding the plant's ecological features through a study conducted at an early stage rather than a late stage of invasion will help us to take appropriate control measures for this species, which should primarily target frequently fertilized fields after precipitation events.Las invasiones biológicas son una amenaza importante para los ecosistemas naturales y agroecosistemas, mientras que, globalmente, la flora de malezas parece cambiar notablemente. En este estudio se evaluó el potencial de una especie nativa de América, tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L., para invadir las regiones semiáridas de Grecia. Se realizaron experimentos de invernadero y laboratorio para evaluar los efectos de diferentes recursos ambientales (disponibilidad de nutrientes y agua, crecimiento de las plántulas, producción de biomasa, fecundidad

  7. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems Investigação do efeito citotóxico e mutagênico da polpa da fruta Malpighia glabra L. (acerola e da vitamina C em sistema teste vegetal e animal

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    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.As frutas são importantes fontes de nutrientes na dieta humana e a Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é de particular interesse devido ao seu alto teor de antioxidantes. Dietas ricas em frutas e legumes protegem os indivíduos contra doenças e câncer, mas a ingestão excessiva de vitaminas pode atuar como pró-oxidante e gerar alterações no DNA. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da polpa in natura da Acerola (BAN e congelada (BAF, e da vitamina C sintética na forma líquida (VC, em nível cromossômico e sobre o ciclo de divisão celular, foram utilizadas células meristemáticas de raiz de Allium cepa L. e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, Rattus norvegicus, como sistema teste. Em Allium cepa L., BAN, na maior concentração (0,4 mg.mL-1 e BAF

  8. Influência do substrato, tamanho de sementes e maturação de frutos na formação de mudas de pitangueira Influence of the substrate, seed size and fruit maturation in the formation of cherry tree seedlings

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    Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

    2012-12-01

    design, using four replicates with 12 seeds each (Experiment 1 and three replicates of 18 seeds each (Experiment 2. The treatments of experiment 1 were the seed size (medium and small and substrate (Plantimax®, vermiculite, coconut fiber. In the second experiment the treatments were the selections of Surinam cherry (67 and 172 and fruit ripening (partially and fully mature. The parameters were evaluated: emergency percentage, shoot length and the longest root (cm, number of leaves per plant, dry mass of root and shoot (g, brocade seeds, dormant and not emerged. The seeds of medium size were higher than little seeds in all variables. The substrate Plantimax® provided greater total dry matter than the coconut fiber, but no difference from the vermiculite. The selection 172 had a higher percentage of emergency and lower dormancy than 67. Seeds from fully ripe fruits showed higher dormancy and fewer leaves than partially ripe fruit seeds. It is concluded that the use of medium size seed and the substrate Plantimax® improve seedling development of Surinam cherry. The degree of ripeness of the fruit affects the process of seeds dormancy and initial seedling of Surinam cherry.

  9. Influence of depectinization in the ultrafiltration of West Indian cherry (Malpighia glabra L. and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Meer juices Influência da despectinização sobre a ultrafiltração dos sucos de acerola e abacaxi

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    Sueli T. D. Barrosi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available West Indian cherry (Malpighia glabra L. and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Meerjuice clarification by cross-flow UF, using polysulphone hollow fiber and ceramic tubular membranes with, respectively, nominal molecular weight cut off values of 100kDaltons and average pore diameters of 0.01mm, were studied. The influence of enzymatic treatment using enzyme concentrations of 20, 100 and 300mg/L, a time of 90min and a temperature of 40ºC for depectinization was verified. The juices were then clarified in a laboratory scale filtration unit, with an effective filtration area of 0.12m² for the polysulphone hollow fiber membrane and of 0.005m² for the ceramic tubular membranes. The influence of enzymatic treatment on viscosity, turbidity and total pectin of the juice, before ultrafiltration, is reported. Membrane performance was evaluated in terms of flow rate and clarity of the permeate. The permeate flow rate of depectinized pineapple juice was higher (30 - 60% for both membranes. Depectinized West Indian cherry juice presented a lower permeate flow rate for the polysulphone hollow fiber membrane. The increase in permeate flow rate, with the use of the 300mg/L and 100mg/L enzyme concentration was not significant, so it is economically advantageous to ultrafilter depectinized juice, treated with an enzyme concentration of 20mg/L.Foi estudada a clarificação através da ultrafiltração por flow rateo cruzado, dos sucos de acerola (Malpighia glabra L. e Abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L. Meer, usando membranas de polisulfona fibra oca e tubular cerâmica com peso molecular de corte de 100kDaltons e diâmetro médio de poro de 0,01mm, respectivamente. A influência do tratamento dos sucos, com concentrações de enzima de 20, 100 e 300mg/L, tempo de tratamento de 90min a temperatura de 40ºC, foi verificada, e então os mesmos foram clarificados numa unidade de ultrafiltração com uma área efetiva de 0,12m² para a membrana de polisulfona e de 0,005m² para

  10. Reuse of sand, crushed sugarcane and peanut hull-based substrates for cherry tomato cultivation Reutilização de substratos compostos por areia, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e casca de amendoim no cultivo do tomateiro do grupo cereja

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    Carolina Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of substrates for more than one growing season is an alternative to reduce production costs. The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield and quality fruits of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum grown in reused substrates. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, with a factorial array of 7 × 2 (seven substrates and two growth periods, with four replications. The seven substrates consisted of different combinations of sand (S, crushed sugarcane (CS and peanut hull (PH. The substrates used were: S1 = S; S2 = [(2/3 S + (1/3 CS]; S3 = [(2/3 S + (1/3 PH]; S4 = [(2/3 S + (1/6 CS + (1/6 PH]; S5 = [(1/2 S + (1/2 CS]; S6 = [(1/2 S + (1/2 PH] and S7 = [(1/3 S + (1/3 CS + (1/3 PH]. These substrates were tested as new (one growth season, and reused (two sequentially growth seasons. The cherry tomato average yield was 9.07 kg m-2 when growth on the new substrates, and 8.44 kg m-2 when growth on the reused ones. The fruit quality was not affected by the reutilization of the substrates. The average values were 6.5 ºBrix for total soluble solids; 0.6 g for citric acid per 100 g for total titratable acidity and 4.2 for pH. A substrate consisting of equal parts of the three components can be recommended as a good growth medium for cherry tomato. All the substrates tested can be efficiently reused, at least once.A reutilização de substratos por mais de um cultivo é uma alternativa para reduzir os custos de produção. Objetivou-se assim avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum do grupo cereja cultivado em substratos reutilizados. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial 7 × 2 (sete substratos e duas utilizações dos substratos, em quatro repetições. Os substratos resultaram da combinação de diferentes proporções volumétricas de areia (A, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BC e casca de amendoim (CA. Testou-se: S1 = A; S2

  11. 柱前衍生-液相色谱-串联质谱法测定葡萄和樱桃中单氰胺残留%Determination of cyanamide residue in grapes and cherries by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with precolumn derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰丰; 刘传德

    2018-01-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of cyanamide in grapes and cherries by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)coupled with dansyl chloride(DNS)precolumn derivatization. First,the samples were homogenized,and then extracted with ethyl acetate under ultrasonication. The water was removed using anhy-drous sodium sulfate,and the extract was concentrated and derivatized with dansyl chloride under alkaline condition. The separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack XR-ODS col-umn(75 mm×2.0 mm,1.6 μm)with the mobile phases of methanol and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution(containing 0.05%(v/v)formic acid)in a gradient elution mode. The identification and quantification of cyanamide were carried out by MS/MS in positive electros-pray ionization(ESI+)and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM)mode. The calibration curves showed good linearities in the range of 0.01-1.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 0. The average recoveries of cyanamide spiked at 0.01,0.05 and 1.0 mg/kg in cher-ries and grapes were between 75% and 81%,and the relative standard deviations(RSDs)were between 6.5% and 9.8%. Both the limits of quantification(LOQs)of the analytes were 0.01 mg/kg. The method is simple,rapid,accurate and suitable for the confirmation and quantifica-tion of cyanamide in cherries and grapes.%建立了丹磺酰氯(DNS)柱前衍生-液相色谱-串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)测定葡萄和樱桃中单氰胺的方法.样品经破壁机匀浆,乙酸乙酯超声提取,无水硫酸钠除水,提取液经减压浓缩,在碱性条件下与丹磺酰氯进行衍生反应.色谱柱为岛津 Shim-pack XR-ODS色谱柱(75 mm×2.0 mm,1.6 μm),流动相为甲醇和含0.05%(体积分数)甲酸的2 mmol/L醋酸铵水溶液,梯度洗脱,采用电喷雾离子源正离子多反应监测模式进行质谱检测.单氰胺在0.01~1.0 mg/L范围内,峰面积与质量浓度之间线性关系良好,相关系数不小于0.9990.在0.01、0

  12. Pré-tratamento com água e doses de ácido indolbutírico para estaquia herbácea de pitangueiras Pre-treatments with water and indole butyric acid dosis for herbaceous cuttings of Surinam cherry

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    Daiane Silva Lattuada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a maioria dos pomares de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora é formada por mudas do tipo pé-franco, o que torna os plantios com baixa uniformidade genética. A propagação vegetativa via estaquia é uma alternativa viável para propagação de diversas espécies frutíferas, podendo ser utilizada também com as espécies nativas, proporcionando a formação de pomares homogêneos, com a produção de mudas com alta sanidade, além de antecipar a produção. Nesse contexto, conduziu-se um estudo visando à multiplicação vegetativa da pitangueira, em que se testou a estaquia herbácea a partir de estacas coletadas de plantas matrizes jovens e adultas, submetidas a três períodos de imersão em água (0, 24 ou 48 horas, além da aplicação de doses de ácido indolbutírico (0, 2000, 4000 e 6000mg L-1. Foram avaliadas a sobrevivência (%, a retenção e a emissão foliar (n° folhas/ estaca, a calogênese (% e enraizamento das estacas (%. Ao final do experimento, avaliou-se massa fresca e seca de parte aérea e raiz, número de folhas e área foliar. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, com três repetições de dez plantas por tratamento para os parâmetros não destrutivos e três repetições de cinco plantas por tratamento para os parâmetros destrutivos. A estaquia herbácea foi eficiente para produzir mudas de pitangueira, especialmente quando utilizadas estacas oriundas de plantas jovens sem necessidade de pré-lavagem nem adição de auxinas exógenas.In Brazil, most of the Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora orchards is formed by ungrafted plants, which makes the plantations have low genetic uniformity. The vegetative minicutting propagation is a viable alternative for the propagation of several fruit species, and can also be used with native species providing the formation of orchards with homogeneous populations of plants, with production of seedlings with high health and accelerated propagation process

  13. Efeito da densidade de plantação e da cultivar no crescimento da cerejeira sobre o porta-enxerto edabriz em quatro locais do norte e centro de Portugal Effect of tree planting density and cultivar on sweet cherry growth onto the edabriz rootstock at four locations in the north and centre of Portugal

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    Alberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o crescimento das cultivares de cerejeira Regina, Skeena e Sweetheart até ao final da 2ª folha, sob o efeito do porta enxerto Edabriz e quatro densidades de plantação. O ensaio foi implantado em Março de 2003, em quatro locais do Norte e Centro de Portugal, e compreende duas repetições em Caria, Vila Real e Alcongosta, e três em Carrazedo de Montenegro. A largura de entrelinhas é cerca de 5,0 metros, e as distâncias entre plantas na linha são 70, 140, 210 e 280 cm, a que correspondem densidades de 2600, 1300, 860 e 650 plantas/ha, respectivamente. Anualmente, foi registado o diâmetro do tronco de cada planta e calculada a sua área da secção do tronco (AST. No final da 2ª folha foram já significativas as diferenças de crescimento observadas, tanto ao nível do local como da densidade de plantação. As cerejeiras do ensaio de C. Montenegro cresceram mais 76, 36 e 9% do que as dos ensaios de Alcongosta, Vila Real e Caria, respectivamente, sendo o local responsável por 25% da variância total esperada. A densidade de plantação reteve já 3% da variância total, tendo as árvores deixadas a 70 cm na linha crescido menos 22% do que as mais afastadas. Por conseguinte, em Alcongosta e Vila Real as cultivares cresceram muito pouco neste porta-enxerto, pelo que em condições análogas é importante ajustar as dotações hídricas e nutricionais às necessidades específicas do porta-enxerto, de forma a melhor gerir o crescimento vegetativo e preparar as árvores para a sua função primordial: a produção.The growth of sweet cherry cultivars Regina, Skeena and Sweetheart was evaluated when grafted onto the Edabriz rootstock and at four planting densities. The trial was set on March 2003 at four locations in the North and Centre of Portugal, with two replications in Caria, Vila Real and Alcongosta and three in Carrazedo de Montenegro. Within row spacing is approximately 5,0 m and plant spacing along the row is 0.7, 1

  14. Qualidade de sabor de tomates dos tipos salada e cereja e sua relação com caracteres morfoagronômicos dos frutos Taste quality of salad and cherry tomatoes and their relationship with the morphoagronomic characteristics of the fruits

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    Fábio Moreira Sobreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos no estádio vermelho maduro de trinta e três acessos de tomate do banco de germoplasma do CCA-UFES, sendo 15 do "tipo Cereja" e 18 do "tipo Salada", foram caracterizados com base nos seguintes descritores morfoagronômicos: peso médio do fruto; comprimento médio do fruto; diâmetro médio do fruto; diâmetro da cicatriz peduncular; espessura do mesocarpo do fruto; teor de sólidos solúveis e pH do fruto. Com base nas variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS e pH do fruto, calculou-se a variável sabor, por meio da relação TSS/pH². Foram realizadas análises de variâncias e análises de correlações simples e parciais, determinando a distribuição dos acessos quanto às classes de sabor. Com base nas distribuições de frequências, formaram-se quatro classes para essa variável, sendo que, a maior parcela (33% dos acessos "tipo Salada" alocaram-se na classe mais baixa (0,05-0,12 ºBrix.pH-2, correspondendo a frutos de sabor menos desejável, enquanto a maior parcela (30% dos acessos "tipo Cereja", alocaram-se em classe imediatamente superior (0,13-0,20 ºBrix.pH-2. Os dados demonstram a possibilidade de se obter ganhos genéticos para sabor concomitantemente ao peso, comprimento e espessura do mesocarpo dos frutos.Fruits in the ripe red stage of thirty three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. accessions from CCA-UFES germplasm collection, being 15 "Cherry type" and 18 "Salad type", were characterized based on the following morphooagronomic descriptors: average fruit weight; average fruit length; average fruit diameter; peduncle scar diameter; fruit mesocarp thickness; soluble solids and fruit pH. Based on the data from the soluble solids and fruit pH, the flavor variable was calculated by the ratio TSS/pH². Variance analysis and simple and partial correlations were calculated, and the accessions were clustered in flavor classes. Based on the statistical model of distribution of frequencies, four classes were formed for

  15. Variabilidade genética em populações de pitangueira oriundas de autopolinização e polinização livre, acessada por AFLP Genetic variability in surinam cherry populations originated from self-pollination and cross pollination, estimated by AFLP

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    Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados marcadores AFLP para a avaliação de populações de plantas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora oriundas de autopolinização e de polinização livre, com o objetivo de verificar a variabilidade existente entre e dentro dessas populações, visando a fornecer mais informações que ajudem no entendimento do modo de reprodução dessa espécie. O material vegetal utilizado foi oriundo de duas seleções de pitangueira ("Pit 15" e "Pit 52", mantidas na Embrapa Clima Temperado. De cada seleção, foram obtidas duas populações F1, por meio de autopolinização e de polinização livre, totalizando quatro populações. Foram analisados 18 indivíduos de cada população e as duas plantas-mãe, totalizando 74 indivíduos. Foram utilizadas três combinações de primers AFLP e calculada a similaridade genética entre plantas pelo coeficiente de Jaccard. Uma estimativa da variabilidade genética entre e dentro das populações foi estimada pela AMOVA. As três combinações de primers AFLP utilizadas amplificaram um total de 178 locos AFLP, dos quais 114 (64,0% foram polimórficos entre todos os indivíduos. Não houve separação clara entre populações descendentes da mesma planta-mãe. Foi observado maior polimorfismo de marcadores AFLP em populações de polinização livre. A proporção da variabilidade genética total entre populações foi significativa, embora tenha sido menor do que aquela observada dentro das populações. A reprodução da pitangueira é decorrente tanto da autofertilização quanto da polinização cruzada, sendo necessário, no entanto, novos estudos para determinar qual a estratégia de reprodução mais eficiente.AFLP molecular markers were used aiming to study the genetic variability within and between Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora populations, originated from self-pollination and open pollination of two selections (Pit 15 and Pit 52 of the Embrapa Clima Temperado collection. The objective was to

  16. Alterações nas propriedades físicas de substratos para cultivo de tomate cereja, em função de sua reutilização Effects of the reutilization of substrates on its physical properties on growing cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações nas propriedades físicas de substratos em função de sua reutilização para o cultivo do tomateiro do grupo cereja, cultivar Sindy. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em parcelas subdivididas com os sete substratos (nas parcelas e três épocas de caracterização física dos substratos (nas subparcelas. As parcelas foram agrupadas em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os sete substratos resultaram da combinação de diferentes proporções volumétricas de três componentes: areia, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e casca de amendoim. As propriedades físicas dos substratos avaliadas foram submetidas à análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A reutilização do substrato composto por partes iguais dos três componentes promoveu aumento da densidade seca e do volume de água facilmente disponível, e redução da porosidade total, do espaço de aeração e do volume de água remanescente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the reutilization on the physical properties of different types of substrate used to grow cherry tomato, at Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º14'05" S, 48º17'09" W. We used the split-plot experimental design with complete randomized blocks and four replications. In the plots were placed seven types of substrates, and in the subplots, three periods of physical characterization of the substrates. The seven substrates were prepared with different combinations of three materials: sand, crushed sugarcane and peanut bark. The physical properties evaluated were submitted to variance analysis and the averages were compared by the Tukey test, at 5% probability level. The reutilization of the substrate prepared with equal parts of the three components promoted the increase of bulk density and easily available water content, and the decrease of total porosity, aeration space, and

  17. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  18. Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome Emerged in Cherry Valley Ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Dou, Y; Zheng, X; Tang, Y; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Diao, Y

    2017-08-01

    Since June 2015, a highly pathogenic disease occurred in duck flocks in China, causing pericardial effusion, enlarged discoloured liver, renal enlargement and haemorrhagic lung with a mortality ranging from 5% to 20%. Previous study confirmed that Fowl adenovirus group C (FAdV-C) and some field FAdVs isolates had been identified as causative agents of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and geese world widely. In this study, we firstly report the isolation of FAdV-C from ducks with HHS. The two isolates, designated as SDSX and SDJX, were separated from liver samples using 9-day-old SPF chicken embryos and could cause severe cytopathic effects in duck and chicken embryonic kidney cells. The entire ORF sequences of hexon gene of the two isolates were amplified, sequenced and analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of loop 1 sequences of hexon gene of FAdVs revealed that the two isolates were closely related to FAdV-C isolates, which could cause HHS in chickens. Experimental infection indicated that the isolate was high pathogenicity to 20-day-old ducks. Our study shows that the recently emerged HHS in ducks was caused by FAdV-C and may possess a potential risk to other poultry flocks. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Cherry Grove Nursing Home, Priesthaggard, Campile, New Ross, Wexford.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity within sour cherry clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Andersen, Sven Bode; Henriksen, K.

    2013-01-01

    of improved breeding material. However, no differences in allele profile were found between or within the clones, calling into question the extent of the available genetic diversity and indicating that the observed variance in yield may have to be explained by other genetic mechanisms, including epigenetic...

  1. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant's nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of ...

  2. Radiation-induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saamin, S [Cocoa and Coconut Research Division, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (Malaysia); Thompson, M M [Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Dormant scions of 'Bing' were exposed to 1-2.5 kR gamma radiation. The main buds were excised and the scions grafted to allow the growth of accessory buds into primary shoots. The frequency and types of mutations were described in a population of 3307 M{sub 1}V{sub 2} shoot. The overall mutation frequency was 2.7% incl. 0.15% growth-reduced mutants. The experiment was repeated using 3kR and 4kR fractionated doses in water. Differences in mutation frequency at 3kR and 4kR were not significant. Of 2765 surviving M{sub 1}V{sub 2} shoots derived from irradiation of accessory buds of both standard and V{sub 1} shoots, the overall mutation frequency was 3.3% incl. 1.7% partial leaf mutants, 1.0% leaf mutants, and 0.54% growth-reduced mutants. For maximum mutation rate with adequate survival we suggest acute irradiation of accessory buds in air at dosages approximating LD50. Mutant sectors in M{sub 1}V{sub 1} shoots derived from accessory buds are larger than those from main buds, as revealed by the higher number of mutant repeats. (author)

  3. hybridisation between cherry tomato (small fry) and petomech for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR)-Crops. Research Institute, Kwadaso, Kumasi in Ghana. The research field area of ... fresh by weighing pericarp tissues including external, internal and transverse parts, excluding seeds, using a weighing scale. Twenty-three fruits were collected from each of the genotypes, representing ...

  4. Composition and oil characteristics of apricot, peach and cherry kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazos, Evangelos S.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Se han obtenido huesos de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza de vegetales procesados y se han separado y analizado las pepitas después de eliminar las cascaras. El aceite crudo, extraído con éter de petróleo, fue 38’4, 48’0 y 26’0% de materia seca de pepitas de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente; el contenido en proteina cruda fue 21’2, 26’7 y 25'3%; fibra bruta 5'0, 5’4 y 9’5%; hidratos de carbono totales 32'4, 16'0 y 34’5% de los cuales 9’3, 7’1 y 11’3% fueron azúcares reductores: y ceniza 3’0, 4’0 y 4’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado en las pepitas cantidades considerables de K, P, Mg y Ca; se han tabulado valores para 15 minerales. Las características del aceite fueron: índice de iodo 105, 97, 116; índice de saponificación 195, 201, 198; materia insaponificable 0’95, 1’60, 3’12%; índice de refracción (40°C 1’4635, 1’4622, 1’4693; y gravedad específica (20°C 0’9227, 0’9158, 0’9419 para aceite de pepita de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente. El ácido graso dominante fue el oleico (68’0, 69’0, 46’0% respectivamente seguido por el linoleico (24’2, 22’0, 41’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado también en concentraciones traza C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C15:0, C15:1, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:3, C20:0 y C20:1. El esterol principal fue el β-sitosterol alcanzando alrededor del 90%, seguido por el campesterol. Se han encontrado asimismo colesterol, estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol. Δ7-estigmasterol y Δ7-avenasterol.

    Se han obtenido huesos de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza de vegetales procesados y se han separado y analizado las pepitas después de eliminar las cascaras. El aceite crudo, extraído con éter de petróleo, fue 38’4, 48’0 y 26’0% de materia seca de pepitas de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente; el contenido en proteina cruda fue 21’2, 26’7 y 25'3%; fibra bruta 5'0, 5’4 y 9’5%; hidratos de carbono totales 32'4, 16'0 y 34’5% de los cuales 9’3, 7’1 y 11’3% fueron azúcares reductores: y ceniza 3’0, 4’0 y 4’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado en las pepitas cantidades considerables de K, P, Mg y Ca; se han tabulado valores para 15 minerales. Las características del aceite fueron: índice de iodo 105, 97, 116; índice de saponificación 195, 201, 198; materia insaponificable 0’95, 1’60, 3’12%; índice de refracción (40°C 1’4635, 1’4622, 1’4693; y gravedad específica (20°C 0’9227, 0’9158, 0’9419 para aceite de pepita de albaricoque, melocotón y cereza respectivamente. El ácido graso dominante fue el oleico (68’0, 69’0, 46’0% respectivamente seguido por el linoleico (24’2, 22’0, 41’6% respectivamente. Se han encontrado también en concentraciones traza C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C15:0, C15:1, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:3, C20:0 y C20:1. El esterol principal fue el β-sitosterol alcanzando alrededor del 90%, seguido por el campesterol. Se han encontrado asimismo colesterol, estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol. Δ7-estigmasterol y Δ7-avenasterol.

  5. Peroxidase isozyme profiles in some sweet cherry rootstocks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PERS

    2012-01-10

    , 2005). Santamour (1980) defined role of peroxidase in graft compatibility as; 1) lignification is essential for a strong and permanent graft union; 2) peroxidase isoenzymes mediate the polymeri- zation of cinnamic alcohols to ...

  6. Application Of t-Cherry Junction Trees in Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kovacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition aims to classify data (patterns based ei-
    ther on a priori knowledge or on statistical information extracted from the data. In this paper we will concentrate on statistical pattern recognition using a new probabilistic approach which makes possible to select the so called 'informative' features. We develop a pattern recognition algorithm which is based on the conditional independence structure underlying the statistical data. Our method was succesfully applied on a real problem of recognizing Parkinson's disease on the basis of voice disorders.

  7. What Works: Real Research or a Cherry Picker's Paradise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider the evidence base for some of the proposals in the Education White Paper, Higher Standards: better schools for all. In particular, the article challenges the assertion by the Secretary of State for Education and Skills that the White Paper is based on knowledge of "what works." Using the issue…

  8. Alluring Ideas: Cherry Picking Policy from around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    A common feature of contemporary policymaking is the sharing and adaptation of policies from other countries. As neo-liberal globalisation continues to impact on the development of policy, such practices are increasingly commonplace. This article considers the current phenomenon of "policy borrowing" with reference to the use of data…

  9. Clonal stability and epigenetic variation in sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin

    . This observed variability within the clones raises the question as to whether more suitable plant material for the future might be found through similar selection. In this study, a number of the selected individuals were evaluated based on their morphological (harvested yield, number of buds...... selections compared to cl. 'Birgitte'. However, such epigenetic differences may be enough to change gene expression and result in phenotypic variability. This study demonstrates that morphological differences exist both between and within the 'Stevnsbaer' clones 'Birgitte' and 'Viki'. However, the genetic...

  10. Efeito da concentração de coagulantes e do pH da solução na turbidez da água, em recirculação, utilizada no processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro Effects from the concentration of coagulants and pH solution on the turbidity of the recirculating water used in the coffee cherry processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. Matos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a dose e a faixa de pH dos coagulantes sulfato de alumínio (SA, sulfato ferroso clorado (SFC, cloreto férrico (CF e extrato de semente de moringa (ESM, que proporcionassem maior eficiência na remoção da turbidez na água residuária da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARDC, após serem efetuadas cinco recirculações, foram conduzidos ensaios de coagulação/floculação utilizando o aparelho "Jar-test". Todos esses coagulantes foram avaliados nas concentrações de 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 g L-1. No caso da solução preparada com ESM, as doses utilizadas foram: 0; 10; 20; 30; 40; 50 e 60 mL L-1. O pH da solução em teste foi alterado, utilizando-se do hidróxido de sódio (NaOH, na concentração de 0,3 mol L-1, sendo avaliadas as faixas de 4,0 a 5,0; 5,0 a 6,0; 6,0 a 7,0 e 7,0 a 8,0. No ensaio de coagulação/floculação, o ESM proporcionou maior remoção de SS (sólidos em suspensão da ARDC com a dose de 10 mL L-1 e pH de 4,27 (natural. Para os coagulantes SA e CF, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a concentração de 3 g L-1 e pH de 7,27 e, para o coagulante SFC, com a concentração de 3 g L-1 e pH de 4,27.Aiming the determination of the dose and pH range of the coagulants aluminum sulfate (AS, chlorinated ferrous sulfate (CFS, ferric chloride (FC and Moringa oleifera seed extract (MSE that would provide a higher efficiency in removing the turbidity from the coffee cherry pulping wastewater (CPW, five recirculations were accomplished and the coagulation/flocculation assays were conducted, by using the Jar-test device. The concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5 and 3.0 g L- 1 were evaluated. In the case of the MSE-prepared solution, the following doses were used: 0; 10; 20; 30; 40; 50 and 60 mL L-1. The pH of the solution under test was changed, by using the sodium hydroxide (NaOH at the concentration of 0.3 mol L-1, whereas the ranges from 4.0 to 5.0; 5.0 to 6.0; 6.0 to 7.0; and 7

  11. A comparative study on the in vitro antioxidant potentials of three edible fruits: cornelian cherry, Japanese persimmon and cherry laurel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Engin; Aydın, Ahmet; Yesilada, Erdem

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed in order to investigate in vitro antioxidant potentials of 80% methanolic extracts prepared from three edible fruits, Cornus mas L., Diospyros kaki L., Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. For this purpose, 8 different tests were performed including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging tests, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), metal-chelating capacity, determination of total antioxidant capacity, β-carotene bleaching test in a linoleic acid emulsion system and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, for evaluating the phenolic profile, total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were measured spectrophotometrically. Among the three fruits analyzed, Diospyros kaki L. showed the highest activity in all tests, except β-carotene bleaching test. Whereas, neither of three fruits showed metal-chelating activity. Also, a good correlation was found between the phenolic content and antioxidant parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Remoção de sólidos em suspensão na água residuária da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro em filtros constituídos por pergaminho de grãos de café submetido a compressões Removal of suspended solids in the wastewater of the coffee shrub cherry pulping by filters constituted by parchment of the coffee beans subjected to compressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A remoção de sólidos em suspensão é fundamental para que se possa aplicar a água residuária gerada na despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC na fertirrigação de culturas agrícolas. Dentre as opções disponíveis para efetuar a remoção de SS da ARC, está o uso de filtros orgânicos. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do grau de compressão na redução do volume e na eficiência do pergaminho, utilizado como material filtrante, na remoção de sólidos em suspensão (SS na ARC. Numa primeira etapa, foram realizados ensaios nos quais corpos-de-prova de pergaminho triturado (retido entre as peneiras de 2,5 e 3 mm e não-triturado (na condição em que é produzido foram submetidos a diferentes compressões para a redução do volume das colunas filtrantes em 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 28%. Numa segunda etapa, os corpos-de-prova foram utilizados como material filtrante da ARC para a avaliação da sua capacidade de remoção de SS presentes nessa água residuária. O pergaminho triturado ofereceu maior resistência à compressão e proporcionou, para as mesmas reduções volumétricas no material filtrante, maior eficiência na remoção de SS da ARC do que o pergaminho não-triturado. Reduções na faixa de 10% a 15% no volume do filtro constituído por pergaminho triturado foram suficientes para obter satisfatórias eficiências na remoção de SS da ARC, enquanto, para filtros constituídos de pergaminho não-triturado, as reduções de volume devem ser superiores a 25%.The removal of suspended solids (SS is fundamental to apply the wastewater from the coffee shrub cherry pulping (ARC on agricultural crops fertigation. Among the available options for the removal of SS from ARC is the use of organic filters. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the compression degree on either volume reduction or parchment efficiency, when used as medium filter for the removal of suspended solids (SS in

  13. Comparison of brown sugar, hot water, and salt methods for detecting western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in sweet cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown sugar or hot water methods have been developed to detect larvae of tephritid fruit flies in post-harvest fruit in order to maintain quarantine security. It would be useful to determine if variations of these methods can yield better results and if less expensive alternatives exist. This stud...

  14. Construction of Two mCherry Plasmids (pXG-mCherry) for Transgenic Leishmania: Valuable Tools for Future Molecular Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vacas, Andrés; Sugden, Conor; Velasco-Rodriguez, Óscar; Algarabel-Olona, Miriam; Peña-Guerrero, José; Larrea, Esther; Fernández-Rubio, Celia; Nguewa, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania is the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 12 million people around the world. Current treatments are toxic and poorly effective due to the acquisition of resistance within Leishmania populations. Thus, the pursuit for new antileishmanial drugs is a priority. The available methods for drug screening based on colorimetric assays using vital dyes are time-consuming. Currently, the use of fluorescent reporter proteins is replacing the ...

  15. Tart cherry supplementation improves working memory, hippocampal inflammation and autophagy in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of debilitating diseases and improved cognition in aged populations. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the antioxidant/anti-inflammation properties of phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables. Tart ch...

  16. Effect of ripeness and postharvest storage on the phenolic profiles of cherries (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Knudsen, D.

    2004-01-01

    temperature) and 1-2 degreesC (cool temperature). Neochlorogenic and p-coumaroylquinic acids were the main hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, but chlorogenic acid was also identified in all cultivars. The 3-glucoside and 3-rutinoside of cyanidin were the major anthocyanins. Peonidin and pelargonidin 3...... [227 mg/100 g of fresh weight (fw)] and cv. Van the lowest (124 mg/100 g of fw). Phenolic acid contents generally decreased with storage at 1-2 degreesC and increased with storage at 15+/-5 degreesC. Anthocyanin levels increased at both storage temperatures. In cv. Van the anthocyanins increased up...... to 5-fold during storage at 15+/-5 degreesC (from 47 to 230 mg/100 g of fw). Flavonol and flavan-3-ol contents remained quite constant. For all cultivars the levels of phenolic acids were higher in 2001 and the anthocyanin levels were higher in 2002, which suggest a significant influence of climatic...

  17. Isolation of active constituents from cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) leaves through bioassay-guided procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Kırmızıbekmez, Hasan; Küçükboyacı, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet C; Yesilada, Erdem

    2012-01-31

    The fresh leaves of Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (Rosaceae) are externally used against pain and feverish symptoms in Turkish folk medicine. Effects of the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from the leaves of L. officinalis were investigated using in vivo models of inflammation and pain in mice. The crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts; explicitly, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and remaining water extracts. Further studies were carried out on the most active EtOAc subextract was further subjected to fractionation through column chromatography. For the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability models, and for the antinociceptive activity p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test in mice were employed. Ethanolic extract of the leaves was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity in the assay methods without inducing any gastric damage. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures three phenolic compounds, 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and (+)-catechin (3) were isolated from the active fraction and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques (1D and 2D NMR, ESIMS). The experimental data verified that Laurocerasus officinalis leaves displayed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic inhibition of interleukin-6 production in adipose stem cells by tart cherry anthocyanins and atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown positive correlations between inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the development of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease by activating C-reactive prorein (CRP). Both atorvastatin calcium (lipitor) as well as flavonoid rich fruit such as tart cherr...

  20. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED IN BARBADOS CHERRY ‘BRS-366 JABURÚ’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Garcia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In foods, the flavor and aroma are very important attributes, thus the main objective of this study was to identify the volatile compounds (VC of the "BRS-366 Jaburú" acerola variety, for which we used the solid phase microextraction method (SPE. The separation and identification of volatile compounds was made using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Three fibers were evaluated, Polydimethylsiloxane / Divinylbenzene (PDMS / DVB, 65 micrometres Divinylbenzene / Carboxen / Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB / CAR / PDMS 50/30 m and polyacrylate (PA 85 uM to compare the extraction of its components. Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified and classified into eight chemical classes: carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, hydrocarbons, phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. The peak areas of each of the extracted compounds were expressed as percentages to indicate the relative concentration of each, of which ethyl acetate is distinguished by being responsible for the fruity aroma notes. Thus, the fiber PDMS / DVB was the best as it enabled to extract a greater amount of volatile compounds

  1. Development of a Fermented, Low-alcoholic Cherry-based Beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mia Irene

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med dette projekt var at udvikle en fermenteret, lav-alkoholisk drik baseret på lokale surkirsebær. Systematisk idegenerering blev brugt i de første faser af ideudviklingen. To forskellige vine blev brygget, ved brug af samme metode til fermentering af saft fra lokale ”Stevnsbær” surkirs......Formålet med dette projekt var at udvikle en fermenteret, lav-alkoholisk drik baseret på lokale surkirsebær. Systematisk idegenerering blev brugt i de første faser af ideudviklingen. To forskellige vine blev brygget, ved brug af samme metode til fermentering af saft fra lokale ”Stevnsbær...... opbevaring ved 25°C. Alle behandlinger, på nær tilsætning af kaliumsorbat, sikrede den mikrobielle stabilitet and ingen vækst blev observeret disse blandinger. To kirsebærvinsblandinger blev valgt til videre udvikling L9-(50:50) and FR-(25:75) (vin:juice).Til slut blev Busines Model Canvas brugt til...

  2. Cherry Picking: Virginity Loss Definitions Among Gay and Straight Cisgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Howard

    2017-08-03

    Virginity loss is a vital milestone in the development of one's sexual identity. Unfortunately, there is very little literature available studying virginity loss definitions among the wider straight population, and even less examining virginity loss among LGBTQ+ populations. The present study recruited 251 (45.4%) cisgender straight men and 114 (54.6%) cisgender gay men. An online, anonymous survey was administered to explore whether they considered various male-on-male (M-M) and male-on-female (M-F) sexual behaviors as constitutive of virginity loss. Results indicate that more gay men than straight considered M-M receptive anal intercourse (i.e., bottoming) and M-F penetrative anal intercourse to be constitutive of virginity loss. Results also indicate that both gay and straight men almost unanimously endorsed M-F penovaginal sex to be constitutive of virginity loss. This study is a first-step toward gaining a better understanding of LGBTQ+ virginity loss conceptualizations. Future research is strongly encouraged.

  3. Uptake and distribution of iodine in cucumber, sweet pepper, round, and cherry tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Steenhuizen, J.W.; Eveleens, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Eénderde van de wereldbevolking lijdt aan een tekort aan het essentiële voedingselement jodium. De verrijking van groenten met jodium (biofortificatie) kan dit jodiumtekort helpen voorkomen. Daarom werd het effect bestudeerd van toediening van jodium-verrijkte meststoffen op de jodiumgehalten in

  4. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    with trees of middle age on rootstock Colt were selected. Three trees with intact root systems were pulled up in each of the orchards. Based on the architecture of the root systems, a pruning distance of 30-35 cm from the trunk was used, removing approximately 30 percent of the roots. The one-sided root...

  5. Transcriptome and Metabolite Changes during Hydrogen Cyanamide-Induced Floral Bud Break in Sweet Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Irina A.; L?pez-Ortega, Gregorio; Burow, Meike; Bayo-Canha, Almudena; Junge, Alexander; Gericke, Oliver; M?ller, Birger L.; S?nchez-P?rez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Release of bud dormancy in perennial woody plants is a temperature-dependent process and thus flowering in these species is heavily affected by climate change. The lack of cold winters in temperate growing regions often results in reduced flowering and low fruit yields. This is likely to decrease the availability of fruits and nuts of the Prunus spp. in the near future. In order to maintain high yields, it is crucial to gain detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms controlling the relea...

  6. Listening to old beech and young cherry trees - long-term research in the Alleghenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Coeli M. Hoover; Todd E. Ristau

    2006-01-01

    Long-term research results have been a foundation of forestry practice on the Allegheny Plateau since the 1970s. This includes results from monitoring reference conditions in areas set aside for this purpose and from long-running manipulative studies, some dating back to the 1920s. The success of long-term research in this region reflects the commitment of a handful of...

  7. Growth and yield of the sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.) as affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three different training systems (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and "V") were compared. The smaller vegetative growth, expressed as trunk crosssectional area (TCSA) was recorded in Spanish bush (34.68 cm2) when compared to Spindle bush (40.11 cm2) and "V" (40.82 cm2). The largest cumulative yield per hectare was ...

  8. 76 FR 69673 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... factors that the CIAB considers when it computes the preliminary and interim percentages or determines the... an additional factor when computing preliminary or interim percentages, or determining final... specified in the order and used by CIAB to determine the relationship between the demand and supply of tart...

  9. 78 FR 48283 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance; $5,000 for contingency; and $3,900... and data management fees; $27,000 for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance... any relevant Federal rules that duplicate, overlap, or conflict with this rule. A small business guide...

  10. Preliminary results on seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangping; Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Lillie

    2012-01-01

    . cerasus ‘Kelleriis 16’ under natural conditions, and investigated seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’. In a cold winter with unusual low temperatures in December, the injury rate of buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ was significantly higher than that of ‘Kelleriis 16......’, confirming that buds of the latter cultivar are considerably more cold hardy than buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’. The majority of frost injuries in buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ occurred mid-winter, but dehardening appeared fast, indicating that the critical injury times of buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte...

  11. Does Passive Sampling Accurately Reflect the Bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) Communities Pollinating Apple and Sour Cherry Orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Joshi, Neelendra K; Wilson, Julianna K; Rothwell, Nikki L; Powers, Karen; Haas, Mike; Gut, Larry; Biddinger, David J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-06-01

    During bloom of spring orchard crops, bees are the primary providers of pollination service. Monitoring these insects for research projects is often done by timed observations or by direct aerial netting, but there has been increasing interest in blue vane traps as an efficient passive approach to collecting bees. Over multiple spring seasons in Michigan and Pennsylvania, orchards were monitored for wild bees using timed netting from crop flowers and blue vane traps. This revealed a distinctly different community of wild bees captured using the two methods, suggesting that blue vane traps can complement but cannot replace direct aerial netting. The bee community in blue vane traps was generally composed of nonpollinating species, which can be of interest for broader biodiversity studies. In particular, blue vane traps caught Eucera atriventris (Smith), Eucera hamata (Bradley), Bombus fervidus (F.), and Agapostemon virescens (F.) that were never collected from the orchard crop flowers during the study period. Captures of bee species in nets was generally stable across the 3 yr, whereas we observed significant declines in the abundance of Lasioglossum pilosum (Smith) and Eucera spp. trapped using blue vane traps during the project, suggesting local overtrapping of reproductive individuals. We conclude that blue vane traps are a useful tool for expanding insights into bee communities within orchard crop systems, but they should be used with great caution to avoid local extirpation of these important insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Orlanda; Martins, José; Silva, Luís; Moura, Mónica

    2009-01-01

    Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef.) Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamental interest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for the successful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttings collected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submitted to different treatments, including a basal split...

  13. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREIRA, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef. Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa &C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamentalinterest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for thesuccessful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttingscollected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submittedto different treatments, including a basal split wound, two rooting mixtures, namely, perlite and peat (1:1 or perlite and natural soil (1:1, and dipping of the base in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution at four concentrations (0, 2500, 5000 or 7000 mg/L. After eight weeks 75% rooting was achieved with 75 to 88% survival, without addition of IBA and with split wound using both substrate mixtures. Air layering was conducted in June in branches of adult trees with the addition of 0, 2500 or 3000 mg/L of IBA. After 12 months 100%rooting and survival was recorded in all treatments. Our study thus indicates that P. azorica is a taxon amenable for vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and air layering withoutrequiring addition of IBA to induce rooting. Both methods should be used in order to recover natural populations, when seeds are not available or are available in reduced amounts.

  14. RESULTS CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BEST POLLINATORS TO SOME OF THE NEW CHERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Iurea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper work is the rating of the polen’s quality, the study of the fertilty indexes and the behaviour of the cultivars in the proces of controled polination for some of the cultivars obtained at RSFG Iasi, for establishing the compatible groups on this criteria. The researches were made in 201 and 2012 at RSFG Iasi, with 9 chery cultivars as study material (‘Ludovic’, ‘Cociu’, ‘Margo’, ‘Alex’, ‘Anda’, ‘Iosif’, ‘Andrei’, ‘Mihai’ and ‘Paul’. Folowing the data analysis concerning the cultivars behaviour in the polination proces, there are recommended the interfertile groups presented in table 3. To obtain good productions each year, it is necesary to provide optimal conditions for interpolination for the cultivars by their corect alocation in orchard, planting a row with polinator chery at 2 or 4 rows of chery tres for polination (the report of 2:1 or 4:1.

  15. Selected cultivars of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) as a new food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (600-750 nm); this solution is green and its antioxidant activity can be easily measured by means of spectrophotometry. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay was carried out according to the method of Brand-Williams et al. (1995). This test is ...

  16. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Specialist, or Gary D. Olson, Regional Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order..., or E-mail: [email protected] or GaryD.Olson@ams.usda.gov , respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY... the vote tabulation. Teresa L. Hutchinson and Gary D. Olson of the Northwest Marketing Field Office...

  17. Irradiation damage and recovery in shoot apices of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saamin, S.; Thompson, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Dormant scions of 'Bing' were exposed to fractionated 6kR gamma rays and then grafted. Irradiated and unirradiated main buds were sampled at 3 day intervals for one month. Buds were fixed in FAA, longitudinally sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin. Both random and localised cell damage was observed in irradiated apices. There was evidence of radiosensitivity gradient in the shoot apex. Recovery from irradiation damage was via flank meristem, central meristem, or leaf primordia and axillary meristems. (author)

  18. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): morphological and cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.; Klyne, M.A.; Phan, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological symptoms of ozone damage were related to cellular alterations. The different degrees of damage reflected by the severity of plasmolysis, membrane destruction and coagulation were shown at different levels of microscopy.

  19. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): gradient of ultrastructural changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes produced by low ( less than or equal to 0.5 ppm) levels of ozone may be attributed to water deficit resulting from injury to the sensitive paravenial cells. The drastic alterations, resulting from high ( greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm) ozone concentrations, were apparently due to more direct effects. Although differential fixation images of membranes in control and ozone treated leaves were not obtained the significance of ozone attacking the olefinic groups of fatty acids in the membrane bilayer should not be completely ignored. 19 references, 12 figures.

  20. Taking a second bite at the appeal cherry: Molaudzi v S | Jordaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case note I present the background of the case of Molaudzi v S, analyse the judgement, and differentiate it from another Constitutional Court case that dealt with res judicata, namely Mpofu v Minister for Justice and Constitutional Development 2013 2 SACR 407 (CC). Keywords: Res judicata; interests of justice ...

  1. 75 FR 29647 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... flexibility analysis, USDA has not identified any relevant Federal rules that duplicate, overlap, or conflict... continuing to work with USDA to solve the oversupply situation and most recently made a recommendation to add...

  2. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Manuals Unit, 92... also revising a treatment schedule in the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual. DATES... T107- e in the Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Treatment Manual \\2\\ to include plumcots among the...

  3. Plant-soil biota interactions and spatial distribution of black cherry in its native and invasive ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Packer, A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Clay, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    One explanation for the higher abundance of invasive species in their non-native than native ranges is the escape from natural enemies. But there are few experimental studies comparing the parallel impact of enemies (or competitors and mutualists) on a plant species in its native and invaded ranges,

  4. 78 FR 28182 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Et al.; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Weiya Zeng, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable... request information on this notice by contacting Jeffrey Smutny, Assistant to the Director, Marketing... currently approved information collection. Abstract: Marketing order programs provide an opportunity for...

  5. A strategy for developing representative germplasm sets for systematic QTL validation, demonstrated for apple, peach, and sweet cherry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peace, C.P.; Luby, J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Horticultural crop improvement would benefit from a standardized, systematic, and statistically robust procedure for validating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in germplasm relevant to breeding programs. Here, we describe and demonstrate a strategy for developing reference germplasm sets of

  6. Breeding rootstocks for Prunus species: Advances in genetic and genomics of peach and cherry as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prunus rootstock is an important choice in optimizing productivity of grafted cultivars. Nevertheless, many Prunus rootstocks are notoriously intolerant to hypoxia which is caused by waterlogging and/or heavy soils. There is no available information to help select Prunus rootstocks that are tolerant to stress conditions such as root hypoxia caused by excess moisture. Information from genetic maps has demonstrated a high level of synteny among Prunus species, and this suggests that they all share a similar genomic structure. It should be possible to identify the genetic determinants involved in tolerance to hypoxia and other traits in Prunus rootstocks by applying methods to identify regions of the genome involved in the expression of important traits; these have been developed mainly in peach which is the model species for the genus. Molecular markers that are tightly linked to major genes would be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS to optimize new rootstock selection. This article provides insight on the advances in the development of molecular markers, genetic maps, and gene identification in Prunus, mainly in peach; the aim is to provide a general approach for identifying the genetic determinants of hypoxia stress in rootstocks.

  7. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees. Research note NE-299. [Oak, maple, linden, cherry trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanson, N.I.

    1976-01-01

    Dbh and height of 8- and 12-year-old coppice shoots and the number of live shoots were recorded for 736 stumps at least 12 inches in diameter of Liriodendron tulipifera, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, and Tilia americana in north-central West Virgina. Of the 8-year-old shoots, T. americana had the greatest number of live stems/stump (16.8) and the greatest number of potential crop trees (dominant or co-dominant shoots attached to the stump not more than 6 inches above the ground), averaging 2.5 stems/stump. The average numbers of potential crop trees/stump were similar at 8 and 12 year. At 12 years, at least 88% of stumps of each species had at least one stem of groundline origin with no forks below 25 feet were 84% for L. tulipifera, 59% for Q rubra, 73% for A. rubrum, and 65% for P. Serotina.

  8. Development of a sweet cherry pepper line with resistance to the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...

  9. Design, innovation, and rural creative places: Are the arts the cherry on top, or the secret sauce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojan, Timothy R; Nichols, Bonnie

    2018-01-01

    Creative class theory explains the positive relationship between the arts and commercial innovation as the mutual attraction of artists and other creative workers by an unobserved creative milieu. This study explores alternative theories for rural settings, by analyzing establishment-level survey data combined with data on the local arts scene. The study identifies the local contextual factors associated with a strong design orientation, and estimates the impact that a strong design orientation has on the local economy. Data on innovation and design come from a nationally representative sample of establishments in tradable industries. Latent class analysis allows identifying unobserved subpopulations comprised of establishments with different design and innovation orientations. Logistic regression allows estimating the association between an establishment's design orientation and local contextual factors. A quantile instrumental variable regression allows assessing the robustness of the logistic regression results with respect to endogeneity. An estimate of design orientation at the local level derived from the survey is used to examine variation in economic performance during the period of recovery from the Great Recession (2010-2014). Three distinct innovation (substantive, nominal, and non-innovators) and design orientations (design-integrated, "design last finish," and no systematic approach to design) are identified. Innovation- and design-intensive establishments were identified in both rural and urban areas. Rural design-integrated establishments tended to locate in counties with more highly educated workforces and containing at least one performing arts organization. A quantile instrumental variable regression confirmed that the logistic regression result is robust to endogeneity concerns. Finally, rural areas characterized by design-integrated establishments experienced faster growth in wages relative to rural areas characterized by establishments using no systematic approach to design.

  10. 77 FR 12748 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Sec. 930.50 of the order, the Board meets on or about July 1 to review sales data, inventory data... jurisdiction to review USDA's ruling on the petition, provided an action is filed not later than 20 days after... prescribes procedures for computing an optimum supply based on sales history and for calculating these free...

  11. Proceedings of the Power Sources Conference (36th) Held in Cherry Hill, New Jersey on June 6-9, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-09

    bi- polar design. Activation: Entrapped gas bubbles are diffiult to remove. Thorough wetting requires pulling vacuum several times. Initial Charging...accomplished by pulling an exdernal vacuum which evacuates air from each cell through the sNTEvCEI.L-fill I vent tubes. After release of vacuum and...density = 1.75 amnps/in2 System Weight =86 lbs (9.7 WI-l1b) System Volume =1071 in3 (.78 W~fn 3) 7SI I I I I I 70 C~~URREN PRGRM GOALI 60 CCLE IFEEPI is

  12. The Role of Top-down Attention in the Cocktail Party: Revisiting Cherry's Experiment after Sixty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchegiani, Letizia; Karadogan, Seliz; Andersen, Taja

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of top-down task drive attention in the cocktail party problem. In a recently proposed computational model of top-down attention it is possible to simulate the cocktail party problem and make predictions about sensitivity to confounders under different levels of attention....... Based on such simulations we expect that under strong top-down attention pattern recognition is improved as the model can compensate for noise and confounders. We next investigate the role of temporal and spectral overlaps and speech intelligibility in humans, and how the presence of a task influences...... computational top-down attention model....

  13. Design, innovation, and rural creative places: Are the arts the cherry on top, or the secret sauce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Bonnie

    2018-01-01

    Objective Creative class theory explains the positive relationship between the arts and commercial innovation as the mutual attraction of artists and other creative workers by an unobserved creative milieu. This study explores alternative theories for rural settings, by analyzing establishment-level survey data combined with data on the local arts scene. The study identifies the local contextual factors associated with a strong design orientation, and estimates the impact that a strong design orientation has on the local economy. Method Data on innovation and design come from a nationally representative sample of establishments in tradable industries. Latent class analysis allows identifying unobserved subpopulations comprised of establishments with different design and innovation orientations. Logistic regression allows estimating the association between an establishment’s design orientation and local contextual factors. A quantile instrumental variable regression allows assessing the robustness of the logistic regression results with respect to endogeneity. An estimate of design orientation at the local level derived from the survey is used to examine variation in economic performance during the period of recovery from the Great Recession (2010–2014). Results Three distinct innovation (substantive, nominal, and non-innovators) and design orientations (design-integrated, “design last finish,” and no systematic approach to design) are identified. Innovation- and design-intensive establishments were identified in both rural and urban areas. Rural design-integrated establishments tended to locate in counties with more highly educated workforces and containing at least one performing arts organization. A quantile instrumental variable regression confirmed that the logistic regression result is robust to endogeneity concerns. Finally, rural areas characterized by design-integrated establishments experienced faster growth in wages relative to rural areas characterized by establishments using no systematic approach to design. PMID:29489884

  14. Long Chain Alcohols Produced by Trichoderma citrinoviride Have Phagodeterrent Activity Against the Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid Rhopalosiphum padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eGanassi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the effects of fungal metabolites isolated from cultures of the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride ITEM 4484 on the feeding preference of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a major pest of cereal crops. Different phagodeterrent metabolites were purified by a combination of direct and reverse phase column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Chemical investigations, by spectroscopic and chemical methods, led to the identification of different long chain primary alcohols (LCOHs of the general formula R-OH, wherein R is a long, unbranched, unsubstituted, linear aliphatic group. LCOHs have been reported as components of lepidopteran pheromone blends, but their phagodeterrent effect to aphids is herein reported for the first time. We studied the effects of LCOHs on R. padi by behavioral and electrophysiological bioassays. Feeding preference tests that were carried out with winged and wingless morphs of R. padi showed that LCOHs have a distinctly high phagodeterrent activity and significantly restrain aphids from settling on treated leaves already at a concentration as low as 0.15 mM (0.036 g/l. The results of different electrophysiological analyses indicate that taste receptor neurons located on the aphid tarsomeres are involved in the LCOHs perception. Behavioral assays carried out with some commercial agrochemicals, including azadirachtin A, pyrethrum and mineral oil based products, in combination with 1-hexadecanol, the LCOH most abundantly produced by T. citrinoviride ITEM 4484, showed that these different active principles can be applied together, resulting in a useful increase of the phagodeterrent effect. Therefore these compounds can be profitably utilized for novel applications in biotechnical control of aphid pests. The LCOHs tested have no chiral centers and therefore can be obtained in good yields and at low cost through chemical synthesis, beside than from natural sources.

  15. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...., Stop 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: Laurel... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 [Doc. No. AO-370-A8; AMS..., Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  16. Determination of Some Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrates in the Fruits of Wild Cherry Laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) Using Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    AYAZ, F. Ahmet; KADIOĞLU, Asım; HAYIRLIOĞLU-AYAZ, Sema

    1998-01-01

    Some low-molecular-weight carbohydrates extracted with ethanol and water from the fruits of Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. ( Rosaceae), from two different regions in Trabzon, were analysed using gas chromatography. In one population, the analysis in the ethanol extraction showed the occurence of fructose, glucose, sorbitol and sucrose in concentrations (w/w) of 25.20; 23.00; 14.00 and 0.024 %, respectively. The same sugars, in the water extraction were found in concentrations (w/w) of 24.6...

  17. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ..., product line extensions, or segmentation of markets along geographic or other definable characteristics... diversion credits for new market development and market expansion activities to one year. These changes are intended to facilitate sales and lessen the impact of market expansion activities on volume restriction...

  18. 77 FR 24640 - Tart Cherries Grown in the State of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... extensions, or segmentation of markets along geographic or other definable characteristics. In July 2011, the... diversion credits for new market development and market expansion activities to one year. These changes are intended to facilitate sales and lessen the impact of market expansion activities on volume restriction...

  19. Characterisation of imidacloprid resistance in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, a serious pest on wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Yanna; Yang, Zhuolin; Su, Sha; Chen, Maohua

    2018-06-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi is a destructive insect pest of wheat worldwide. Studies have shown that R. padi has developed resistance to different insecticides, including imidacloprid. We studied the mechanisms conferring resistance to imidacloprid at the biochemical and molecular levels. An R. padi imidacloprid-resistant (IM-R) strain and a susceptible (SS) strain were established. Fitness analysis using life-tables showed that the IM-R strain had obvious disadvantages in several parameters, indicating reduced fitness. Profiles of cross-resistance of IM-R and SS to seven insecticides were detected. Both synergistic and enzyme activity data suggested that P450 plays a role in resistance. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes CYP6CY3-1 and CYP6CY3-2 were significantly increased in the IM-R strain. No target-site mutation within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits was detected in the IM-R strain. Interestingly, the expression levels of the nAChR α1, α2, α3, α7-2, and β1 subunit genes were significantly decreased, suggesting that down-regulation of these subunits may be involved in resistance. Multiple mechanisms confer imidacloprid resistance in R. padi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Lumber volume and value recovery from small-diameter black cherry, sugar maple, and red oak logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Matthew Scholl; Paul Blankenhorn; Chuck. Ray

    2017-01-01

    While only a very small percentage of hardwood logs sawn by conventional sawmills in the U.S. have small-end diameters less than 10 in, portable and scragg mills often saw smaller logs. With the closure of regionally important oriented strand board and pulpwood operations, small-diameter logs are considered to have no value in some markets. This study was...

  1. 75 FR 1724 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... recommended to the Secretary for Board membership. Under the current order, there is no accounting for handler... constituency conflict from occurring, as discussed under amendment number five. The modification would help to... the same district, if such a conflict cannot be avoided. Currently, Sec. 930.20 does not allow more...

  2. The market chain of fruit production in Serbia: A case study of raspberry and sour cherry cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The trade in fresh and frozen fruit is complex and fragmentary. Currently producers are forced to use a variety of marketing channels - farmers' markets, processing industries, trade companies and brokers. To increase quality, production, profitability and exports, it is essential to maximize cooperation between producers, processors, wholesalers and retailers. Vertically and laterally integrated fruit marketing channels demand the smallest number of intermediaries and direct relations with consumers. In past decades, fruit production in Serbia was characterized by irrational resource allocation. Neglect of the agribusiness marketing concept led to supply shortages. As a result, prices increased while quality decreased. Only integrated marketing concepts can boost quality, yields, profitability and competitiveness.

  3. Susceptibility of sweet and sour cherry cultivars/genotypes to feeding damage caused by Bryobia rubrioculus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honarparvar, N.; Khanjani, M.; Zemek, Rostislav; Bouzari, N.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2018), s. 78-90 ISSN 1362-1971 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Prunus * brown mite * fee ding damage Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2016

  4. Water use in forest canopy black cherry trees and its relationship to leaf gas exchange and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Joyce; K. C. Steiner; J. M. Skelly

    1996-01-01

    Models of canopy gas exchange are needed to connect leaf-level measurement to higher scales. Because of the correspondence between leaf gas exchange and water use, it may be possible to predict variation in leaf gas exchange at the canopy level by monitoring rates of branch water use.

  5. Differences in Anatomical Structure and Lignin Content of Roots of pedunculate Oak and Wild Cherry-Tree Plantlets During Acclimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, A.; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Kálal, J.; Votrubová, O.; Cvikrová, Milena

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2004), s. 481-489 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0999 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Karlovy University(CZ) 145/2003/B-Bio/PrF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : exodermis * in vitro * lignin Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2004

  6. The Effect of Nest Box Distribution on Sustainable Propagation of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Commercial Tart Cherry Orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, N. K.; Pitts-Singer, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria (Say), is a solitary bee that is an excellent pollinator of tree fruit orchards. Due to the annual rising costs of honey bee hive rentals, many orchardists are eager to develop management tools and practices to support O. lignaria as an alternative pollinator. Establishing O. lignaria pollination as a sustainable industry requires careful consideration of both bee and orchard management. Here, we test the effect of artificial nest box distribution on in-or...

  7. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of two potassium fertilization treatments on fruit set and flower bud, flower and bract leaf nutrient concentrations in Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer' on Prunus avium and 'Colt' rootstocks. Single applications of KNO3 or KCl were applied ...

  8. Proceedings of the International Wire and Cable Symposium (33rd) Held at Cherry Hill, New Jersey on 13-15 November 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-15

    HBr - H+ + Br’ and HCI — H* + CT wcre considered in calculating total acidity PPS theoretical Al assumes only 1 titrable proton at <pH 4.5. Figure... Acid Index—A Property of Polymer Com- bustion—P. C. Warren, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey 34 Fire Safety of Wire...T- ,,’^~t^"-’Vr": ’^"T^T’Tr"^^^^ ^.’r^w^- r* T- ^ -^ r ■»■vr - .- -»-T- ■„■ w .■-"■.-■* v-* U. A I _ ■ ,-’■. The Acid Index — A Property of

  9. Investigating the Transport Dynamics of Anthocyanins from Unprocessed Fruit and Processed Fruit Juice from Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Capanoglu, E.; Meer, van der I.M.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Hall, R.D.; Mes, J.J.; Beekwilder, J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the

  10. 10-Undecenoic Acid, an Inexpensive Source for the Synthesis of the Pheromones of Cotton Pests, Peach Tree Borer and Cherry Tree Borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chattopadhyay

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The aldehyde 7, derived from 10-undecenoic acid (5 on cis-selective Wittig reaction with pentylidenetriphenylphosphorane, subsequent deprotection and oxidation gave the pheromone (11Z-hexadecenal (1. Wittig-Horner olefination of 1 with the phosphonate 9 furnished the conjugated ester 10 which on base catalyzed isomerization to the (3Z-ester 11 followed by LAH reduction and acetylation gave (3Z,13Z-octadeadien-1-yl acetate (2. Compound 10 on the other hand was chemoselectively reduced and acetylated to furnish the pheromone (2E,13Z-octadeadien-1-yl acetate (4. For the synthesis of (3E,13Z-octadeadien-1-yl acetate (3, 1 was condensed with malonic acid under modified condition to afford the acid 13 which was converted to 3 by standard reaction protocol.

  11. Effects of Dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA Ratios on Lipid Levels and Fatty Acid Profile of Cherry Valley Ducks at 15-42 Days of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Xie, Qiang; Tian, Lu; Li, Xiaocun; Zhang, Jiaming; Ye, Hui; Zhu, Yongwen; Yang, Lin; Wang, Wence

    2017-11-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on growth performance, serum and tissue lipid levels, fatty acid profile, and hepatic expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in ducks. A total of 3168 15-day old ducks were fed different n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios: 13:1 (control), 10:1, 8:1, 6:1, 4:1, and 2:1. The feeding trial lasted 4 weeks. Our results revealed that dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios had no effects on growth performance. The 2:1 group had the highest serum triglyceride levels. Serum total cholesterol and HDL levels were higher in the 13:1 and 8:1 groups than in the 6:1 and 2:1 groups. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in serum and tissues (liver and muscle) increased with decreasing dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. The hepatic expression of FADS2, ELOVL5, FADS1, and ELOVL2 increased on a quadratic function with decreasing dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. These results demonstrate that lower dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios had strong effects on the fatty acid profile of edible parts and the deposition of n-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue of ducks.

  12. Transitional Effects of Double-Lateral Drip Irrigation and Straw Mulch on Irrigation Water Consumption, Mineral Nutrition, Yield, and Storability of Sweet Cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field trial was conducted on a Cherryhill silt loam soil at The Dalles, OR from 2006 through 2008. The impacts of switching from the traditional micro sprinkler irrigation (MS) to double-lateral drip irrigation (DD) and from no ground cover with herbicide control of weeds (NC) to in-row wheat (Tri...

  13. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY OF INITIAL PARENTAL FORMS IN TOMATO FOR COMPLEX OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS TO DEVELOP HYBRIDS F1 OF CHERRY AND COCKTAIL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rechets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of estimation of general and specific combining ability of male and female parental tomato forms were given for complex of traits. The estimation was carried out according to incomplete diallel crosses 15x15. Such varities   as   ‘Trapeza’,  Rosovaya  kapelka’,  ‘Seniorita’, ‘Ocharovanie’,  ‘Tigris’   ‘Vishnya  Zheltaya’  (Gavrish, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding, and  lines: ‘46/06’,  ‘49/09’,  ‘295/09’,  ‘336/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘357/11’, ‘388/09’ (nor, ‘498’ (selection of TARI were used as intial breeding accessions, differing in bush type (determinate and indeterminate, duration of vegetative phase (ultraearly,  early, medium early, middle-ripening, fruit  shape (rounded, oval, fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with the gene nor, fruit weight (10 g. and more, brush structure (dense, friable. As a results, ‘Trapeza’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘Seniorita’, and lines: ‘295/10’, ‘49/09’,  ‘498’,  ‘357/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘388/09’  (nor were selected and recommended to be used in breeding program for development of heterotic hybrids with high fruit setting and generative bush type. The promising hybrids F1 with high constants of specific combining ability for a complex of economically valuable traits have been observed. Because of different lines and accessions were used in crossings, these hybrids varied in internode length of cluster type, classical or shorten; rounded or oval fruit shape; fruit  color, red (F1   combinations ‘354/11’ х ‘Seniorita’, ‘Trapeza’ х  ‘L.49/09’,  L.  ‘49/09’  х  L.354/11, pink (F1 combination ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’ х ‘L.354/11’, yellow (F1 combination ‘Ocharovaniye’ х  ‘Vishiya Zheltaya’, deep brown (F1 combination  ‘L.357/11’ х ‘L.354/11’.

  14. Yield and Quality of Sequentially Grown Cherry Tomato and Lettuce under Long-Term Conventional, Low-Input and Organic Soil Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moccia, S.; Chiesa, A.; Oberti, A.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Besides to conventional fertiliser use, organic and low-input technologies are being increasingly used for soil management in vegetable production. However, different factors operating during crop growth (i.e. the pre-harvest factors) and related to soil properties may affect yield and quality of

  15. Appenzell Creek, Aquashicola Creek, Buck Hill Creek, Bush Kill Creek, Cherry Creek, Cranberry Creek, Marshall Creek, Pocono Creek, and Swiftwater Creek Field SURVEY, Monroe COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. Proceedings of the International Wire and Cable Symposium (32nd) Held at Cherry Hill, New Jersey on November 15, 16 and 17, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-17

    34 tion principle allows the fabrication of /6/ Zielinski , H.G., S. Mlinger, Fibre long cable lengths adopted to the expec- Optical Coupling Techniques and... Dave graduated in 1949 from Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., with BS in Chemistry. He performed graduate work at Northwestern University in...Marketing prior to serving in U.S. Army, Chemical Corps. Dave joined Du Pont in 1954 after leaving the Army. His present assignment as Senior Development

  17. Proceedings of International Wire and Cable Symposium (24th), Held at Cherry Hill, New Jersey, on November 18, 19 and 20, 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    hydrolyze (react with free protons). This means that fillers react readily with titanates at room temperature. • The size of the monoalkoxy...to Hydrolyze React with CaCOj E«cess/ve Amounts Hurt Properties { Transeslerilication ■ X-link Polyester K-link without Unsaturation X’ Binder...cured epoxy room temperature cured epoxy paint system. Base A Resypox 1628 TTOPI-41 Solvent Lecithin Pine Oil Flow Control Agent Tiü2 Mg

  18. Proceedings of the International Wire and Cable Symposium (31st) Held at Cherry Hill, New Jersey, on November 16, 17 and 18, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Comunicaciones , S.A. Arlington. TX Zarogoza, Spain Albany International Corporation Camden Wire Co., Inc. Chatham. NY Camden. NY Alcan Aluminio Do... COMUNICACIONES , S.A. ZARAGOZA (SPAIN) ABSIRACT the object of this paper. Fiq. I show the tradltio- Seo hnal schematic diagram of analoqical measurements of...power sum: ACKNOWLEDGMENT F2 F2 FN F(fo,!.o)dB = i0logi0 + 10 + ... IOT ) The authors qish to thank the people of Cables de Comunicaciones S.A. for

  19. Proceedings of the International Wire and Cable Symposium (29th) Held at Cherry Hill, New Jersey on November 18, 19 and 20, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Comunicaciones , S.A. Elizabeth, NJ Zaragoza, SPAIN Ilmercable Corporation Cabot Corporation El Dorado, Arkansas Boston, MA American Hoechst Corporation...FILLING RELATIONSHIP TO TRANSMISSION, V. Abadia, J. Z. COMPOUND, D. M. Mitchell, R. Sabia, Bell Lab- Avalos, Cables de Comunicaciones , S. A., Zaragoza...RESISTANCE PROBLEMS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO TRANSMISSION V. Abadia and J.Z. Avalos CABLES DE COMUNICACIONES , S,A, ABSTRACT TABLE I A good number of

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Marine Corps Search and Rescue (SAR): A Study of Alternatives for Marine Corps Air Stations at Cherry Point and Yuma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    8999 8999 CAREER PLANNER E5 4821 4821 AVN SAFETY/STAND DIR SAFETY/STAND O4 7551 0000 AVN SAF OFF O3 7596 0000 NATOPS OFF (C-9) O4 7551 0000...NATOPS OFF (UC-35) O4 7554 0000 NATOPS OFF (H-46) O3 7562 0000 AVN OPERATIONS CLERK E4 7041 0000 S-1 ADMIN OFFICER O4 7551 0000 ADMIN OFFICER O4 7551...ASST OPS OFF O4 7562 7562 ASST OPS OFFICER O4 7506 0000 SCHED OFF O3 7562 7562 AVN OPERATIONS CHIEF E7 7041 7041 AVN OPERATIONS CLERK E4 7041