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Sample records for chernobyl radiation accident

  1. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  2. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

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    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  4. [Analysis of radiation-hygienic and medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident].

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    Onishchenko, G G

    2013-01-01

    Since the day of "the Chernobyl accident" in 1986 more than 25 years have been past. Radioactively contaminated areas 14 subjects of the Russian Federation with a total area of more than 50 thousand km2, where 1.5 million people now reside were exposed to radioactive contamination. Currently, a system of comprehensive evaluation of radiation doses of the population affected by the "Chernobyl accidents", including 11 guidance documents has been created. There are methodically provided works on the assessment of average annual, accumulated and predicted radiation doses of population and its critical groups, as well as doses to the thyroid gland The relevance of the analysis of the consequences of the "Chernobyl accident" is demonstrated by the events in Japan, at nuclear power Fukusima-1. In 2011 - 20/2 there were carried out comprehensive maritime expeditions under the auspices of the Russian Geographical Society with the participation of relevant ministries and agencies, leading academic institutions in Russia. In 2012, work was carried out on radiation protection of the population from the potential transboundary impact of the accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima-l. The results provide a basis for the favorable outlook for the radiation environment in our Far East and the Pacific coast of Russia.

  5. [Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].

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    Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  6. Radiation Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Emergency Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

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    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Karpenko, S V; Maksioutov, M A; Menyaylo, A N; Tumanov, K A; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Lovachev, S S; Vlasov, O K; Ivanov, V K

    2017-07-01

    This paper continues a series of publications that analyze the impact of radiation on incidence of circulatory system diseases in the cohort of Russian recovery operation workers (liquidators) and presents the results of the analysis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 liquidators who arrived in the Chernobyl accident zone within the first year after the accident (26 April 1986 to 26 April 1987). The individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy, and the mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy. A total of 27,456 cases of CVD were diagnosed during the follow-up period 1986-2012 as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied to estimate radiation risks and other risk factors associated with CVD. The following factors were identified as risk factors for CVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, and alcohol dependence). The baseline incidence of CVD is statistically significantly (p Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.53; 1.08, p < 0.001.

  7. Gilbert W. Beebe Symposium on 30 Years after the Chernobyl Accident: Current and Future Studies on Radiation Health Effects.

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    Samet, Jonathan M; de González, Amy Berrington; Dauer, Lawrence T; Hatch, Maureen; Kosti, Ourania; Mettler, Fred A; Satyamitra, Merriline M

    2018-01-01

    This commentary summarizes the presentations and discussions from the 2016 Gilbert W. Beebe symposium "30 years after the Chernobyl accident: Current and future studies on radiation health effects." The symposium was hosted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies). The symposium focused on the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, looking retrospectively at what has been learned and prospectively at potential future discoveries using emerging 21st Century research methodologies.

  8. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

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    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  9. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

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    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  10. Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl

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    Voigt, G. [ed.] [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Paretzke, H.G. [ed.] [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. (orig.)

  11. Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl.

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    Voigt, G; Paretzke, H G

    1996-02-01

    In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction.

  12. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

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    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  13. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

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    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29.

  14. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

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    Aahman, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics

    1997-09-01

    The level of {sup 137}CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T{sub ef} at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK 7 refs, tabs

  15. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

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    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  16. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

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    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  17. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

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    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta

  18. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

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    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  19. Thyroid Dose Estimates for a Cohort of Belarusian Children Exposed to Radiation from the Chernobyl Accident

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    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Leshcheva, Svetlana; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Kutsen, Semion; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tretyakevich, Sergey; Trofimik, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with the Belarusian Ministry of Health, is conducting a study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in a cohort of about 12,000 persons who were exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The study subjects were 18 years old or younger at the time of exposure and resided in Belarus in the most contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts, as well as in the city of Minsk. All cohort members had at least one direct thyroid measurement made in April–June 1986. Individual data on residential history, consumption of milk, milk products and leafy vegetables as well as administration of stable iodine were collected for all cohort members by means of personal interviews conducted between 1996 and 2007. Based on the estimated 131I activities in the thyroids, which were derived from the direct thyroid measurements, and on the responses to the questionnaires, individual thyroid doses from intakes of 131I were reconstructed for all cohort members. In addition, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for the following minor exposure pathways: (a) intake of short-lived 132I, 133I and 132Te by inhalation and ingestion; (b) external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (c) ingestion intake of 134Cs and 137Cs. Intake of 131I was the major pathway for thyroid exposure; its mean contribution to the thyroid dose was 92%. The thyroid doses from 131I intakes varied from 0.5 mGy to almost 33 Gy; the mean was estimated to be 0.58 Gy, while the median was 0.23 Gy. The reconstructed doses are being used to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in the cohort. PMID:23560632

  20. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.

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    Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

    2011-05-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. MENTAL STATUS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT LIQUIDATORS

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    V. P. Vishnevskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation ofpeculiarities of the mental status structure of Chernobyl accident liquidators. Changes in the mental status revealed among them may be qualified as the micromegaly symptoms. Presumably it may be connected both directly with radiation exposure and high stress and anxiety level of liquidators. Early detection of changes in mental status and individual approach to the therapy program development, psychological correction and rehabilitation of liquidators has particular significance. 

  2. Radiation exposure in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident caused oxidative stress and genetic effects in Scots pine populations

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    Volkova, Polina Yu.; Geras'Kin, Stanislav A.; Kazakova, Elizaveta A.

    2017-02-01

    Even 30 years after the Chernobyl accident, biological effects of irradiation are observed in the chronically exposed Scots pine populations. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates above 50 mGy•yr-1 caused oxidative stress and led to the increase of antioxidants concentrations in these populations. Genetic variability was examined for 6 enzymes and 14 enzymatic loci of 6 Scots pine populations. Dose rates over 10 mGy•yr-1 caused the increased frequency of mutations and changes in genetic structure of Scots pine populations. However, the same dose rates had no effect on enzymatic activities. The results indicate that even relatively low dose rates of radiation can be considered as an ecological factor which should be taken into account for ecological management and radiation protection of biota species.

  3. Reconstruction of transuranium radionuclide radiation dose to the population in regions far from the Chernobyl accident

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    Makhon`ko, K.P.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the dose due to transuranic nuclides released during the Chernobyl accident. Calculations have shown that most of this dose was formed prior to May 6, 1986 and was due to curium 242 and the plutonium isotopes. With a 162.8 day half-life, the curium 242 fraction is presently negligible, while the americium 241 fraction is increasing. In this study, the total dose from curium 242 and plutonium isotopes was calculated for three specific population points far from the accident site. Calculations were performed for inhalation of the subject isotopes by an average adult male irradiated for 50 years, with analogous calculations performed for women and children. As most of the dose was received by inhalation, the calculations were sensitive to particle size, and the results obtained were expected to be an upperlimit. The effective whole-body dose was also calculated, as was the dose for certain organs. Based upon these calculations, the calculated risk factors for genetic and somatic consequences were low and consistent with observations since the accident.

  4. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

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    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  5. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E.; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well-documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer endpoints. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers (“liquidators”) have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other hematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  6. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

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    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  7. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

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    Mednick Sarnoff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53 and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child.

  8. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, Kristin Sverdvik; Mednick, Sarnoff; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2011-04-17

    On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child.

  9. The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

  10. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY AMONG EMERGENCY WORKERS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION RISKS FOR THE FOLLOW-UP PERIOD OF 1992-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident for the follow- up period of 199Morbidity and mortality among the emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident for the follow-up period of 1992-2008 is analyzed in the article. The cohort consists of 47141 emergency workers of 1986-1987. Radiation risks for cancer morbidity (ERR/Gy is 0.76; 95% CI: 0.19; 1.42, p-value=0008 and cancer mortality (ERR/Gy is 0.95; 95% CI: 0.19; 1.89, p-value=0.01 are statistically significant. Radiation risk for vascular diseases is assessed as well.

  11. Reconstruction of radiation doses to population in the western districts of the Bryansk Region due to the Chernobyl accident. Application to cohort study in radiation epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinov, Y.O.; Moskalev, O.S. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hoshi, M.; Shibata, Y.; Yamashita, S.

    1996-12-31

    Reconstruction of doses to population living in the areas affected by the Chernobyl accident is needed for scientific, medical and social purposes. It is especially important for the areas most heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallouts. In the Russian Federation those areas are the western districts of the Bryansk Region where the territories with caesium-137 contamination over 0.55 MBq/m{sup 2} were specified as `Strict Control Zone` (SCZ). Dynamics of the annual whole body dose for an average individual residing SCZ during a decade after the accident is derived from the data on WBC and TLD measurements made by the Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St.Petersburg (IRH). Example of distribution of individual internal dose from caesium radionuclides among residents of a rural settlement as well as plausible approach to distribution of individual thyroid dose among children in SCZ are presented in the paper. With the aim of effective use of available data to reconstruct doses to individuals and population groups living in SCZ, a data bank is under development in IRH. This data bank includes primary records on radiometric and questionnaire examinations of people, environmental and social information relevant to exposure conditions. The data bank will be used to establish a reconstructive dosimetry system to assign thyroid and whole body dose to the children from the Bryansk Region who were subjected to health screening in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Project in the period from May 1991 to April 1996. Further health examinations by detailed follow-up study would be carried out for a cohort of children selected in line with individual dose distribution adequate to the goal to investigate possible late radiation effects. A current approach to the availability and use of data for dose reconstruction in this study is described in the paper. (author)

  12. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  13. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  14. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustinskaia O.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons, 18-39 (496 persons, 40-60 (458 persons. The data on the individual radiation doses which affected thyroid gland were selected at the State Register of Ukraine on persons affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Morbidity rate was estimated per 103 man-year for 5-years periods of monitoring. The main results: Time from the moment of Chernobyl accident affected the formation of morbidity structure of evacuated population. It was fixed two peaks of morbidity incidence - initial and in 12 years. The most essential changes in CS morbidity of evacuated population were fixed 26 years later mainly in cere¬brovascular diseases. The coronary artery disease takes the first place in the morbidity structure. Significant dif¬ferences were detected at age-specific aspect. The evacuated adult population aged 18-39 years was the most vulnerable for the development of CS diseases. Adverse health effects confirmed the necessity of further research of CS morbidity with the differentiation of doses affected thyroid gland.

  15. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

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    Koterov A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

  16. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-09-24

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  17. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

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    Kimura Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radio nuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested.

  18. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. © 2013.

  19. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  20. SUBSTANTIAL AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MENTAL STATUS OF THE PERSONS WHO HAVE RECEIVED SMALL DOSES OF RADIATION DURING LIGUIDATION OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the peculiarities of ideas about the catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster at the persons who have suffered from radiation during liquidation of the accident’s consequences. View of the accident was considered as a key element of a person’s mind, in particular the adaptive. There were 30 persons, who took part in the research – participants of Chernobyl disaster’s liquidation, veterans of division of an extra risk. The subjective assessment of mental health at persons who survived in Chernobyl disaster was defined; personal properties of victims were revealed; interrelations between personal properties and subjective assessment of mental health were established. It is possible to assume that in process of moving away from the moment of the accident the content of view of Chernobyl disaster shows concentration of the person on experience of mental health and the personal potential.

  1. Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, C; Zvonova, I; Rääf, C; Mattsson, S

    2011-10-15

    A Nordic-Soviet programme was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the external and internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of several villages in the Bryansk region of Russia. This area was one of the number of areas particularly affected by the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Measurements were carried out yearly until 1998 and after that more irregularly; in 2000, 2006 and 2008 respectively. The effective dose estimates were based on individual thermoluminescent dosemeters and on in vivo measurements of the whole body content of (137)Cs (and (134)Cs during the first years of the programme). The decrease in total effective dose during the almost 2 decade follow-up was due to a continuous decrease in the dominating external exposure and a less decreasing but highly variable exposure from internal irradiation. In 2008, the observed average effective dose (i.e. the sum of external and internal exposure) from Chernobyl (137)Cs to the residents was estimated to be 0.3mSv y(-1). This corresponds to 8% of the estimated annual dose in 1990 and to 1% of the estimated annual dose in 1986. As a mean for the population group and for the period of the present study (2006-2008), the average yearly effective dose from Chernobyl cesium was comparable to the absorbed dose obtained annually from external exposure to cosmic radiation plus internal exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in the human body. Our data indicate that the effective dose from internal exposure is becoming increasingly important as the body burdens of Chernobyl (137)Cs are decreasing more slowly than the external exposure. However, over the years there have been large individual variations in both the external and internal effective doses, as well as differences between the villages investigated. These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardsson, C., E-mail: christian.bernhardsson@med.lu.se [Department of Clinical Sciences Malmoe, Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Skane University Hospital Malmoe, 205 02, Malmoe (Sweden); Zvonova, I. [Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene, ul. Mira, 8, 197101, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Raeaef, C.; Mattsson, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences Malmoe, Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Skane University Hospital Malmoe, 205 02, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2011-10-15

    A Nordic-Soviet programme was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the external and internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of several villages in the Bryansk region of Russia. This area was one of the number of areas particularly affected by the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Measurements were carried out yearly until 1998 and after that more irregularly; in 2000, 2006 and 2008 respectively. The effective dose estimates were based on individual thermoluminescent dosemeters and on in vivo measurements of the whole body content of {sup 137}Cs (and {sup 134}Cs during the first years of the programme). The decrease in total effective dose during the almost 2 decade follow-up was due to a continuous decrease in the dominating external exposure and a less decreasing but highly variable exposure from internal irradiation. In 2008, the observed average effective dose (i.e. the sum of external and internal exposure) from Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs to the residents was estimated to be 0.3 mSv y{sup -1}. This corresponds to 8% of the estimated annual dose in 1990 and to 1% of the estimated annual dose in 1986. As a mean for the population group and for the period of the present study (2006-2008), the average yearly effective dose from Chernobyl cesium was comparable to the absorbed dose obtained annually from external exposure to cosmic radiation plus internal exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in the human body. Our data indicate that the effective dose from internal exposure is becoming increasingly important as the body burdens of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs are decreasing more slowly than the external exposure. However, over the years there have been large individual variations in both the external and internal effective doses, as well as differences between the villages investigated. These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1987-01-01

    Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

  4. Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A.; Uspenskaya, A.; Bychenkova, E.; Chinchuk, I.; Novokshonov, K.; Chernikov, R.; Sleptsov, I.; Bubnov, A.; Fedotov, Y.; Makarin, V.; Karelina, Y. [Endocrinology, NWRMC FHSDA, ST-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I{sup 131} caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I{sup 131} on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I{sup 131} and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

  5. Genetic implications and health consequences following the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozenko, M; Chudley, A E

    2010-03-01

    It has been almost 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine. We review relevant data derived from published reports originating in the Former Soviet Union. We cite census data from Ukraine and research studies from Western Europe that analyzed the effect of radiation on genetics and health outcome in the exposed populations. We also present philatelic materials that pictorially captured that fateful event in history.

  6. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  7. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster.

  8. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  9. Reconstruction of radiation doses in a case-control study of thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Khrouch, Valeri; Maceika, Evaldas; Zvonova, Irina; Vlasov, Oleg; Bratilova, Angelica; Gavrilin, Yury; Goulko, Guennadi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Bouville, André

    2010-07-01

    A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer was carried out in contaminated regions of Belarus and Russia among persons who were exposed during childhood and adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. For each study subject, individual thyroid doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) intake of 131I via inhalation and ingestion; (2) intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, and 135I) and radiotelluriums (131mTe, 132Te) via inhalation and ingestion; (3) external dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (4) ingestion of 134Cs and 137Cs. A series of intercomparison exercises validated the models used for reconstruction of average doses to populations of specific age groups as well as of individual doses. Median thyroid doses from all factors for study subjects were estimated to be 0.37 and 0.034 Gy in Belarus and Russia, respectively. The highest individual thyroid doses among the subjects were 10.2 Gy in Belarus and 5.3 Gy in Russia. Iodine-131 intake was the main pathway for thyroid exposure. Estimated doses from short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums ranged up to 0.53 Gy. Reconstructed individual thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 0.1 Gy, while those from internal exposure due to ingested cesium did not exceed 0.05 Gy. The uncertainty of the reconstructed individual thyroid doses, characterized by the geometric standard deviation, varies from 1.7 to 4.0 with a median of 2.2.

  10. RECONSTRUCTION OF RADIATION DOSES IN A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF THYROID CANCER FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Khrouch, Valeri; Maceika, Evaldas; Zvonova, Irina; Vlasov, Oleg; Bratilova, Angelica; Gavrilin, Yury; Goulko, Guennadi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Bouville, Andre

    2010-01-01

    A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer was carried out in contaminated regions of Belarus and Russia among persons who were exposed during childhood and adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. For each study subject, individual thyroid doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) intake of 131I via inhalation and ingestion; (2) intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, and 135I) and radiotelluriums (131mTe, 132Te) via inhalation and ingestion; (3) external dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (4) ingestion of 134Cs and 137Cs. A series of intercomparison exercises validated the models used for reconstruction of average doses to populations of specific age groups as well as of individual doses. Median thyroid doses from all factors for study subjects were estimated to be 0.37 and 0.034 Gy in Belarus and Russia, respectively. The highest individual thyroid doses among the subjects were 10.2 Gy in Belarus and 5.3 Gy in Russia. Iodine-131 intake was the main pathway for thyroid exposure. Estimated doses from short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums ranged up to 0.53 Gy. Reconstructed individual thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 0.1 Gy, while those from internal exposure due to ingested cesium did not exceed 0.05 Gy. The uncertainty of the reconstructed individual thyroid doses, characterized by the geometric standard deviation, varies from 1.7 to 4.0 with a median of 2.2. PMID:20539120

  11. Characteristics of young adults of Belarus with post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma: a long-term follow-up of patients with early exposure to radiation at the 30th anniversary of the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Mikhail; Lam, Alfred King-Yin; Krasko, Olga

    2016-12-01

    Studies of thyroid cancer related to the Chernobyl accident have focused on children as they are the most vulnerable group with the highest risk of developing radiation-associated cancer. In contrast, our research aimed to look at the clinical and pathological features of patients with post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma that were 2 years old or less at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The study subjects were patients (n = 359) aged 0 to 2 at the time of the Chernobyl accident and aged ≥19 years at presentation/surgery who were treated in Belarus for papillary thyroid carcinoma during the period 2003-2013. In conventional or oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, the prevalence of extra-thyroidal extension, nodal disease, infiltrative growth or lymphatic vessel invasion was above 50%. These features were less pronounced when compared to tall cell or diffuse sclerosing variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The highest frequency of central lymph node metastases was found in patients aged 1-2 years at exposure (P = 0·004). Subjects exposed in utero were characterized by absent/insignificant lymphocytic infiltration around the carcinoma (P = 0·025), predominance of conventional papillary architecture and an association with lymphocytic thyroiditis. A number of features were associated with this group of patients that were very young at the time of radiation exposure. In addition, the incidence and basic characteristics of adult papillary thyroid carcinoma varied depending on the types of exposure conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    died shortly after hospital admission from symptorns of acute radiation sickness, CVA must have been the Kiev fatality on suffered a cerebrovascular ... cerebrovascular acci- unfavorable prognosis IState Committee dent victim with anl estimated close of 3 G\\. 19861. the four bone marrow transplant...ber 1987. Aledical Handling of Skin Lesions Folloti- ing High Level Accidental Irradiation, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Institute Curie, Paris

  13. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  14. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  15. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  16. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kashcheeva, P.V.; Shchukina, N.V.; Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Ministry of Health, Federal State Institution, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy{sup -1}) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant. (orig.)

  17. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  18. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  19. Perinatal mortality in Bavaria, Germany, after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, B. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Irl, C. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Santen, E. van [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    As has been shown by the authors of a paper recently published in this journal, a deviation from a long-term trend in perinatal mortality within the former Federal Republic of Germany occurred in 1987, i.e. 1 year following the Chernobyl disaster. It is the aim of this study to make a comparison between the areas of the state Bavaria, Germany, with different fallout levels as well as between the observed and expected numbers of perinatal deaths relating to these areas. The expected numbers of perinatal deaths, defined as external standard, were derived from the remainder of the former FRG. Testing an a priori formulated hypothesis revealed no differences in the temporal development of perinatal mortality between the areas with different fallout levels and subsequent exposures. Including May 1986 into the analysis revealed a significant increase during the first 3 months after the accident, which is due to an excess in May alone. Since no elevated radiation risks for the last days in utero are known, the additional Chernobyl radiation exposure is not plausible as a causative agent. Further analyses on stillbirths showed an increase in Southern Bavaria during the first 2 years following the accident. Later on, the rates were comparable to the expected values again. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  1. Aspermy, sperm quality and radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.

  2. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  3. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  4. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident and overall cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Patama, Toni; Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Hakulinen, Timo

    2013-10-01

    We studied whether incidence of all cancer sites combined was associated with the radiation exposure due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in Finland. An emphasis was on the first decade after the accident to assess the suggested "promotion effect". The segment of Finnish population with a stable residence in the first post-Chernobyl year (2 million people) was studied. The analyses were based on a 250m × 250m grid squares covering all of Finland and all cancer cases except cancers of the breast, prostate and lung. Cancer incidence in four exposure areas (based on first-year dose due to external exposure Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) and after it (1988-2007) taking into account cancer incidence trends for a longer period prior to the accident (since 1966). There were no systematic differences in the cancer incidence in relation to radiation exposure in any calendar period, or any subgroup by sex or age at accident. The current large and comprehensive cohort analysis of the relatively low levels of the Chernobyl fallout in Finland did not observe a cancer promotion effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Konoplev, A; Skuterud, L; Smith, J T; Voigt, G

    2016-06-01

    April 2016 sees the 30(th) anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily (134+137)Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of 'hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the "fixation" and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinner, F.; Andreev, I.; Andreeva, I.; Fritsche, F.; Hofer, P.; Lettner, E.; Seidelberger, E.; Kromp-Kolb, H.; Kromp, W. [Vienna Univ., Institute of Risk Research, IRR (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  7. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odlind, V. (Uppsala Univ. (SE)); Ericson, A. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm (SE))

    1991-01-01

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.

  8. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  9. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  10. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  11. Effects of non-human species irradiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M

    2008-08-01

    The area affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 has become a unique test site where long-term ecological and biological consequences of a drastic change in a range of environmental factors as well as trends and intensity of selection are studied in natural settings. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident for biota varied from an enhanced rate of mutagenesis to damage at the ecosystem level. The review comprehensively brings together key data of the long-term studies of biological effects in plants and animals inhabiting over 20 years the Chernobyl NPP zone. The severity of radiation effects was strongly dependent on the dose received in the early period after the accident. The most exposed phytocenoses and soil animals' communities exhibited dose dependent alterations in the species composition and reduction in biological diversity. On the other hand, no decrease in numbers or taxonomic diversity of small mammals even in the most radioactive habitat was shown. In a majority of the studies, in both plant and animal populations from the Chernobyl zone, in the first years after the accident high increases in mutation rates were documented. In most cases the dose-effect relationships were nonlinear and the mutation rates per unit dose were higher at low doses and dose rates. In subsequent years a decline in the radiation background rate occurred faster than reduction in the mutation rate. Plant and animal populations have shown signs of adaptation to chronic exposure. In adaptation to the enhanced level of exposure an essential role of epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation was shown. Based on the Chernobyl NPP accident studies, in the present review attempts were made to assess minimum doses at which ecological and biological effects were observed.

  12. Radionuclide monitoring in Northern Ireland of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, B J; Cranley, K

    1987-01-01

    Northern Ireland received higher radiation doses due to the radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident than did the south of England. Levels of radioactive iodine (131I) and caesium (137Cs) in cows' milk in Northern Ireland increased to 166 and 120 Bq/l respectively in May 1986, but had decreased by factors of one million, and of twenty-five, respectively, by 1 September 1986. The resultant radiation doses represent less than one per cent of those received by a Northern Ireland individual over a period of 40 years from natural background radiation sources. The added risk to any individual from the Chernobyl accident will therefore be very small and may best be judged in the context of the enormously greater risk of death due to potentially preventable diseases, such as smoking-related lung cancer, and coronary heart disease. PMID:3590387

  13. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  14. 'Chernobyl' reaches Norway: the accident, science, and the threat to cultural knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, R. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1992-07-01

    This report is interested in the transitions that 'Chernobyl' underwent in Norway. It 'arrived' as a ghastly accident: important cultural routines were disturbed, apprehension ran high, and the country waited for scientists to 'repair' the accident. The scourge of radiation, however, still covered much of the countryside of central Norway. Reindeer pastures were heavily polluted, and among Saami (Lapp) groups there arose a cognitive sense of disruption to a way of life. Ambivalent relations - at times cooperative, more often adversarial - developed among the Saami in respect to the outside experts who strove to bring the radiation problem under control. The report (with anthropological fieldwork) strives to show how much of the problem of 'Chernobyl', in this later phase, has to do with the different nature of the claims of two kinds of knowledge: the outside scientists' and the Saami pastoralists. (author).

  15. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  16. Research activity about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activity to assist its sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Koide, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Keiji [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.] [and others

    1998-01-01

    Due to the Chernobyl Accident in April 1986, a series of serious radiological consequences were brought in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The former Soviet Union and the authorities in the world such as IAEA, however, have been denying serious health consequences among the people around Chernobyl since the beginning of the accident. On the other hand, a lot of works indicating serious health effects of the accident have been reported by scientists in these affected countries although they are not well known in the western countries. Since 1993, under the research grant of the Toyota foundation, we have continued a cooperative program to investigate research activities in these countries about the Chernobyl accident and to look into data and information that were not known so far. The information concerning the social system and activity to assist the sufferers from the accident has been also overviewed, including legal aspects of the Chernobyl problem. Here we are presenting an outline of our cooperation activity and our work concerning dose estimation for the inhabitants around the Chernobyl NPS at the first stage after the accident. The results of our estimation suggest that at least several hundreds of inhabitants received radiation dose exceeding 1 Sv before their evacuation. The whole reports of our cooperation program will be published in English and in Japanese in the next year. (author)

  17. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  18. [The significance of cytogenetic investigation for the estimation of Chernobyl accident consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A; Snigireva, G P

    2006-01-01

    The results of the cytogenetic investigation of people, which were exposed to radiation in the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident, were presented. Also the possibilities of the application of cytogenetic findings for dose estimations and for the prediction of the radiation influence consequences were examined. During the period of time since 1986 till 2004 the cytogenetic investigations of 1724 liquidators participating in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident were carried out. The radiation dose estimated by the frequency of dicentrics in 1986 was about 0.16 Gy. The doses for liquidators were determined by the frequency of translocations (FISH method) during the period from 1992 till 1995. For liquidators who worked in Chernobyl only in 1986 the average dose of radiation was about 0.19 Gy and for liquidators who worked repeatedly during the period from 1986 till 1995 - 0.39 Gy. There was shown that during the whole period of investigation (1986-2004) the frequency of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher than the control level. The cytogenetic investigation of Bryansk region inhabitants which was carried out in 1992-1994 discovered heightened value in 5 times than the control one. Findings are of great importance for the prediction of ill effects of radiation and for the development of sensitive criterions for early exposure disturbances in state of health.

  19. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Roberto; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, e-mail: rloliveira@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  20. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  1. [Frequency of congenital abnormalities in Hungary after the Chernobyl nuclear power accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, János; Métneki, Júlia; Szunyogh, Melinda; Siffel, Csaba

    2003-11-09

    The only positive result of earlier Hungarian teratological investigations on consequences of Chernobyl nuclear power station accident was the description of increased prevalence of birth with less than 2500 g body weight. It was attributed to the concern of the pregnant women, not to the direct effect of ionising radiation. The present study aimed to refine the earlier results by application of sensitive epidemiological techniques. The exposure data observed in the 150 districts of Hungary were correlated with the prevalence of Down syndrome by geographical information system and the monthly detected prevalences were analysed in the function of exposure. The ecological investigation on geographical inequalities revealed that there is no correlation between the district level exposure and Down syndrome prevalence. The time trend analysis on monthly data showed no exposure-related elevation of Down-syndrome occurrence. The results supported the earlier conclusions of the studies that the Chernobyl accident related exposure did not elicited detectable increase of Down syndrome.

  2. Hematopoietic cell infusion for the treatment of nuclear disaster victims: new data from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, Sergiy V; Belyi, David A; Ross, Joel R; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Li, Zhiguo; N Minchenko, Janna; N Kovalenko, Aleksandr; Bebeshko, Volodymyr G; J Chao, Nelson

    2011-08-01

    To present previously unavailable data on the use of stem cell administration to aid recovery of victims of the Chernobyl disaster. On 26 April 1986, an accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant took place during the planned test of one of the safety systems. The diagnosis of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was confirmed in 134 individuals exposed to high levels of radiation. There were nine patients heretofore unreported in the scientific literature who underwent intraosseous injections of allogeneic bone marrow cells in Kyiv. Transplantation was associated with significantly shortened time to recovery of granulocyte and platelet counts in these patients. While current guidelines would certainly include the use of cytokines, these data provide an indication of the effectiveness of stem cell transplant to treat victims of radiation exposure.

  3. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  4. Comparative analysis of the countermeasures taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radioiodine following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: lessons from both accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyba, Vladimir; Samoylov, Alexander; Shinkarev, Sergey

    2018-02-03

    In the case of a severe radiation accident at a nuclear power station, the most important radiation hazard for the public is internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine. The purposes of this paper were (i) to compare countermeasures conducted (following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents) aimed at mitigation of exposure to the thyroid for the public, (ii) to present comparative estimates of doses to the thyroid and (iii) to derive lessons from the two accidents. The scale and time of countermeasures applied in the early phase of the accidents (sheltering, evacuation, and intake of stable iodine to block the thyroid) and at a later time (control of 131I concentration in foodstuffs) have been described. After the Chernobyl accident, the estimation of the thyroid doses for the public was mainly based on direct thyroid measurements of ~400 000 residents carried out within the first 2 months. The highest estimates of thyroid doses to children reached 50 Gy. After the Fukushima accident, the estimation of thyroid doses was based on radioecological models due to a lack of direct thyroid measurements (only slightly more than 1000 residents were measured). The highest estimates of thyroid doses to children were a few hundred mGy. Following the Chernobyl accident, ingestion of 131I through cows' milk was the dominant pathway. Following the Fukushima accident, it appears that inhalation of contaminated air was the dominant pathway. Some lessons learned following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents have been presented in this paper. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. CONSEQUENCES FOR HEALTH AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: MAIN RESULTS AND UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gus’kova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of researches of the consequences for health after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 are generalized. All these years all over the world and especially in our country the basic parameters were studied describing type and the reason of the accident, doses levels for various groups of persons and a condition of their physical and sincere health. Accumulation of the extensive information allows returning to the initial concepts which have arisen directly after the accident, to estimate critically reliability accepted at that time criteria and adequacy of measures for overcoming and minimization of the consequences of the accident for health. In a basis of an assessment of the exposure levels and possible consequences for health in early timeframes have been put the information on the capacity of doses scale-radiation on various distances from the damaged reactor both total activity and structure of emission of radioactive substances. Three basic groups of the persons involved in the emergency with a various combination of risk factors for their health are allocated: the personnel of emergency changes, participants of liquidation of the accident consequences, the population of emergency emission zones. Consequences for health for these groups and principles of the further supervision over them are estimated. The increase of leukemia among the reasons for death (5 of 21 attracts attention. The group of patients transferred acute radiation syndrome in connection with the Chernobyl accident differs for the reasons for death in the remote timeframes from participants of other radiating accidents. By retrospective consideration there is a question on a possibility of the insufficient account of toxic influences accompanying the exposure. Comparison of urgent decisions and the retrospective analysis of assessments during the early period of accident allow considering these early decisions adequate to volume of the information available during this

  6. CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: RATIONALE AND REALIZATION OF DECISIONS ON PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Konstantinov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of decision making on protection of the public from radiation exposure caused by the Chernobyl accident is retrospectively reviewed. Decisions on prime countermeasures such as evacuation of population from 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were taken on the ground of a priori developed criteria. The next years, elaboration of a set of regulating documents was needed for implementation of countermeasures corresponding to real conditions of unprecedented scale and levels of radioactive contamination of large territory. Within several years the temporary permissible levels of radiation exposure and content of radionuclides in foodstuff were adopted for current operative decisions. The subsequent decisions made under a pressure of sociopolitical circumstances resulted in a compromise between radiation protection principles and inadequate public perception of radiological risk. Now a decision is needed to solve a problem of the return of radioactively contaminated territories to normal life. The analysis of experience gained in overcoming of consequences of the Chernobyl accident is of great importance for perfection of readiness for management of radiological emergencies.

  7. Aspermy, Sperm Quality and Radiation in Chernobyl Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination. PMID:24963711

  8. Aspermy, sperm quality and radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.

  9. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  10. Chernobyl post-accident management: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, G H; Lochard, J; Girard, P; Guyonnet, J F; Le Cardinal, G; Lepicard, S; Livolsi, P; Monroy, M; Ollagnon, H; Pena-Vega, A; Pupin, V; Rigby, J; Rolevitch, I; Schneider, T

    1999-10-01

    ETHOS is a pilot research project supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (DG XII). The project provides an alternative approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. Initiated at the beginning of 1996, this 3-y project is currently being implemented in the Republic of Belarus. The ETHOS project involves an interdisciplinary team of European researchers from the following institutions: the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire CEPN (radiological protection, economics), the Institute National d'Agronomie de Paris-Grignon INAPG (agronomy, nature & life management), the Compiegne University of Technology (technological and industrial safety, social trust), and the Mutadis Research Group (sociology, social risk management), which is in charge of the scientific co-ordination of the project. The Belarussian partners in the ETHOS project include the Ministry of Emergencies of Belarus as well as the various local authorities involved with the implementation site. The ETHOS project relies on a strong involvement of the local population in the rehabilitation process. Its main goal is to create conditions for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories to reconstruct their overall quality of life. This reconstruction deals with all the day-to-day aspects that have been affected or threatened by the contamination. The project aims at creating a dynamic process whereby acceptable living conditions can be rebuilt. Radiological security is developed in the ETHOS project as part of a general improvement in the quality of life. The approach does not dissociate the social and the technical dimensions of post-accident management. This is so as to avoid radiological risk assessment and management being reduced purely to a problem for scientific experts, from which local people are excluded, and to take into

  11. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  12. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. (GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany))

    1992-11-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

  13. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, G; Paretzke, H G

    1992-11-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

  14. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  16. A preliminary assessment of the consequences for inhabitants of the UK of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, K F

    1986-07-01

    The accident with the nuclear power reactor at Chernobyl in the USSR resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive material and subsequent increases in radioactivity in the environment in many countries. In this paper the situation in the UK is considered and, from the preliminary monitoring measurements, the major routes of exposure of the population are identified and quantified. For the most part exposures in the UK are within variations in levels of natural background radiation to be found in Europe. An exception is the dose likely to have been received by the thyroids of young people in the north of the UK. From reported measurements of I-131 in milk it is predicted that thyroid doses up to 10-20 times the annual doses received from 'normal' natural background radiation might have affected young children drinking fresh cows' milk. The ways in which this component of exposure could have been reduced and the criteria that govern decisions as to whether or not to implement counter-measures are discussed. The importance of I-131 in milk as a route of exposure of the population to radioactivity is a feature that the Chernobyl accident has in common with the Windscale accident in the UK in 1957, and underlines the importance of milk-producing regions in relation to reactor-sitting policy.

  17. Estimation of Explosion Energy Yield at Chernobyl NPP Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergey A.; Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    The value of the 133Xe/133mXe isometric activity ratio for the stationary regime of reactor work is about 35, and that for an instant fission (explosion) is about 11, which allowed estimation of the nuclear component of the instant (explosion) energy release during the NPP accident. Atmospheric xenon samples were taken at the trajectory of accident product transfers (in the Cherepovetz area); these samples were measured by a gamma spectrometer, and the 133Xe/133mXe ratio was determined as an average value of 22.4. For estimations a mathematic model was elaborated considering both the value of instant released energy and the schedule of reactor power change before the accident, as well as different fractionation conditions on the isobaric chain. Comparison of estimated results with the experimental data showed the value of the instant specific energy release in the Chernobyl NPP accident to be 2·105-2·106 J/Wt or 6·1014-6·1015 J (100-1,000 kt). This result is matched up to a total reactor power of 3,200 MWt. However this estimate is not comparable with the actual explosion scale estimated as 10t TNT. This suggests a local character of the instant nuclear energy release and makes it possible to estimate the mass of fuel involved in this explosion process to be from 0.01 to 0.1% of total quantity.

  18. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  19. Development instability of plants and radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A.P. [Univ. Pierre et Marie curie, Lab. d`Ecologie, Paris Cedex (France)

    1998-04-01

    Phenotypic measures of developmental instability were used to assess the hypothesis that radiation from Chernobyl in Ukraine directly affects the developmental processes of plants. Fluctuating asymmetry and the frequency of pheno-deviants in three species of plants. Robinia pseudoacacia. Sorbus aucuparia and Matricaria perforata, were assessed along a transect from the security zone of Chernobyl towards the largely uncontaminated area 225 km SE of Chernobyl. Measures of developmental instability decreased in a similar way for the three species with increasing distance from Chernobyl the level of developmental instability being three to four times as large near Chernobyl as in the control area. Developmental instability was positively related to the level of radiation by caesium-137 along the transect. In conclusion, radiation from Chernobyl has resulted in a reduced ability of plants to control the stability of their developmental processes. (au) 15 refs.

  20. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents resulting from the Chernobyl accident: possible causes of the incidence increase overestimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, S V

    2009-04-01

    The Chernobyl accident in the nuclear power plant on 26th April 1986 was followed by numerous publications overestimating the medical consequences of the disaster. In the publications, interpretations of spontaneous diseases as radiation-induced, indication of radioactivity or dose levels without confrontation with the natural radiation background, or conclusions about incidence increase without comparison with the increase tendencies in larger regions or the whole country, can be found. Improved diagnostics after the Chernobyl accident is not always taken into account. The high figures could have been caused in some cases by non-random material selection or inadequate morphological assessment of biopsy specimens. The application of the linear-no-threshold theory to the inhabitants of contaminated areas contributed to an overestimation of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident as well. The incidence increase of thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents started in 1990, four years after the accident. High tumor expectancy after the accident, in the circumstances of limited technical possibilities and outdated equipment of histological laboratories, contributed to a higher number of registered cases. The quality of specimens necessary for the assessment of nuclear criteria of papillary carcinoma was not always achieved at that time. The incidence increase of thyroid carcinoma can, at least in part, be explained by improved detection of thyroid nodules with occasional false-positive conclusions about malignancy. Besides, latent carcinomas and well-differentiated thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential, diagnosed as malignancies, could have additionally contributed to the high figures.

  1. Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-08

    The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury.

  2. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  3. Thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid function in subjects exposed to Chernobyl fallout during childhood: evidence for a transient radiation-induced elevation of serum thyroid antibodies without an increase in thyroid autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agate, Laura; Mariotti, Stefano; Elisei, Rossella

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents.......An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents....

  4. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  5. Thirty-five-year-old woman with signet ring cell gastric carcinoma secondary to the chernobyl nuclear accident: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhall, Kim; Ghayouri, Masoumeh; Henry, Katherine; Margin, Veronica; Copolla, Domeinico; Shackelford, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in radiation exposures throughout much of Europe, with the highest exposures within the city of Pripyat, Ukraine, where the accident occurred. We report a woman who was exposed to the Chernobyl accident at age 13. Beginning in her early thirties, she experienced several years of upper abdominal pain that became progressively more severe. At age 35, she underwent upper endoscopy and gastric biopsy. Histological examination revealed a signet ring cell (SRC) gastric carcinoma. The tumor was discovered at an advanced stage and proved unresectable. She died 3 months following her diagnosis. The mean age for SRC gastric carcinoma diagnosis is about 62 years; the median survival following diagnosis is 13 months. The early appearance and aggressive clinical course of this malignancy in relation to the Chernobyl nuclear accident is discussed.

  6. The Chernobyl accident--radionuclide fallout in S.W. England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E I; Zou, B; Clifton, R J

    1986-12-01

    Initial fallout data from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl is presented for the Plymouth region of Devon S.W. England which received low levels of radioactivity. During the period of maximum fallout the overall gross gamma activity for the Plymouth area was approximately 10% higher than levels recorded prior to the Chernobyl accident. The increase in levels of radioactivity were within the variability of natural background found in local houses.

  7. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  8. RADIATION PROTECTION OF BELARUS POPULATION OF AFTER THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja. E. Kenigsberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  describes  the  evolution  of  the  formation  of  the  conceptual  approaches  and  regulation documents for the population radiation protection the after the Chernobyl disaster in Belarus. Zoning scheme showing Belarus contamination is given as well as the dynamics of the quantity of settlements located in the contaminated areas, and population living in them. The methodology of regulation of radionuclides content in the foodstuffs is stated. The data on the population effective exposure doses changing is given for the post-accident period.

  9. [Genomic instability in chidren born after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (in vivo and in vitro studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadzhanian, A V; Suskov, I I

    2010-06-01

    Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children born after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the period from 1987 to 2004 (permanent residents of territories contaminated with radionuclides, n = 92; and children of irradiated fathers-liquidators, n = 88)) revealed increased levels of aberrant cells (ACs) and aberrations of the chromosomal type as compared to the control (P or = 3%; children with medium AC frequencies, 2%; and children with low AC frequencies, > or = 1%), the levels of aberrations of the chromosomal type are increased as compared to the control (P or = 3% frequencies significantly differ from those in the subgroup of children with > or = 1% AC frequencies. No dependence of the AC and CA frequencies on the year of birth after the Chernobyl accident was revealed. After fractional and single gamma-irradiation (137Cs) of blood in vitro in the 10-30 cGy dose range, the average CA frequencies in the first and second mitoses increased in a similar way depending on the initial AC frequencies in the children and parents. All these results suggest an individual character ofgenomic instability induced by low radiation doses and its transgenerational phenomenon in the organisms of children.

  10. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single

  11. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  12. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert [Uppsala University, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of {sup 137}Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of {sup 137}Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of {sup 137}Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with

  13. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  14. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  15. Thyroid dose reconstruction for the population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Balonov, M.I.; Bratilova, A.A

    1998-07-01

    The main features of thyroid dose reconstruction after the Chernobyl accident are discussed. The method is also presented taking into account extra-thyroid radiation from other radionuclides distributed inside and on the surface of the human body, and recorded by the equipment simultaneously with {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The choice of the {sup 131}I intake function for thyroid dose estimation and influencing factors is discussed. Reconstruction of an average thyroid dose in settlements without direct measurements was based on the regression analysis of the connection between average 'measured' thyroid dose in settlements and {sup 131}I concentration in milk, or {sup 137}Cs soil contamination, or {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs whole-body content in residents of the same settlement. (author)

  16. Frequency of trisomy 21 in Germany before and after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, K.; Pelz, J.; Wegner, R.D.; Schulzke, I.; Struck, E. (Institut fuer Humangenetik, Berlin (DE))

    1991-01-01

    For Berlin (West) the rate of trisomy 21 among newborn and all prenatally diagnosed cases can be almost completely recorded, including the maternal age distribution. During the 9-year-period from 1980 to 1988 the average number of trisomy 21 per month was about 2, following a Poisson distribution. A significant increase (P < 0.01) was observed in January 1987, excatly 9 months after the Chernobyl accident. In a supraregional study based on > 30 000 prenatal diagnoses performed in 1986, no significant effect could be observed. However, the highest rates of trisomy 21 were observed in the more heavily contaminated, southern part of Germany. The majority of these fetuses were conceived during the period of greatest radioactive exposure. The data are discussed with respect to the effect of low-dose radiation around the time of conception on the induction of non-disjunction in man.

  17. A 25 year retrospective review of the psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, E J; Havenaar, J M; Guey, L T

    2011-05-01

    The Chernobyl Forum Report from the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster concluded that mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident. This paper provides an updated review of research on the psychological impact of the accident during the 25 year period since the catastrophe began. First responders and clean-up workers had the greatest exposure to radiation. Recent studies show that their rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder remain elevated two decades later. Very young children and those in utero who lived near the plant when it exploded or in severely contaminated areas have been the subject of considerable research, but the findings are inconsistent. Recent studies of prenatally exposed children conducted in Kiev, Norway and Finland point to specific neuropsychological and psychological impairments associated with radiation exposure, whereas other studies found no significant cognitive or mental health effects in exposed children grown up. General population studies report increased rates of poor self-rated health as well as clinical and subclinical depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mothers of young children exposed to the disaster remain a high-risk group for these conditions, primarily due to lingering worries about the adverse health effects on their families. Thus, long-term mental health consequences continue to be a concern. The unmet need for mental health care in affected regions remains an important public health challenge 25 years later. Future research is needed that combines physical and mental health outcome measures to complete the clinical picture. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Rundmo, T.; Eraenen, L.; Ekstroem, H

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects

  19. Results of further medical examinations of persons from areas exposed to radiation as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident; Weitere strahlenschutzmedizinische Untersuchungsdaten von Personen aus den vom Reaktorunglueck in Tschernobyl betroffenen Gebieten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, U. [Robert Koch-Institut Berlin, Medizinische Diagnostik-Umweltmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Arndt, D. [Robert Koch-Institut Berlin, Medizinische Diagnostik-Umweltmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Laude, G. [Robert Koch-Institut Berlin, Medizinische Diagnostik-Umweltmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Fender, H. [Robert Koch-Institut Berlin, Medizinische Diagnostik-Umweltmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Thierfelder, W. [Robert Koch-Institut Berlin, Medizinische Diagnostik-Umweltmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Dienststelle Berlin (Germany)

    1993-05-01

    During the 1986-1993 period, a total of 392 persons, 185 of them being of German, 204 of CIS and one of Polish ntionality, were examined in connexion with the Chernobyl reactor accident. These examinations under aspects of radiation medicine were performed by the Clinical-diagnostic Branch of the Bundesgesundheitsamt (BGA; Federal Health Office) jointly with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. The experience gained by some of the authors during their participation in national and international investigation activities at the site of the accident could be included in these studies. The programme of investigation included: - Medical examinations (including sonographies of the thyroid); - Laboratory analyses (including blood counts, thyroid hormone determinations, chromosomal analyses); - Activity measurements in a whole-body counter; In none of the cases, radiation-induced damage to health could be confirmed. The non-specific clinical findings, particularly in children, were primarily: Dental status requiring treatment; chronic rhinopharyngitis with general susceptibility to infection; swelling of lymph nodes of the head and neck; inflammation of the urinary tract and non-specific functional gastric disorder. Whole-body counting did no reveal an essential incorporation of caesium. Cytogenetic examinations of blood lymphocytes, however, showed an increased average rate of dicentric chromosomal aberrations irrespective of the level of caesium contamination of the soil at the subject`s place of residence. Similar results of chromo-somal analysis were obtained from blood samples of 79 persons (75 childrren, 4 adults) from the Ukraine taken in the summer of 1993 within the framework of the German measuring programme of the Federal Minister for th.. [Deutsch] In den Jahren 1986-1993 wurden im Klinisch-diagnostischen Bereich des Bundesgesundheitsamtes in Kooperation mit dem Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz insgesamt 392 Personen, darunter 185 Deutsche, 204 aus der GUS

  20. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2013-03-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested.New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc.

  1. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  2. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research; Rumyantseva, G.M.; Martyvshov, A.N. [The Serbsky Research Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2}. The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs.

  3. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  4. Depression, suicide ideation, and thyroid tumors among ukrainian adolescents exposed as children to chernobyl radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contis, George; Foley, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    The Chernobyl Childhood Illness Program (CCIP) was a humanitarian assistance effort funded by the United States Congress. Its purpose was to assist the Ukrainian Government to identify and treat adolescents who developed mental and physical problems following their exposure as young children to Chernobyl radiation. Thirteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, the CCIP examined 116,655 Ukrainian adolescents for thyroid diseases. Of these, 115,191 were also screened for depression, suicide ideation, and psychological problems. The adolescents lived in five of Ukraine's seven most Chernobyl radiation contaminated provinces. They were up to 6 years of age or in utero when exposed to nuclear fallout, or were born up to 45 months after Chernobyl. Ukrainian endocrinologist and ultrasonographers used physical examination and ultrasonography of the neck to evaluate the adolescents for thyroid tumors. The adolescents were then screened for depression by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). After this, Ukrainian psychologists conducted individual psychological interviews to corroborate the adolescents' CDI responses. Papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in eight adolescents, a high prevalence rate similar to that reported by other studies from the Soviet Union. Screening identified thyroid nodules in 1,967 adolescents (1.7%). Depression was diagnosed in 15,399 adolescents (13.2%), suicide ideation in 813 (5.3%), and attempted suicide in 354 (2.3%). Underlying components of the participants' depression were negative mood, interpersonal difficulties, negative self-esteem, ineffectiveness, and anhedonia. Depression was greater in females (77%). Those with thyroid and psychological problems were referred for treatment. The adolescents screened by CCIP represent the largest Ukrainian cohort exposed to Chernobyl radiation as children who were evaluated for both thyroid tumors and depression. The group had an increased prevalence of thyroid cancer

  5. Depression, Suicide Ideation, and Thyroid Tumors Among Ukrainian Adolescents Exposed as Children to Chernobyl Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contis, George; Foley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl Childhood Illness Program (CCIP) was a humanitarian assistance effort funded by the United States Congress. Its purpose was to assist the Ukrainian Government to identify and treat adolescents who developed mental and physical problems following their exposure as young children to Chernobyl radiation. Thirteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, the CCIP examined 116,655 Ukrainian adolescents for thyroid diseases. Of these, 115,191 were also screened for depression, suicide ideation, and psychological problems. The adolescents lived in five of Ukraine’s seven most Chernobyl radiation contaminated provinces. They were up to 6 years of age or in utero when exposed to nuclear fallout, or were born up to 45 months after Chernobyl. Methods Ukrainian endocrinologist and ultrasonographers used physical examination and ultrasonography of the neck to evaluate the adolescents for thyroid tumors. The adolescents were then screened for depression by the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). After this, Ukrainian psychologists conducted individual psychological interviews to corroborate the adolescents’ CDI responses. Results Papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in eight adolescents, a high prevalence rate similar to that reported by other studies from the Soviet Union. Screening identified thyroid nodules in 1,967 adolescents (1.7%). Depression was diagnosed in 15,399 adolescents (13.2%), suicide ideation in 813 (5.3%), and attempted suicide in 354 (2.3%). Underlying components of the participants’ depression were negative mood, interpersonal difficulties, negative self-esteem, ineffectiveness, and anhedonia. Depression was greater in females (77%). Those with thyroid and psychological problems were referred for treatment. Conclusions The adolescents screened by CCIP represent the largest Ukrainian cohort exposed to Chernobyl radiation as children who were evaluated for both thyroid tumors and depression. The group

  6. Justification of remediation strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Chupov, A; Bogdevich, I; Sanzharova, N; Kashparov, V; Panov, A; Zhuchenka, Yu

    2013-05-01

    Following the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl a number of different remedial actions were developed and implemented in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Recommendations on the application of countermeasures and remedial actions were published by the IAEA as "Guidelines for agricultural countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides" in 1994. Since then, new information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and effectiveness of countermeasures in the long term has been obtained and reviewed by many projects, including the Chernobyl Forum. Additionally, new approaches to derive remediation strategies were developed and successfully implemented in the most affected countries. This paper describes a justification of the remediation strategies suggested for rehabilitation of the areas most affected by the Chernobyl accident based on this experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Aspects of aetiology of neuro-psychic disorders in male liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power accident consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skavysh, V A

    2009-01-01

    The author considered aetiology of neuro-psychic disorders in liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power accident consequences, demonstrated scientific value of studying the liquidators cohort, as they were protected from internal radiation factors and reside on radiation "pure" territories. External radiation doses in those liquidators vary from 16 cGy to 18.7 +/- 10.8 cGy, according to the author. Catamnesis enabled to doubt radiation aetiology of psychic organic syndrome revealed in 1991-1994 by clinical and instrumental studies among 53.6% of 213 male examinees. According to the author, prolonged over 1-2 months external radiation of low dose could not cause health deterioration in adult males. Diagnosed psychic organic syndrome and vascular encephalopathy in some cases could have alcohol aetiology. This conclusion is not extrapolated to the whole liquidators cohort.

  8. [The indicators of biological age and accelerated aging in liquidators of the consequences of radiation accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchkova, E I; Alishev, N V

    2011-01-01

    The biological age (BA) of the majority of the liquidators of the consequences of the radiation accidents in the Navy and of the liquidators of the Chernobyl' APS accident exceeds the medium standard and the DBA (due BA). The index of the BA can be a characteristic of the influence of the social-hygienic factors on the health condition of the Special Risk Subunit--the liquidators of the consequences of the radiation accidents. It was established, that the radiation influence concerns to the factors dramatically increasing the BA and the rate of senescence of the liquidators of the consequences of the radiation accidents.

  9. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Ofstad, Frode; Roenning, Jan S.; Watson, Robin J.

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days ({approx} 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focussing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway. (auth)

  10. Follow-up studies on genome damage in children after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucic, Aleksandra; Aghajanyan, Anna; Druzhinin, Vladimir; Minina, Varvara; Neronova, Elizaveta

    2016-09-01

    As children are more susceptible to ionizing radiation than adults, each nuclear accident demands special attention and care of this vulnerable population. The Chernobyl nuclear disaster occurred in a region populated with a large number of children, but despite all efforts and expertise of nuclear specialists, it was not possible to avoid casualties. As vast regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation, which are known to be related with different diseases, shortly after the accident medical surveillance was launched, which also included analysis of genome damage. Child population affected by internal and external radiation consisted of subjects exposed prenatally, postnatally (both evacuated and non-evacuated), born by irradiated fathers who worked as liquidators, and parents exposed environmentally. In all groups of children during the last 30 years who were exposed to doses which were significantly higher than that recommended for general population of 1 mSv per year, increased genome damage was detected. Increased genome damage includes statistically higher frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes, chromated and chromosome breaks, acentric fragments, translocations, and micronuclei. The presence of rogue cells confirmed internal contamination. Genome instability and radiosensitivity in children was detected both in evacuated and continuously exposed children. Today the population exposed to ionizing radiation in 1986 is in reproductive period of life and follow-up of this population and their offspring is of great importance. This review aims to give insight in results of studies, which reported genome damage in children in journals without language restrictions.

  11. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  12. Environmental Aftermath of the Radiation Accident at Tomsk-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiriev, Boris N.; Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident’s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed.

  13. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  14. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  15. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in

  16. Procedure on reconstruction of external dose to evacuees at Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office); Likhtariov, I.; Repin, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    An external dose estimation on the Chernobyl accident was carried out using sugar left in two houses at Pripyat-city from before the accident. The external dose to the people evacuated from Pripyat-city after the Chernobyl accident has been estimated using both a data from the sugar-electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter and information on the type of buildings and the exposure rates there. In this work, the procedure of the dose estimation for the evacuees in Pripyat-city be reported. Furthermore, the sugar-ESR method will be discussed. The present result good agree with one reported from USSR to IAEA. It has been certified that small crystalline sugar such as granulated sugar is one of the most useful dosimeter in the emergency for the public. (author).

  17. Methodology of Internal Dose Reconstruction for A Russian Population after the Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Zvonova, I.A.; Pitkevich, V.A.; Bratilova, A.A.; Jesko, T.V.; Shutov, V.N

    2000-07-01

    General methodology for reconstruction of the internal dose in groups of inhabitants of the Chernobyl accident area is considered, and practical techniques for reconstruction of the {sup 131}I absorbed dose in thyroid and the effective doses of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs radiation are examined. The techniques are based on the results of radiation monitoring performed since 1986 in the Bryansk, Tula, Orel and Kaluga regions of Russia. The WBC measurements of the thyroid or whole body provide the data most relevant to internal dose, and are of first priority for dose reconstruction. Radionuclide intake estimation with food products is considered as the second priority and application of radioecological models as the third priority when measurement data are absent. For the calculation of internal dose intake functions are suggested that describe both consequences of vegetation surface contamination with {sup 131}I and {sup 134,137}Cs in the early period and long-term radionuclide transfer via root systems. The first experimental data on the dependence of {sup 131}I concentration in milk on time, and on density of soil contamination with {sup 137}Cs in four regions of Russia are given. A strong connection between {sup 131}I concentration in milk and thyroid dose in inhabitants based on {sup 131}I in thyroid measurements is proved. Regularities revealed are used for thyroid dose reconstruction in Russian inhabitants. The results explain the phenomenon of the increased thyroid cancer morbidity in areas with low radioactive contamination. (author)

  18. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  19. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank: integrating research on radiation-induced thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G A

    2012-03-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. Cancer is a complicated disease and it is unclear whether the mechanism by which radiation gives rise to cancer differs from that involved in the generation of cancers of the same type by other environmental stimuli. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established in response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl to address this question. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 23 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

  20. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  1. THE DYNAMICS OF FOOD RATIONS OF BRYANSK REGION POPULATION LIVING IN THE TERRITORIESCONTAMINATED AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years passed after the Chernobyl accident we are carrying out monitoring of the radiation situation in the Sough-Western territories of the Bryansk region, contaminated with the long-living radionuclides which includes 137Сs concentration measurements in agricultural and natural foodstuffs, surveys of local populations on the structure and composition of the diet accompanied with 137Сs content measurements in the human body. In the article the obtained data is systematized on the food rations of the adult population of theBryansk region, on food rations dynamics in the first and following years after the accident, which is necessary for the correct estimation of internal exposure doses of the population living on the contaminated territories.

  2. [Delayed medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Armenia. Assessment of life quality and accelerated biological aging of accident liquidators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, N M; Davidian, N R; Gevorkian, E G; Karapetian, A G; Miridzhanian, M I; Asrian, K V

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, some final results of 25-year investigations carried out in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine and Burns MH RA (SCRMB) on the Armenian cohort of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators are shown. These results show that health conditions of the liquidators became worse during the whole observation period. A considerable development of both pathological states atypical of radiation damages and diseases, which may be considered as radiation-induced ones, was determined. Rise of the sickness rate of almost all organism systems, first of all, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive ones, was observed. In 70% of liquidators the main disease was primarily detected after working on CNPP. In the intervening years, the average number of diagnoses per 1 liquidator increased from 1.5 in 1987 to 7-8 in the recent time. In addition to the detected diseases, particular functional shifts in neuropsychological and vegetative status of the liquidators were observed. The overwhelming majority of them have increased tonicity of the sympathetic vegetative nervous system, asthenic and depressive syndromes occurring in the form of weakness, somnolence, mood instability, mental capacity decrease, and memory defects. In the paper, the results of investigations aimed at clarification of changes in biological aging processes of the liquidators and assessment of their "life quality" features in terms of physical, psychical and social welfare are considered. Biological aged-related passportization in a definite part of liquidators elucidated an accelerated aging rate. The studies were performed with the help of SF-36 inquirer and indicated that health status aggravation of the liquidators also affected their life satisfaction. The "life quality" indices of the liquidators significantly concede the overall average standards by both physical health and psychical and social welfare scales.

  3. [Pneumocystosis distribution among accident liquidators in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in remote period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meĭmarian, M A

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to discover etiological role of Pneumocystis carini/jiroveci and to determine frequency of pneumocystic infection in the structure of bronchopulmonary pathology among armenians-liquidators of accident consequences in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. For the study, 65 patients-liquidators with diagnosed pneumonia, 44 liquidators with chronic bronchitis and 34 with bronchial asthma were examined. The control group was included 65 patients with pneumonia, 44 with chronic bronchitis, 34 with bronchial asthma which were unlinked with radionucleotide aggression. Mean age in main group was 46,9 and in control group- 47,6 years old. Main and control groups were randomized by sexual characteristics also. Serologic examinations were performed by the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoSorbent assay) and method of immunofluorescent detection of P.carinii. Circulation of pneumocystosis etiologic agent among patients-liquidators of accident consequences in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant with different bronchopulmonary pathology was established and high percentage of seropositivity was revealed. Overall these data revealed high probability of Pneumocystis carini/jiroveci in the etiology of bronchopulmonary pathology among liquidators of accident consequences in the the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even among immunocompromised patients, liquidators of accident consequences, represent an exclusive group, that is in risk for activation of latent infection or new infection with P. carini/jiroveci. Therefore these findings suggest that there is a need for regular complex epidemiological monitoring of these patients.

  4. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  5. Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harjulehto, T.; Saxen, L. (Helsinki Univ. (FI)); Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Arvela, H. (Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (FI))

    1991-01-01

    The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected.

  6. METHODOLOGY OF INTERNAL DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE RUSSIAN POPULATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology of the internal dose reconstruction from I-131 and caesium radionuclides received by population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident. The direct measurements of radionuclides content in a human body were the most relevant data for internal dose reconstruction. Assessment of radionuclides intake with food products was considered as the second priority and application of radioecological models as the third priority when measurement data were absent.

  7. Chernobyl accident: reconstruction of thyroid dose for inhabitants of the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilin, Y I; Khrouch, V T; Shinkarev, S M; Krysenko, N A; Skryabin, A M; Bouville, A; Anspaugh, L R

    1999-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 resulted in widespread contamination of the environment with radioactive materials, including (131)I and other radioiodines. This environmental contamination led to substantial radiation doses in the thyroids of many inhabitants of the Republic of Belarus. The reconstruction of thyroid doses received by Belarussians is based primarily on exposure rates measured against the neck of more than 200,000 people in the more contaminated territories; these measurements were carried out within a few weeks after the accident and before the decay of (131)I to negligible levels. Preliminary estimates of thyroid dose have been divided into 3 classes: Class 1 ("measured" doses), Class 2 (doses "derived by affinity"), and Class 3 ("empirically-derived" doses). Class 1 doses are estimated directly from the measured thyroidal (131)I content of the person considered, plus information on lifestyle and dietary habits. Such estimates are available for about 130,000 individuals from the contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts and from the city of Minsk. Maximum individual doses are estimated to range up to about 60 Gy. For every village with a sufficient number of residents with Class 1 doses, individual thyroid dose distributions are determined for several age groups and levels of milk consumption. These data are used to derive Class 2 thyroid dose estimates for unmeasured inhabitants of these villages. For any village where the number of residents with Class 1 thyroid doses is small or equal to zero, individual thyroid doses of Class 3 are derived from the relationship obtained between the mean adult thyroid dose and the deposition density of (131)I or 137Cs in villages with Class 2 thyroid doses presenting characteristics similar to those of the village considered. In order to improve the reliability of the Class 3 thyroid doses, an extensive program of measurement of (129)I in soils is envisaged.

  8. Activities concentration of radiocesium in wild mushroom collected in Ukraine 30 years after the Chernobyl power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are recognized as one of the main contributors to internal radiation exposure from the activity concentration of radiocesium released by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNNP. We evaluated the activity concentrations of the artificial radionuclides (radiocesium in wild mushrooms collected in 2015 from Korosten and Lugine, Zhitomir region, Ukraine, located 120 km away from the CNPP. Cesium-137 was detected in 110 of 127 mushroom samples (86.6%. Based on the average mushroom consumption (5 kg per year, we calculated committed effective doses ranging from 0.001–0.12 mSv. Cesium-137 remains in the wild mushrooms even 30 years after the accident, but the committed effective doses are limited by the amount of contaminated mushrooms consumed. However, evaluation of internal radiation exposure and assessment of environmental radioactivity in the surrounding area affected by the nuclear accident are still necessary in order to relieve anxiety about internal radiation exposure, as long as the possibility of consumption of contaminated mushrooms remains.

  9. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  10. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Bečková, Vera; Mihalík, Ján; Slezáková, Miriam

    2013-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (7)Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for (7)Be were 0.43 and 0.41 μm with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (7)Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to (131)I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides ((140)Ba, (140)La (141)Ce, (144)Ce, (95)Zr and (95)Nb) and volatile radionuclides ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, (131)I, and (132)Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 μm were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RADIATION ACCIDENTS: EXPERIENCE OF MEDICAL PROTECTION AND MODERN STRATEGY OF PHARMACOLOGICAL MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grebenyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of medical protection at radiation accidents is analyzed. It is shown, that medicines that have been in the arsenal of medical service during the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident satisfied their predestination in a whole and were rather effective for radiation protection. The modern strategy of pharmacological maintenance based on use of means and methods, allowing to keeping a life, health and professional serviceability of people in conditions of amazing action of a complex of factors of radiation accidents, is submitted.

  12. Radiation hazards in children - lessons from Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Firstly, this review focuses on what happened after the accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in 1979 and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, in terms of the effects of these incidents on health. The most critical issue when considering the effects of radiation on the health of children was the increase of thyroid cancer, as clearly demonstrated among people who were children or adolescence at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, in the early days after a nuclear accident, the primary concern should be efforts to prevent the exposure of children to radioactive iodine through inhalation and ingestion, because radioactive iodine preferentially accumulates in the thyroid. In the longer term, another concern is exposure to radionuclides with long half-lives, including cesium137 and cesium134, with physical half-lives of 30 and 2 years, respectively. Secondly, fetal radiation risks and radiobiological studies on low-level radiation are briefly reviewed, with reference to the effects upon the developing brain. A fetal dose of 100 mSv may increase the risk of an effect on brain development, especially neuronal migration, based upon the results of experiments with rodents. Finally, this review proposes that research on the health effects of low level radiation should be prioritized so that accurate information on the effects of radiation can be disseminated and prevent the prevalence of unnecessary fear lacking scientific justification. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

  14. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident: reporting on nuclear and other hazards in six Swedish newspapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aasa; Sjoeberg, L.; Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-07-01

    A European Commission sponsored study (RISKPERCOM) involving France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK, is concerned with surveying public perceptions of radiation related and other risks. This was partly done by distributing a questionnaire in each country at three different times in 1996: before, during and after the expected media attention given to the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A selection of print media were analyzed, during a period of eight weeks - four weeks before the anniversary, and four weeks after - making it possible to contrast any changes between the three waves of the questionnaire with the results of the media study. The present report aims at providing a picture of the Swedish media coverage of different kinds of risks during the period referred to above. The purpose of the analysis is thus primarily of a descriptive nature; explanatory factors are only considered in an ad hoc manner while discussing the results and their possible implications. Naturally, the findings arising from this study cannot alone serve as a basis for making statements about the effects of risk related content on the Swedish newspaper readers. The risk stories included in the analysis were those dealing with one or more of the twenty different hazard items referred to in several of the questions in the RISKPERCOM questionnaire. Radiation and nuclear power energy were not the only issues of concern. The selection covered a wide range of other hazards as well, in order to provide for a wide risk panorama, thus making it possible to compare specific risk qualities etc., as these were presented in the media 70 refs, 40 refs

  15. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  16. Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Barkovsky, A.N.; Fogh, C.L.; Mishine, A.S.; Olsen, S.K.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Prip, H.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Vorobiev, B.F

    1998-08-01

    Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au) 24 tabs., 75 ills., 33 refs.

  17. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  18. Evidence for an increase in trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Karl; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Scherb, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) associated with Chernobyl fallout. Maternal age-adjusted DS data and corresponding live birth data from the following seven European countries or regions were analyzed: Bavaria and West Berlin in Germany, Belarus, Hungary, the Lothian Region of Scotland, North West England, and Sweden from 1981 to 1992. To assess the underlying time trends in the DS occurrence, and to investigate whether there have been significant changes in the trend functions after Chernobyl, we applied logistic regression allowing for peaks and jumps from January 1987 onward. The majority of the trisomy 21 cases of the previously reported, highly significant January 1987 clusters in Belarus and West Berlin were conceived when the radioactive clouds with significant amounts of radionuclides with short physical half-lives, especially (131)iodine, passed over these regions. Apart from this, we also observed a significant longer lasting effect in both areas. Moreover, evidence for long-term changes in the DS prevalence in several other European regions is presented and explained by exposure, especially to (137)Cs. In many areas, (137)Cs uptake reached its maximum one year after the Chernobyl accident. Thus, the highest increase in trisomy 21 should be observed in 1987/1988, which is indeed the case. Based on the fact that maternal meiosis is an error prone process, the assumption of a causal relationship between low-dose irradiation and nondisjunction is the most likely explanation for the observed increase in DS after the Chernobyl reactor accident. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reconstruction of doses and deposition in the western trace from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkeland, T; Skuterud, L; Goltsova, N I; Lindmo, T

    1997-05-01

    A model is presented for the explosive cloud of particulates that produced the western trace of high radioactive ground contamination in the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986. The model was developed to reproduce measured dose rates and nuclide contamination and to relate estimated doses to observed changes in: (1) infrared emission from the foliage and (2) morphological and histological structures of individual pines. Dominant factors involved in ground contamination were initial cloud shape, particle size distribution, and rate of particle fallout. At time of formation, the cloud was assumed to be parabolical and to contain a homogeneous distribution of spherically shaped fuel particulates having a log-normal size distribution. The particulates were dispersed by steady winds and diffusion that produced a straight line deposition path. The analysis indicates that two clouds, denoted by Cloud I and Cloud II, were involved. Fallout from the former dominated the far field region and fallout from latter the region near the reactor. At formation they had a full width at half maximum of 1800 m and 500 m, respectively. For wind velocities of 5-10 m s(-1) the particulates' radial distribution at formation had a standard deviation and mode of 1.8 microm and 0.5 microm, respectively. This distribution corresponds to a release of 390 GJ in the runaway explosion. The clouds' height and mass are not uniquely determined but are coupled together. For an initial height of 3,600 m, Cloud I contained about 400 kg fuel. For Cloud II the values were, respectively, 1,500 m and 850 kg. Loss of activities from the clouds is found to be small. Values are obtained for the rate of radionuclide migration from the deposit. Various types of biological damage to pines, as reported in the literature, are shown to be mainly due to ionizing radiation from the deposit by Cloud II. A formula is presented for the particulate size distribution in the trace area.

  20. DNA repair polymorphisms in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in sufferers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, Iryna; Bilous, Nadiia; Chumak, Anatolyi; Kostin, Alexey; Martina, Zoya; Dyagil, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    An association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms, environmental factors, and development of some types of cancer has been suggested by several studies. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in the clean-up workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident and it has some specific features. Therefore, we have studied the possible differences in DNA repair gene polymorphisms in CLL patients depending on ionizing radiation (IR) exposure history and their clinical characterictics. Arg399Gln XRCC1, Thr241Met XRCC3, and Lys751Gln XPD polymorphisms were studied in 64 CLL patients, exposed to IR due to the Chernobyl NPP accident, 114 IR-non-exposed CLL patients, and 103 sex- and age-matched IR-exposed controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis. All investigated polymorphisms were equally distributed between two groups of CLL patients and IR-exposed controls, except that that there was a significant reduction of the common homozygous Lys/Lys XPD genotype among IR-exposed CLL patients (23.7%) compared with IR-exposed controls (45.6%), OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.18-0.75; (P = 0.005). The number of IR-non-exposed CLL patients (37.4%) with the Lys/Lys XPD genotype was also decreased compared to IR-exposed controls, although this difference was not significant (P = 0.223). These preliminary data suggest a possible modifying role of Lys751Gln XPD polymorphism for the development of CLL, expecially in radiation-exposed persons.

  1. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children; Comparison with cases of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Nobuo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Sato, Yukio; Yamada, Hideo (and others)

    1994-03-01

    Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.).

  2. Conditions during the release of radionuclides during the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, H.

    1987-08-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the conditions of the release of radionuclides and fuel during the Chernobyl accident. The composition of the nuclide mixtures from many measurements was analyzed using the results of two experimental programs. Besides the release with fuel particles, radionuclides were mainly released at temperatures above 2400/sup 0/C. The cladding was not oxidized by steam. The behaviour of ruthenium cannot be explained satisfactorily. The reactor core was heated up over several days. During this time, more and more fuel elements were affected and destroyed. The results of the analysis do not fully agree with the descriptions given by the Soviet authorities.

  3. Concentrations of radiocaesium in Italian durum wheat and its products after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfi, M.; Notaro, M.; Azimi-Garakani, D.; Tommasino, L. (ENEA, Rome (Italy)); Cubadda, R.; Santaroni, G.P. (National Inst. of Nutrition, Rome (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    The radiocaesium concentrations of over 400 samples of durum wheat (triticum durum) collected throughout Italy after the Chernobyl accident have been measured to study the implications of contamination of this specific type of wheat used primarily in making alimentary pasta. The transfer of radiocaesium from the wheat sample of highest activity into the human food chain was studied systematically by measuring radiocaesium levels in the outer layers of the grain and in semolina, pasta and bread produced this wheat. The effect of cooking on the nuclide content of pasta was also studied, the results showing that most of the radiocaesium is removed into the water in which the pasta is boiled. (author).

  4. Isotopic composition of high-activity particles released in the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S.; Dabrowska, M.; Jaracz, P.; Kaczanowski, J.; Le Van Kho; Mirowski, S.; Piasecki, E.; Szeflinska, G.; Szeflinski, Z.; Tropilo, J.; (Warsaw Univ. (Poland))

    1989-11-01

    Gamma spectra were measured and activities of the detected isotopes were analyzed for 206 high-activity particles (hot particles, HPs) found in northeastern Poland after the Chernobyl accident. The isotopic composition of HPs observed in gamma-activity is compared with that of the general fallout and core inventory calculations. Particle formation and a process of depletion in Ru and Cs isotopes are discussed. On the basis of a search performed a year later, some comments on the behavior of HPs in the soil are made.

  5. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrane, Y; Wybo, J-L; Armand, P

    2013-12-01

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  7. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  8. Frequency of dicentrics and contamination levels in Ukrainian children and adolescents from areas near Chernobyl 20 years after the nuclear plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Alegría; Sebastià, Natividad; Candela-Juan, Cristian; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Soriano, José Miguel; Almonacid, Miguel; Alonso, Oscar; Guasp, Miguel; Marques-Sule, Elena; Cervera, José; Such, Esperanza; Arnal, Clara; Villaescusa, Juan Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    To survey the possible presence of chromosomal damage and internal contamination in a group of Ukrainian children and adolescents, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident at the Nuclear Power Plant. Cytogenetical procedures were performed according to dicentric assay in 55 Ukrainian children and adolescents (29 boys and 26 girls), living near Chernobyl. In addition, a whole body detector and urinalysis were used to detect internal contamination. 36 dicentrics were found in a total of 53,477 metaphases scored in these children, which reflected a frequency of dicentrics below the background level. On the other hand, internal contamination was not detected in any subject studied. Since the estimated absorbed dose is below the detection limit, according to both biological and physical dosimetry, radiation overexposure during the last 3-5 years has not been detected in the considered subjects.

  9. Integration of a radiation biomarker into modeling of thyroid carcinogenesis and post-Chernobyl risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Meckbach, Reinhard; Eidemüller, Markus; Selmansberger, Martin; Unger, Kristian; Shpak, Viktor; Blettner, Maria; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Jacob, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Strong evidence for the statistical association between radiation exposure and disease has been produced for thyroid cancer by epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl accident. However, limitations of the epidemiological approach in order to explore health risks especially at low doses of radiation appear obvious. Statistical fluctuations due to small case numbers dominate the uncertainty of risk estimates. Molecular radiation markers have been searched extensively to separate radiation-induced cancer cases from sporadic cases. The overexpression of the CLIP2 gene is the most promising of these markers. It was found in the majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) from young patients included in the Chernobyl tissue bank. Motivated by the CLIP2 findings we propose a mechanistic model which describes PTC development as a sequence of rate-limiting events in two distinct paths of CLIP2-associated and multistage carcinogenesis. It integrates molecular measurements of the dichotomous CLIP2 marker from 141 patients into the epidemiological risk analysis for about 13 000 subjects from the Ukrainian-American cohort which were exposed below age 19 years and were put under enhanced medical surveillance since 1998. For the first time, a radiation risk has been estimated solely from marker measurements. Cross checking with epidemiological estimates and model validation suggests that CLIP2 is a marker of high precision. CLIP2 leaves an imprint in the epidemiological incidence data which is typical for a driver gene. With the mechanistic model, we explore the impact of radiation on the molecular landscape of PTC. The model constitutes a unique interface between molecular biology and radiation epidemiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Rehabilitation of living conditions in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The ETHOS Project, supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (EC), was implemented in the mid-1990's with the support of the Belarus authorities as a pilot project to initiate a new approach for the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the Republic. This initiative followed a series of studies performed in the context of the EC Community of Independent States cooperation program to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), which clearly brought to the fore that a salient characteristic of the situation in these territories was the progressive and general loss of control of the population on its daily life. Furthermore, due to the economic difficulties during the years following the breakdown of the USSR, the population was developing private production and, in the absence of know-how and adequate means to control the radiological quality of foodstuffs, the level of internal exposure was rising significantly. The aim of the project was primarily to involve directly the population wishing to stay in the territories in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation with the goal of improving their protection and their living conditions. It was based on clear ethical principles and implemented by an interdisciplinary team of European experts with specific skills in radiation protection, agronomy, social risk management, communication, and cooperation in complex situations, with the support of local authorities and professionals. In a first phase (1996-1999), the ETHOS Project was implemented in a village located in the Stolyn District in the southern part of Belarus. During this phase, a few tens of villagers were involved in a step-by-step evaluation of the local radiological situation to progressively regain control of their daily life. In a second phase (1999-2001), the ETHOS Project was extended to four other localities of the District with the objective to

  11. Retrospective reconstruction on individual and collective external gamma doses of population evacuated after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtarev, I.A.; Chumack, V.V.; Repin, V.S. [Ukrainian Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-06-01

    About 90,000 citizens of Ukraine, who were residents of the near zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were evacuated during the first weeks after the accident due to the heavy contamination of the environment. Doses of this cohort were unknown. Retrospective reconstruction of external gamma exposure doses, based on the results of direct dose rate measurements performed during the accident and individual behavior/migration histories of the evacuees, was performed. Individual doses were reconstructed for 30,586 evacuees from the city of Prip`at and the settlements of the 30-km zone. The average effective dose H{sup E} due to external irradiation for this cohort was estimated to be 15 mSv, although individual values vary in an extremely wide range from 0.1 to 383 mSv. The collective dose of the whole evacuated population was found to be 1,300 person-Sv. 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Retrospective reconstruction of individual and collective external gamma doses of population evacuated after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhtarev, I A; Chumack, V V; Repin, V S

    1994-06-01

    About 90,000 citizens of Ukraine, who were residents of the near zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were evacuated during the first weeks after the accident due to the heavy contamination of the environment. Doses of this cohort were unknown. Retrospective reconstruction of external gamma exposure doses, based on the results of direct dose rate measurements performed during the accident and individual behavior/migration histories of the evacuees, was performed. Individual doses were reconstructed for 30,586 evacuees from the city of Prip'at and the settlements of the 30-km zone. The average effective dose H(E) due to external irradiation for this cohort was estimated to be 15 mSv, although individual values vary in an extremely wide range from 0.1 to 383 mSv. The collective dose of the whole evacuated population was found to be 1,300 person-Sv.

  13. Thyroid neoplasia risk is increased nearly 30 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina V; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Shpak, Victor; Oliynyk, Valeriy; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Little, Mark P; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Terekhova, Galyna; Zurnadzhi, Lyudmila; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate risk of thyroid neoplasia nearly 30 years following exposure to radioactive iodine (I-131) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, we conducted a fifth cycle of thyroid screening of the Ukrainian-American cohort during 2012-2015, following four previous screening cycles started in 1998. We identified 47 thyroid cancers (TC) and 33 follicular adenomas (FA) among 10,073 individuals who were accident and had a mean I-131 dose of 0.62 Gy. We found a significant I-131 dose response for both TC and FA, with an excess odd ratio per Gy of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.39-4.15) and 2.03 (95% CI: 0.55-6.69), respectively. The excess risk of malignant and benign thyroid neoplasia persists nearly three decades after exposure and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of this cohort to characterize long-term pattern of I-131 risk. © 2017 UICC.

  14. (Environmental impact of radionuclide release during the Kyshtym, Windscale, and Chernobyl accidents)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1990-10-22

    The traveler attended the conference, Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Radionuclides Released During Three Major Nuclear Accidents: Kyshtym, Windscale, and Chernobyl and presented an invited paper giving a western perspective of the Kyshtym (Chelyabinsk-40) high-level waste explosion that took place in 1957. Papers of interest to several ORNL and DOE programs were presented. These covered the topics of accident source terms, atmospheric dispersion, resuspension, chemical and physical forms of contamination (e.g., hot'' particles), environmental contamination and transfer, radiological effects on humans and the environment, and countermeasures. The traveler also made valuable contacts with Soviet and other scientists related to an ongoing assessment sponsored by the International Union of Radioecologists of releases from the Chelyabinsk-40 site. This included an agreement in principle for direct participation by key Soviet scientists.

  15. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  16. A radioecological model for thyroid dose reconstruction of the Belarus population following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, J E; Pröhl, G; Kenigsberg, J I

    2004-07-01

    A radioecological model was developed to estimate thyroid exposures of the Belarus population following the Chernobyl accident. The input of the model includes an extensive data set of the (137)Cs activity per unit area deposited during the Chernobyl accident, the rainfall data for different regions of Belarus, the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio in the deposit and the start of the grazing period in Belarus in April/May 1986. The output of the model is the age-dependent thyroid exposure due to the intake of (131)I with fresh milk. Age-dependent average thyroid doses were assessed for selected regions of Belarus. The maximum thyroid doses were estimated for the inhabitants of Gomel oblast where the highest deposition was observed among the regions considered here. The lowest doses were estimated for Vitebsk oblast with the lowest level of depositions. The mean exposures for the oblasts of Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev and Brest were very similar. The results were compared with estimations of thyroid exposure that were based on (131)I measurements in human thyroids, and they are in good agreement. The model may be used for the assessment of thyroid doses in Belarus for areas where no (131)I measurements are available.

  17. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  18. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF THE MEDICAL SECTION OF THE STATE PROGRAM OF THE BELARUS REPUBLIC FOR THE OVERCOMING OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rozhko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-five year health follow-up of the affected population has shown that a properly structured State strategy on overcoming the consequences of disaster allow to maintain stable levels of morbidity and mortality. An important achievement in the system of medical help to the affected population is the organization of dynamic follow-up, as well as creating State Register of people exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident as a tool for solving scientific and practical problems. The results of scientific researches obtained in the SO “The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology” were the basis for one of the Council of Ministers Decree and two Decrees of the Ministry of Health. Significant changes have been made in the order of assigning the causation connection of disease (disability and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and objective criteria for the formation of high radiation risk groups.In a whole, the rate of oncological morbidity in the affected population remains at the average republican level, but for certain categories of the affected population, referred to groups of enhanced radiation risk, there has been detected the presence of excess morbidity of some forms of malignant neoplasms.

  19. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  20. Ingestion doses in Finland due to (90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantavaara, A

    2008-11-01

    (90)Sr and (137)Cs in domestic foodstuffs and water have been analysed in Finland since the early 1960s, and (134)Cs since 1986. Using data on radionuclide deposition levels, agricultural production, and the processing and consumption of foodstuffs, the average intake and radiation dose from the ingestion of these radionuclides have been assessed. The estimated committed effective dose from the ingestion of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in food and water for the period 1960-2005 is 2.2 mSv, and for the period since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 it is 1.3 mSv.

  1. The international cooperation using the example of the reactor accident in Chernobyl; Die internationale Zusammenarbeit am Beispiel des Tschernobylunfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitor, Norbert [PLEJADES GmbH - Independent Experts, Griesheim (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    The explosion of the reactor unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl and the subsequent fire was up to now the most severe accident in the civil nuclear industry. The consequences of the accident far outside the Ukraine and the former Soviet Union demonstrated that nuclear safety is a trans-border challenge. The mitigation of the accident consequences and the recovery of safety for the public, the workers and the environment required outstanding efforts and the international cooperation was of significant importance. The contribution discusses experiences and practical aspects of the international cooperation and implications for future cooperation options for the long-term removal of accident consequences.

  2. Radiation monitoring systems as a tool for assessment of accidental releases at the Chernobyl and Fukushima NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershakov, Vjacheslav; Bulgakov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The experience gained during mitigation of the consequences of the accidents at the Chernobyl and Fukushima NPPs has shown that what makes different the decision-making in case of nuclear accidents is that the greatest benefit from decision-making can be achieved in the early phase of an accident. Support to such process can be provided only by a real-time decision-making support system. In case of a nuclear accident the analysis of the situation and decision-making is not feasible without an operational radiation monitoring system, international data exchange and automated data processing, and the use of computerized decision-making support systems. With this in mind, in the framework of different international programs on the Chernobyl-related issues numerous projects were undertaken to study and develop a set of methods, algorithms and programs providing effective support to emergency response decision-making, starting from accident occurrence to decision-making regarding countermeasures to mitigate effects of radioactive contamination of the environment. The presentation focuses results of the analysis of radiation monitoring data and, on this basis, refining or, for many short-lived radionuclides, reconstructing the source term, modeling dispersion of radioactivity in the environment and assessing its impacts. The obtained results allowed adding and refining the existing estimates and in some cases reconstructing doses for the public on the territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The activities were implemented in two stages. In the first stage, several scenarios for dispersion of Chernobyl-related radioactivity were developed. For each scenario cesium-137 dispersion was estimated and these estimates were compared with measurement data. In the second stage, the scenario which showed the best agreement of calculations and measurements was used for modeling the dispersion of iodine-131and other short-lived radionuclides. The described

  3. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred...

  4. Reconstruction and forecast of doses due to ingestion of 137Cs and 90Sr after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A P; Pavlenko, Yu A

    2008-04-01

    The assessment doses due to ingestion of (137)Cs and (90)Sr for the population suffering from the Chernobyl accident was performed on the basis of the new mechanistic ecological model for assessment of radiological consequences of agricultural lands contamination (EMARC). The EMARC model allows estimation of internal doses based on ecological factors influencing the contamination of foodstuff, for the post-accidental years in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The EMARC model allows estimation of all quantities required in radiation hygiene practice. For example, the proposed analytical method may be used for both retrospective dose reconstruction and prospective estimates of annual dose and integrated "life-time" dose, for different age intervals. According to the EMARC model, estimated reference "life-time" doses for adults are between 7 and 269 microSv kBq(-1) m(2) for (137)Cs, and between 25 and 235 microSv kBq(-1) m(2) for (90)Sr. Maximal doses were estimated for persons who were 3, 9 and 11 years old, at the time of the accident and these doses exceed those for adults by a factors of 1, 5 for (90)Sr, and 1.4 for (137)Cs.

  5. RADIATION-HYGIENIC AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE СHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: RESULTS AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An article is devoted to the analysis of the radiation situation in the dynamics during the years since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Data on the scope of activities fulfilled for the assessment of the territories radioactive contamination levels and foodstuffs contamination levels, on the values of the exposure doses for the population living on the contaminated territories, on the medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Basic norms and principles, used during the protective measures development and introduction, are considered, their effectiveness is demonstrated. Mistakes emerged during protective measures implementation are analyzed, the prognosis of the population exposure dose values for the 70-year period since the accident and main directions of activities for the contaminated territories remediation and normal life conditions restoration for the population at these territories are presented.

  6. Reconstruction of doses and deposition in the western trace from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikkeland, T.; Lindmo, T. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway); Skuterud, L. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Osteraas (Norway)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    A model is presented for the explosive cloud of particulates that produced the western trace of high radioactive ground contamination in the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986. The model was developed to reproduce measured dose rates and nuclide contamination and to relate estimated doses to observed changes in: (1) infrared emission from the foliage and (2) morphological and histological structures of individual pines. Dominant factors involved in ground contamination were initial cloud shape, particle size distribution, and rate of particle fallout. At time of formation, the cloud was assumed to be parabolical and to contain a homogeneous distribution of spherically shaped fuel particulates having a log-normal size distribution. The particulates were dispersed by steady winds and diffusion that produced a straight line deposition path. The analysis indicates that two clouds, denoted by Cloud I and Cloud II, were involved. Fallout from the former dominated the far field region and fallout from latter the region near the reactor. At formation they had a full width at half maximum of 1800 m and 500 m, respectively. For wind velocities of 5-10 m s{sup -1} the particulates` radial distribution at formation had a standard deviation and mode of 1.8 {mu}m and 0.5 {mu}m, respectively. This distribution corresponds to a release of 390 GJ in the runaway explosion. The clouds height and mass are not uniquely determined but are coupled together. For an initial height of 3,600 m, Cloud I contained about 400 kg fuel. For Cloud II the values were, respectively, 1,500 m and 850 kg. Loss of activities from the clouds is found to be small. Values are obtained for the rate of radionuclide migration from the deposit. Various types of biological damage to pines, as reported in the literature, are shown to be mainly due to ionizing radiation from the deposit by Cloud II. A formula is presented for the particulate size distribution in the trace area. 22 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in lakes exposed to Chernobyl-derived ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Nagorskaya, L.L. [Institute of Zoology NAS Belarus, 27, Academicheskaya st., 220072, Minsk (Belarus); Smith, J.T., E-mail: Jim.Smith@port.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Bldg, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Littoral (lake shore) macroinvertebrate communities were studied in eight natural lakes affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The lakes spanned a range in {sup 137}Cs contamination from 100 to 15500 kBq m{sup -2} and estimated external dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 30.7 {mu}Gy h{sup -1}. General linear models were used to assess whether abundance of individuals, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance and Shannon-Wiener diversity varied across the lakes. Step-wise multiple regressions were used to relate variation in total abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity, taxon richness within major groups of macroinvertebrates and abundance of the more common individual taxa to the measured environmental characteristics (conductivity, pH, total hardness and phosphate; lake area, lake maximum depth and total external dose) of the lakes. No evidence was found in this study that the ecological status of lake communities has been influenced by radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the most contaminated lake, Glubokoye, contained the highest richness of aquatic invertebrates. Taxon richness in the eight study lakes varied from 22 (Svyatskoe no. 7) to 42 (Glubokoye) which spans a range typical for uncontaminated lakes in the region. Since {sup 90}Sr is readily-absorbed by Mollusca, estimated dose rates to this group exceeded those for other invertebrate groups in two lakes (Perstok and Glubokoye). However this study found no association between mollusc diversity or abundance of individual snail species and variation between lakes in the external radiation dose. Indeed Glubokoye, the lake most contaminated by {sup 90}Sr, had the highest richness of freshwater snails per sample (an average of 8.9 taxa per sample). - Highlights: > We studied the effect of radiation on macroinvertebrates in Chernobyl affected lakes. > Abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity evaluated. > No

  8. Chernobyl clean-up workers` perception of radiation threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarabrina, N.; Lazebnaya, E.; Zelenova, M. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Psychology; Lasko, N. [Harvard Medical School, Manchester, NH (United States). VA Research Service

    1996-12-31

    The goals of this study were: (1) to compare the psychometric profiles of male Chernobyl liquidators who met DSM-III-R criteria for current PTSD with those who did not, and (2) to explore liquidators` perception and assessment of the `invisible` stressor of the radioactive hazard. Results of t-test comparisons between the PTSD and non-PTSD groups for the various psychometric measures are shown. Both diagnostic groups were similar in regard to their mean ages and education levels. The PTSD group scored significantly higher than the non-PTSD group on all the measures of PTSD and general psychiatric symptomatology, state and trait anxiety, depression. On the whole, results of this study demonstrate the determining role of individual perception and assessment of radioactive hazard in the development of post-traumatic stress and place this problem among the most important in studying the psychological consequences of experiencing radioactive threat. The real working conditions and the level of information also affected workers` estimate of the severity of the radiation hazard in Chernobyl. (author).

  9. [Radioecological studies of freshwater mollusks in the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Nazarov, A B; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E; Klenus, V G

    2009-01-01

    Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuranic elements accumulation in bivalve and gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1997-2008 was analyzed. The results of radiation dose and chromosome aberration rate estimation and the analysis of hemolymph composition of freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) was produced. The absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3-85.0 microGy/h. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27%) in embryo tissues, and also the change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered.

  10. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulik, Mirela; Rusin, Aleksandra

    2005-03-01

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S(2) layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 10(5) kBq m(-2). Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S(2) and S(3) layers. The angle of microfibrils in S(2) layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S(2) layer and unusual pattern of the S(3) layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree.

  11. Observations on the geology and geohydrology of the Chernobyl' nuclear accident site, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.; Percious, D.J.; Rachlin, J.; Marples, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The most highly contaminated surface areas from cesium-137 fallout from the April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power station in Ukraine occur within the 30-km radius evacuation zone set up around the station, and an 80-km lobe extending to the west-southwest. Lower levels of contamination extend 300 km to the west of the power station. The geology, the presence of surface water, a shallow water table, and leaky aquifers at depth make this an unfavorable environment for the long-term containment and storage of the radioactive debris. An understanding of the general geology and hydrology of the area is important to assess the environmental impact of this unintended waste storage site, and to evaluate the potential for radionuclide migration through the soil and rock and into subsurface aquifers and nearby rivers. -from Authors

  12. Mathematical modeling of radionuclide dispersion in the Pripyat-Dnieper aquatic system after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.J.; Demchenko, R.I.; Khursin, S.L.; Kuzmenko, Y.I.; Tkalich, P.V.; Vitiuk, N.Y. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Kibernetiki)

    1992-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident heavily contaminated the largest aquatic system in the Ukraine, requiring the development of a model-based detection support system in the field of aquatic radioecology. The main objectives of the system were to simulate and predict radionuclide dispersion in the Pripyat-Dnieper River-reservoir system, assess the effectiveness of special hydraulic countermeasures designed to decrease the rate of radionuclide dispersion in the water bodies, and support the Dnieper reservoirs' management operations. A hierarchy of mathematical models was developed. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical-longitudinal model, a 2D lateral-longitudinal model, a 1D channel model and a box-type model are briefly presented. These models describe the main features of radionuclide dispersion, including the processes governing radionuclide-sediment interactions. Examples of the models' applications are presented to show the peculiarities of radionuclide dispersion in this aquatic system. (author). 34 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs.

  13. Modelling transport and deposition of caesium and iodine from the Chernobyl accident using the DREAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model, has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the total deposition of  137Cs, 134Cs and 131I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations for dry- and wet deposition. The performance, compared to measurements, of using different combinations of two different wet deposition parameterizations and three different parameterizations of dry deposition has been evaluated, using different statistical tests. The best model performance, compared to measurements, is obtained when parameterizing the total deposition combined of a simple method for dry deposition and a subgrid-scale averaging scheme for wet deposition based on relative humidities. The same major conclusion is obtained for all the three different radioactive isotopes and using two different deposition measurement databases. Large differences are seen in the results obtained by using the two different parameterizations of wet deposition based on precipitation rates and relative humidities, respectively. The parameterization based on subgrid-scale averaging is, in all cases, performing better than the parameterization based on precipitation rates. This indicates that the in-cloud scavenging process is more important than the below cloud scavenging process for the submicron particles and that the precipitation rates are

  14. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  15. Hiroshima, Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk - children as victims of nuclear disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, G.; Biermann, R. [Aerztliche Akademie fuer Psychotherapie von Kindern und Jugendlichen e.V., Puchheim b. Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A short review of the fate of children exposed to radiations and radioisotopes due to the a-bomb in Hiroshima, nuclear weapons tests at the Semipalatinsk test site or the reactor accident of Chernobyl.

  16. Methodology of thyroid dose reconstruction for population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Balonov, M.I.; Bratilova, A.A.; Vlasov, A.Ju [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pitkevich, V.A.; Vlasov, O.K.; Shishkanov, N.G. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The Chernobyl accident has provoked radioactive contamination upon such extensive territories that the monitoring of short-lived iodine isotopes and estimation of their influence upon people were performed with a delay or not completely. So for solving the problem of dose estimation for thyroid exposure with iodine radionuclides among the population of contaminated territories, it was necessary to analyze retrospectively the existing data and to develop a model of the thyroid dose reconstruction. The reconstruction procedure for the average for a settlement thyroid dose in Russians has been worked out basing on the following data received in May-June 1986: 44 thousand measurements of I-131 content in the thyroid of inhabitants; 2000 gamma-spectrometric measurements of milk samples in Tula region; about 3500 measurements of total beta-activity in milk samples from Bryansk, Kaluga and Orel regions; over 100 radiochemical analysis of milk samples for I and Cs radionuclides' content; about 14000 thousand polls of inhabitants and local administration authorities upon the regime of behavior, milk consumption, cattle pasture dates and countermeasures in May 1986; the data of Roshydromet upon Cs-137 contamination of soil in settlements. The individual dose estimations by direct measurements of I-131 in the thyroid have been accepted as the basis for dose reconstruction. When counting the I-131 activity in the thyroid the additional radiation from cesium radionuclides distributed in extra-thyroidal tissues were excluded. Without this amendment the doses in the later terms of measurements could be 2-5 times overestimated. Because of the limited input data for dose calculations a formalized model of radioiodine intake into human body was used. The parameters of this model were based upon the analysis of the radiation monitoring data. According to the model daily intake of iodine-131 was constant within 10 days after radioactive fallout, and further on reduced

  17. The urgent radiological survey of crops and soil with the nuclear facility accidents. The correspondence to Tokai village criticality accident and Chernobyl nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuita, Kouichi; Komamura, Misako; Kihou, Nobuharu; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Kurishima, Katsuaki [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The results from the urgent radiological survey conducted by National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences were summarized in addition to the history of radiological accidents and survey research for environmental radioactivity. In the survey conducted by the institute, radioactivity changes in crops and soils at Tsukuba City and the distributions of {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in soils were monitored daily for {sup 131}I and weekly for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs from May 2 to June 6 after the Chernobyl Accident (Apr. 25, 1986). The radioactivities of {sup 131}I in spinach and wheat were increased for a period of about 20 days up to May 22, especially it was marked in spinach. The radioactivity in rainwater showed the peak around May 15. Most of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were distributed within 1 cm below the ground, whereas {sup 131}I was found up to 7.5 cm below the ground. The safety announcement for corps in Japan was made on June 6. After Chernobyl Accident, radioactivity was followed for the wheat in the harvest season of Japan and compared with the data in Kreutenbach near Muenchen. The {sup 137}Cs level in wheat was 3 times higher in the latter, suggesting that the {sup 134,137}Cs levels in soils would be 93 times higher. On Sep.30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred in Tokai Village immediately after that, the institute started a nuclear analysis of various crops from regions in Ibaraki prefecture at the requests of the prefecture and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Spinach, mushrooms and other crops such as leaves, beans, fruits, were used as the subjects for nuclear survey. However, either radioactivity after the criticality accident was not significantly higher than the usual level. The nuclides, {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were not detected in the crops except mushrooms. Although {sup 137}Cs level was increased in mushroom after the accident, but the level of artificial nuclide, {sup 131}I was at the

  18. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank — A Repository for Biomaterial and Data Used in Integrative and Systems Biology Modeling the Human Response to Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geraldine; Unger, Kristian; Krznaric, Marko; Galpine, Angela; Bethel, Jackie; Tomlinson, Christopher; Woodbridge, Mark; Butcher, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer post Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB: www.chernobyltissuebank.com) was established in 1998. Thus far it is has collected biological samples from 3,861 individuals, and provided 27 research projects with 11,254 samples. The CTB was designed from its outset as a resource to promote the integration of research and clinical data to facilitate a systems biology approach to radiation related thyroid cancer. The project has therefore developed as a multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, dosimetrists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians and serves as a paradigm for tissue banking in the omics era. PMID:24704918

  19. Did the Chernobyl atomic plant accident have an influence on the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in the province of Olsztyn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska-Stankiewicz, Elżbieta; Aksamit-Białoszewska, Ewa; Stankiewicz, Aleksander; Shafie, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    A study of incidence rates of thyroid carcinoma was conducted in Olsztyn province from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2003 within its former boundaries, in spite of Poland's new administrative division. The criteria for register entry were as follows: residence in Olsztyn province, newly-diagnosed case of thyroid malignancy in the given calendar year, and histopathological verification in the Department of Anatomical Pathology of the District Specialist Hospital in Olsztyn. The study of selected risk factors comprised patients included in the register of thyroid carcinoma. For that purpose a questionnaire was prepared which covered information about the Chernobyl accident: place of residence, time of carcinoma diagnosis after the accident, and iodine prophylaxis during the accident. The control group consisted of 589 healthy subjects selected based on age and place of residence. In the years 1993-2003, 462 (395 women and 67 men) cases of thyroid cancer were registered. The questionnaire study comprised 297 patients with thyroid carcinoma and 589 healthy subjects. Study subjects from both the affected and control groups stayed mainly in their place of residence during the Chernobyl accident (97.28% v. 94.24%). Thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed on average 13.58 ± 2.61 years after irradiation. There were no significant differences in iodine prophylaxis during the Chernobyl accident. Lugol's solution was given to 31% of patients and 34% of healthy respondents. 1. It cannot be stated that the Chernobyl disaster had any influence on the incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma in the province of Olsztyn. 2. Iodine prophylaxis using Lugol's solution could have an influence on lack of significant increase of the thyroid carcinoma incidence rate in the age group 1-18 years.

  20. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    . This might result from a selection at the expense of sensitive species after the accident. - Highlights: • First characterisation of nematode assemblages in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone • An accurate estimation of total dose rate absorbed by nematodes was conducted. • The total dose rate to nematodes mainly depends on external alpha and beta radiation. • Nematodes have low sensitivity to chronic exposure to radioactive contamination.

  1. Reconstruction of thyroid doses for the population of Belarus following the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilin, Y.I.; Khrouch, V.T.; Shinkarev, S.M. [Inst. of Biophsics, Ministry of Public Health and Medical Industry SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Minenko, V.F.; Drozdovich, V.V.; Ulanovsky, A.V. [Research Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Ministry of Health, Minsk (Belarus); Bouville, A.C. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Radiation Effects Branch; Anspaugh, L.R.; Straume, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    As a sequela to the large release of {sup 131}I from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, an expected late effect is thyroid cancer, especially in children. In anticipation of this problem, hundreds of thousands of measurements of thyroid glands were made with survey meters. Much attention was also focused on measuring the deposition density of {sup 137}Cs. The expectation was that the latter measurement could be a good surrogate for the deposition density of {sup 131}I, so that ecological models could be used to reconstruct thyroid doses in locations where no direct measurements of thyroid activity were made. However, this assumption has been seriously questioned, and there is interest in a more suitable surrogate that can still be measured even nine years or more after the accident. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the reconstruction of thyroid doses for a case-control study of childhood-thyroid cancer that has just been concluded, to discuss the reconstruction of thyroid doses for a current cohort study of childhood-thyroid cancer, and to discuss the use of {sup 129}I as a surrogate for the deposition density of {sup 131}I.

  2. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanyan, Anna, E-mail: ann-aghajanyan@yandex.ru [Cytogenetics Laboratory, FSI Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenology and Radiology, Profsoyuznaya 86, GSP-7, Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Suskov, Igor [Laboratory of Ecological Genetics, N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics Russian Academy of Sciences, Gybkin st. 3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n = 106, p < 0.01), but also in their children born after the accident (n = 159, p < 0.05). This is an indicative of the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. To elucidate this phenomenon, experiments were undertaken to model genomic instability by using single and fractional in vitro {gamma}-irradiation ({sup 137}Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  3. Chernobyl in the French mass media 14 years after the accident; Tchernobyl dans la presse francaise 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    The author presents how the mass media have dealt with the fourteenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays Chernobyl epitomizes the hazards of nuclear energy. Public opinion has become extremely sensitive to topics concerning human health. This sensitivity is due to previous important affairs such as the scandal of the tainted blood, the mad cow disease or the syndrome of the Balkan war. Most media have broadened the debate to the sanitary impact of nuclear activities. The hyper-mediatization of the legal case of a man prosecuting the French state for no having taken adequate measures when the radioactive cloud spread over France, has given the feeling that French authorities have always wrongly minimized the consequences of the accident. (A.C.)

  4. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation.; Katsaus ydinonnettomuuksien psykologisiin seurauksiin sekae empiirinen tutkimus saeteilysuojelutoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista kaeyttaeytymiseen kuvitteelisessa tilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, A.; Eraenen, L. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.).

  5. Reconstruction of the inhalation dose in the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mück, Konrad; Pröhl, Gerhard; Likhtarev, Ilya; Kovgan, Lina; Golikov, Vladislav; Zeger, Johann

    2002-02-01

    Due to lack of measurements of activity concentrations in air, the assessment of the inhalation dose of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident is not possible from continuous filter measurements. Since the evaluation of the inhalation dose in each settlement of the zone is of great interest for epidemiological purposes, an approach was chosen that utilizes the available data on ground deposition of 137Cs, a recently performed best estimate of the radionuclide vector and its spatial distribution as well as the radionuclide dependent deposition velocity. The derived inhalation dose values in the 30-km zone range between 3 mSv to 150 mSv effective dose for adults depending on the distance to the reactor site and the day of evacuation. For 1-y-old infants the values range between 10 to 700 mSv. In Chernobyl town, an effective inhalation dose of 25 mSv until evacuation day was assessed. Thyroid doses due to inhalation ranged from 0.02 to 1 Sv for adults, for 1-y-old infants from 0.02 to 6 Sv. The inhalation dose in each settlement of the 30-km zone is approximately 8-13 times higher than the external exposure in each settlement if evacuation of the settlement occurred at an early stage. For settlements with evacuation at a later stage (day 10 or later) the inhalation dose was about 50-70% higher than the external dose. The dominant contribution to the effective inhalation dose comes from 131I (about 40%) and tellurium and rubidium isotopes (about 20-30%). Despite high zirconium and cerium ground depositions, zirconium and cerium isotopes contribute rather little to the inhalation dose which is mainly due to the great particle sizes to which they are attached. The relative contribution of short-lived radionuclides is, despite higher activities than at greater distances, less than 5%.

  6. (137)Cs contamination over Transylvania region (Romania) after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begy, R Cs; Simon, H; Vasilache, D; Kelemen, Sz; Cosma, C

    2017-12-01

    Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature. The (137)Cs surface concentrations in soil samples ranged between 0.4±0.1kBqm(-2) and 301.1±3.0kBqm(-2), having an average of 8.3±0.2kBqm(-2), with more elevated values in the mountain areas (18.3±0.6kBqm(-2)) compared to the hills and plains (2.6±0.1kBqm(-2)). Taking into consideration the cardinal regions, the northern and western regions received the least amount of (137)Cs (2.9±0.1kBqm(-2)), while the southern part received 16.3±0.6kBqm(-2). Sampling points with eastern slope exposure received the highest average (27.8±0.5kBqm(-2)), while southern, north-western and north-eastern ones received less than 8kBqm(-2). Two hotspots are reported at Iezer-Ighiel (72.7±5.9kBqm(-2)) and Tulgheș areas (51.5±0.6kBqm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of kinase fusion oncogenes in post-Chernobyl radiation-induced thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte-Filho, Julio C; Li, Sheng; Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E R; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Voza, Francesca; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Bogdanova, Tetyana; Thomas, Geraldine A; Mason, Christopher E; Fagin, James A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood markedly increases the risk of developing papillary thyroid cancer. We examined tissues from 26 Ukrainian patients with thyroid cancer who were younger than 10 years of age and living in contaminated areas during the time of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. We identified nonoverlapping somatic driver mutations in all 26 cases through candidate gene assays and next-generation RNA sequencing. We found that 22 tumors harbored fusion oncogenes that arose primarily through intrachromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, 23 of the oncogenic drivers identified in this cohort aberrantly activate MAPK signaling, including the 2 somatic rearrangements resulting in fusion of transcription factor ETS variant 6 (ETV6) with neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3 (NTRK3) and fusion of acylglycerol kinase (AGK) with BRAF. Two other tumors harbored distinct fusions leading to overexpression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ. Fusion oncogenes were less prevalent in tumors from a cohort of children with pediatric thyroid cancers that had not been exposed to radiation but were from the same geographical regions. Radiation-induced thyroid cancers provide a paradigm of tumorigenesis driven by fusion oncogenes that activate MAPK signaling or, less frequently, a PPARγ-driven transcriptional program.

  8. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  9. A review of the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident: radiation effects on the thyroid and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-10-01

    This is a summary of the nuclear accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations (FDNPS) on 11 March 2011 to be used as a review of the radiation effects to the thyroid and strategies of prevention. The amount of radioiodine released to the environment following the Fukushima accident was 120 Peta Becquerel, which is approximately one-tenth of that in the Chernobyl accident. Residents near the FDNPS were evacuated within a few days and foodstuffs were controlled within 1 or 2 weeks. Therefore, thyroid radiation doses were less than 100 mSv (intervention levels for stable iodine administration) in the majority of children, including less than 1 year olds, living in the evacuation areas. Because the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased in those residing near the site following the Chernobyl accident, thyroid screening of all children (0-18 years old) in the Fukushima Prefecture was started. To date, screening of more than 280 000 children has resulted in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in 90 children (approximate incidence, 313 per million). Thus, although the dose of radiation was much lower, the incidence of thyroid cancer appears to be much higher than that following the Chernobyl accident. A comparison of the thyroidal consequences following the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear reactor accidents is discussed. We also summarize the recent increased incidence in thyroid cancer in the Fukushima area following the accident in relation to increased thyroid ultrasound screening and the use of advanced ultrasound techniques. http://links.lww.com/COE/A8.

  10. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Baverstock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, além de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O

  11. {sup 137}Cs distribution among annual rings of different tree species contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhova, N.V.; Fesenko, S.V.; Klein, D.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Badot, P.M. E-mail: pierre-marie.badot@univ-fcomte.fr

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of {sup 137}Cs among annual rings of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula at four experimental sites located in the most contaminated areas in the Russian territory after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. Trees of different ages were sampled from four forest sites with different tree compositions and soil properties. The data analysis shows that {sup 137}Cs is very mobile in wood and the 1986 rings do not show the highest contamination. The difference between pine and birch in the pattern of radial {sup 137}Cs distribution can be satisfactorily explained by the difference in radial ray composition. {sup 137}Cs radial distribution in the wood can be described as the sum of two exponential functions for both species. The function parameters are height, age and species dependent. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs in birch wood reveals much more pronounced dependence on site characteristics and/or the age of trees than pines. The data obtained can be used to assess {sup 137}Cs content in wood.

  12. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanyan, Anna; Suskov, Igor

    2009-12-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n=106, paccident (n=159, p<0.05). This is an indicative of the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. To elucidate this phenomenon, experiments were undertaken to model genomic instability by using single and fractional in vitro gamma-irradiation ((137)Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Varfolomeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl accident has influenced greatly all spheres of life of the affected territories, changing the life-style of the local population. [1, 2]. Investigation of the radionuclides behavior in natural conditions becomes more and more important which is connected with the fact that radionuclides are drawn into substances rotation and are actively accumulated by the plants and animals, that means that they become integral link of the food chains and are of a great importance in the functioning of the ecosystems. Deposition of radionuclides in the forest system is often higher than in agricultural arrears. Specific ecological features of the forests often lead to the high degree of accumulation of contaminating radionuclides. Organic matter high content in the forest soil and its stability increase the transfer of radionuclides from soil into plans which lead to high content of radionuclides in lichens, mosses, mushrooms and berries. Radionuclides transfer to game in such conditions could bring to the situation when some people actively consuming game meet will be highly exposured.

  15. Environmental radioactivity around Tokai-Works after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Junichiro; Miyagawa, Naoto; Watanabe, Hotoshi; Asano, Tomohiro; Kitahara, Yoshihisa

    1988-01-01

    Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl, environmental samples of air, rain water and agricultural and marine products were collected and analyzed by gamma- and alpha-spectrometry. The highest concentrations of /sup 131/I in the environmental samples were as follows: 1.0 x 10/sup -1/ Bq m/sup -3/ (aerosol-associated in air); 3.0 x 10/sup -1/ Bq m/sup -3/ (gaseous in air); 2.1 x 10/sup 2/ Bq kg/sup -1/ (plants); 1.4 x 10/sup 1/ Bq litre/sup -1/ (milk). Other nuclides such as /sup 95/Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, sup(129m)Te, /sup 132/I//sup 132/Te, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 140/Ba//sup 140/La, /sup 141/Ce and /sup 144/Ce were also observed in various environmental samples. sup(110m)Ag was only detected in marine products such as cephalopoda and shellfish. sup(239,240)Pu and /sup 241/Am originating from the accident were not identified. Based on the monitoring results at one dairy farm, we have derived an equation to model the transport of /sup 131/I from pasture grass to milk. This equation was then applied to the data from two other farms around Tokai-Works and the calculated /sup 131/I activities in milk were compared with those measured. The equation shows good predictive capabilities for quantification of the peak concentrations of /sup 131/I in milk but underestimates longer-term activities.

  16. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: a modeling study for radiocaesium ((134)Cs &(137)Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan resulted in the release of a large number of fission products that were transported worldwide. We study the effects of two of the most dangerous radionuclides emitted, (137)Cs (half-life: 30.2years) and (134)Cs (half-life: 2.06years), which were transported across the world constituting the global fallout (together with iodine isotopes and noble gasses) after nuclear releases. The main purpose is to provide preliminary cancer risk estimates after the Fukushima NPP accident, in terms of excess lifetime incident and death risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, cancer risks are presented for the local population in the form of high-resolution risk maps for 3 population classes and for both sexes. The atmospheric transport model LMDZORINCA was used to simulate the global dispersion of radiocaesium after the accident. Air and ground activity concentrations have been incorporated with monitoring data as input to the LNT-model (Linear Non-Threshold) frequently used in risk assessments of all solid cancers. Cancer risks were estimated to be small for the global population in regions outside Japan. Women are more sensitive to radiation than men, although the largest risks were recorded for infants; the risk is not depended on the sex at the age-at-exposure. Radiation risks from Fukushima were more enhanced near the plant, while the evacuation measures were crucial for its reduction. According to our estimations, 730-1700 excess cancer incidents are expected of which around 65% may be fatal, which are very close to what has been already published (see references therein). Finally, we applied the same calculations using the DDREF (Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor), which is recommended by the ICRP, UNSCEAR and EPA as an alternative reduction factor instead of using a threshold value (which is still unknown). Excess lifetime cancer

  17. Thyroid cancer in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (in the framework of the Ukraine-US Thyroid Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Hatch, Maureen; Likhtarev, Ilya; Bouville, Andre; Oliynik, Valeriy; McConnell, Robert; Shpak, Viktor; Zablotska, Lydia; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Brenner, Alina; Zamotayeva, Galyna

    2012-03-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, millions of residents of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to large doses of radioactive iodine isotopes, mainly I-131. The purpose of the Ukraine-American (UkrAm) and Belarus-American (BelAm) projects are to quantify the risks of thyroid cancer in the framework of a classical cohort study, comprising subjects who were aged under 18 years at the time of the accident, had direct measurements of thyroid I-131 radioactivity taken within two months after the accident, and were residents of three heavily contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Zhitomir, Kiev, and Chernigov regions). Four two-year screening examination cycles were implemented from 1998 until 2007 to study the risks associated with thyroid cancer due to the iodine exposure caused during the Chernobyl accident. A standardised procedure of clinical examinations included: thyroid palpation, ultrasound examination, blood collection followed by a determination of thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine content test, and fine-needle aspiration if required. Among the 110 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed in UkrAm as the result of four screening examinations, 104 cases (94.5%) of papillary carcinomas, five cases (4.6%) of follicular carcinomas, and one case (0.9%) of medullary carcinoma were diagnosed.

  18. Agricultural land management options after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: The articulation of science, technology, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2016-10-01

    The options adopted for recovery of agricultural land after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents are compared by examining their technical and socio-economic aspects. The analysis highlights commonalities such as the implementation of tillage and other types of countermeasures and differences in approach, such as preferences for topsoil removal in Fukushima and the application of K fertilizers in Chernobyl. This analysis shows that the recovery approach needs to be context-specific to best suit the physical, social, and political environment. The complex nature of the decision problem calls for a formal process for engaging stakeholders and the development of adequate decision support tools. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:662-666. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Evaluation of (137)Cs body burden in inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation, where a high incidence of thyroid cancer was observed after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Yui; Hayashida, Naomi; Karevskaya, Irina V; Vasilitsova, Olga A; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Omiya, Masanori; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2010-09-01

    To determine the current risk of internal radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident, the (137)Cs body burden of the inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation was evaluated, from 1998 to 2008. The study population is composed of 84 666 people who visited Bryansk No. 2 Hospital. A whole-body counter was used for measurement of (137)Cs body burden. (137)Cs concentration was significantly higher in the late period during the study and showed seasonal variation, suggesting that inhabitants may have consumed contaminated forest products. However, people with high annual exposure doses were quite rare during all years of the study. In conclusion, although internal radiation exposure from (137)Cs continues to this day in Bryansk Oblast, the annual exposure dose is low in almost all inhabitants. Because of the long half-life of (137)Cs, the long-term follow-up is necessary to monitor the health status and relieve the anxiety of the inhabitants around Chernobyl.

  20. The Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents and their tragic consequences

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, the Unit 4 of the RBMK nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, in Ukraine, went out of control during a test at low-power, leading to an explosion and fire. The reactor building was totally demolished and very large amounts of radiation were released into the atmosphere for several hundred kilometres around the site including the nearby town of Pripyat. The explosion leaving tons of nuclear waste and spent fuel residues without any protection and control totally contaminating the entire area. Several hundred thousand people were affected by the radiation fall out. The radioactive cloud spread across Europe affecting most of the Northern, Central and Eastern European countries. Some areas of southern Switzerland, of northern Italy as well as western France were subject to radioactive contamination. The initiative of the G7 countries to launch and important programme for the closure of some Soviet built nuclear plants was accepted by several donor countries. A team of engineers was established wi...

  1. Frequency of dicentrics in Ukrainian children and teenagers from areas near Chernobyl 20 years after the nuclear power plant accident; Frecuencia de dicentricos en ninos y adolescentes ucranianos de zonas cercanas a Chernobyl 20 anos despues del accidente de la central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Sebastia, N.; Candela, C.; Francesc Barquinero, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Almonacid, M.; Sahuquillo, V.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Silla, M. A.; Arnal, C.; Villaescusa, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, frequency of dicentrics in the peripheral blood of 55 children and teenagers from Ukrainian areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are studied, in order to assess the possible existence of chromosomal damage due to radiation, and to estimate absorbed dose through biological dosimetry. A total of 36 dicentric chromosomes found in 53477 analyzed cells reflected a low dicentric frequency (below the baseline limit). From these results, it can be concluded that, within the detection limits of the used technique, no overexposure to radiation was detected in these children. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. CHERNOBYL HEALTH RADIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE POPULATION OF RUSSIA: DATA OF THE NATIONAL REGISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Ivanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Summarized radiation-epidemiological data on health effects of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP registered in the follow-up period 1986-2006 on the Russian population are reported. Two groups of population: Chernobyl Emergency accident workers and residents of the most contaminated with radionuclides territories are examined. Impact of radiation-associated risk of solid cancers and leukaemia in these groups is assessed. Prognostic estimates of health effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Russian population are offered in the article.

  3. Hungarian surveillance of germinal mutations. Lack of detectable increase in indicator conditions caused by germinal mutations following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A

    1989-07-01

    The Hungarian surveillance of germinal mutations is based on three indicator conditions seen in offspring, i.e., 15 sentinel anomalies, Down syndrome and component anomaly pairs of unidentified multiple congenital anomalies. It is an "opportunistic program," because the necessary data are available from the Hungarian Congenital Malformation Registry. This system is described and the criteria of a good registry are summarized. The analysis of indicator conditions caused by germinal mutations did not reveal any measurable mutagenic effects in Hungary following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The pros and cons of germinal mutation surveillance are discussed.

  4. PRYMA-TO: A model of radionuclide transfer from air into food stuff. Test with data from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Carrasco, E.; Suanez, A.; Josep, L.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes a dynamical model developed in the Environmental Institute of the CIEMAT. Its aims are the calculation of the integrated as well as time-dependent concentrations of ''131l and ''137Cs over time in soils, in forage pasture (or other vegetation species), and in milk and meat. The source contamination is assumed to come from a radioactive cloud confined in the atmospheric mixing layer. Data monitored in different locations the days following the Chernobyl accident have been used. The model was tested against post-Chernobyl data from 13 locations around the world, in the framework of the A4 exercise from the BIOMOVS program (Biospheric Models Validation Studies). The performance of the model is illustrated in 9 scenarios which have been chosen of these 13 because they have more information or they are better described. Default Probability Density Functions for the main parameters used by the model have been obtained by statistical processing of some post-Chernobyl evidence. (Author) 30 refs.

  5. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid. PMID:27019779

  6. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs, thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1 and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2. Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively; after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320 in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482. On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003, though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid.

  7. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to (131)I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal (131)I radiation. The associations between internal (131)I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of (131)I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0-5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the (131)I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26-27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to (131)I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid.

  8. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  9. RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ chromosomal rearrangements in post-Chernobyl thyroid cancer and their association with I-131 radiation dose and other characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.; Brenner, Alina V.; Little, Mark P.; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Hatch, Maureen; Zurnadzy, Liudmyla Y.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Tronko, Mykola D.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood exposure to I-131 from the 1986 Chernobyl accident led to a sharp increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in regions surrounding the reactor. Data concerning the association between genetic mutations in PTCs and individual radiation doses are limited. Methods We performed mutational analysis of 62 PTCs diagnosed in a Ukrainian cohort of patients who were Chernobyl tumors and show different associations for point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements with I-131 dose and other factors. These data support the relationship between chromosomal rearrangements, but not point mutations, and I-131 exposure and point to a possible role of iodine deficiency in generation of RET/PTC rearrangements in these patients. PMID:23436219

  10. Thyroid ultrasound findings 7 years after the Chernobyl accident. A comparative epidemiological study in the Bryansk region of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpusalo, L. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Kumpusalo, E. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Community Health and General Practice; Soimakallio, S. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Salomaa, S. [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Paile, W. [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Kolmakow, S. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Oral Pathology, Roentgenology and Forensic Odontology; Zhukowsky, G. [National Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ilchenko, I. [National Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nissinen, A. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Community Health and General Practice

    1996-11-01

    Aims: The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station occurred in April 1986. We report on a comparative epidemiological study on thyroid abnormalities in the contaminated and uncontaminated populations of the Bryansk region, South-West Russia, in 1993, 7 years after the accident. Material and Methods: The study material consisted of all inhabitants aged 3-34 years in the contaminated village of Mirnyi and in the uncontaminated village of Krasnyi Rog, excluding those who had moved to be villages after the accident. The total material comprised 302 inhabitants in Mirnyi and 200 in Krasnyi Rog. Results: No pathological US findings in either village were found in children born after the accident. In the age group 0-9 years old at the time of the accident, the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities was 8.1% in the contaminated village compared to 1.6% in the uncontaminated village. In the age group 10-27 years the corresponding figures were 18.8% and 17.7%. Only 55% of the pathological US findings were detected by physical palpation. Conclusion: The total prevalence of thyroid abnormalities was higher among children in the contaminated village. We recommend an active screening of young contaminated subjects with US, supplemented with fine needle biopsy. (orig.).

  11. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zbyszek Boratyński; Javi Miranda Arias; Cristina Garcia; Tapio Mappes; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Antonio Jesús Muñoz Pajares; Marcin Piwczyński; Eugene Tukalenko

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiatio...

  12. INFLUENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Manoshkina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level

  13. The Chernobyl accident: Can lichens be used to characterize a radiocesium contaminated range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Gaare

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the lichen species that are important in the lichen dominated plant communities in the Norwegian mountains are important reindeer winter forage. They are also organisms that collect fall-out from the atmosphere. The Chernobyl accident brought, among other, radioactive Cesium, and from lichens this follow the food chain to reindeer and finally man. From region to region this fall-out was unevenly distributed and methods are needed to compare winter ranges and to monitor the developement of radioactive levels in the lichen carpet. Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis, Cladina mitis, C. stellaris and Stereocaulon pa¬schale was collected in the Dovre mountains to compare species levels and to study collection methods. We found that from spot to spot there is a very large variation between samples, even within the same species. Because of this we are not able to show significant species differences. We found, however, that species from more or less snow free ridgetops, Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis and Cladina mitis showed less variation and thus must be recommended as the best species for monitoring and comparison of ranges.Tsjernobyl-ulykken: Kan lav nyttes til karakterisering av et radioaktivt forurenset reinbeite?Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Mange av de lavarter som er viktige i lavdominerte plantesamfunn i de norske fjell er viktige som vinterfor for rein. Disse organismer samler også nedfall fra atmosfæren. Ulykken i Tsjernobyl brakte, blant annet, radioaktivt cesium, og fra lav følger dette næringskjeden til rein og endelig mennesket. Fra område til område var dette nedfallet ujevnt fordelt, og det kreves metoder for å sammenligne vinterområder og for å overvåke utviklingen av det radioaktive nivå i lavmattene. Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis, Cladina mitis, C. stellaris og Stereocaulon paschale ble samlet på Dovrefjell for

  14. Effect of dry deposition, washout and resuspension on radionuclide ratios after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, G; Hötzl, H; Winkler, R

    1990-01-01

    The temporal variations of radionuclide ratios in air and deposition samples collected simultaneously at Munich-Neuherberg (F.R.G.) after the Chernobyl accident have been studied. Until 8 May 1986, the radionuclides investigated were 99Mo, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 125Sb, 129mTe, 132Te, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce and 144Ce. After 8 May, 99Mo, 110mAg, 125Sb, and the Ce isotopes were below the detection limits. Considerable temporal variations of the above radionuclides, relative to 137Cs, were observed in air as well as in deposition. In air the temporal variations reflect the arrival of different parts of the reactor plume with different elemental composition. In deposition, the temporal patterns were quite different from those in air for a given radionuclide. This is explained by varying contributions of dry and wet deposition. Until 8 May, the washout ratios of the above radionuclides covered a range from 240 to 5600, with smaller variations for all radionuclides within one event (e.g. 460-910), and larger variations from one event to another (e.g. 460-3300 for 137Cs). The dry deposition velocity of 137Cs was found to be 0.27 cm s-1, similar to that of 110mAg, aerosol 131I and 140Ba (0.37, 0.13 and 0.15 cm s-1). Another group of radionuclides includes 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, total 131I and 132Te with dry deposition velocities of 0.08, 0.10, 0.07, 0.03 and 0.08 cm s-1 and with temporal variations in deposition which are quite different from those of the first group. From 8 May to the end of June, the washout ratios increased to values between 1500 and 24,000, with the exception of iodine, which had considerably lower washout ratios of between 37 and 4400. These later effects are explained by resuspension and, in the case of iodine, by remobilization of gaseous species.

  15. EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn. of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka' grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced. At artificial infection with brown rusts, the disease development was enhanced on plots with increased radiation background. One of the mechanisms of declined phytoimmunity potential under the action of low doses of chronic irradiation is evidently a reduced activity of plant proteinase inhibitors. Thus, in wheat and rye (Secale cereale L., cv. ‘Saratovskaya’ kernels, their activity reduced by 35–60% as compared to control. Active form and race formation in the population of the grass stem rust causal agent (Puccinia graminis Pers. was observed in the Chernobyl zone. A “new” population of this fungus with high frequency of more virulent clones than in other Ukraine regions was distinguished. The results obtained independently in greenhouse and field trials performed in the Chernobyl zone demonstrated radiation stress influence on the pathogen–plant system. They indicate a necessity of monitoring the microevolutionary processes occurring in both plants and their pathogens under conditions of technogenic stresses.

  16. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-01-27

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glareolus collected from natural populations in areas with varying levels of background radiation in Chernobyl. We found high frequencies of cataracts in voles collected from different areas in Chernobyl. The frequency of cataracts was positively correlated with age, and in females also with the accumulated radiation dose. Furthermore, the number of offspring in female voles was negatively correlated with cataract severity. The results suggest that cataracts primarily develop as a function of ionizing background radiation, most likely as a plastic response to high levels of oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that the elevated levels of background radiation in Chernobyl affect the ecology and fitness of local mammals both directly through, for instance, reduced fertility and indirectly, through increased cataractogenesis.

  17. Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenkova L.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc. carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses.

  18. Karyopathological traits of thyrocytes and exposure to radioiodines in Belarusian children and adolescents following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Nikonovich, Sergey [Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, Gomel (Belarus); Kravtsov, Viacheslav; Aleksanin, Sergey [EMERCOM of Russia, Nikiforov Russian Centre of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Rockville, MD (United States); Nakamura, Nori [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The Belarus-American (BelAm) thyroid study cohort consists of persons who were 0-18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioactive iodine fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 75 BelAm subjects with single and multiple thyroid nodules and 47 nodular goiter patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Chernobyl fallout. Nuclear abnormalities examined included internuclear chromosome bridges and derivative nuclei with broken bridges (i.e., ''tailed'' nuclei), which are formed from dicentric and ring chromosomes and thus may be cellular markers of radiation exposure. Among subjects with single-nodular goiter, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 86.8% of the exposed BelAm cohort compared with 27.0% of unexposed controls. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges and with tailed nuclei was also significantly higher in the BelAm subjects than in controls. Among subjects with multinodular goiters, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 75.7% of exposed BelAm patients compared with 16.7% of unexposed controls; thyrocytes with tailed nuclei were observed in all of the BelAm subjects but in only 40% of controls, and the mean frequencies of bridges and tailed nuclei were significantly higher in the exposed group. Unusually, long bridges were detected in 29% of BelAm patients with single-nodular goiters and 35% of those with multinodular goiters, while no such abnormalities were observed among patients from the Leningrad region. In the exposed subjects from BelAm, we also found positive correlations between their estimated dose of Iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and the frequency of tailed nuclei (p = 0.008) and bridges (p = 0.09). Further study is needed to confirm that these phenomena represent

  19. Karyopathological traits of thyrocytes and exposure to radioiodines in Belarusian children and adolescents following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Kravtsov, Viacheslav; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen; Nakamura, Nori; Nikonovich, Sergey; Aleksanin, Sergey

    2012-05-01

    The Belarus-American (BelAm) thyroid study cohort consists of persons who were 0-18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioactive iodine fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 75 BelAm subjects with single and multiple thyroid nodules and 47 nodular goiter patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Chernobyl fallout. Nuclear abnormalities examined included internuclear chromosome bridges and derivative nuclei with broken bridges (i.e., "tailed" nuclei), which are formed from dicentric and ring chromosomes and thus may be cellular markers of radiation exposure. Among subjects with single-nodular goiter, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 86.8% of the exposed BelAm cohort compared with 27.0% of unexposed controls. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges and with tailed nuclei was also significantly higher in the BelAm subjects than in controls. Among subjects with multinodular goiters, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 75.7% of exposed BelAm patients compared with 16.7% of unexposed controls; thyrocytes with tailed nuclei were observed in all of the BelAm subjects but in only 40% of controls, and the mean frequencies of bridges and tailed nuclei were significantly higher in the exposed group. Unusually, long bridges were detected in 29% of BelAm patients with single-nodular goiters and 35% of those with multinodular goiters, while no such abnormalities were observed among patients from the Leningrad region. In the exposed subjects from BelAm, we also found positive correlations between their estimated dose of Iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and the frequency of tailed nuclei (p = 0.008) and bridges (p = 0.09). Further study is needed to confirm that these phenomena represent consequences of radiation

  20. Impact of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mitchell, P.I. [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, University College, Dublin (Ireland); Vidal-Quadras, A. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8{+-}0.2 and 0.27{+-}0.01 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. {sup 137}Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16{+-}0.04 Bq m{sup -3}, which is a 33{+-}2% increase over the previous levels. {sup 137}Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4{+-}0.5 TBq for {sup 137}Cs, of which 4.3{+-}0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00{+-}0.04 TBq for {sup 134}Cs. Activation and fission products such as {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 144}Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02{+-}0.25 and 0.20{+-}0.03 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs equal to 0.20{+-}0.04 (1987). {sup 137}Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51{+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1}. Therefore, {sup 137}Cs specific activity had increased 100{+-}40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan

  1. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR THE ZONATION PURPOSES, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Bruk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Ci/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are ten more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15 1991 “On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant”. The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: 1 the average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; 2 soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Ci/km2.The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2017. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the calculations have been

  2. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  3. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  4. 30 years After the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: Time for Reflection and Re-evaluation of Current Disaster Preparedness Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B

    2016-06-01

    It has been 30 years since the worst accident in the history of the nuclear era occurred at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine close to densely populated urban areas. To date, epidemiological studies reported increased long-term risks of leukemia, cardiovascular diseases, and cataracts among cleanup workers and of thyroid cancer and non-malignant diseases in those exposed as children and adolescents. Mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident in the three most contaminated countries of Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. Timely and clear communication with affected populations emerged as one of the main lessons in the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

  5. [Cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators under the influence of mitomycin C in vitro and folic acid in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, V I; Bagatskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    The data on cytogenetic examination concerning the offspring of the Chernobyl accident liquidators (cleanup personnel) have been obtained. It has been established that spontaneous chromosomal aberrations level before folic acid administration was 1,8 times higher than that value after its employment (4,45 to 2,42 %, p Chernobyl disaster liquidators after folic acid administration.

  6. The fallout in France of the Chernobyl accident. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences; Les retombees en France de l'accident de Tchernobyl. Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1999-07-01

    For the first time, the whole of scientific data available has been gathered and exploited thanks to the ASTRAL model, developed at the Institute of protection and nuclear safety, (IPSN). This model has allowed to explain the principal causes of land and food contamination, as well their potential consequences on the human being. This book has elaborated with the help of every organism that has made radioactivity measurements in environment and man and his feeding. The extent of information sources used in this work makes of it a reference work. It allows to estimate the impact, in France of the Chernobyl accident on each of us and to understand the transfer mechanisms of radioactivity in environment. (N.C.)

  7. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  8. RECASS source term estimation sub-system and its application for reconstruction of the source rate of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goloubenkov, A.V.; Borodin, R.V. [SPA `Typhoon`, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Sohier, A. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-09-01

    The work discusses the algorithm which is used in the RECASS for reconstruction of the dynamics of a multi-isotope source from outdoor measurements. The algorithm is based on applying projective geometry to minimise the objective. The contamination surface and/or space is divided into several domains of different area/volume and equal contamination. Squares of deviations of calculated and modelled contamination in these domains are minimised. The algorithm allows the use of some linear restrictions (non-negativity of source rate, assumption of dynamics of the source, known relative concentrations of isotopes, direct measurements in the source, etc). The algorithm also calculates the covariance matrix of the source rate. The way in which the software was applied to calculate the dynamics of the release of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 100}Ru, {sup 144}Ce for the early period of the Chernobyl accident, based on measurements of depositions, is discussed. (Author).

  9. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident. The situation of the electric utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000.

  11. Whole-body counting and dietary surveys in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Berteig, L.; Berthelsen, T.; Strand, T. (National Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, Oesteraas (Norway)); Boee, E.; Trygg, K. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Section for Dietary Research); Harbitz, O. (Norwegian Food Control Authority, Oslo (Norway))

    1989-01-01

    Doses to the Norwegian population from radiocaesium in food are estimated from whole-body counting and dietary surveys. The average effective dose equivalent during the first year after the Chernobyl accident is estimated to be between 0.12-0.25 mSv. One quarter of the dose is due to consumption of milk. For those of the population specially vulnerable (Lapps excluded), the dose is estimated to be about 1 mSv in the first year. Almost 90% of the dose is due to consumption of reindeer meat, freshwater fish and milk. The corresponding effective dose equivalent for Lapps was estimated to be between 1-3 mSv in the first year. More than 90% of the dose is due to consumption of reindeer meat. Without dietary changes the Lapps would probably have received doses 7-10 times higher. (author).

  12. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  13. Report of the US Department of Energy's team analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In an effort to better understand the Chernobyl-4 accident of April 26, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) formed a team of experts from the National Laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The DOE Team provided the analytical support to the US delegation for the August meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and to subsequent international meetings. The DOE Team has analyzed the accident in detail, assessed the plausibility and completeness of the information provided by the Soviets, and performed studies relevant to understanding the accident. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  14. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  15. First use of soil nematode communities as bioindicator of radiation impact in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, C.; Bonzom, J.M.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear safety, Radioactive waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS (France)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of former radioactive contamination on the structure of the nematode community in sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident that occurred on 26, April 1986. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). The external gamma dose rates, measured from radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPL) varied from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup -1} between sites. In parallel, the Total dose rates (TDR) absorbed by nematodes were predicted from measured soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCC, calculated by the EDEN software) and Soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). Results showed that TDR were one order of magnitude above the external gamma dose rate measured from RPL. This is mainly due to the contribution of alpha ({sup 241}Am,{sup 238,239,240}Pu) and beta ({sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs) emitters in the external dose rate. The small size (in the order of mm) of nematodes promoted a high energy deposition throughout the organisms without fading, giving more weight to external dose rate induced by alpha-and beta-emitters, relatively to gamma-emitters. Analysis of the nematode community showed a majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal- feeder nematodes and almost none of the disturbance sensitive families whatever the level of radioactive contamination. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish relationships between ecological features (nematodes abundance and family diversity, indices of ecosystem structure and function) to the environmental characteristics (TDR and soil physico-chemical properties). No evidence was found that nematode total abundance and family diversity were impaired by the radiological contamination. However, the Nematode Channel Ratio (defining the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR suggesting that the radioactive

  16. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  17. Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Shigemura, Jun; Ohira, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Takako; Akashi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Shibuya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy K

    2015-08-01

    437 nuclear power plants are in operation at present around the world to meet increasing energy demands. Unfortunately, five major nuclear accidents have occurred in the past--ie, at Kyshtym (Russia [then USSR], 1957), Windscale Piles (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Ukraine [then USSR], 1986), and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). The effects of these accidents on individuals and societies are diverse and enduring. Accumulated evidence about radiation health effects on atomic bomb survivors and other radiation-exposed people has formed the basis for national and international regulations about radiation protection. However, past experiences suggest that common issues were not necessarily physical health problems directly attributable to radiation exposure, but rather psychological and social effects. Additionally, evacuation and long-term displacement created severe health-care problems for the most vulnerable people, such as hospital inpatients and elderly people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster. Fifteen years afterwards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Anta, M A; Amor Cabrera, M A; Díaz Mier, F; Cámara Moraño, C

    2002-04-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986 released large quantities of radioactive material causing heavy contamination in widespread areas of the former Soviet Union. Each summer, several hundred children visit Spain from Chernobyl. In this article we describe the accident, the environmental contamination, the mechanisms of radiation injury and the dose-response relationships. We review the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe. We propose guidelines for the medical management and evaluation of children on temporary visits. The health status of adults and especially that of children in Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation has been adversely affected. According to present knowledge, Chernobyl has given rise to a marked increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, psychological consequences and socioeconomic disruption. Many studies report that the incidence of other diseases has increased, but not all health problems seen after the nuclear accident can be attributed to radiation. Given the long latency period for diseases induced by radiation exposure, long-term follow-up of all potentially affected individuals is important. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident the international community is still learning scientific, medical and humanitarian lessons.

  19. Effects of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents on atmospheric electricity parameters recorded at Polish observation stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Marek; Baranski, Piotr; Odzimek, Anna; Michnowski, Stanislaw; Myslek-Laurikainen, Bogna

    2013-04-01

    We analyse the atmospheric electricity parameters, measured at Polish geophysical stations in Swider, Poland, and Hornsund, Spitsbergen, in connection with the radioactive incident in Fukushima, Japan, beginning on 11 March 2011, following the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami. We compare our results with the situation during and after the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, when the radioactive fallout detected at Swider increased in the last week of April 1986, from 4.111 to 238.7 Bq/m2 and up to 967.0 Bq/m2 in the second week of May 1986 - what was more than 235 times greater than the values measured prior to that accident. Besides the electric field especially the electric conductivity is very sensitive to the radioactive contamination of the air. Thus we postulate that these two measurements should be run at geophysical stations over the world and used as a relatively simple and low-cost tool for continuous monitoring of possible hazard caused by nuclear power plant accidents.

  20. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dose reconstruction by EPR spectroscopy of tooth enamel: application to the population of Zaborie village exposed to high radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A I; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Trompier, F; Stepanenko, V F; Skvortsov, V G; Borysheva, N B; Tikunov, D D; Petin, D V

    2004-02-01

    Individual irradiation doses were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the tooth enamel of the inhabitants of Zaborie, the most contaminated inhabited settlement not evacuated after the Chernobyl accident. Dose determination was performed using a specially developed automatic spectrum processing procedure. Spectrum processing was carried out in different operating modes, and average results were taken in order to reduce the contribution of uncertainty in dose determination caused by spectrum processing. The absorbed doses determined in enamel were corrected to take into account the contribution of natural background radiation and to determine the individual excess dose due to radioactive contamination of the territory. Individual excess doses are compared to calculated individualized doses to teeth, estimated using the local radioactive contamination levels, dose rates, and information concerning individual behavior. The individual excess doses measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the calculated individualized doses are fully independent. Mean square variation between results of two methods was found to be 34 mGy, which is consistent with error estimation for both methods. This result can validate both the methodology of signal processing presented here when using electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry of tooth enamel for low doses and the methodology of individualized dose calculation.

  2. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Epidemiological and immunological studies of radiation accidents and nucleare tests participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubik, V. M.; Bronstein, I. E.; Koroleva, T.M.; Strelnicova, T.M.; Sukalskay, S. J.

    2004-07-01

    Results of long term studies of epidemiological and immunological problems after radiation accidents in Ural. At Chernobyl and nuclear weapons tests in Semi-palatinsk and Novaya Zemlya nuclear tests sites are presented. Changes in Health and immunity status of emergency team workers (liquida-tors) and participants on nuclear weapon tests were recorded in long term studies af-ter 10 and more years after radiation exposure. Some changes (decrease in ly-sozyme activity, disimmunoglobulinemia) could be attributed to the old age of exam-ined persons and concomitant cardiovasculatory, respiratory and other diseases An-other ones were related to the autoimmune syndromes. Humoral and cellular auto-immune changes were more pronounced in liquidators and participants then in controls. concentrations of antitissue antibodies in exposed cohort was three times higher than in control. Level of antibodies to thyroid antigens (microsoms and thy-roglobulines) were five times higher in liquidators of Chernobyl accident. The pos-sible role of humoral and cell autoimmune changes in the development of cardiovascular, liver, kidney and thyroid is considered. Considerable increase in some cytocine concentrations in blood of participants was found. For example increased concentration of TNF was recorded in half of par-ticipants from Novaya Zemlya in comparison to similar changes in only twenty pro-cents of controls. In half of participants from Semipalatinsk site the virus antigens in epithelium of higher respiratory tract (mostly adenoviruses) were found, with 22% in control group. In health and immunity studies of population from the contaminated areas after accidents and nuclear tests (Ural, Bryansk, Russian arktics) the demographics changes, mortality structure changes, oncological mortality and immunological deficiencies were found. The recorded effects might by considered as a results of combined effect of ra-diological and non-radiological factors. The potentiated effect of chronic

  4. Simulation of ¹³⁷Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, V; Pozzoli, L; Unal, A; Kindap, T; Karaca, M

    2014-11-15

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to (137)Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of (137)Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of (137)Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the 'Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident' and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on (137)Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2-3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m(-2) and 100 kBq m(-2). Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metrological data and risk assessment in France during the Chernobyl accident. Historical statement; Donnees metrologiques et evaluation des risques en France lors de l'accident de Tchernobyl (26 avril 1986). Mise au point historique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galle, P. [Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d' Alfort, Lab. de Physique et Chimie, 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Paulin, R. [Groupe de Recherche en Radiotoxicologie, GRT, 13 - Marseille (France); Coursaget, J. [Hopital de l' Hotel Dieu, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-08-01

    Metrological data and risk assessment in France during the Chernobyl accident. Historical statement. The authors indicate the origin of the data used by the French Public Health Authority in 1986 to estimate the risk of the radioactive fall out following the Chernobyl accident. The technical means developed in order to establish this data, and the precedent experience gained, are described. The principal results are given. The terms of the 28 May 1986 note to the Academy of Sciences by R. Latarjet, which concluded that the low level of this fallout did not justify any countermeasure, except the control of the imported food, are confirmed. Rational dispositions are required in order to improve the information of the population, referring to the Swedish model, which involves the intervention of the medical staff specialized in radio-toxicology, radio-pathology, nuclear medicine, and especially trained. To cite this article: P. Galle et al., C. R. Biologies 326 (2003). (authors)

  6. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  7. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  8. Risk Communication Strategies: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters with a Focus on the Fukushima Radiation Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001. Neither of the two strategies is perfect nor fatally flawed. Yet, this discussion and lessons from prior events should assist decision makers with navigating difficult risk communication strategies in similar environmental health disasters.

  9. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  10. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  11. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, C

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m{sup 2}. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of {sup 134,137}Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of {sup 137}Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of {sup 137}Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or

  12. Medical and health follow-up of victims of the Chernobyl accident: a Franco-Ukrainian study; Suivi medical et sanitaire de populations victimes de l'accident de Tchernobyl : presentation d'une experience Franco-Ukrainienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutet, A.; Simonet, M.L. [Association ' Les Enfants de Tchernobyl' (Ukraine); Valenty, M. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)] [and others

    1992-07-01

    A Franco-Ukrainian center, devoted to medical follow-up and epidemiological study of 7 000 children who were living in PRIPYAT during the CHERNOBYL accident, was established at the beginning of 1991. After such an accident large numbers of patients and long follow-up are necessary to draw any epidemiological conclusions. However there are important lessons to be drawn from operating experience of the Center. For example it might be felt useful to open other centers. This paper describes the experience acquired during the first 6 months. (author)

  13. [The pathomorphological characteristics of duodenal peptic ulcer in the victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station: changes in the gastric mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiareva, L V; Moroz, G Z

    1998-01-01

    Gastrobiopsies were studied from patients with duodenal ulcer, 62 of whom took part in the elimination of the effects of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant breakdown, 33 were permanent residents in the territories affected by radioactive contamination, and 36 formed the control group. Several distinguishing features were noted in chronic Helicobacter gastritis in victims of Chernobyl accident versus control, such as higher degree and activity of the inflammatory process spreading over large tissue areas, with Helicobacter pylori being recordable in the gastric mucosa in highly increased numbers, and more frequent occurrence of atrophic changes. Incorporation of radionuclides and external irradiation at dose levels exceeding 25 cause most significant disturbances in regeneration of epithelium, with its enterolyzation and dysplasia going on, which fact makes the risk of neoplastic transformations higher.

  14. Thyroid dose reconstruction for the population of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, V V; Goulko, G M; Minenko, V F; Paretzke, H G; Voigt, G; Kenigsberg YaI

    1997-02-01

    An 131I environment transfer model--adapted for Belorussian conditions--was applied to estimate thyroid doses for different population groups. For this purpose the available data were analysed and the important radioecological parameters assessed i.e. (a) the elimination rate of 131I from grass due to weathering and growth dilution, (b) the initial interception of 131I by vegetation, (c) the transfer coefficient for 131I from grass to cow's milk, (d) the yield to pasture grass and (e) the milk consumption rate. Additionally, the influence of applied countermeasures has been taken into account, such as the interruption of locally produced milk consumption, and the appropriate correction factors have been estimated. As a result, the average age-dependent thyroid doses were assessed for the Belorussian population. The highest average doses in children (> 1 Gy) have been estimated for the Bragin, Khoiniki, Narovlia and Vetka raions of the Gomel oblast. The thyroid exposure tends to decrease from the southeastern (closest to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant areas) to the northwestern part of the republic. When comparing the assessed thyroid doses with estimates derived from direct 131I activity measurements in thyroids (for the locations with more than 15 direct measurements), the results agree fairly well. The model calculation may perhaps overestimate thyroid doses of the population residing in the settlements of the central and northern parts of Belarus, distant from the areas with direct measurements of 131I activities in soil, grass and milk. These thyroid dose estimates may serve as a basis for further epidemiological studies and risk analyses.

  15. Thyroid dose reconstruction for the population of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdovitch, V.V. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Belorussian Ministry of Health, Minsk (Belarus); Goulko, G.M. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Minenko, V.F. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Belorussian Ministry of Health, Minsk (Belarus); Paretzke, H.G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Voigt, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, Y.I. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Belorussian Ministry of Health, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-02-01

    An {sup 131}I environmental transfer model - adapted for Belorussian conditions - was applied to estimate thyroid doses for different population groups. For this purpose the available data were analysed and the important radioecological parameters assessed, i.e. (a) the elimination rate of {sup 131}I from grass due to weathering and growth dilution, (b) the initial interception of {sup 131}I by vegetation, (c) the transfer coefficient for {sup 131}I from grass to cow`s milk, (d) the yield of pasture grass and (e) the milk consumption rate. Additionally, the influence of applied countermeasures has been taken into account, such as the interruption of locally produced milk consumption, and the appropriate correction factors have been estimated. As a result, the average age-dependent thyroid doses were assessed for the Belorussian population. The highest average doses in children (> 1 Gy) have been estimated for the Bragin, Khoiniki, Narovlia and Vetka raions of the Gomel oblast. The thyroid exposure tends to decrease from the southeastern (closest to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant areas) to the northwestern part of the republic. When comparing the assessed thyroid doses with dose estimates derived from direct {sup 131}I activity measurements in thyroids (for the locations with more than 15 direct measurements), the results agree fairly well. The model calculation may perhaps overestimate thyroid doses of the population residing in the settlements of the central and northern parts of Belarus, distant from the areas with direct measurements of {sup 131}I activities in soil, grass and milk. These thyroid dose estimates may serve as a basis for further epidemiological studies and risk analyses. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Field studies on the behaviour of radiocaesium in agricultural environments after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.

    1996-05-01

    This thesis deals with the occurrence of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in cultivated, semi-natural and natural agricultural areas of five Swedish counties. The investigations were carried out under field conditions 1986 to 1995 on farms where transfer to grass and milk during the first years were high. Vertical migration rate in soil profiles, the practical value of countermeasures to reduce transfer to feed and food and the impact of passing time were important aims for the study. The transfer of Cs was higher on permanent pasture than on temporary grassland and much lower to barley grain. Stubble and grass swards kept Cs available for transfer to grass. High organic matter contents in the surface soil also caused high transfer during a lag period of some years. Soil texture, grass sward, K-fertilization and growth dilution explained the variation in Cs transfer and its reduction rate. A case study on transfer of Cs to vegetation and to grazing lambs was made on a mountain farm. High transfer to vegetation was found, 510-2260 Bq/kg d.w.. Mean transfer soil to plant (TFg,m{sup 2}/kg) was 67 and plant to muscle 0.7 during 1990-1993. The effect of K-fertilization on soil-plant transfer was studied on 15 soils. A dose of 100 to 200 kg/ha K decreased the transfer on sandy soils with a factor of up to 10. Liming was effective on soils that were originally low in pH. Adding zeolite on the surface of pastures did not reduce the root uptake of Cs. Ploughing down the contaminated surface was effective in reducing the transfer. Downward migration of Cs was usually less on mineral soils than or organic or podsolized soils. 68 refs, 9 figs, 13 tabs.

  17. Simulation of {sup 137}Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, V.; Pozzoli, L.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T., E-mail: kindap@itu.edu.tr; Karaca, M.

    2014-11-15

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30 years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to {sup 137}Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of {sup 137}Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of {sup 137}Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the ‘Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident’ and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on {sup 137}Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2–3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m{sup −2} and 100 kBq m{sup −2}. Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. - Highlights: • Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

  18. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathologic findings identified during 3 rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a cohort of children and adolescents from belarus exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Nadyrov, Eldar A; Rozhko, Alexander V; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga N; McConnell, Robert J; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina V; Little, Mark P; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of children and adolescents who were exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine exhibited a significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histologic and morphologic features is not clear. A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus who were aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent 3 cycles of thyroid screening during 1997 to 2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident and from dosimetric questionnaire data. Demographic, clinical, and tumor pathologic characteristics of the patients with thyroid cancer were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, chi-square tests or Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression. In total, 158 thyroid cancers were identified as a result of screening. The majority of patients had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many positive regional lymph nodes (N1; 60.6%) but few distant metastases (M1; <1%). Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid and diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P < .01) and histologic features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P < .03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two patients with self-reported thyroid cancers which were diagnosed before 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared with patients who had screening-detected thyroid cancers (all P < .0001). I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with a significantly greater frequency of solid and diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  20. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  1. Distribution and migration of ⁹⁰Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G

    2013-11-01

    The change in (90)Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of (90)Sr concentrations were determined: in water - 4.1-24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants - 3.6-7.7 years, in molluscs - 2.4-6.7 years, and in fish - 7.8-12.9 years. The time for (90)Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32-44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25-73 years. The contribution of dose from (90)Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The psychological and psychiatric study of children living in Kaluga and Bryansk provinces, Russia (the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, I A; Pukhovskiĭ, A A; Riabukhin, V Iu

    1995-01-01

    According to WHO project "Brain Damage in Utero" in the framework of the screening phase of the programme, 1025 children (725 in experimental group-Novozybkov and Klintsy towns of Bryansk region; 300 in control group--Obninsk town of Kaluga region) and 600 parents (300 in experimental group and 300 in control group) were studied using standardized methods of psychological psychiatric assessment (Draw-a-man test, British picture vocabulary test, Raven coloured matrices, Parental and teacher Rutter Scales, CHQ-28, Verbal subtest of Wechsler test) for potential psychological and psychiatric effects of Chernobyl accident on child's intelligence, behavioural and emotional state, mental health of parents and parental intellectual level. The following results were obtained: comparison of verbal IQ scores in children revealed a 6-fold increase of these values in experiment group. Comparison of nonverbal IQ scores in children revealed that these values are 4 times higher in experimental group. Comparison of scores according to Rutter parental and teacher scales revealed that emotional and behavioural disorders are 1.5 times more prevalent in children of experimental group. All the above differences were statistically significant. Comparison of CHQ-28 scores was indicative of relative prevalence of these values in parents of experimental group, but there was no statistically significant difference between such score in experimental and control groups. Comparison of scores of parental IQ showed relative prevalence of these values in experimental group. The results obtained can not be completely estimated without thorough identification of individual doses received by mothers and their children. Only after obtaining these data it will be possible to solve the problem of dose effect.

  3. Pre- and post-Chernobyl accident levels of 129I and 137Cs in the Southern Baltic Sea by brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Enamorado-Báez, S M; Abril, J A; Pinto-Gómez, A R; López-Gutiérrez, J M; García-León, M

    2013-01-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T(1/2) = 15.7 × 10(6) years) that is present in the environment both because of natural and anthropogenic sources. In this work (129)I concentration and (129)I/(127)I ratio have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus collected in the Southern Baltic Sea during 1982 and 1986 (post-Chernobyl accident). The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations, (129)I/(127)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (0.82-5.89) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1982 and (1.33-38.83) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1986. The (129)I/(127)I ratios ranged from (22.7-87.8) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1982 and from (26.1-305.5) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1986. Also a linear relationship was established for (127)I concentrations in seawater and salinity in this area, enabling the estimation of concentration factors for (127)I in F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(127)I in the Kattegat and their gradually decreasing trend to the Baltic Sea indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in the Baltic Sea area comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. With respect to Chernobyl accident, (129)I concentrations in samples collected in 1986 were not much higher than those expected in less contaminated samples from 1982. This supports the view that the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to (129)I in the Baltic region was not significant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecological and toxicological aspects of the partial meltdown of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ronald; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    the partial meltdown of the 1000-MW reactor at Chernobyl, Ukraine, on April 26, 1986, released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, causing widespread radioactive contamination of Europe and the former Soviet Union.1-7 At least 3,000,000 trillion becquerels (TBq) were released from the fuel during the accident (Table 24.1), dwarfing, by orders of magnitude, radiation released from other highly publicized reactor accidents at Windscale (U.K.) and three-Mile Island (U.S.)3,8 The Chernobyl accident happened while a test was being conducted during a normal scheduled shutdown and is attributed mainly to human error.3

  5. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  6. Long-term therapy for polymorphic mental disorders in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krasnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a long-term comparative therapeutic study of a large cohort of more than 500 liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The patients were followed up (and periodically treated at hospital 5 years or more, usually 10—15 years. The study confirmed mainly the cerebrovascular nature of disorders following the pattern seen in moderate psychoorganic syndrome. Therapy with cerebroprotective agents having vascular vegetotropic properties could yield certain therapeutic results and, to some extent, preserve social functioning capacity in these patients.

  7. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  8. [Clinico-morphological peculiarities of thyroid cancer among children exposed to the Chernobyl disaster radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, I N; Shishkov, R V; Poliakov, V G; Pankova, P A

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with a comparison of clinico-morphological patterns of sporadic thyroid cancer and that in pediatric patients exposed to radiation during the Chernobyl disaster. The latter are highly prone to both local and regional metastatic spread to the lymph nodes (intrathyroid distribution--61%; extension through capsule--42%, and metastases to the neck lymph nodes--66%). However, these data do not differ significantly from those for intact areas. Yet, cancer occurs in exposed cohorts at an earlier stage: its incidence at age 4-6 is 2-3.5 higher and that of relapse such as presentation of latent metastases to the lymph nodes and tumor foci development in residual tumor tissue is 1.6 times the average. Also, morphological patterns have changed: typical papillary cancer incidence has dropped by half while the diffuse follicular variety has grown 1.8-fold.

  9. On the RET Rearrangements in Chernobyl-Related Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus that Chernobyl accident has induced thyroid cancer increase in children and adolescents. The UNSCEAR report concluded that no somatic disorders other than thyroid cancer were caused by radiation exposure due to the accident except for acute radiation sickness occurred to the people within the Power Plant at the time of the accident. A hypothesis is discussed in this paper that the increase of thyroid cancer was caused predominantly by the screening, overdiagnosis, and registration of nonirradiated persons as Chernobyl victims. A mechanism of thyroid cancer overdiagnosis is described that can be active even today, causing hypertherapy. Older neglected tumors found by the screening shortly after the Chernobyl accident or brought from noncontaminated areas were misclassified as aggressive radiation-induced cancers. Therefore, supposed markers of the radiation-induced thyroid cancer, such as the RET rearrangements, are probably associated with disease duration and tumor progression. The screening effect is obviously dependent on the basis level of medical surveillance: the higher the level, the smaller the screening effect. Absence of any significant increase of thyroid cancer after the Fukushima accident in spite of the vigorous screening would certify the high level of health care in Japan especially for children.

  10. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan.

  11. The impact of Chernobyl on health and labour market performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  13. [The radioecology of the grapevine. 2. Effects of the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl on the radioactivity in the soil, leaves, grapes and wine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Diehl, J F

    1991-04-01

    Natural (tritium, 14C, 40K, 226Ra) and man-made radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs, 137Cs) were determined in soil (top 30 cm), vine leaves, grapes and wine in eight locations of the most important viticultural regions in the Federal Republic of Germany. The results obtained in 1983-1985 have been published previously. Part II of this study presents results obtained in 1986 and 1987, i.e. after the reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Soviet Union. The mean content of 137Cs before (after) Chernobyl was 4 (9) Bq/kg dry matter in soil, 0.07 (3) Bq/kg fresh matter in leaves, 0.02 (0.4) Bq/kg in grapes, and 0.008 (0.9) Bq/L in wine. As compared with 1986, distinctly lower levels were found in leaves, grapes and wine in 1987. In 1986 the content of 134Cs was about half that of 137Cs. Owing to its shorter half-life, 134Cs was below the detection limit in many of the 1987 samples. Transfer factors such as from soil to leaves and from soil to grapes for caesium agreed well in 1983-1985 and 1987, but showed considerable deviations in 1986, due to the ubiquitous contamination of the environment. Results of 90Sr determinations confirmed other reports showing this radionuclide to be a very minor contributor to the total radioactivity released at Chernobyl. No effect of the reactor accident on levels of the other radionuclides was detected.

  14. Seeds in Chernobyl: the database on proteome response on radioactive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Vesel, Martin; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Two serious nuclear accidents during the last quarter century (Chernobyl, 1986 and Fukushima, 2011) contaminated large agricultural areas with radioactivity. The database "Seeds in Chernobyl" (http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk) contains the information about the abundances of hundreds of proteins from on-going investigation of mature and developing seed harvested from plants grown in radioactive Chernobyl area. This database provides a useful source of information concerning the response of the seed proteome to permanently increased level of ionizing radiation in a user-friendly format.

  15. Spatial variability of the dose rate from (137)Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, C; Rääf, C L; Mattsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10ths of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  17. [The radiological situation before and after Chernobyl disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoniak, Marcin; Zonenberg, Anna; Zarzycki, Wiesław

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear reactor accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl, has been one of the greatest ecological disasters in human history. In our study we discussed the most recent data on the accident, and the natural and synthetic sources of radiation. According to the recent data, the air at Chernobyl had been contaminated with about 5300 PBq radionuclide activity (excluding rare gases), including 1760 PBq (131)I and 85 PBq (137)Cs. The highest radiation received by the liquidators (0.8-16 Gy), lower doses were received by the population which was evacuated or inhabited the contaminated areas (in which the level of (137)Cs activity deposited in the earth was 37 kBq/m(2)). In the European countries the highest mean radiation dose per year for the whole body in the first year after the accident was in Bulgaria (760 microSv), Austria (670 microSv) and Greece (590 microSv), while the lowest radiation dose was observed in Portugal (1.8 microSv) and Spain (4.2 microSv). In Poland the mean effective equivalent dose resulting from Chernobyl accident was 932 microSv and is close to the limited dose permitted in Poland, equalling 1 mSv/year. The highest radiation dose to thyroid was received by inhabitants of the states previously known as Bielskopodlaskie, Nowosadeckie and the north-east region of Poland. Lowest dose was received by inhabitants of the areas previously known as Slupski and Rzeszowski.

  18. Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Polo L, M. A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)

  19. Influence of various factors on individual radiation exposure from the chernobyl disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar Alexandra

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was one of the greatest known nuclear disasters of the 20th century. To reduce individual exposure to ionizing radiation the Soviet Union government introduced a number of counter-measures. This article presents a description of how historical events conspired to disrupt these efforts and affect residents in exposed areas. Methods This study employed an extensive review of data on radionuclide deposition, contamination patterns and lifestyle characteristics. Data were obtained from the Ukraine Ministry of Health and the Ukraine Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Results Data are presented on annual contamination rates in selected locales as well as data on local food consumption patterns. Historical factors including economic and political circumstances are also highlighted. Results show the diminution of individual doses between 1987 and 1991 and then an increase between 1991 and 1994 and the relationship between this increase and changes in the lifestyle of the local population. Conclusion A number of factors played direct and indirect roles in contributing to the populace's cumulative radiation exposure. Future post-contamination studies need to consider these factors when estimating individual exposures.

  20. Influence of various factors on individual radiation exposure from the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamostian, Pavlo; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mahoney, Martin C; McCarthy, Philip; Bondar, Alexandra; Noschenko, Andrey G; Michalek, Arthur M

    2002-10-29

    The explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was one of the greatest known nuclear disasters of the 20th century. To reduce individual exposure to ionizing radiation the Soviet Union government introduced a number of counter-measures. This article presents a description of how historical events conspired to disrupt these efforts and affect residents in exposed areas. This study employed an extensive review of data on radionuclide deposition, contamination patterns and lifestyle characteristics. Data were obtained from the Ukraine Ministry of Health and the Ukraine Research Center for Radiation Medicine. Data are presented on annual contamination rates in selected locales as well as data on local food consumption patterns. Historical factors including economic and political circumstances are also highlighted. Results show the diminution of individual doses between 1987 and 1991 and then an increase between 1991 and 1994 and the relationship between this increase and changes in the lifestyle of the local population. A number of factors played direct and indirect roles in contributing to the populace's cumulative radiation exposure. Future post-contamination studies need to consider these factors when estimating individual exposures.

  1. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Swierniak, Michal; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Unger, Kristian; Detours, Vincent; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Thomas, Geraldine; Likhtarov, Ilya; Jaksik, Roman; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Chmielik, Ewa; Jarzab, Michal; Swierniak, Andrzej; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure.

  2. [Somatic mutagenesis at T-cell receptor locus in inhabitants of radiation polluted regions as a result of the Chernobyl disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamulaeva, I A; Smirnova, S G; Orlova, N V; Vereshchagina, O A; Chekin, S Iu; Smirnova, I A; Krikunova, L I; Parshin, V S; Ivanov, V K; Saenko, A S

    2006-01-01

    In the period of 2001-2004, frequency of cells bearing mutations at T-cell receptor (TCR) locus was assessed in 553 inhabitants of radiation polluted regions of the Russian Federation and 154 unexposed control persons. The inhabitants were divided into three groups according to age at the moment of the Chernobyl disaster and 137Cs pollution density: 1) in utero, 37-555 kBq/m2; 2) 0-14 years old, 20-555 kBq/m2; 3) 18 and more years old, highest 137Cs density (185 more than 555 kBq/m2). The most intense changes of the TCR-mutant cell frequency were observed in the group of persons exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The mean frequency of the mutant cells was higher in the first group than in age-matched control group by about 1.5-fold: 4.0 x 10(-4) vs 2.7 x 10(-4) accordingly (p Chernobyl accident). The changes of the TCR-mutant cell frequency in persons exposed in pre- and postnatal periods differ not only quantitatively, but qualitatively. In the fist case all persons react to irradiation by increasing number of the TCR-mutant cells in some degree. In the second case - only a part of population. Proportion of reacting persons depends on age at the start of irradiation and, perhaps, on dose absorbed. The TCR-mutant frequency was significantly higher in persons with benign tumors of different localizations and nodules in thyroid gland than in persons without this pathology.

  3. Analysis of the results of environmental monitoring in Spain after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents; Analisis de los resultados de la vigilancia radiologica ambiental en Espana tras los accidentes de Chernobil y Fukusima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Salas Collantes, R.; Rey del castillo, C.; Marugar tovar, I.; Sterling carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L.; Lorente Lorente, P.

    2013-07-01

    As a result of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plants, CSN launched special surveillance devices to monitor radioactive contamination through the values provided by the various networks and environmental monitoring programs. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the results corresponding to the exposure pathways and matrices in which contamination is detected. (Author)

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Flax Seeds from the Chernobyl Area Suggests Involvement of Stress, Signaling, and Transcription/Translation in Response to Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) on April 26, 1986 is the most serious nuclear disaster in human history. However, while the area proximal to the CNPP remains substantially contaminated with long-lived radioisotopes including 90Sr and 137Cs, the local ecosystem has been able...

  5. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  6. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  7. Veterinary aspects on the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and the effects of the accident on the Swedish animal husbandry; Veterinaermedicinska aspekter paa kaernkraftsolyckan i Tjernobyl och dess effekter paa svensk animalieproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnermark, K.E.

    1994-12-31

    After the Chernobyl accident, compensation has been paid to swedish farmers where it has not been possible to put animals to pasture at normal time, for rehabilitation feed and replacement of contaminated feed, loss of grass crop due to extraordinary measures, use of supplementary potassium fertilizers, slaughter of contaminated animals etc. Compensation has been paid to reindeer owners for condemned reindeer meat, transport of animals to pastures less contaminated by cesium, premature slaughter etc. Two working committees at the National Board of Agriculture have prepared advice, recommendations, rules for compensation etc for the agricultural and horticultural sectors as well as for reindeer owners. The county agricultural boards in the counties affected have devoted a great deal of effort to the preparation of information campaigns, advice and recommendations and the handling of compensations to the businesses concerned. Compensation payments between April 86 and March 87 was approx 138 MSEK for the agricultural and horticultural sectors, and 92 MSEK for reindeer owners. Extensive sampling and analysis procedures have also been carried out. The Chernobyl accident caused an extra workload for the National Board of Agriculture of 45 man-years during the period April 86 and March 87. 7 refs. 7 figs.

  8. Nuclear Security Summit and Workshop 2015: Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    to elevated mutation rates, reduced fertility and longevity, increased rates of developmental abnormalities and tumors, reduced biodiversity and...studied the impacts of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl disaster on natural populations of birds, insects, plants and microbes , with more than 80

  9. Processing and analysis of commercial satellite image data of the nuclear accident near Chernobyl, U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Franklin G.; Covington, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced digital processing techniques were applied to Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data and SPOT highresolution visible (HRV) panchromatic data to maximize the utility of images of a nuclear powerplant emergency at Chernobyl in the Soviet Ukraine. The images demonstrate the unique interpretive capabilities provided by the numerous spectral bands of the Thematic Mapper and the high spatial resolution of the SPOT HRV sensor.

  10. Total cancer incidence in relation to 137Cs fallout in the most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Wålinder, Robert; Vingård, Eva; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-20

    To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of (137)Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual (137)Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986-1990), from which 5-year cumulative (137)Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of (137)Cs and changing residencies. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence. The 734 537 people identified were categorised by exposure: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0-45.4 kBq/m(2)), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41-118.8 kBq/m(2)), and the fourth quartile was the highest exposure (118.81-564.71 kBq/m(2)). Between 1991 and 2010, 82 495 cancer cases were registered in the 3 counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure compared to the reference exposure. We found a small overall exposure-response pattern of the total cancer incidence related to (137)Cs after adjustment for age, sex, rural residence and pre-Chernobyl cancer incidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palo, Thomas R. [Mid-Sweden University, Department of Natural Sciences, Holmgatan 10, 85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)]. E-mail: thomas.palo@miun.se

    2007-07-01

    Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found.

  12. Study of a ;hot; particle with a matrix of U-bearing metallic Zr: Clue to supercriticality during the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöml, P.; Burakov, B.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the severe nuclear accident that occurred at the Chernobyl NPP on 26 April 1986. A detailed study on a Chernobyl ;hot; particle collected from contaminated soil was performed. Optical and electron microscopy, as well as quantitative x-ray microbeam analysis methods were used to determine the properties of the sample. The results show that the particle (≈ 240 x 165 μm) consists of a metallic Zr matrix containing 2-3 wt. % U and bearing veins of an U,Nb admixture. The metallic Zr matrix contains two phases with different amounts of O with the atomic proportions (U,Zr,Nb)0.73O0.27 and (U,Zr,Nb)0.61O0.39. The results confirm the interaction between UO2 fuel and zircaloy cladding in the reactor core. To explain the process of formation of the particle, its properties are compared to laboratory experiments. Because of the metallic nature of the particle it is concluded that it must have formed during a very high temperature (> 2400∘C) process that lasted for only a very short time (few microseconds or less); otherwise the particle should have been oxidised. Such a rapid very high temperature process indicates that at least part of the reactor core could have been supercritical prior to an explosion as it was previously suggested in the literature.

  13. Development, control and counter-measures regarding radioactive caesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident; Utveckling, oevervakning och aatgaerder naer det gaeller radioaktivt cesium i renar efter Tjernobylolyckan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, Birgitta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Reindeer Husbandry Unit

    2005-10-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer has been made at slaughter, by measuring muscle samples or by direct monitoring of gamma radiation on reindeer carcasses. Carcasses above the accepted limit have been discarded. Many carcasses were discarded during the first years, but now the number is only some per cent of the total slaughter. The radiocaesium intake in reindeer varies with season, which is reflected in the levels in reindeer, which are low in summer and high in winter. The levels of {sup 137}Cs have declined from 1986 to 2004 with an average effective half-life of 5.3 years. The decline was faster during the first years than during later years. Presently, 16 out of totally 51 reindeer herding districts in Sweden are included in the control of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer. Control is often necessary only in defined areas or at certain periods of the year. Monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in live reindeer is made in addition to the monitoring at slaughter. Counter-measures have been applied in areas where many reindeer are above the accepted limit for {sup 137}Cs. Change of slaughter time and feeding are the most used counter-measures. The reindeer owners are compensated economically from the state for costs related to these counter-measures. The need for measures, and thereby the costs, have decreased with time. In the southern parts of the county of Vaesterbotten and in the northernmost part of Jaemtland, where the Chernobyl fallout was the highest, it will probably still take at least ten to twenty years until measures and control are no longer needed.

  14. Chernobyl silences; Les silences de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandazzi, G.; Lemarchand, F

    2006-07-01

    20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, this book presents the sanitary and ecological actuality of the accident, with direct testimonies translated from russian. It is also a reflexion of women and political men, scientists, philosophers and artists on the changes induced by Chernobyl on the information dissemination and the future of the accident. (A.L.B.)

  15. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  16. Measurement of 129 I and 137 Cs in soils from Belarus and reconstruction of 131I deposition from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Marchetti, A A; Voigt, G; Minenko, V; Gu, F; Men, P; Trofimik, S; Tretyakevich, S; Drozdovitch, V; Shagalova, E; Zhukova, O; Germenchuk, M; Berlovich, S

    2006-07-01

    I and Cs have been measured in a large number of soil samples collected throughout the country of Belarus to support efforts for thyroid-dose reconstruction following the Chernobyl accident. Samples of soil consisting of multiple 30-cm-deep cores per site were sampled following a selection process to ensure sites were undisturbed and representative. Samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for I, gamma spectrometry for Cs, and gas chromatography (GC) for total iodine. Results show that both I and Cs are retained firmly in the top approximately 15 to 20 cm of the soil. Our results also suggest that the correlation between I and Cs deposition across the country of Belarus is poor; hence, I is a better surrogate for I than is Cs. It was also noted that total iodine concentrations in topsoil from Belarus are low compared with other regions of the world where radiogenic thyroid cancer has been studied.

  17. The Chernobyl accident as an example of how environmental burden may lead to persistent mental stress. Final report. Laengerfristige psychische Folgen von Umweltbelastungen: Das Beispiel Tschernobyl. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legewie, H.; Boehm, A.; Boehnke, K.; Faas, A.; Gross, B.; Jaeggi, E.

    1990-01-01

    It was the aim of this qualitative analysis to give an account, as detailed and complete as possible, of time-dependent mental reactions to ecological afflictions through the Chernobyl accident as well as to describe reaction and compensation patterns typical for such challenges and to develop preliminary theories to explain the phenomena observed. These efforts make a contribution to basic research in that they pave the way to innovative methods and fields of knowledge that may be of equal relevance to environmental psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology and socioscientific technology. They make a contribution to field research in that the findings revealed elucidate generally held views about the toll of technocracy and environmental destruction. The results appear to be just as relevant to health and environmental counselling, environmental education and environment-oriented editorial work as they are to political decisions concerning future technologies. (orig.).

  18. PARAMETERS OF THE DIETARY PATTERN AND BEHAVIOR OF THE BRYANSK REGION INHABITANTS IN MAY 1986, INFLUENCING THE EVALUATION OF THE DOSE RECEIVED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zvonova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the poll on the lifestyle and nutrition of the population of the most contaminated areas of the Bryansk and Tula regions during the initial period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant are presented in the article. The poll was held at the beginning of 1987. Mean values of numeric factors were derived form the results of processing of questionnaires received from 8500 persons, namely: value of milk daily consumption depending on the age and place of residence, the date of the dairy cattle grazing starting, time of milk consumption termination in May 1986, time spent by the person outdoors and in the dwelling, data on the leaving of the contaminated territory. Obtained information is used for the clarification of models for the internal and external exposure dose calculation and for personalization of the dose estimations for the individual inhabitants.

  19. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of

  20. Origin of a signal detected with the LSD detector after the accident at the chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N. Yu.; Malgin, A. S.; Fulgione, W.

    2013-08-01

    A rare signal was detected at 23:53 Moscow time on April 27, 1986 with the LSD low-background scintillation detector located under Mont Blanc at a distance of 1820 km from Chernobyl. To reveal the origin of this signal, we discuss the results obtained with other instruments operating within a similar program, as well as analyze the characteristics of the pulses of the signal and facts referring to the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. A hypothesis based on detection with the LSD of gamma-quanta from β decays of 135I nuclei ejected into atmosphere by the reactor explosion and carried in the underground detector camera with air of positive ventilation is considered. The explosion origin of the LSD signal indicates a new technogenic source of the background in the search for neutrino bursts from cores of collapsing stars.

  1. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  2. Legally-induced abortions in Denmark after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, L.B. (National Health Service, Copenhagen (DK))

    1991-01-01

    During the months following the accident in Chernobyl, Denmark experienced an increasing rate of induced abortion, especially in regions with the largest measured increase in radiation. As the increase in radiation in Denmark was so low that almost no increased risk of birth defects was expected, the public debate and anxiety among the pregnant women and their husbands caused more fetal deaths in Denmark than the accident. This underlines the importance of public debate, the role of the mass media and of the way in which National Health authorities participate in this debate.

  3. Exploring the Link between Radiation Exposure and Multifocal Basal Cell Carcinomas in a Former Chernobyl Clean-up Worker by Combining Different Molecular Biological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Benjamin V; Richter, Claus; Ullmann, Reinhard; Beinke, Christina; Majewski, Matthäus; Exner, Viktoria; Weisel, Guido; Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Thirty years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident we report on a patient who was a clean-up worker, who subsequently developed multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). We used several methods to assess the biological long-term effects related to low-dose external and internal radiation exposure. Specifically, because BCC risk may be increased with ionizing radiation exposure, we endeavored to determine whether the multifocal BCCs were related to the patient's past clean-up work. We assessed cytogenetic changes using peripheral blood, and internal incorporation was measured with a whole-body counter. Gene expression alterations were determined and array-based comparative genomic hybridization was performed for copy number aberration analysis of available BCC samples. In 1,053 metaphase cells, the dicentric yield of 0.005 dicentrics, with acentrics/cell, was significantly increased compared to the established calibration curve (P contamination was detected with the whole-body counter. At the RNA level, two of seven genes (HNRNPA1, AGAP4/6/8) indicated internal plutonium exposure associated with the lowest dose category found in Mayak workers (>0-0.055 Gy). Relevant DNA copy number changes were only detected within the most aggressive BCC focus. Our results suggest that the examined worker had low and more recent radiation exposure with presumably internalized radionuclides that were below the detection level of a whole-body counter. The multifocal BCC could not be related to past occupational radiation exposure. The findings from our study suggest that integrating different methodologies potentially provides an improved overall assessment of individual health risks associated with or excluding occupational radiation exposure.

  4. Leukemia incidence in the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V K; Tsyb, A F; Khait, S E; Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A

    2012-05-01

    Of all potentially radiogenic cancers, leukemia, a type of cancer of the blood, has the highest risk attributable to ionizing radiation. Despite this, the quantitative estimation of radiation risk of a leukemia demands studying very large exposed cohorts, because of the very low level of this disease in unexposed populations and because of the tendency for its radiation risk to decrease with time. At present, the Japanese cohort of atomic bomb survivors is still the primary source of data that allows analysis of radiation-induced leukemia and the underlying dose-response relationship. The second large cohort that would allow to study radiation-induced leukemia is comprised of individuals who were exposed due to the accident of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The objective of the present study was to estimate radiation risks of leukemia incidence among the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers, for different time periods after the accident. Twenty-five years after the Chernobyl accident and based on the results of the present study, one can conclude that the radiation risk of leukemia incidence derived from the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers is similar to that derived from the cohort of atomic bomb survivors: The time-averaged excess relative risk per Gray (ERR Gy(-1)) equals 4.98 for the Russian cohort and 3.9 for the life span study (LSS) cohort; excess absolute risk decreases with time after exposure at an annual rate of 9% for the Russian cohort, and of 6.5% for the LSS cohort. Thus, the excess in risk of leukemia incidence in a population due to a single exposure is restricted in time after exposure by the period of about 15 years.

  5. Leukemia incidence in the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.; Khait, S.E.; Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A. [Federal State Institution Medical Radiological Research Center of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Of all potentially radiogenic cancers, leukemia, a type of cancer of the blood, has the highest risk attributable to ionizing radiation. Despite this, the quantitative estimation of radiation risk of a leukemia demands studying very large exposed cohorts, because of the very low level of this disease in unexposed populations and because of the tendency for its radiation risk to decrease with time. At present, the Japanese cohort of atomic bomb survivors is still the primary source of data that allows analysis of radiation-induced leukemia and the underlying dose-response relationship. The second large cohort that would allow to study radiation-induced leukemia is comprised of individuals who were exposed due to the accident of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The objective of the present study was to estimate radiation risks of leukemia incidence among the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers, for different time periods after the accident. Twenty-five years after the Chernobyl accident and based on the results of the present study, one can conclude that the radiation risk of leukemia incidence derived from the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers is similar to that derived from the cohort of atomic bomb survivors: The time-averaged excess relative risk per Gray (ERR Gy{sup -1}) equals 4.98 for the Russian cohort and 3.9 for the life span study (LSS) cohort; excess absolute risk decreases with time after exposure at an annual rate of 9% for the Russian cohort, and of 6.5% for the LSS cohort. Thus, the excess in risk of leukemia incidence in a population due to a single exposure is restricted in time after exposure by the period of about 15 years. (orig.)

  6. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A B; Mohanan, Sandeep; Damodaran, Deepak; Soneja, Manish; Jain, Neetu; Mohan, Anant; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Sood, Rita

    2012-10-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi, India, on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents.

  7. Lessons learned from post-accident management at Chernobyl: the P.a.r.e.x. project; Retour d'experience sur la gestion post-accidentelle de Tchernobyl: le projet Parex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis Consultants, 75 - Paris (France); Lochard, J.; Bataille, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Ollagnon, H. [AgroParisTech, 75 - Paris (France); Baude, St. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-15

    Return of experience on Chernobyl post-accident management: the PAREX study Belarus is the country the most affected by the Chernobyl fallouts and is among the most significant experiences in the nuclear post-accident field. Despite specificities inherent to the political and social situation in Belarus, the experience of post-accidental management in this country holds a wealth of lessons in the perspective of preparation to a post-accidental situation in the French and European context. Through the PAREX project (2005-2006), the French Nuclear Safety Authority analysed the return of experience of Chernobyl post-accident management from 1986 to 2005 in order to draw its lessons in the perspective of a preparation policy. The study was led by a group of experts and involved the participation of a pluralistic group of about thirty participants (public authorities, local governments, NGOs, experts, operators). PAREX highlighted the complexity of a situation of long-lasting radioactive contamination (diversity of stakeholders and of dimensions at stake: health, environment, economy, society...). Beyond traditional public crisis management tools and frameworks, post-accident strategies also involves in the longer term a territorial and social response, which relies on local capacities of initiative. Preparation to such process requires experimenting new modes of operation that allow a diversity of local actors to take part to the response to a situation of contamination and to the surveillance system, with the support of public authorities. The conclusions of PAREX include a set of recommendations in this perspective. (authors)

  8. EFFICIENCY OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE INTERNAL DOSE FROM CAESIUM RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AREA IN THE FIRST YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we use the data on the content of caesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and in Bryansk region adult inhabitant’s body, on their food ration and its changes during the first years after the Chernobyl accident, and on the measures to protect the population from internal exposure. We calculate dynamics of 137Cs intake in the body and its contents therein, while maintaining a traditional diet and while replacing food products for radiationfree ones. The results show that the actual 137Cs content in the body is usually below the one calculated on the basis of the food ration. It was found out that individual 137Cs contents in the body correlate with the rate of meat, dairy and natural food products consumption and with factors of protection from internal exposure. The efficiency of the protective measures to reduce the intake and the content of caesium radionuclides in the body of inhabitants, as well as the average effective dose in the first years after the accident has been quantitatively assessed.

  9. [EVALUATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS OF LIFE AS A CRITERION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT FOR LIQUIDATORS OF THE ACCIDENT AT CHERNOBYL AEROSPHORUS, PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION DISEASE COMORBID WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synelnik, V; Oparin, A

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of life of liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CHPP) of patients with hypertensive comorbid disease with gastroesophageal reflux disease, 52 patients aged 46 to 71 years (mean age 57.5±0, 8 years old) who were on inpatient treatment in the therapeutic department of the Regional Clinical Specialized Dispensary for Radiation Protection of the Population of Kharkov from January 2016 to December 2016. The men among the examined were 44 (84.6%), women - 8 (15.4 All patients were divided into 2 groups, Group I patients received standard therapy, Group II patients, in addition to standard therapy, respectively nosology, received additionally the drug Actovegin ® Takeda Austria GmbH. All quality of life indicators were evaluated before the treatment and after In group I patients, after the standard treatment of GB comorbid with GERD, statistically significantly reduced the limitations on the scale of body pain (BP), therefore, in points, on the contrary, to 18.8±2.8 points increased, indicating a decrease in pain after treatment In patients. In patients with group II GB comorbid with GERD after standard treatment with additional use of Actovegin ®, the daily activity limitations associated with the disease on the scales of physical functioning (PF), role activity (RP), physical pain (BP), Vitality (VT), emotional state (RE).

  10. Radiation Doses and Associated Risk From the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    The magnitude of dose due to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident was estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2013 report published in April 2014. Following this, the UNSCEAR white paper, which comprises a digest of new information for the 2013 Fukushima report, was published in October 2015. Another comprehensive report on radiation dose due to the accident is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident published in August 2015. Although the UNSCEAR and IAEA publications well summarize doses received by residents, they review only literature published before the end of December 2014 and the end of March 2015, respectively. However, some studies on dose estimation have been published since then. In addition, the UNSCEAR 2013 report states it was likely that some overestimation had been introduced generally by the methodology used by the Committee. For example, effects of decontamination were not considered in the lifetime external dose estimated. Decontamination is in progress for most living areas in Fukushima Prefecture, which could reduce long-term external dose to residents. This article mainly reviews recent English language articles that may add new information to the UNSCEAR and IAEA publications. Generally, recent articles suggest lower doses than those presented by the UNSCEAR 2013 report.

  11. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  12. Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A

    2013-04-01

    Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological

  13. Simulations of the transport and deposition of 137Cs over Europe after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: influence of varying emission-altitude and model horizontal and vertical resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Møller, A. P.

    2013-07-01

    The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer 137Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5° × 1.27°, and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66° × 0.51°. The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for 137Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for

  14. Simulations of the transport and deposition of {sup 137}Cs over Europe after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Influence of varying emission-altitude and model horizontal and vertical resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A. [Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, Gif sur Yvette (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Moeller, A.P. [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Lab. d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution

    2013-07-01

    The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer {sup 137}Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5 x 1.27 , and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66 x 0.51 . The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for {sup 137}Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained

  15. Chernobyl plume: commentary about a discharge; Nuage de Chernobyl: commentaires sur un non-lieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-07-15

    The Paris appeal court has dismissed the charges against P. Pellerin who was the head of the SCIRP (service of protection against the ionizing radiations) at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The appeal court confirms that P.Pellerin never said that the Chernobyl plume stopped at the French border but instead he said that the Chernobyl plume entered the French territory but the radioactivity level was so low that it was unnecessary to take sanitary steps. P.Pellerin based his decision on the results of 6500 controls performed by the SCIRP in May and June 1986. Seven other European countries recommended not to take sanitary measures. The increase of thyroid cancers that has happened in all industrialized countries and that affect only adults, can not due to Chernobyl contamination because child's thyroid is far more sensitive than adult's. The increase of thyroid cancer is mainly due to a better detection of the tumors. (A.C.)

  16. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  17. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Main achievements, problems and the ways of resolving them for internal thyroid dose reconstruction as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilin, Y.; Khrouch, V.; Shinkarev, S. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Biophysics

    1996-12-31

    It has been described the results of thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of the Republic of Belarus. 1. About 130,000 individual thyroid dose estimates for inhabitants from 900 settlements have been done on the basis of the measurements of human thyroidal {sup 131}I content. 2. As a result of passportization of above mentioned 900 settlements it is possible to estimate individual thyroid doses additionally for 160,000 rural residents and 2,500,000 urban residents from cities: Minsk, Gomel, Mogilev, and Mozyr. 3. On the basis of the relationship obtained between the arithmetic mean thyroid dose for adults and the radionuclide deposition density in settlements the method has been developed to estimate thyroid doses for any inhabitant of the Republic if there is the data of radionuclide deposition density. 4. It has been considered the main thesis of the developed semiempirical model for thyroid dose formation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In the simplest way it has been formulated. 5. The main approaches to get the most adequate individual thyroid dose estimated according to variants 2 and 3, including approaches with using data of deposition density of {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs have been formulated. 6. It has been presented the results of assessment (according to the model accepted by UNSCEAR) of additional number of the cancer cases among the population of the Republic of Belarus versus the observed number of the cancer cases. (J.P.N.)

  19. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  20. Impact of uncertainties in exposure assessment on estimates of thyroid cancer risk among Ukrainian children and adolescents exposed from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark P; Kukush, Alexander G; Masiuk, Sergii V; Shklyar, Sergiy; Carroll, Raymond J; Lubin, Jay H; Kwon, Deukwoo; Brenner, Alina V; Tronko, Mykola D; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana I; Hatch, Maureen; Zablotska, Lydia B; Tereshchenko, Valeriy P; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André C; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chepurny, Mykola I; Kovgan, Lina N; Simon, Steven L; Shpak, Victor M; Likhtarev, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains the most serious nuclear accident in history, and excess thyroid cancers, particularly among those exposed to releases of iodine-131 remain the best-documented sequelae. Failure to take dose-measurement error into account can lead to bias in assessments of dose-response slope. Although risks in the Ukrainian-US thyroid screening study have been previously evaluated, errors in dose assessments have not been addressed hitherto. Dose-response patterns were examined in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 13,127 persons aged thyroid activity to thyroid mass. The two components that make up this ratio have different types of error, Berkson error for thyroid mass and classical error for thyroid activity. The first regression-calibration method yielded estimates of excess odds ratio of 5.78 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.92, 27.04), about 7% higher than estimates unadjusted for dose error. The second regression-calibration method gave an excess odds ratio of 4.78 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.64, 19.69), about 11% lower than unadjusted analysis. The Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood method produced an excess odds ratio of 4.93 Gy(-1) (95% CI 1.67, 19.90), about 8% lower than unadjusted analysis. There are borderline-significant (p = 0.101-0.112) indications of downward curvature in the dose response, allowing for which nearly doubled the low-dose linear coefficient. In conclusion, dose-error adjustment has comparatively modest effects on regression parameters, a consequence of the relatively small errors, of a mixture of Berkson and classical form, associated with thyroid dose assessment.

  1. Solubility of hot fuel particles from Chernobyl--influencing parameters for individual radiation dose calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garger, Evgenii K; Meisenberg, Oliver; Odintsov, Oleksiy; Shynkarenko, Viktor; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear fuel particles of Chernobyl origin are carriers of increased radioactivity (hot particles) and are still present in the atmosphere of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Workers in the zone may inhale these particles, which makes assessment necessary. The residence time in the lungs and the transfer in the blood of the inhaled radionuclides are crucial for inhalation dose assessment. Therefore, the dissolution of several kinds of nuclear fuel particles from air filters sampled in the Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. For this purpose filter fragments with hot particles were submersed in simulated lung fluids (SLFs). The activities of the radionuclides (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am were measured in the SLF and in the residuum of the fragments by radiometric methods after chemical treatment. Soluble fractions as well as dissolution rates of the nuclides were determined. The influence of the genesis of the hot particles, represented by the (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu ratio, on the availability of (137)Cs was demonstrated, whereas the dissolution of (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am proved to be independent of genesis. No difference in the dissolution of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu was observed for the two applied types of SLF. Increased solubility was found for smaller hot particles. A two-component exponential model was used to describe the dissolution of the nuclides as a function of time. The results were applied for determining individual inhalation dose coefficients for the workers at the Chernobyl construction site. Greater dose coefficients for the respiratory tract and smaller coefficients for the other organs were calculated (compared to ICRP default values). The effective doses were in general lower for the considered radionuclides, for (241)Am even by one order of magnitude. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunological effects of low dose radiation. Absent or minor effects of Chernobyl fallout in Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Bergan, T.D.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Melbye, O.J. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-01-01

    In this pilot study of those Norwegian individuals most heavily exposed to the Chernobyl Fallout, immunological parameters generally stayed within normal limits. However, some parameter, apparently within the assumed normal range did, in fact correlate to the estimated individual dose as assessed by wholebody counting of radiocaesium content. The small possible effects revealed in this study may represent real biological effects, but do not necessarily represent a health detriment. 43 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Wormwood forest: a natural history of Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mycio, Mary

    2005-01-01

    ... of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mycio, Mary. Wormwood forest : a natural history of Chernobyl / Mary Mycio. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-09430-5 (cloth) 1. Radioisotopes- Environmental aspects- Ukraine- Chornobyl Region. 2. Chernobyl Nuclear Accident, Chornobyl, Ukraine, 1986- Environmental aspects. 3. Radioisotopes- Health asp...

  4. Excessive fear of dilute radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewin, T.B.

    1992-06-01

    A brief article discusses the public perception of the dangers of radiation with particular respect to nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. It presents evidence that the health of the local population has not been measurably affected by radiation and it claims that reporting has been highly exaggerated. (UK).

  5. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  6. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations (∼40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas. PMID:20585443

  7. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-28

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations ( approximately 40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas.

  8. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment in Health Risk Studies Following a Nuclear Reactor Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide concerns regarding health effects after the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents indicate a clear need to identify short- and long-term health impacts that might result from accidents in the future. Fundamental to addressing this problem are reliable and accurate radiation dose estimates for the affected populations. The available guidance for activities following nuclear accidents is limited with regard to strategies for dose assessment in health risk s...

  9. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Shevtsova, Natalia L.; Pomortseva, Natalia A.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Dzyubenko, Elena V. [G. Skovoroda Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk State Teacher Training University, Sukhomlinskogo Str. 30, UA-08401 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk (Ukraine); Rodionova, Natalia K. [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Vasilkovskaya Str. 45, UA-04073 Kiev (Ukraine); Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10{sup -3} - 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10{sup -3} Gy year{sup -1}. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant

  10. Impact of uncertainties in exposure assessment on estimates of thyroid cancer risk among Ukrainian children and adolescents exposed from the Chernobyl accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains the most serious nuclear accident in history, and excess thyroid cancers, particularly among those exposed to releases of iodine-131 remain the best-documented sequelae. Failure to take dose-measurement error into account can lead to bias in assessments of dose-response slope. Although risks in the Ukrainian-US thyroid screening study have been previously evaluated, errors in dose assessments have not been addressed hitherto. Dose-response patterns were examined in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 13,127 persons aged <18 at the time of the accident who were resident in the most radioactively contaminated regions of Ukraine. We extended earlier analyses in this cohort by adjusting for dose error in the recently developed TD-10 dosimetry. Three methods of statistical correction, via two types of regression calibration, and Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood, were applied to the doses that can be derived from the ratio of thyroid activity to thyroid mass. The two components that make up this ratio have different types of error, Berkson error for thyroid mass and classical error for thyroid activity. The first regression-calibration method yielded estimates of excess odds ratio of 5.78 Gy(-1 (95% CI 1.92, 27.04, about 7% higher than estimates unadjusted for dose error. The second regression-calibration method gave an excess odds ratio of 4.78 Gy(-1 (95% CI 1.64, 19.69, about 11% lower than unadjusted analysis. The Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood method produced an excess odds ratio of 4.93 Gy(-1 (95% CI 1.67, 19.90, about 8% lower than unadjusted analysis. There are borderline-significant (p = 0.101-0.112 indications of downward curvature in the dose response, allowing for which nearly doubled the low-dose linear coefficient. In conclusion, dose-error adjustment has comparatively modest effects on regression parameters, a consequence of the relatively small errors, of a mixture of

  11. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  12. The Concept of Conversion Factors and Reference Crops for the Prediction of 137Cs Root Uptake: Field Verification in Post-Chernobyl Landscape, 30 Years after Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarova, Olga; Paramonova, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    One of the notable lessons obtained from nuclear accidents could be revealing the general features of 137Cs root uptake by agricultural crops for prediction the radionuclide accumulation in plants and its further distribution via food chains. Transfer factors (TFs) (the ratio of 137Cs activities in vegetation and in soil) have become a basis for such assessment when the characteristics of radioactive contamination, soil properties and phylogenetic features of different plant taxons important for root uptake are known. For the sake of simplicity the concept of conversion factor (CF) was accepted by IAEA (2006) to obtain unknown value of TF from the TF value of the reference crop cultivated on the same soil. Cereals were selected like reference group of agricultural crops. Presuming TF for cereals equal 1, CFs for tubers and fodder leguminous are 4, for grasses - 4.5, for leafy vegetables - 9, ets. To verify TFs and corresponding CFs values under environmental conditions of post-Chernobyl agricultural landscape the study in the area of Plavsky radioactive hotspot (Tula region, Russia) was conducted. Nowadays, after 30 years after the Chernobyl accident ( the first half-life period of 137Cs), arable chernozems of the territory are still polluted at the level 126-282 kBq/m2. The main crops of field rotation: wheat and barley (cereals), potatoes (tubers), soybean (leguminous), amaranth (non-leafy vegetables), rape ("other crops"), as well as galega-bromegrass mixture (cultivated species of grasses) and pasture grasses of semi-natural dry and wet meadows have been studied. Accumulation parameters of 137Cs in aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and edible parts of the plants were examined separately. Experimentally obtained 137Cs TFs in cereals are 0.24-0.32 for total biomass, 0.07-0.14 for aerial parts, 0.54-0.64 for roots and 0.01-0.02 for grain. Thus, (i) 137Cs transfer in grain of wheat and barley is insignificant and (ii) corresponding TFs values in both crops

  13. Measures of thyroid function among Belarusian children and adolescents exposed to iodine-131 from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia; Rozhko, Alexander; Hatch, Maureen; Furukawa, Kyoji; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert J; Nadyrov, Eldar; Petrenko, Sergey; Romanov, George; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Prokopovich, Alexander; Savasteeva, Irina; Zablotska, Lydia B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Brenner, Alina V

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid dysfunction after exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning 131I-related risk of these common diseases. Our goal was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with 131I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based 131I dose estimates in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases. Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated 131I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range, 0.001-26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of 131I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO. The association between 131I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental 131I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes.

  14. Modelling the external radiation exposure from the Chernobyl fallout using data from the Swedish municipality measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Mattias; Tondel, Martin; Isaksson, Mats; Finck, Robert; Wålinder, Robert; Mamour, Afrah; Rääf, Christopher

    2017-07-24

    In connection with the Chernobyl fallout and the subsequent deposition of radionuclides in Sweden, Swedish municipalities launched a measurement program to monitor the external radiation exposure. This program encompasses measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate 1 m above ground at selected locations, and repeats those measurements at the same locations at 7-month intervals. Measurement data compiled from the seven locations with the highest deposition were combined with data from aerial surveys since May 1986 of ground deposition of (137)Cs, high-resolution gamma spectrometry performed at four locations in May 1986, and measurements from fixed continuous air gamma rate monitoring stations from 28 April to 15 May 1986. Based on these datasets, a model of the time pattern of the external dose rate in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate from the Chernobyl fallout was developed. The decrease in the ambient dose equivalent rate could, on average, be described by a four-component exponential decay function with effective half-times of 6.8 ± 0.3 d, 104 ± 26 d, 1.0 ± 0.02 y and 5.5 ± 0.09 y, respectively. The predominant contributions to the external dose rate in the first month were from short-lived fission products superseded by (134)Cs and then (137)Cs. Integrated over 70 y and using extrapolation of the curve fits, our model predicts that (137)Cs contributes about 60% and (134)Cs contributes about 30% of the external effective dose at these seven locations. The projected time-integrated 70 y external effective dose to an unshielded person from all nuclides per unit total activity deposition of (137)Cs is estimated to be 0.29 ± 0.0.08 mSv/(kBq m(-2)). These results are in agreement with those found in Chernobyl contaminated Russian forest areas, and emphasize the usefulness of maintaining a long-term and regular measurement program in contaminated areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstruction of {sup 131}I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, Nikolai [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, 53 Melnikov Street, Kyiv 04050 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: ntalerko@mail.ru

    2005-07-01

    The evaluation of {sup 131}I air and ground contamination field formation in the territory of Ukraine was made using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The {sup 131}I atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The airborne {sup 131}I concentration and ground deposition fields were calculated as the database for subsequent thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions. The small-scale deposition field variability is assessed using data of {sup 137}Cs detailed measurements in the territory of Ukraine. The obtained results are compared with available data of radioiodine daily deposition measurements made at the network of meteorological stations in Ukraine and data of the assessments of {sup 131}I soil contamination obtained from the {sup 129}I measurements.

  16. Reconstruction of (131)I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of (131)I air and ground contamination field formation in the territory of Ukraine was made using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The (131)I atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The airborne (131)I concentration and ground deposition fields were calculated as the database for subsequent thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions. The small-scale deposition field variability is assessed using data of (137)Cs detailed measurements in the territory of Ukraine. The obtained results are compared with available data of radioiodine daily deposition measurements made at the network of meteorological stations in Ukraine and data of the assessments of (131)I soil contamination obtained from the (129)I measurements.

  17. Generalized results of individualized exposure doses reconstruction for the subjects of Ukrainian State Register of persons, affected due to Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhtarov, I A; Kovgan, L M; Masiuk, S V; Ivanova, O M; Chepurny, M I; Boyko, Z N; Gerasymenko, V B; Tereshchenko, S A; Kravchenko, I G; Kortushin, G I; Marcenjyk, O D; Gubina, I G

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the department of dosimetry of NRCRM has been working for to supply the Ukrainian State Register (SRU) of persons affected due to Chernobyl accident by exposure doses estimations. As of now, the individualization of doses has been performed for nine raions located in Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Rivne and Chernihiv oblasts. The structure of raion-specific models used for the reconstruction of individualized doses was described in detail in the previous 19-th issue of this journal (2014). The choice conditions for persons from the SRU using which for each raion there was formed a contingent of persons for whom the dose could be reconstructed. During the period of 2007-2015, the individualized dose was reconstructed for 244226 persons in 9 raions, representing ~ 58% of all registered in the SRU inhabitants of the raions. The calculation results were transferred to the SRU in formats adapted to the common database structure of the SRU. For each person who satisfied the conditions of selection there were estimated: (1) possible absorbed internal exposure dose of the thyroid by radioiodine in 1986 (assuming that the person in 1986 lived in the same village and was enlisted in the SRU); (2) annual doses of external, internal and total exposure of the whole body for a period of observation in the SRU; (3) total exposure dose of whole body accumulated during the period of observation in the SRU; (4) the total cumulative dose of feasible exposure during the period since 1986 till the decision to be registered in the SRU. There are presented the generalized results of the SRU subjects distribution for different raions in dependence on intervals of doses accumulated at different periods after the accident. The raion matrix tables show the dynamics of accumulation of doses by the SRU subjects both for their stay on the account and for the period of their possible residence registration in the settlement since 1986. The directions for further research to be implemented for

  18. Whole-body cesium 137 activity up to 4 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident in premature newborns, newborns, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, H C; Burmeister, W; Knopp, R; Niesen, M; Georgakopoulou, A; Krämer, A; Halfmann, K; Hartmann, C; Lentze, M J

    1992-03-01

    Cesium 137 activity was measured after the Chernobyl incident in a whole-body radiation counter (4-pi-scintillation counter) in 85 premature and mature newborns (group 1), 174 infants and young children up to 2 11/12 years (group 2), and 48 children between 3 and 8 years (group 3) from Bonn (Germany) and surroundings. In 1987 the mean level of radioactivity in group 2, at 3.7 Bq/kg body weight corresponding to a mean radiation exposure of 11 muSv/y, was lower than that of group 1 (5.8 Bq/kg, 17 muSv/y) and 3 (9.4 Bq/kg, 28 muSv/y). Up to 1990 the values of all groups revealed a continuous decrease. The latest measurements showed mean values of 0.5 Bq/kg (1.5 muSv/y) in group 1, 0.6 Bq/kg (1.8 muSv/y) in group 2, and 0.8 Bq/kg (2.4 muSv/y) in group 3. A comparison with present cesium 137 values and determinations of the end of the 1950s and beginning of 1960s, both in adults, showed good agreement. The effective dose-equivalent rates amounted to less than 1% of that from natural radiation exposure. These levels should present no teratogenic risks to the population studied and, while there are theoretical mutagenic risks, the dose is so low that no increase in measurable mutagenic effects should be observed.

  19. Estimated lifetime effective dose to hunters and their families in the three most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986 - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondel, Martin; Rääf, Christopher; Wålinder, Robert; Mamour, Afrah; Isaksson, Mats

    2017-10-01

    Hunters and their families were one of the most exposed subpopulations in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. In this pilot study we used existing registries and whole-body measurements to develop algorithms to calculate lifetime effective doses and collective doses to some hunters in Sweden. Ten hunters and their family members were randomly selected from each of the three most contaminated counties in Sweden (Västernorrland, Uppsala, Gävleborg) using the register for hunting weapons from the Police Authority in 1985. Hence, this design can be regarded as a closed cohort only including hunters and their family members living in these three counties at the time of the accident. Statistics Sweden matched these individuals (n = 85) with their dwelling coordinates onto the digital map produced by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority after aerial measurements of 137 Cs (kBq m -2 ). Internal effective doses were estimated using aggregated transfer factors from ground deposition to in-vivo body concentration for 134 Cs and 137 Cs in hunters (Bq kg -1 ). External effective doses were also calculated on the dwelling coordinate for 134 Cs, 137 Cs and short-lived nuclides in these three counties. Annual effective doses for external and internal doses were then cumulated up to a life expectancy of 80 years for men and 84 years for women, respectively. The total lifetime effective doses to the members of the hunter families in this cohort were on average 8.3 mSv in Västernorrland, 4.7 mSv in Uppsala and 4.1 mSv in Gävleborg. The effective dose to men were about 40% higher than in women. In all counties the internal dose was about 75% of the total lifetime effective dose. The collective dose for all hunters with family members, in total about 44,000 individuals, in these three counties could be approximated at about 256 manSv. This study shows it is possible to use register data to develop algorithms for calculating lifetime effective dose

  20. Birth of a myth: the Chernobyl fallout in France; Naissance d'un mythe: les retombees de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Ten years after the Chernobyl accident, this paper takes stock on the past situation, the radiation doses measured and tries to explain the myth of ''a cloud stopped at the frontier''. The media and government attitudes are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, W; Rehwald, W; Blumthaler, M; Eisner, H; Brunner, P

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  2. EUS-FNA for a Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor in a Four-Year-Old Daughter of a Woman Exposed to Radiation at Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachter, Jesse; Arkovitz, Marc S.; Postovski, Sergey; Waldner, Julian M.; Shaoul, Ron; Ishay, Offir Ben; Kluger, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms in children are rare. Herein is reported the case of a four-year-old girl whose mother was exposed to radiation at Chernobyl that presented with obstructive jaundice and a mass suspected on CT and diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA). This child is probably the youngest case of application of linear EUS with biopsy to be described. The diagnosis, management, and followup of children with this rare tumor are discussed. PMID:22762002

  3. EUS-FNA for a Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor in a Four-Year-Old Daughter of a Woman Exposed to Radiation at Chernobyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Lachter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neoplasms in children are rare. Herein is reported the case of a four-year-old girl whose mother was exposed to radiation at Chernobyl that presented with obstructive jaundice and a mass suspected on CT and diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS with fine needle aspiration (FNA. This child is probably the youngest case of application of linear EUS with biopsy to be described. The diagnosis, management, and followup of children with this rare tumor are discussed.

  4. EUS-FNA for a Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor in a Four-Year-Old Daughter of a Woman Exposed to Radiation at Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachter, Jesse; Arkovitz, Marc S; Postovski, Sergey; Waldner, Julian M; Shaoul, Ron; Ishay, Offir Ben; Kluger, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms in children are rare. Herein is reported the case of a four-year-old girl whose mother was exposed to radiation at Chernobyl that presented with obstructive jaundice and a mass suspected on CT and diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA). This child is probably the youngest case of application of linear EUS with biopsy to be described. The diagnosis, management, and followup of children with this rare tumor are discussed.

  5. PP13. CHERNOBYL, BREXIT AND BRAIN TUMOURS

    Science.gov (United States)

    chia, Dr kazumi; Davies, Ms Rhiannon; Brazil, Dr Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, many hundreds of thousands of people from the newly ascended states travelled to the UK to look for work. Polish workers were by far the largest group and today, Polish is the second most commonly spoken language in the UK. In central London, the multidisciplinary, neuro-oncology team at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT) and Kings College Hospital serves a catchment area of nearly 3.5 million, 1% (32,253) of whom are recorded to have been born in Poland at the last 2011 census. Over the past few years, we have observed a relatively large number of Polish-born UK residents presenting with primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumours. Data collection is ongoing but we believe that the numbers of newly diagnosed cases far exceeds the published age standardized incidence rate for brain and CNS tumors in Poland which is 10 per 100,000. If a higher than expected incidence of brain and CNS tumors in our local Polish population is observed this could be explained by a number of socioeconomic/health factors. However, as we mark the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident this year, we should also keep in mind geohistorical factors that may be relevant to this particular immigrant population. Poland neighbours Ukraine where the Chernobyl accident occurred, and was affected by the radioactive fallout that followed the disaster. The main health impact from Chernobyl has so far been the increased incidence of thyroid cancer but there is now increasing concern about the increased risk of non-thyroid, solid tumors. An increased incidence in CNS tumours has been seen in atomic bomb survivors where even a low exposures (<1Sv) was associated with an increased risk. Cohort studies in Belarus and Ukraine, two countries with the most radiation contamination, have so far not demonstrated any significant increase in non-thyroid cancers but it may still be early days. We know from long term

  6. Proteomic analysis of mature soybean seeds from the Chernobyl area suggests plant adaptation to the contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Rashydov, Namik M; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Mátel, L'ubomír; Salaj, Terézia; Pret'ová, Anna; Hajduch, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The explosion in one of the four reactors of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, Chernobyl) caused the worst nuclear environmental disaster ever seen. Currently, 23 years after the accident, the soil in the close vicinity of CNPP is still significantly contaminated with long-living radioisotopes, such as (137)Cs. Despite this contamination, the plants growing in Chernobyl area were able to adapt to the radioactivity, and survive. The aim of this study was to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms toward permanently increased level of radiation using a quantitative high-throughput proteomics approach. Soybeans of a local variety (Soniachna) were sown in contaminated and control fields in the Chernobyl region. Mature seeds were harvested and the extracted proteins were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In total, 9.2% of 698 quantified protein spots on 2-D gel were found to be differentially expressed with a p-value Chernobyl soil conditions was proposed. Our results suggest that adaptation toward heavy metal stress, protection against radiation damage, and mobilization of seed storage proteins are involved in plant adaptation mechanism to radioactivity in the Chernobyl region.

  7. [Prognosis of dynamics and risk of exceeding permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in fish in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutinin, Iu V; Kashparov, V A; Kuz'menko, A V; Pavliuchenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide specific activity measurements made on 832 samples of fish in 2009-2011 and taking into account literature data, the parameters of the stochastic model have been derived to describe the 137Cs and 90Sr contents in typical commercial fish species in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident, including: statistical variability, seasonal changes and monotonous long-term trends. At any fixed moment of the year the standard deviations of logarithms of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific activities in carnivorous and benthophage fish species do not reliably differ, making up at average 0.4. The maximum vari- ation of the 137Cs specific activity (a four-fold decrease from April to November) was observed in pike. The obtained values of the ecological half-life periods for 137Cs and 90Sr (1.3-14 years) in fish of the Kiev reservoir in 2002-2012 were significantly lower than both the radioactive decay periods and the estimates of the IAEA Chernobyl Forum. Based on the obtained model parameters, the dynamics of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific ac- tivities in main commercial fish of the Kiev reservoir has been described and the risk of exceeding the permis- sible levels of these radionuclides in fish at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident has been estimated. Now the risk of catching fish with the specific activities of 137Cs and 90Sr above the permissible levels (150 Bq/kg and 35 Bq/kg, respectively) does not exceed 10% (except perch in the spring spawning period that is banned for fishing in Ukraine). Corresponding risks for roach, white bream and rudd are less than 0.1%.

  8. Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Busby

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato [7,8] and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed; p = 0.0025 in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures.

  9. Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y) was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato [7,8] and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed); p = 0.0025) in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures. PMID:20049249

  10. Current concentration of artificial radionuclides and estimated radiation doses from 137Cs around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site, and in Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Brahmanandhan, Gopalganapathi M; Nagayama, Yuji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevitc, Alexander; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Takamura, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate current environmental contamination and contributions from internal and external exposure due to the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), concentrations of artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms, soils and stones from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Annual effective doses were calculated for each area from the cesium contamination. Calculated internal effective doses of (137)Cs due to ingestion of mushrooms were 1.8 × 10(-1) mSv/year (y) in Gomel city (around CNPP), 1.7 × 10(-1) mSv/y in Korosten city (around CNPP), 2.8 × 10(-4) mSv/y in Semipalatinsk city, and 1.3 × 10(-4) mSv/y in Nagasaki. Calculated external effective doses of (137)Cs were 3.4 × 10(-2) mSv/y in Gomel city, 6.2 × 10(-2) mSv/y in Korosten city, 2.0 × 10(-4) mSv/y in Semipalatinsk city, and 1.3 × 10(-4) mSv/y in Nagasaki. Distribution of radionuclides in stones collected beside Lake Balapan (in SNTS) were (241)Am (49.4 ± 1.4 Bq/kg), (137)Cs (406.3 ± 1.7 Bq/kg), (58)Co (3.2 ± 0.5 Bq/kg), and (60)Co (125.9 ± 1.1 and 126.1 ± 1.1 Bq/kg). The present study revealed that dose rates from internal and external exposure around CNPP were not sufficiently low and radiation exposure potency still exists even though current levels are below the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (ICRP1991). Moreover, parts of the SNTS area may be still contaminated by artificial radionuclides derived from nuclear tests. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP and SNTS, as well as evaluation of health effects in the population residing around these areas, may contribute to radiation safety with a reduction of unnecessary exposure of residents.

  11. Medical Consequences of Chernobyl with Focus on the Endocrine System - Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  12. Medical consequences of Chernobyl with focus on the endocrine system: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information on effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  13. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  14. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  15. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident. © The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers 2014.

  16. Thyroid and Whole-Body Dose Reconstruction in Russia Following the Chernobyl Accident: Review of Progress and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, V.; Skvortsov, V.; Tysb, A.; Ivannikov, A.; Kondrashov, A.; Tikunov, D.; Iaskova, E.; Shakhtarin, V.; Petin, D.; Parshkov, E.; Chernichenko, L.; Snykov, V.; Orlov, M.; Gavrihn, Yu.; Khrousch, V.; Shinkarev, S

    1998-07-01

    The results of direct measurements of radioactive iodine content in the human thyroid gland (in Bryansk and Kaluga regions, Russia) and also available data on {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs contamination of the soil were used for investigation of correlations between the mean thyroid dose for adults in settlements and local levels of {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 131}I soil contamination. On the basis of this analysis a model was developed showing how to evaluate retrospectively the thyroid absorbed doses. For individual dose reconstruction using an 'age/milk' scale, special questioning of inhabitants was carried out. Mean dose values in the exposed population of each contaminated Russian settlement were evaluated using the model. The total collective dose due to internal exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine radionuclides equates to 106,500 person.Gy in the population of the most contaminated territories of four Russian regions. The maximum value was found in the Bryansk region (73,000 person.Gy). New data concerning the delay in pasturing in different regions as well as time dependencies of the fallout were taken into account. As a result the dose estimations differ from previous published data. Comparisons between the developed method and the other independent approaches indicate a concordance within a factor 3. For application of the EPR tooth enamel dosimetry on a wide scale, estimation of accumulated external doses are demonstrated and analysed. There were about 2500 tooth samples measured from the contaminated region as well as from the non-contaminated territories of Russia. The investigated factors are: (1) effect of solar light on front teeth; (2) correction for the energy dependence of the EPR response; (3) presence in the enamel of some intrinsic signals; (4) age dependent doses due to natural background radiation. The average values of EPR dose with special account taken of correction factors are presented. The tendency of average doses to grow with

  17. Retrospective dosimetry of Iodine-131 exposures using Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 inventories in soils--A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R; Daraoui, A; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Romantschuk, L D; Alfimov, V; Synal, H-A

    2015-12-01

    The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Estimation Of 137Cs Using Atmospheric Dispersion Models After A Nuclear Reactor Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, V.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Pozzoli, L.; Karaca, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear energy will continue to have an important role in the production of electricity in the world as the need of energy grows up. But the safety of power plants will always be a question mark for people because of the accidents happened in the past. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident which happened in 26 April 1986 was the biggest nuclear accident ever. Because of explosion and fire large quantities of radioactive material was released to the atmosphere. The release of the radioactive particles because of accident affected not only its region but the entire Northern hemisphere. But much of the radioactive material was spread over west USSR and Europe. There are many studies about distribution of radioactive particles and the deposition of radionuclides all over Europe. But this was not true for Turkey especially for the deposition of radionuclides released after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the radiation doses received by people. The aim of this study is to determine the radiation doses received by people living in Turkish territory after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and use this method in case of an emergency. For this purpose The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was used to simulate meteorological conditions after the accident. The results of WRF which were for the 12 days after accident were used as input data for the HYSPLIT model. NOAA-ARL's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory) dispersion model HYSPLIT was used to simulate the 137Cs distrubition. The deposition values of 137Cs in our domain after Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident were between 1.2E-37 Bq/m2 and 3.5E+08 Bq/m2. The results showed that Turkey was affected because of the accident especially the Black Sea Region. And the doses were calculated by using GENII-LIN which is multipurpose health physics code.

  20. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Geraskin, S.A.; Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature.

  1. Possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways for bladder cancer in Ukraine, before and after the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Keiichirou; Romanenko, Alina; Min, Wei; Salim, Elsayed I; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-04-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the incidence of urinary bladder cancers in the Ukraine increased gradually from 26.2 to 43.3 per 100,000 people between 1986 and 2001. In the areas of low level but persistent cesium-137 (137Cs) radio-contamination, a unique atypical radiation-related urinary bladder cystitis named 'Chernobyl cystitis', a possible pre-neoplastic condition in humans, has been detected. We have previously documented high incidences of bladder lesions, including severe dysplasias and/or carcinoma in situ, in association with this cystitis and correlating with oxidative DNA damage. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying bladder carcinogenesis with this specific etiology, mutation analysis of p53 gene (exon 5-8) was performed for 11 and 18 paraffin-embedded bladder cancers in Ukrainians, respectively collected before and after the Chernobyl disaster. DNAs were extracted and subjected to nested PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by direct DNA sequencing, as well as p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC). The incidences of p53 gene mutation were 54.5 and 16.7% for before and after the Chernobyl disaster, respectively, the difference being statistically significant. Also a tendency for higher p53 IHC score was apparent in the earlier group of lesions. No significant difference was noted for the proportions of historical types. These results point to possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways of bladder cancer formation, before and after the Chernobyl disaster, on the basis of variation in p53 gene alteration.

  2. Radioactive contamination of food, sampled in regions of the USSR affected by the Chernobyl accident, and of radioactive exposure in these regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.; Struijs, van der T.D.B.

    1991-01-01

    From 21.10.1990 to 01.11.1990 a Netherlands humanitarian fact finding mission on aid to people affected by the Chernobyl disaster visited the USSR. The Netherlands Government reacted positively to a request from the USSR for such aid and the aim of the mission was to gather facts for a useful aid

  3. Analysis of environmental contamination and human health effects in the southeastern of Belorussia 13 years after the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueller, J.; Schweitzer, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Trojanov, M.W. [District Hospital Krasnopolje, Krasnopolje (Belarus)

    2000-05-01

    Associated with the humanitarian aid of the Chernobyl association and the University of Jena for the last 6 years simultaneous analysis of the radioactive contamination and the health situation is performed in the white-russian district of Krasnopolje (200 km north of the reactor, 23.000 inhabitants, 30% of the population evacuated since 1988). The retrospective analysis of incidences of malignant and non-malignant diseases is based on the annual epidemiologic reports of the district physician, comprising data from the past 13 years with a cutoff data of December 31, 1998. The level of contamination of the soil with Cesium 137 measures 1-5 Ci/km{sup 2} in 14% of the territory, 5-15 Ci/km{sup 2} in 50%, 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2} in 25% and >40 Ci/km{sup 2} in 11% (evacuated zone). The gamma-radiation dose rate in still inhabited areas fluctuates from 0,2 to 1,0 micro-Sv/h (normal values: 0,1-0,2 micro-Sv/h). In areas which have been evacuated and closed for agricultural use, levels exceeding 9 micro-Sv/h have been recorded. As expected comparing 1996 to 1998, no decrease of the radiation dose rate in corresponding places of measurement was seen. The existing dosimetry of food which does not fully cover the area shows only slight exceedings of the limits for the basic food supplied by the government controlled trade. With mushrooms, game and berries, peak levels up to 200 times of the Bq-levels per kg were measured. The annual rate of newly diagnosed malignant diseases was relatively constant until 1992 with 23/10.000, but did increase to 43/10.000 in 1993, followed by a decrease to 27/10.000 in 1997 and a increase to 35/10.000 in 1998. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma (n=9) have been observed since 1992. A tendency of growing incidence without significance was seen with tumors of the lungs, the urogenital and the colorectal tract, but barely with leucemia and malignant lymphomas. A significant increase in the incidences of endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, autonomic adenoma

  4. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  5. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbreicht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The report on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure 2013 includes data concerning the following issues: sources of natural and artificial radioactivity, radon in buildings, radioactive materials in construction materials and industrial products, nuclear weapon tests, the consequences of reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima, nuclear facilities, occupational exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials in research and technology, radioactive wastes, radiation accidents and specific incidents.

  6. Chernobyl Experience in Field of Retrospective Dosimetry: Reconstruction of Doses to the Population and Liquidators Involved in the Accident (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumak, V.; Likhtarev, I.; Shalom, S.; Meckbach, R.; Krjuchkov, V

    1998-07-01

    Evacuees from the 30 km zone and liquidators are likely to have received the highest Chernobyl exposures. Doses to the majority of them remained unknown, calling for dose reconstruction. This need prompted development of new techniques of retrospective dosimetry. Application of state-of-art stochastic dosimetric models and determination of site-specific location factors allowed the determination of individual doses and uncertainty ranges for a significant part of the evacuated population. A number of approaches were used to recover existing gaps in dosimetric information related to liquidators. EPR dosimetry with teeth is useful for high precision retrospective dosimetry of liquidators; now teeth from liquidators are being collected systematically in Ukraine. Analytical dose reconstruction was conducted for about 2000 Chernobyl workers. Reconstruction of doses to the rest of the liquidators requires application of a different methodology based on analysis of regularities of exposure and assignment of dose intervals according to attributes of the liquidators. (author)

  7. Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

  8. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Midden, C.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  9. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions; Tchernobyl. Des reponses a vos questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  10. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  11. Expression of miRNA-26b-5p and its target TRPS1 is associated with radiation exposure in post-Chernobyl breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Christina M; Hess, Julia; Klymenko, Sergiy V; Chumak, Vadim V; Zakhartseva, Liubov M; Bakhanova, Elena V; Feuchtinger, Annette; Walch, Axel K; Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Schneider, Ludmila; Pitea, Adriana; Steinhilber, Julia; Fend, Falko; Bösmüller, Hans C; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Unger, Kristian

    2018-02-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether radiation-specific molecular oncogenic mechanisms exist. We investigated post-Chernobyl breast cancers from radiation-exposed female clean-up workers and nonexposed controls for molecular changes. Radiation-associated alterations identified in the discovery cohort (n = 38) were subsequently validated in a second cohort (n = 39). Increased expression of hsa-miR-26b-5p was associated with radiation exposure in both of the cohorts. Moreover, downregulation of the TRPS1 protein, which is a transcriptional target of hsa-miR-26b-5p, was associated with radiation exposure. As TRPS1 overexpression is common in sporadic breast cancer, its observed downregulation in radiation-associated breast cancer warrants clarification of the specific functional role of TRPS1 in the radiation context. For this purpose, the impact of TRPS1 on the transcriptome was characterized in two radiation-transformed breast cell culture models after siRNA-knockdown. Deregulated genes upon TRPS1 knockdown were associated with DNA-repair, cell cycle, mitosis, cell migration, angiogenesis and EMT pathways. Furthermore, we identified the interaction partners of TRPS1 from the transcriptomic correlation networks derived from gene expression data on radiation-transformed breast cell culture models and sporadic breast cancer tissues provided by the TCGA database. The genes correlating with TRPS1 in the radiation-transformed breast cell lines were primarily linked to DNA damage response and chromosome segregation, while the transcriptional interaction partners in the sporadic breast cancers were mostly associated with apoptosis. Thus, upregulation of hsa-miR-26b-5p and downregulation of TRPS1 in radiation-associated breast cancer tissue samples suggests these molecules representing radiation markers in breast cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  12. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bang Ju [Korean Science Reporters Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's {alpha} per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  13. Application of voxelised phantoms to the dosimetry simulation of radiation accidents; Application des fantomes voxelises pour la reconstitution dosimetrique d'accident radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemosquet, A.; Clairand, I.; Carlan, L. de; Aubineau-Laniece, I.; Rioual, J.B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Franck, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire Departement de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie Service de Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2003-07-01

    In the case of a radiation accident it is possible to estimate the radiation dose received by the victim by techniques of physical processing by calculation, especially to determine the heterogeneity of the distribution dose in depth. The work bears on the development of a new computer tool devoted to the dosimetry reconstitution of a radiation accident coming from an external source that has the particularity to associate a voxelised anthropomorph geometry to a Monte Carlo code. The functionalities of the tool are described. (N.C.)

  14. On the divergences in assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation following the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, P; Sundell-Bergman, S; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M

    2017-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment. This article provides an overview of the work conducted in relation to the environmental impacts of the Fukushima accident, critically comparing and contrasting methodologies and results with a view towards finding reasons for discrepancies, should they indeed exist. Based on the outcomes of studies conducted to date, it would appear that in order to avoid the fractured and disparate conclusions drawn in the aftermath of previous accidents, radioactive contaminants and their effects can no longer simply be viewed in isolation with respect to the ecosystems these effects may impact. A combination of laboratory based and field studies with a focus on ecosystem functioning and effects could offer the best opportunities for coherence in the interpretation of the results of studies into the environmental impacts of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [From Chernobyl to Morsleben--a public health observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B

    1999-11-01

    On April 26, 1986, a serious reactor accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A total radioactivity of 2 x 10(18) becquerel, i.e. 3.5% of the reactor inventory were released spreading throughout Europe. Radioactive tracers were iodine 131 (with a half-life of 8 days) and caesium 137 (with a half-life of 30 years). Measurements made in Magdeburg by the Institute of Hygiene on May 5th after a heavy thunderstorm indicated a considerable radioactive contamination. Measurements revealed 75,000 bq/kg in grasses, 44,000 bq/litre in storm water and 40,000 bq/kg in garden soil, however, these high values decreased to normal by the end of 1986. The paper describes a stay in Chernobyl in 1989 and the environmental and working conditions prevailing at site. An increase of the cancer rate in the contaminated areas was not observed until 1990; however, thyroid tumours increased in children in Belorussia after that time. The current caesium load of the soils in the area is 10(6) becquerel/cubic metre. As much as 480,000 bq/kg were measured in dried mushrooms picked in the autumn of 1997. Assuming a mean natural exposure to radiation of the population in Germany of 2.4 millisievert/year (mSv/a), the additional load caused by the Chernobyl accident was 5% in 1986, falling to below 0.1% in 1996. Today, 19 nuclear power plants are operating in Germany for power generation. Radioactive substances are used in medicine, research and industry. An opinion on the safety of transports and final dumping of radioactive waste is given, based on a visit to the Morsleben final dump site. The use of nuclear energy and a percentage replacement by renewable energies are discussed from a regional and global perspective (climate protection).

  16. Pilot study of parathyroid glands in adult and pediatric subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the ChNPP accident, methodology of parathyroid diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskyi, O V; Kopylova, O V; Afanasyev, D Ye; Mazurenko, O V; Berezovskyi, S Ya

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the parathyroid hyperplasia prevalence after the ChNPP accident in adults exposed to ion izing radiation and their descendants using the diagnostic ultrasound and its methodology elaboration. The pilot prospective study of the prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia among the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident adult survivors (n=686) and their descendants (54 children) was performed using diagnostic ultrasound examination of thyroid and parathyroids. Among the study subjects there were 339 ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), 32 persons were evacuated from the 30 km exclusion zone and 224 ones were included to the control group. Diagnostic ultrasound of thyroid and parathyroids was performed according to the standard method. Additionally, in children with parathyroid hyperplasia an additional assay of 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels in serum was performed. In calculating the statistical significance, its level p Parathyroids are a few small but critically important endocrine glands that synthesize parathyroid hormone, regulating mainly phosphoric calcium metabolism. Insufficient (hypoparathyroidism) or excessive (hyperparathy roidism) function of parathyroids is harmful to the patients affecting the state of nervous and cardiovascular sys tem. Parathyroidss can accumulate isotopes of cesium, strontium and radioactive iodine. The available data testify to an increased incidence of clinically significant hyperplasia of parthyroids (more than 9 mm in adults and more than 5 mm in children) among persons exposed toionizng radiation as a result of the accident at the ChNPP (28.64%) and their descendants (23.8-70.6%). First of all are concerned those adults who live in contaminated areas in comparison with the control group (24.15% in not irradiated). Evacuees from the 30 km exclusion zone being the category of people who were exposed to the absorbed iodine isotopes in the first days of the Chernobyl accident are the another risk group. These data

  17. Somatic health effects of Chernobyl: 30 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Maureen; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-09-19

    2016 marked the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. We and others wrote reviews for the 25th anniversary. Since then, additional papers have appeared and it seems timely to highlight lessons learned. To present, not a systematic review, but a commentary drawing attention to notable findings. We include not only recent reports and updates on previous results, but key findings from prior Chernobyl studies. The dose-dependent increase in Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC) following childhood I-131 exposure in Ukraine and Belarus has now been shown to persist for decades. Studies of post-Chernobyl PTCs have produced novel information on chromosomal rearrangements and gene fusions, critical to understanding molecular mechanisms. Studies of clean-up workers/liquidators suggest dose-related increases of thyroid cancer and hematological malignancies in adults. They also report increases in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. If confirmed, these would have significant public health and radiation protection implications. The lens opacities following low to moderate doses found earlier are also a concern, particularly among interventional radiologists who may receive substantial lens doses. Finally, there is some, inconsistent, evidence for genetic effects among offspring of exposed persons. Further efforts, including improved dosimetry, collection of information on other risk factors, and continued follow-up/monitoring of established cohorts, could contribute importantly to further understand effects of low doses and dose-rates of radiation, particularly in young people, and ensure that appropriate public health and radiation protection systems are in place. This will require multinational collaborations and long-term funding.

  18. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies.

  19. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils of the Lokna River floodplain (Tula oblast) long after the Chernobyl accident and its simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikhin, S. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Paramonova, T. A.; Shamshurina, E. N.; Ivanov, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Profiles of vertical 137Cs distribution in alluvial meadow soils on the low and medium levels of the Lokna River floodplain (central part of the Plavsk radioactive spot in Tula oblast) 28 years after the Chernobyl fallout have been studied. A significant increase in the 137Cs pool is revealed on the low floodplain areas compared to the soils of interfluves due to the accumulation of alluvium, which hampers the reduction of the total radionuclide pool in alluvial soils because of radioactive decay. The rate of alluvium accumulation in the soil on the medium floodplain level is lower by three times on average. An imitation prognostic model has been developed, which considers the flooding and climatic conditions in the region under study. Numerical experiments have quantitatively confirmed the deciding role of low-mobile forms in the migration of maximum 137Cs content along the soil profile in the absence of manifested erosion-accumulation processes.

  20. Outline of emergency care in a radiation accident and topics for further discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Yoshikura [National Hospital Tokyo Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa (Japan); Sato, Toshinobu

    2000-01-01

    Medical management in a criticality accident is described based on the authors' experiences, and some suggestions are made. The JCO criticality accident occurred in Tokai-mura on September 30, 1999, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare dispatched the authors to the site. They consulted with other experts and carried out medical examinations on people living within 350 m of the JCO site. They explained the gamma-radiation survey and about health hazards. Then they framed a public health plan of action before leaving Tokai-mura. At the time, there was no adequate system for interpreting the situation of for preparing for accidents. Based on these experiences, the authors concluded that good training, a care manual, and a system for the emergency phase and the follow-up phase are necessary. (K.H.)

  1. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  2. Impaired swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A; Lynn, C; Lynnn, C; Ostermiller, S; Rudolfsen, G

    2008-02-29

    We investigated the motility and morphology of live sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica breeding in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl and control areas in Ukraine in order to test the hypothesis that swimming behaviour and morphology of sperm was impaired by radioactive contamination. We obtained sperm samples from 98% of sampled birds, thus avoiding sampling bias due to the fraction of males not producing sperm samples. Analyses of within- and between-sample repeatability revealed significant and intermediate to large estimates for all sperm parameters. There were significant differences between the Chernobyl area and the control area for two of 11 sperm behaviour parameters, and significant interactions between area and year for six of these parameters. The proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology was elevated in barn swallows from Chernobyl. A principal component (PC) analysis revealed four significant axes that explained 88% of the variance in sperm behaviour parameters. One of these principal components differed between areas, and three components showed significant year by area interactions. PC2 representing the frequency of slow sperm increased with increasing radiation in one year, but not another. PC3 representing sperm with high linearity, small amplitude of lateral head displacement and low track velocity decreased with increasing background radiation level. PC4 reflecting a large proportion of static sperm with high beat cross frequency increased with increasing background radiation level. Sperm behaviour as reflected by principal components was predictable among years from information on level of radiation, and it was predictable among sites in different years. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sperm behaviour and morphology have been affected by radiation due to the Chernobyl accident.

  3. Chernobyl emissions linked to a variety of adverse health effects in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangano, J.J.; Gould, J.M. [Radiation and Public Health Project, New York, NY (United States); Sternglass, E.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh Univ. School of Medicine, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Until 1995, no disease-specific excesses in the U.S. associated with low-level fallout from the Chernobyl accident had been documented. However, several such connections have since been made for thyroid cancer, hypothyroidism, leukemia, and all cancers combined. Each unexpected increase occurred in infants and children, whose cell membranes and genetic material are most susceptible to the damages caused by radiation. We would expect that, in the future, similar trends will occur for adults in America. Each increase in disease rates is statistically linked with rises in radioactive substances present in the Chernobyl fallout. For example, thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism may be mostly the result of the rise in Iodine-131 or other radioactive iodine isotopes, which existed in greater concentrations in the American diet following the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986. Although rates were elevated in mid-1986, they were only three to four times higher than normal; thus, the question arises whether very low levels of increased radioactivity in the American diet are causing excessive cases of disease and deaths for certain immune-related diseases. (orig.)

  4. Medical Preparedness in Radiation Accidents: a Matter of Logistics and Communication not Treatment!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Staudenherz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently reactor wreckage in Fukushima raised the following important questions: Is our knowledge of the possible dangers of ionizing radiation sufficient to warrant special action? What is the role of the medical community in technical radiation accidents from Windscale to Fukushima? What is the role of the medical community in terrorist radiation attacks? Are we prepared for those challenges? How can medical services communicate information in the media framework? What have we learned recently? And, what should be improved? In this review of the current literature on ionizing radiation, we try to answer these questions. Our conclusion is that medical services have to improve their communication skills and convince the public that the dangers of ionizing radiation can be quantitated within certain limits to support a qualified discussion about its risks and benefits.

  5. Medical preparedness in radiation accidents: a matter of logistics and communication not treatment!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenherz, A; Leitha, T

    2011-07-01

    The currently reactor wreckage in Fukushima raised the following important questions: Is our knowledge of the possible dangers of ionizing radiation sufficient to warrant special action? What is the role of the medical community in technical radiation accidents from Windscale to Fukushima? What is the role of the medical community in terrorist radiation attacks? Are we prepared for those challenges? How can medical services communicate information in the media framework? What have we learned recently? And, what should be improved? In this review of the current literature on ionizing radiation, we try to answer these questions. Our conclusion is that medical services have to improve their communication skills and convince the public that the dangers of ionizing radiation can be quantitated within certain limits to support a qualified discussion about its risks and benefits.

  6. Integrating Research on Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl — the Chernobyl Tissue Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G.A.; Bethel, J.A.; Galpine, A.; Krznaric, M.; Unger, K.

    2011-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated cooperation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. PMID:21345659

  7. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  8. OCCURRENCE OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN POPULATION AFFECTED BY RADIATION ACCIDENT: STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS, RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of damage to mental health of individuals born after theChernobylaccident remains of high interest, especially in the regions which have been subjected to significant contamination as a result of the accident. The article analyzes the dynamics of psychiatric morbidity in population of contaminated and non-contaminated areas of theBryanskregion according to state statistics and to files of neuropsychiatric ambulatory institutions. The incidence rates in the contaminated areas are found to be significantly different from those in the non-contaminated areas. Dynamics of mentally handicapped contingents after the radiation accident depends, at different stages of postaccidental situation, on a complex of factors: social, economic, radiation, and general toxic ones, which once again underlines the general social character of such disasters.

  9. Modelling of the transfer of Cs-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suanez, A.; Robles, B.; Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-07-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation od models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. the acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is co-ordinated by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the european Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and Was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. the scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. the input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and ore, description of the scenario (data about crops, cattle, demography, human diet, etc.). the aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Research on EPR measurement methods of sucrose used in radiation accident dose reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqiu; Jiao, Ling; Zhang, Wenyi; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Liang'an

    2010-03-01

    Sucrose is a convenient, common, tissue-equivalent material suitable for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of ionising radiation. A number of publications have reported on the dosimetric properties of sucrose and their use in radiation accident dose reconstruction. However, previous studies did not include specially the description of measurement methods of sucrose by EPR. The aim of this work is to introduce particularly the EPR measurement methods of sucrose. In this regard, practical considerations of sample size, microwave power, modulation amplitude, EPR spectrum and signal stability are discussed.

  11. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist.

  12. Sources of contradictions in the evaluation of population genetic consequences after the chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazko, V I; Glazko, T T

    2013-01-01

    The review covers the analysis of our own and published data pertaining to population and genetic consequences in various mammalian species under conditions of high levels of ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The findings indicate that these conditions have promoted the reproduction of heterozygotes in polyloci spectra of molecular genetic markers and animals with a relatively increased stability of the chromosomal apparatus. The prospects of using the reproductive "success" of the carriers of these characteristics as an integral indicator of the selective influence of environmental stress factors are discussed.

  13. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univeristy, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural {sup 40}K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area.

  14. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  15. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  16. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone : an international comparison of approaches.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Brown, J. E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Copplestone, D.; Gaschak, S.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Nedveckaite, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Smith, J. T.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Yu, C.; Environmental Science Division; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority; England and Wales Environment Agency; International Radioecology Lab.; Inst. of Physics, Radiation Protection,; Belgian Nuclear Research Centre; Univ. of Portsmouth; Westlakes Research Inst.

    2010-06-09

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  17. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: an international comparison of approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Brown, J E; Hosseini, A [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, Postbox 55, No-1332 Oesteras (Norway); Cheng, J-J; Kamboj, S; Yu, C [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 900, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4832 (United States); Copplestone, D [England and Wales Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Gaschak, S [International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Nedveckaite, T [Institute of Physics, Radiation Protection, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02053 Vilnius (Lithuania); Olyslaegers, G [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Radioecology Section, Radiation Protection Department, Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Smith, J T [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S, E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.u [Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  18. Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1 The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2 The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3 an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.

  19. Effects of radioactive fallout from a nuclear power plant accident on electrical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, S.; Knudsen, E.

    1986-10-01

    Continuous recordings of atmospheric electric parameters were carried out in Uppsala, Sweden. Because of the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, a rainfall on April 27, 1986, caused a considerable increase of the radioactive background radiation in the surroundings of the recording station. A pronounced influence on the atmospheric electric field, the conductivity of the air, and the space charge density is reported.

  20. [Radioactivity in Harz area drinking water after Chernobyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennighausen, R H

    1999-11-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26th, 1986 drinking water pollution was in Lower Saxony a problem in the Harz mountains. With the rainout of the radioactive clouds radioactivity came into the water-barrages, brooks und pools for drinking water supply. Good drinking water management supervised by the district community physician limited radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Drinking water path was approximately only 5% of the exposure to radioactive nuclides in the Harz region due to Chernobyl in 1986.

  1. Nuclear Accidents: Consequences for Human, Society and Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bolshov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines radiation and hygienic regulations with regard to the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in the context of relationships with other aspects, primarily socio-economic and political factors. This experience is reasonable to take into account when defining criteria in other regulatory fields, for example, in radioactive waste classification and remediation of areas. The article presents an analysis of joint features and peculiarities of nuclear accidents in the industry and energy sectors. It is noted that the scale of global consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is defined by the large-scale release of radioactivity into the environment, as well as an affiliation of the nuclear installation with the energy sector. Large-scale radiation accidents affect the most diverse spheres of human activities, what, in its turn, evokes the reverse reaction from the society and its institutions, including involvement of political means of settlement. If the latter is seeing for criteria that are scientifically justified and feasible, then the preconditions for minimizing socio-economic impacts are created. In other cases, political decisions, such as nuclear units’ shutdown and phasing out of nuclear energy, appear to be an economic price which society, as a whole and a single industry sector, pay to compensate the negative public response. The article describes fundamental changes in approaches to ensure nuclear and radiation safety that occurred after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Multiple and negative consequences of the Chernobyl accident for human and society are balanced to some extent by a higher level of operational safety, emergency preparedness, and life-cycle safety. The article indicates that harmonization and ensuring consistency of regulations that involve different aspects of nuclear and radiation safety are important to implement practical solutions to the nuclear legacy problems. The

  2. Chernobyl - 30 years thereafter. Has radiation protection in Switzerland been improved for the handling of emergency situations and the long-term consequences?; Tschernobyl. 30 Jahre danach. Hat sich der Strahlenschutz in der Schweiz zur Bewaeltigung einer Notfallsituation und deren langfristiger Konsequenzen verbessert?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murith, Christophe [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Bern (Switzerland). Abt. Strahlenschutz

    2016-05-01

    30 years ago the Chernobyl reactor accident has surprised the whole world. It was shown that severe nuclear accidents contaminating large areas for a long time are possible. At this time each state was overstrained and unable to cope with the situation. Switzerland was oscillating between the French disregard and the German psychosis resulting in chaotic communication increased by incoherency and missing consultation with the neighboring countries.

  3. Search for novel remedies to augment radiation resistance of inhabitants of Fukushima and Chernobyl disasters: identifying DNA repair protein XRCC4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mao-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lui, Shu-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2011-10-01

    Two nuclear plant disasters occurring within a span of 25 years threaten health and genome integrity both in Fukushima and Chernobyl. Search for remedies capable of enhancing DNA repair efficiency and radiation resistance in humans appears to be a urgent problem for now. XRCC4 is an important enhancer in promoting repair pathway triggered by DNA double-strand break (DSB). In the context of radiation therapy, active XRCC4 could reduce DSB-mediated apoptotic effect on cancer cells. Hence, developing XRCC4 inhibitors could possibly enhance radiotherapy outcomes. In this study, we screened traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database, TCM Database@Taiwan, and have identified three potent inhibitor agents against XRCC4. Through molecular dynamics simulation, we have determined that the protein-ligand interactions were focused at Lys188 on chain A and Lys187 on chain B. Intriguingly, the hydrogen bonds for all three ligands fluctuated frequently but were held at close approximation. The pi-cation interactions and ionic interactions mediated by o-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl functional groups respectively have been demonstrated to play critical roles in stabilizing binding conformations. Based on these results, we reported the identification of potential radiotherapy enhancers from TCM. We further characterized the key binding elements for inhibiting the XRCC4 activities.

  4. Guidelines for exposure assessment in health risk studies following a nuclear reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Simon, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide concerns regarding health effects after the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents indicate a clear need to identify short- and long-term health impacts that might result from accidents in the future. Fundamental to addressing this problem are reliable and accurate radiation dose estimates for the affected populations. The available guidance for activities following nuclear accidents is limited with regard to strategies for dose assessment in health risk studies. Here we propose a comprehensive systematic approach to estimating radiation doses for the evaluation of health risks resulting from a nuclear power plant accident, reflected in a set of seven guidelines. Four major nuclear reactor accidents have occurred during the history of nuclear power production. The circumstances leading to these accidents were varied, as were the magnitude of the releases of radioactive materials, the pathways by which persons were exposed, the data collected afterward, and the lifestyle factors and dietary consumption that played an important role in the associated radiation exposure of the affected populations. Accidents involving nuclear reactors may occur in the future under a variety of conditions. The guidelines we recommend here are intended to facilitate obtaining reliable dose estimations for a range of different exposure conditions. We recognize that full implementation of the proposed approach may not always be feasible because of other priorities during the nuclear accident emergency and because of limited resources in manpower and equipment. The proposed approach can serve as a basis to optimize the value of radiation dose reconstruction following a nuclear reactor accident.

  5. Chernobyl lessons learned review of N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E.T.; McNeece, J.P.; Omberg, R.P.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Lutz, R.J.; Henry, R.E.; Bonser, K.D.; Miller, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A broad-base review of the N Reactor plant, design characteristics, administrative controls and responses unique to upset conditions has been completed. The review was keyed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-defined issues associated with the Chernobyl accident. Physical features of N Reactor that preclude an accident like Chernobyl include: lack of autocatalytic reactivity insertion (i.e., negative coolant void and power coefficents) and two separate, fast-acting scram systems. Administrative controls in place at N Reactor would effectively protect against the operator errors and safety violations that set up the Chernobyl accident. Several items were identified where further near-term action is appropriate to ensure effectiveness of existing safety features: Resolve a question concerning the exact point at which Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) activation by manual actions should be implemented or deferred if automatic ECCS trip fails. Ensure appropriate revision of the Emergency Response Guides and full communication of the correct procedure to all Operations, Safety and cognizant Technology staff. Train reactor operators in the currently recognized significance of the Graphite and Shield Cooling System (GSCS) in severe accident situations and cover this appropriately in the Emergency Response Guides. Complete reviews which establish an independent verification that pressure tube rupture will not propagate to other tubes. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  7. Application of TREECS (trademark) to Strontium 90 for Borschi Watershed near Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine. At this site, TREECS™ was used as a modeling tool to predict the fate of radionuclides. This application also...Web site noted above. Borschi watershed is located 3 km south of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Figure 1). Radio- strontium-90, 90Sr, which is a...fission product resulting from the accident in 1986, poses a health concern around and down-gradient from Chernobyl due to its high specific

  8. Fukushima accident: a preliminary assessment of the consequences for the environment and the population; L'accident de Fukushima: un premier bilan des consequences pour l'environnement et la population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, P.; Champion, D.; Simon-cornu, M.; Parache, V. [Pole de Radioprotection de l' Institut de Radiprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2012-01-15

    This article is dedicated to a preliminary study of the impact on the environment in terms of radioactive fallout of the Fukushima accident. This study has been made 10 months after the accident and it was too early to have the results of the simulations to assess in an accurate way the radiation doses received by the population. Nevertheless the impact on the population has been largely reduced by the successive measures of evacuation of the population around the plant. Numerous similarities can be drawn with the Chernobyl accident, for instance, the presence of spots of contamination spread over a large region (leopard skin pattern), these spots are due to rainy or snowy periods during the release time. The area concerned by the radioactive fallout is from far less important than in the case of Chernobyl. On the other hand, such a contamination of the coastal marine medium has never been seen before Fukushima. (A.C.)

  9. Radiation situation in Kamchatka after the Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorin, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The chronology of events in Kamchatka related to the threat of radioactive contamination of the territory as a result of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power station (NPS) accident in Japan is briefly reviewed based on the published data. The accident happened on March 11, 2011, after a strong earthquake near the coast of Japan and the giant tsunami followed by the earthquake. The power supply was damaged and, as a result, the cooling system of NPS reactors was destroyed. Although the reactors did not explode, radioactive emissions from the damaged NPS discharged into the atmosphere and spread over large areas by the air flows. Information about the radiation situation in Kamchatka is controversial. Therefore, the author carried out regular monitoring of the radiation background during a hiking trip in Kamchatka in August 2011. The data are presented in this paper. It was concluded that the radiation background along the route of the trip was consistent (within the accuracy of measurement methods) with the normal values of a natural background. A thorough analysis of air, soil, food samples, etc., is required for a more detailed study to identify the presence of radionuclides in the atmospheric emissions from the damaged NPS in Japan.

  10. Long-term assessment of contaminated articles from the Chernobyl reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Monged, M H E

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused a release of radioactive materials from the reactor into the environment. This event contaminated people, their surroundings and their personal property, especially in the zone around the reactor. Among the affected individuals were British students who were studying in Minsk and Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident. These students were exposed to external and internal radiation, and the individuals' articles of clothing were contaminated. The primary objective of this study was to analyze a sample of this contaminated clothing 20 years after the accident using three different detectors, namely, a BP4/4C scintillation detector, a Min-Con Geiger-Müller tube detector and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The clothing articles were initially assessed and found not to be significantly contaminated. However, there were several hot spots of contamination in various regions of the articles. The net count rates for these hot spots were in the range of 10.00 ± 3.16 c/s to 41.00 ± 6.40 c/s when the BP4/4C scintillation detector was used. The HPGe detector was used to identify the radionuclides present in the clothing, and the results indicated that the only active radionuclide was (137)Cs because of this isotope's long half-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation Dose Calculations for a Hypothetical Accident in Xianning Nuclear Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Cao; Junxiao Zheng; Yixue Chen

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a hypothetical AP1000 SGTR accident by HotSpot code 3.03. TEDE, the respiratory time-integrated air concentration, and the ground deposition are calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, Pasquill stability categories A–F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The results indicate that the maximum plume centerline ground deposition value of 1.2E+2 kBq/m2 occurred at about 1.4 km ...

  12. Psychological Aid to the Children Who Suffered from the Chernobyl Catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnets, O. N.; And Others

    This document considers the problems faced by the children and adolescents who were affected by the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine. It discusses problems with psycho-physical, social, and spiritual development. It is noted that the Chernobyl children do not form a homogeneous population, but can be divided into…

  13. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  14. Cytogenetic effects and possibilities of their transgenerational transfer in the generations of persons living in radionuclide polluted areas after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Baleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific features of a manifestation of genomic instability, as shown by the karyological indicators of the micronucleus test using buccal epithelial cells, were investigated. To assess an immune response to the mutagenic action of ionizing radiation, peripheral blood lymphocytes with the phenotypic characteristics of CD95+ subpopulations were quantified using flow-through cytofluorometry, by estimating the possible consequences of transferring the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation to posterity. A total of 112 first- and second-generation patients residing in the areas polluted with radionuclide cesium-137 (more than 556 kBq/m2 were examined in the aspect of family. The data obtained in the investigation employing the models for individual families may anticipatorily consider certain cytogenetic indicators in second-generation children as predictors of carcinogenesis and the possibility of their transgenerational transfer in the generations of persons exposed to radiation.

  15. Modelling of the transfer of CS-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident, in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1; Modelizacion de la transferencia de CS-137 desde el aire a las cosechas, la leche, la carne de vacuno y el cuerpo humano producido por el accidente de Chernobyl, en una localizacion en la Bohemia Central. Test del modelo PRYMA T1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suaez, A.; Robles, B. Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-07-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. The acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. The scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. The input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and more description of the scenario (data about crops, cattele, demography, human diet, etc.). The aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed.

  16. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  17. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  18. The Thule accident: Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbak, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark))

    2011-12-15

    Risoe DTU has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of Risoe DTU's studies are described in the report Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land, which covers all measurements that were carried out on land in Thule in the years 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The present report uses Risoe DTU's report as a basis for assessing radiation doses and consequently the risk for individuals as a result of terrestrial radioactive contamination in the Thule area. The assessment of radiation doses involves a number of conservative assumptions, estimates, and measurements, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. In some cases, models have been used based on experiences from other contaminated areas elsewhere in the world, which are subject to climatic and other conditions that diverge from those in the Thule area. The calculated doses are thus associated with considerable uncertainty, which must be taken into account when the results are used for comparison and when the risks of staying in the Thule area are assessed. It has therefore been chosen to provide the assessed radiation doses in the form of indicative orders of magnitude, which are applicable to everyone who might stay in the area, across various age groups. If the estimated doses in this report are combined with the National Institute of Radiation Protection's recommended reference level for contamination as a result of the Thule Accident of 1 mSv/year, the assessed magnitudes of radiation doses for inhalation and ingestion as exposure pathways are many orders of magnitude below the reference level (10,000-10 million times smaller). The wound contamination exposure pathway has a magnitude of radiation dose that is smaller than the reference level by a factor of 10-1000, and it should be recalled that the

  19. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  20. The Fukushima nuclear accident. Consequences for Japan and for us; Der Reaktorunfall von Fukushima. Folgen fuer Japan und uns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2013-07-01

    The Fukushima accident was the consequence of a preceding 2-fold natural catastrophe: the earth quake of 11 March 2011 and the subsequent tsunami. Due to favourable winds and to evacuation measures the radiation exposure to the general population in Japan as a whole and with some exceptions in the region outside the evacuation zone, too, was low. In this article the attempt is made to give an estimate of health consequences to the public. This is based upon WHO's dose estimates, knowledge of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, of the atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in Kazakhstan and on the risk of childhood leukaemia after low dose radiation exposure. For Germany, there was no radiation threat due to the accident. Nonetheless, the events in Japan made clear that the rules and standards that were developed for the case of a reactor accident need to be revised.

  1. James V. Neel and Yuri E. Dubrova: Cold War debates and the genetic effects of low-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna M; Stawkowski, Magdalena E

    2015-01-01

    This article traces disagreements about the genetic effects of low-dose radiation exposure as waged by James Neel (1915-2000), a central figure in radiation studies of Japanese populations after World War II, and Yuri Dubrova (1955-), who analyzed the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In a 1996 article in Nature, Dubrova reported a statistically significant increase in the minisatellite (junk) DNA mutation rate in the children of parents who received a high dose of radiation from the Chernobyl accident, contradicting studies that found no significant inherited genetic effects among offspring of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Neel's subsequent defense of his large-scale longitudinal studies of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation consolidated current scientific understandings of low-dose ionizing radiation. The article seeks to explain how the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data remain hegemonic in radiation studies, contextualizing the debate with attention to the perceived inferiority of Soviet genetic science during the Cold War.

  2. Nuclear atlas. After Chernobyl: Nuclear energy between fear and hope. Figures - facts - background information. Der Atomatlas. Nach Tschernobyl: Kernenergie zwischen Angst und Hoffnung. Zahlen - Fakten - Hintergruende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, M.; Schmidt, A.

    1986-01-01

    Chernobyl has become the catchword that reveals the profound difference of opinions among experts and the population on the issue of nuclear energy. In the many discussions in the public media and elsewhere after the Chernobyl accident, technical terms and scientific terminology and analytic data have been used that induced a feeling of helplessness in the general public, simply because people are not familiar with this terminology and subject. What does 'radioactivity' really mean. What damage to health is done by ionizing radiation. Who finds his way through the muddle of measuring units for radiation, such as rem, Becquerel, or Curie. How does a nuclear power plant work. What kind of reactors are operating in Europe. How safe are they. Where are they. What is a reprocessing plant. These are only a few of the many questions the book answers. The information is intended for the general reader, and supplemented by numerous illustrations, maps, tables and graphs.

  3. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-I» NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE. REPORT 1: GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE ACCIDENT AND RADIATION SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary assessment of the accident scale, level of its radiation effect on the population and response of national authorities of various countries for the population radiation protection provisions. High levels of the environmental radioactive contamination demanded the application of complex measures for the radiation protection of the population from adjacent territories of Japan. Radionuclides from the region of damaged NPP can get to the other countries by means of the long-distant air and sea water mass transfer. Specific activity of cesium radionuclides in the sea biota can reach the level recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission as the safe level for the international trade or exceed it. Significant radioactive contamination of the territories of other countries resulting from the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident did not occur. Many world countries applied measures of the Japanese food products import control on the base of the radiation monitoring data. These prohibitions are consequently remitted following the radiation situation improvement.

  4. Chernobyl; Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  5. 2. Chernobyl's public health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    Problems complicating a full assessment of the effects from Chernobyl included official secrecy and falsification of medical records by the USSR for the first 3.5 years after the catastrophe and the lack of reliable medical statistics in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Official data concerning the thousands of cleanup workers (Chernobyl liquidators) who worked to control the emissions are especially difficult to reconstruct. Using criteria demanded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) resulted in marked underestimates of the number of fatalities and the extent and degree of sickness among those exposed to radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. Data on exposures were absent or grossly inadequate, while mounting indications of adverse effects became more and more apparent. Using objective information collected by scientists in the affected areas--comparisons of morbidity and mortality in territories characterized by identical physiography, demography, and economy, which differed only in the levels and spectra of radioactive contamination--revealed significant abnormalities associated with irradiation, unrelated to age or sex (e.g., stable chromosomal aberrations), as well as other genetic and nongenetic pathologies.

  6. Radiocesium concentrations in the lichen-reindeer/caribou food chain: Before and after Chernobyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. White

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews historical concentrations of radiocesium (Cs-137 in the reindeer/caribou food chain in Alaska. These data, along with available kinetic models which describe the movement of radiocesium through the food chain, are used to predict consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident which occurred in late April 1986. During the present discussion, efforts are made to directly relate the Alaskan data to the Scandinavian situation as it exists following the Chernobyl accident.

  7. Modeling Loss-of-Flow Accidents and Their Impact on Radiation Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivan Khatry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term high payload missions necessitate the need for nuclear space propulsion. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA investigated several reactor designs from 1959 to 1973 in order to develop the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA. Study of planned/unplanned transients on nuclear thermal rockets is important due to the need for long-term missions. In this work, a system model based on RELAP5 is developed to simulate loss-of-flow accidents on the Pewee I test reactor. This paper investigates the radiation heat transfer between the fuel elements and the structures around it. In addition, the impact on the core fuel element temperature and average core pressure was also investigated. The following expected results were achieved: (i greater than normal fuel element temperatures, (ii fuel element temperatures exceeding the uranium carbide melting point, and (iii average core pressure less than normal. Results show that the radiation heat transfer rate between fuel elements and cold surfaces increases with decreasing flow rate through the reactor system. However, radiation heat transfer decreases when there is a complete LOFA. When there is a complete LOFA, the peripheral coolant channels of the fuel elements handle most of the radiation heat transfer. A safety system needs to be designed to counteract the decay heat resulting from a post-LOFA reactor scram.

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of health effects in Europe-two decades after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.; Maringer, F.J. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science Vienna, Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal, Wien (Austria); Maringer, F.J. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV), Wien (Austria); Bossew, P. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV), Mathematics and analytics, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    This report sums up radioactive environmental contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in various regions all over Europe (Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Sweden, Austria and Greece). Most of the radionuclides released with the reactor accident possess short-lives (e.g. 131 I) of a few hours or several days and weeks or were deposed in low quantities (e.g. 90 Sr). So the main focus was put on 137 Cs, because this radionuclide has a long half-life (30 years), is measurable till this day and gives a presentable view of radiation exposure in contaminated regions. The decrease of 137 Cs activity concentrations in soil, surface water, foodstuffs and air was shown in the course of time. The comparison of radioactive environmental contamination shows, that the 137 Cs-activity concentration in nearly all media has decreased faster than the physical half-life. Part of this elaboration was also to describe the contribution of the reactor accident to the radiation exposure of selected population groups in the last 20 years. The second part of the report follows a valuation of European studies, which are linked to late health effects of the Chernobyl accident specially thyroid cancer, leukaemia and other solid tumours. These studies has been discussed and evaluated. Only in countries with the highest impact like Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer has been observed but up to now no increases in leukaemia or malignant deceases in this or other European countries can be detected. (authors)

  9. Nuclear catastrophes and their consequences. 30 years after Chernobyl, 5 years after Fukushima; Nukleare Katastrophen und ihre Folgen. 30 Jahre nach Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre nach Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Gepp, Christian; Reinberger, David (eds.)

    2016-07-01

    The book on nuclear catastrophes covers the following issues: A historical oversight on nuclear power; two catastrophic reactor accidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima; presentation of important experiences on the radiological consequences of the severe accidents; regulatory reactions in Europe as a consequence of Fukushima; beyond Chernobyl and Fukushima: fundamental problems with nuclear energy.

  10. Chernobyl: A first-hand account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voina, V.

    The author, living in Moscow at the time, was traveling by night train to visit family in Kiev at the time of the chernobyl accident. He recalls a passenger in his compartment asking if anyone had noticed in the morning press about the explosion in Chernobyl. In Kiev, about 50 mi from Chernobyl by air, he noted on arrival that everyone was calm - the city quiet with no rumors or gossip. He contrasts this with the world being alert, in despair, full of alarm. On failure to reach old friends by phone, he thought they had left the city for at least 4-day vacations - May 1 and 2 holidays plus Saturday and Sunday. He continues to recount the life as usual situation aided and abetted by the governments lack of information and misinformation on the perilously dangerous radioactivity and extent of the disaster. He notes friends showing him a January 1986 copy of Izvestia with an article about the Chernobyl unit, several months before, being named winner in a competition among all nuclear power stations in the USSR.

  11. Social impact of accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Isao [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. `How safe is safe enough` is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  12. Radiation Dose Calculations for a Hypothetical Accident in Xianning Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a hypothetical AP1000 SGTR accident by HotSpot code 3.03. TEDE, the respiratory time-integrated air concentration, and the ground deposition are calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, Pasquill stability categories A–F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The results indicate that the maximum plume centerline ground deposition value of 1.2E+2 kBq/m2 occurred at about 1.4 km and the maximum TEDE value of 1.41E-05 Sv occurred at 1.4 km from the reactor. It is still far below the annual regulatory limits of 1 mSv for the public as set in IAEA Safety Report Series number 115. The released radionuclides might be transported to long distances but will not have any harmful effect on the public.

  13. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  14. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP. To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8% answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0% residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1% residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5% residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2% residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5% residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  15. C-14 cycle in the hot zone around Chernobyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaliukh, Nikolai N.; Skripkin, Vadim V.; Plicht, Johannes van der; Mook, W.G.; Plicht, J. van der; 074059653

    1998-01-01

    Radiocarbon from the Chernobyl accident was released mainly in two forms: fine dispersed reactor graphite, and carbon dioxide from burning graphite. The CO2 was partly assimilated by annual and perennial vegetation. Reactor graphite dispersed over a wide territory was taken up biochemically by

  16. What Chernobyl has taught us about emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchard, H.C.

    1988-03-01

    The author discusses the U.K. government review of existing emergency plans in the light of experience of the Chernobyl accident, together with the nuclear industry review of the causes and consequences of the accident. Aspects of emergency planning covered by this outline review include the need for information, pressures brought to bear on site emergency organisation by public and news media, evacuation, the need for national inventories of equipment, protective clothing, health physics instruments, road transport vehicles etc. (U.K.).

  17. Seveso 1986, Chernobyl 1976: a physicist' look at 2 ecological disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, S.

    2004-05-01

    Seveso suffered a chemical accident with a severe loss of supertoxic material (TCCD) released in the atmosphere; Chernobyl was a world known nuclear accident. The pollution induced by the two accident are analysed in term of fractal models. The first case involved a limited micro ecological system; the second one spread over a macro ecological system. The pollution is reproduced by means of simple Fractal Sum of Pulses models in the Seveso region; for the Chernobyl accident in northern Italy and in several european Countries. The 2 accidents are also analysed in terms of Universal Multifractals showing that thethe parameters α and C1 are those describing respectively rainfall (Seveso) and cloud formation (Chernobyl).

  18. Radiation management during restoration works after fire and explosion accident of Asphalt Solidification Facility (ASP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Ninomiya, Kazushige; Imakuma, Yoshikazu (and others)

    1999-04-01

    A fire broke out at 10:06 a.m. March 11 in 1997 in asphalt filling up room of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility (ASP) in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), and an explosion occurred at 8:04 p.m. on the same day. A large number of installations and equipment in the facility were damaged by the accident. As the containment function of the facility were lost, radioactive materials were released to outside of the facility. Thirty seven workers (thirty four workers inside the ASP building at fire, and three workers near the ASP at explosion) suffered internal exposures. Effective dose equivalent for each worker which was estimated based on the intake of radioactive materials, was below the record level for internal exposure management (2msv). Restoration works of the ASP including repairs of broken windows, shutters, doors, ventilation exhaust systems, radiation control and management equipment, and decontamination, were completed on July 31 in 1998. The radiation management during the restoration are described in this report. (Suetake, M.)

  19. Risk Perception and Anxiety Regarding Radiation after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Systematic Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Takebayashi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Two database (MEDLINE and PsycINFO and hand-searched the references in identified publications were searched. For each identified publication, the measurements and time related-change of risk perception and anxiety regarding radiation were summarized. Twenty-four publications were identified. Quantitative measures of risk perception or anxiety were roughly divided into two types: single-item Likert scales that measure anxiety about radiation; and theoretical, or model-based measures. Rates of Fukushima residents with radiation-related anxiety decreased from 2012 to 2015. Factors governing risk perception or radiation-related anxiety were summarized by demographics, disaster-related stressors, trusted information, and radiation-related variables. The effects of risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation were summarized as severe distress, intention to leave employment or not to return home, or other dimensions. This review provides summary of current findings on risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation in Japan after the accident. Further researches are needed about detailed statistical analysis for time-related change and causality among variables.

  20. Risk Perception and Anxiety Regarding Radiation after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Systematic Qualitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyamzina, Yuliya; Suzuki, Yuriko; Murakami, Michio

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after t